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Sample records for warfarin-induced skin necrosis

  1. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Zackery

    2014-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is a frequently used oral anticoagulant in the treatment and prevention of various medical conditions. One uncommon adverse effect that can occur following the initiation of therapy is warfarin-induced skin necrosis. Because it is a rare effect with an undetermined pathophysiology of disease, the treatment is not well established. Case: A 52-year-old female was prescribed warfarin and enoxaparin for a newly diagnosed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left lower extremity. On day 4 of therapy, the patient had a supra-therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR), prompting the discontinuation of enoxaparin and a decrease in the warfarin dose. The patient returned to the emergency department on day 7 of treatment with a purple, cold, and extremely painful right foot with punctate areas of necrosis and petechiae proximal to the discoloration. The patient’s INR was found to be 10.64. Following the diagnosis of warfarin-induced skin necrosis, the patient was administered vitamin K intravenously and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reverse the effects of warfarin and promote protein C and S synthesis. Once the patient’s INR was no longer supratherapeutic, subcutaneous enoxaparin was re-started as treatment for the known recent DVT. The patient’s necrotic foot began to improve and she was discharged home with an anticipated full recovery. Conclusions: Based on the proposed pathophysiology of disease, adequate bridge therapy may decrease the likelihood of developing this life-threatening condition. Early recognition and treatment with intravenous vitamin K, FFP or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate, and continued wound care are essential to prevent further complications. PMID:25673894

  2. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis following heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nicole M.; Rochet, Nicole; Tran, Connie; Brau, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulants, such as heparin and warfarin, are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. The risk of developing warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) with warfarin is reported to be <1%. However, the risk of WISN may be increased with the initiation of warfarin in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome (HITT). WISN can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis requiring amputations and mass debridement. This report describes a case of WISN following HITT and discusses the appropriate medical management of patients with HITT to avoid secondary WISN. PMID:26722173

  3. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis following heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Bilal; Candelario, Nicole M; Rochet, Nicole; Tran, Connie; Brau, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulants, such as heparin and warfarin, are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. The risk of developing warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) with warfarin is reported to be <1%. However, the risk of WISN may be increased with the initiation of warfarin in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome (HITT). WISN can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis requiring amputations and mass debridement. This report describes a case of WISN following HITT and discusses the appropriate medical management of patients with HITT to avoid secondary WISN. PMID:26722173

  4. Dabigatran in the Treatment of Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis: A New Hope

    PubMed Central

    Bakoyiannis, Christos; Karaolanis, Georgios; Patelis, Nikolaos; Maskanakis, Anastasios; Tsaples, Georgios; Klonaris, Christos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent and well-recognized complication of warfarin treatment. The incidence was estimated between 0.01% and 0.1% whereas a paradoxal prothrombotic state that arises from warfarin therapy seems to be responsible for this life-threatening disease. To the best of our knowledge we present the first case of an old woman diagnosed with warfarin-induced skin necrosis, in whom novel oral anticoagulants and extensive surgical debridement were combined safely with excellent results. PMID:27110410

  5. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis diagnosed on clinical grounds and treated with maggot debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Biscoe, Anna Louise; Bedlow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a history of deep vein thrombosis presented with painful bruising and blistering on his left leg 7-10 days after warfarin treatment. A complicated 2-month treatment followed, where vasculitis was originally diagnosed from histological findings before the final diagnosis of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) was made on clinical grounds. Warfarin was stopped, reversed and low molecular weight heparin started but, the lesions had progressed to full thickness necrosis. This was originally treated with conventional surgical debridement before introducing maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in an effort to try to salvage the limb. PMID:23362073

  6. [Skin necrosis: report of eleven cases].

    PubMed

    Molgó, Montserrat N; Arriagada, Camila E; Salomone, Claudia B; Vera, Cristián K; Giesen, Laura F; Solar, Antonieta G; González, Sergio B

    2014-01-01

    Skin necrosis must be considered as a syndrome, because it is a clinical manifestation of different diseases. An early diagnosis is very important to choose the appropriate treatment. Therefore, its causes should be suspected and confirmed quickly. We report eleven patients with skin necrosis seen at our Department, caused by different etiologies: Warfarin-induced skin necrosis, loxoscelism, diabetic microangiopathy, ecthyma gangrenosum, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotizing vasculitis, paraneoplastic extensive necrotizing vasculitis, livedoid vasculopathy, necrotizing fasciitis, necrosis secondary to the use of vasoactive drugs and necrosis secondary to the use of cocaine. We also report the results of our literature review on the subject. PMID:24861125

  7. Bullous Dermatitis and Skin Necrosis Developing after Adrenalin Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Alper; Baratal?, Emre; Meral, Ozge; Ergul, Ay?e Betul; Aslaner, Hmeyra; Coskun, Ramazan; Torun, Yasemin Altuner

    2015-01-01

    Extravasation of vasopressors can have serious complications varying from simple local reactions to skin necrosis and compartment syndrome. Here, we presented bullous dermatitis and skin necrosis which developed due to extravasation of adrenalin infusion in a Hodgkin lymphoma patient with septic shock who was admitted due febrile neutropenia. PMID:26644776

  8. Skin lesions and treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maria Victoria; Meineri, Melina; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy shown by biological therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has led in the recent years to its increased and extended use in different inflammatory arthopathies. Initially, safety studies of these drugs were mainly focused on the risk of infection and the development of malignancies. Recently, several cases of skin lesions induced by anti-TNF drugs have been reported with an increased incidence, highlighting the importance of the skin as a major target of the side effects of these drugs. In addition to skin lesions directly related to drug administration there is a wide spectrum of skin lesions of different morphology and etiology, especially the development of cutaneous immune-mediated conditions, an emergent phenomenon associated with this treatment. We describe the main skin lesions associated with treatment with anti-TNF drugs according to an extensive review of the literature. PMID:22766431

  9. Necrosis prediction of photodynamic therapy applied to skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Romanov, O. G.; López-Escobar, M.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2009-02-01

    The great selectivity and the lack of side effects of Photodynamic Therapy make it more advantageous than radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The application of PDT to skin diseases is particularly appropriate, due to the accessibility of this tissue. Common disorders like nonmelanoma skin cancer, that includes basocelullar or squamous cell carcinomas, can be treated with PDT. Conventional procedures, like surgery or radiotherapy, are not so efficient and do not, in general, obtain the same favourable results. PDT in dermatology medical praxis uses fixed protocols depending on the photosensitizer and the optical source used. These protocols are usually provided by the photosensitizer laboratory, and every lesion is treated with the same parameters. In this work we present a photo-chemical model of PDT applied to skin disorders treated with topical photosensitizers. Optical propagation inside the tissue is calculated by means of a 3D diffusion equation, solved via a finite difference numerical method. The photosensitizer degradation or photobleaching is taken into account, as the drug looses efficiency with the irradiation time. With these data the necrosis area is estimated, so this model could be used as a predictive tool to adjust the optical power and exposition time for the particular disease under treatment.

  10. Skin Flap Necrosis by Bone Marking with Methylene Blue in Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hoo; Cho, Sung Il

    2015-09-01

    One of surgical complications in cochlear implantation is the necrosis of the skin flap above the receiver-stimulator coil. We present a case of 55-year-old woman who underwent cochlear implantation and developed a bluish skin necrosis due to bone marking. The planned position for the receiver-stimulator was marked using methylene blue through skin to bone. She did not undergo skin flap thinning and underwent successful implantation with complete electrode insertion. Few weeks postoperatively, the patient developed bluish discoloration with progressive thick, blue eschar formation and skin flap necrosis. She subsequently underwent wound debridement and skin flap closure. Cochlear explantation was not necessary. Timely diagnosis and management about this complication is necessary to prevent further skin breakdown and subsequent device extrusion. This report identifies the marking using methylene blue as another possible source of skin flap necrosis in cochlear implantation, and surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:26413579

  11. A case series of skin necrosis following use of non invasive ventilation pressure masks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Venus, M; Kisku, W; Rayatt, S S

    2013-02-01

    Two cases of nasal skin necrosis secondary to pressure from the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) face masks are presented. Both developed skin necrosis as a result of wearing these masks over the nasal bridge. These cases highlight the need for clinical vigilance in application of CPAP masks, the need for monitoring the skin of the nose during CPAP use and the possible need for modifications in design to help prevent this serious complication. PMID:22432901

  12. Computational modeling of skin: Using stress profiles as predictor for tissue necrosis in reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tepole, Adrián Buganza; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Local skin flaps have revolutionized reconstructive surgery. Mechanical loading is critical for flap survival: Excessive tissue tension reduces blood supply and induces tissue necrosis. However, skin flaps have never been analyzed mechanically. Here we explore the stress profiles of two common flap designs, direct advancement flaps and double back-cut flaps. Our simulations predict a direct correlation between regions of maximum stress and tissue necrosis. This suggests that elevated stress could serve as predictor for flap failure. Our model is a promising step towards computer-guided reconstructive surgery with the goal to minimize stress, accelerate healing, minimize scarring, and optimize tissue use. PMID:25225454

  13. Warfarin skin necrosis mimicking calciphylaxis in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Eun; Byeon, Seonggyu; Kim, Hee Kyung; Moon, Seong Mi; Moon, Ji Hoon; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Byung-Jae; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Huh, Wooseong; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Oh, Ha Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-03-01

    Warfarin skin necrosis (WSN) is an infrequent complication of warfarin treatment and is characterized by painful ulcerative skin lesions that appear a few days after the start of warfarin treatment. Calciphylaxis also appears as painful skin lesions caused by tissue injury resulting from localized ischemia caused by calcification of small- to medium-sized vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient who presented with painful skin ulcers on the lower extremities after the administration of warfarin after a valve operation. Calciphylaxis was considered first because of the host factors; eventually, the skin lesions were diagnosed as WSN by biopsy. The skin lesions improved after warfarin discontinuation and short-term steroid therapy. Most patients with end-stage renal disease have some form of cardiovascular disease and some require temporary or continual warfarin treatment. It is important to differentiate between WSN and calciphylaxis in patients with painful skin lesions. PMID:27069859

  14. Warfarin skin necrosis mimicking calciphylaxis in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee Eun; Byeon, Seonggyu; Kim, Hee Kyung; Moon, Seong Mi; Moon, Ji Hoon; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Byung-Jae; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Huh, Wooseong; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Oh, Ha Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Warfarin skin necrosis (WSN) is an infrequent complication of warfarin treatment and is characterized by painful ulcerative skin lesions that appear a few days after the start of warfarin treatment. Calciphylaxis also appears as painful skin lesions caused by tissue injury resulting from localized ischemia caused by calcification of small- to medium-sized vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient who presented with painful skin ulcers on the lower extremities after the administration of warfarin after a valve operation. Calciphylaxis was considered first because of the host factors; eventually, the skin lesions were diagnosed as WSN by biopsy. The skin lesions improved after warfarin discontinuation and short-term steroid therapy. Most patients with end-stage renal disease have some form of cardiovascular disease and some require temporary or continual warfarin treatment. It is important to differentiate between WSN and calciphylaxis in patients with painful skin lesions. PMID:27069859

  15. Treatment of glabella skin necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler using platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Kang, In Jung; Jeong, Ki Heon; Shin, Min Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. However, there can be various complications following HA filler injection. Skin necrosis is rare but one of the most disastrous side effects that, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in permanent and potentially disfiguring scarring. Thus, early proper management is important. Herein we report a patient who experienced tissue necrosis of the glabellar area after receiving filler injections that was successfully treated using platelet-rich plasma and provide full follow-up clinical photographs. PMID:26052808

  16. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  17. Skin Necrosis Resulting from Nontarget Embolization of the Falciform Artery during Transarterial Chemoembolization with Drug-Eluting Beads

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mitchell T.; Johnson, David Thor; Gipson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial embolic therapies are a mainstay of liver-directed therapies to palliate symptoms, improve survival, and bridge patients to transplantation. Vascular anatomy and type of embolic used can lead to complications of nontarget embolization with varying clinical consequences. This case report describes a rare, nontarget embolization of the falciform artery leading to supraumbilical skin necrosis. PMID:25762844

  18. Warfarin-induced limb gangrene in the setting of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Klein, Liviu; Galvez, Angel; Klein, Oana; Chediak, Juan

    2004-06-01

    A 53-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma developed pulmonary embolism and bilateral popliteal venous thrombosis. Treated with intravenous unfractionated heparin and discharged home on warfarin, he returned a week later with extending thrombosis. Treatment with heparin followed by warfarin was reinitiated. Twenty-four hours following the re-administration of warfarin, the patient's INR increased to 14.5. The platelet count dropped by more than 50%, and he developed venous limb gangrene of the left leg and skin necrosis of the right leg. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was ruled out, and coagulation studies showed a severe depletion of protein C as well as increased thrombin generation. The patient was transfused with fresh frozen plasma, and vitamin K was given. Heparin was continued, and after 4 weeks, the patient improved markedly showing only minimal necrosis of the toes. Venous limb gangrene is a major complication associated with warfarin therapy. Its pathogenesis is explained by a transient hypercoagulable state produced by protein C depletion that leads to microvascular thrombi progressing to venous limb gangrene. The present case emphasizes the importance of careful anticoagulation with heparin followed by slow initiation of low-dose warfarin, in order to minimize thrombotic complications. PMID:15164386

  19. [Pharmaceutical care for a patient with warfarin-induced autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Lu; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-18

    Here we reported a patient with warfarin-induced autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and explored new concerns for the pharmaceutical care of warfarin. A 57- year-old woman was admitted to hospital for repeated anorexia, abdominal pain and abnormal liver function. She received prosthetic heart valve replacement because of rheumatic heart disease, and had started warfarin medication since 2 years before. Her liver function was elevated with highest alanine aminotransferase 861 U/L, aspertate aminotransferase 604 U/L, and total bilirubin 106.7 μmol/L. Her anticoagulant therapy was switched to low molecular weight heparin and the liver function returned to normal. The liver function was elevated when she started to take warfarin again. The patient was then on liver protection therapy, and warfarin was stopped again for the liver biopsy for diagnosis reason. Through medication consultation and evaluation, pharmacists were invited to work together with the physicians and helped to differentiate the reason for abnormal liver function, and provided therapeutic suggestions. Also the pharmacists gained experiences in the treatment of AIH, and discovered a new and severe adverse drug reaction for warfarin. In treating this case, the pharmacists'active involvement into the treatment and evaluation of the effect on the patient reflected the advantage and importance of the multidisciplinary cooperation for pharmacists and physicians when complex diseases are faced. PMID:26885933

  20. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  1. Patient Positioning and Skin Sequelae: Ischemic Epidermal Necrosis from Tight Padding During Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sadeghpour, Mona; Au, Jeremiah; Ho, Jonhan; Hyman, Jaime; Patton, Timothy

    2016-05-15

    Careful positioning and padding of pressure points during surgery are recommended to prevent pressure ulcers, vascular injury, and nerve damage in an immobilized patient. However, overpadding may have unintended consequences. We report a case of ischemia-induced full-thickness epidermal necrosis secondary to tight foam padding during a cardiac surgery. PMID:26934606

  2. Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  4. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

  5. Asymptomatic Evolution and Regression of Temporal Lobe Necrosis After Adjuvant Radiation for Skin Cancer: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Temporal Lobe Necrosis (TLN) is not an expected complication of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for skin cancers and has become uncommon otherwise in daily practice due to improved RT planning and modern delivery techniques. TLN is a great mimic and can be mistaken for disease recurrence, metastasis to the brain, or high grade primary brain tumor. This case report demonstrates the importance of diagnosing the entity, its natural evolution, and dosimetric correlation with published constraints.​ It emphasizes the importance of thorough clinical examination on follow-up and review of previous radiation plan when encountered with challenging differentials. We also provide a review of clinical presentations, imaging modalities, and management options for patients with suspected TLN. PMID:27226935

  6. Mast Cell-Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor Can Promote Nerve Fiber Elongation in the Skin during Contact Hypersensitivity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kakurai, Maki; Monteforte, Rossella; Suto, Hajime; Tsai, Mindy; Nakae, Susumu; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    In humans, lesions of contact eczema or atopic dermatitis can exhibit increases in epidermal nerves, but the mechanism resulting in such nerve elongation are not fully understood. We found that contact hypersensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mice were associated with significant increases in the length of nerves in the epidermis and dermis. Using genetically mast cell-deficient c-kit mutant mice selectively repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency with either wild-type or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mast cells, we found that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, significantly contributed to the elongation of epidermal and dermal PGP 9.5+ nerves and dermal CGRP+ nerves, as well as to the inflammation observed at sites of contact hypersensitivity in response to oxazolone. Moreover, the percentage of mast cells in close proximity to dermal PGP 9.5+ nerve fibers was significantly higher in wild-type mice and in c-kit mutant mice repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency by the adoptive transfer of wild-type mast cells than in TNF-deficient mice or in TNF−/− mast cell-engrafted c-kit mutant mice. These observations show that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, can promote the elongation of cutaneous nerve fibers during contact hypersensitivity in the mouse. PMID:17071594

  7. Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Washington Y.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington H.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo human skin has been used extensively for cosmeceutical and drug delivery studies, transplantable skin allografts, or skin flaps. However, it has a half-life of a few days due to ischemic necrosis. Traditional methods of assessing viability can be time-consuming and provide limited metabolic information. Using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) we assess ischemic necrosis of ex vivo skin by NAD(P)H autofluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime. Ex vivo skin is stored in the presence and absence of nutrient media (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium) at -20, 4, and 37 °C and room temperature over a 7-day time course to establish different rates of metabolic deterioration. At higher temperatures we observe a decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, higher image noise, and a significant increase in the average fluorescence lifetime (τm) from ~1000 to 2000 ps. Additionally, significant distortions in NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime histograms correspond to the reduction in autofluorescence. Skin kept at 4 °C, with or without media, showed the least change. Our findings suggest that MPT-FLIM enables useful noninvasive optical biopsies to monitor the metabolic state and deterioration of human skin for research and clinical purposes.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, and risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer: cohort study based on nationwide prospectively recorded data from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Julia F; Asker Hagelberg, Charlotte; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologic drugs, in patients starting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment, and in the general population. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data from Sweden. Participants Cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologics (n=46 409), cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting TNF inhibitor treatment as first biologic in 1998-2012 (n=12 558), and matched general population comparator cohort, identified through national quality of care and health registers. Main outcome measure Hazard ratio of first in situ or invasive squamous cell skin cancer (1998-2012) and first basal cell cancer (2004-12). Results For basal cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.41) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.33; 236 v 1587 events) comparing TNF inhibitor treated patients with biologics-naive patients. For squamous cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.88 (1.74 to 2.03) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.30 (1.10 to 1.55; 191 v 847 events) comparing TNF inhibitors with biologics-naive patients; the latter translated to an annual number needed to harm in the order of 1600. Among people with a history of squamous cell or basal cell cancer, TNF inhibitors did not further increase risks. Conclusion A small to moderately increased risk of basal cell cancer was seen in biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients, with no further effect of TNF inhibitors. For squamous cell cancer, the risk was nearly doubled in biologics-naive patients, with a further 30% increase in risk among patients treated with TNF inhibitors; this translates to one additional case for every 1600 years of treatment experience, assuming that this association reflected causality. Vigilance regarding skin malignancies may be advisable in rheumatoid arthritis, irrespective of TNF inhibitor treatment. Most of the increase in risk for non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF inhibitors originates from factors other than that treatment. PMID:26823527

  9. A Comprehensive Study of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Genetic Polymorphisms, its Expression in Skin and Relation to Histopathological Features in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Moorchung, Nikhil N; Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas; Grewal, Rajan Singh; Mani, Narayana S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G– A polymorphism at the –308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα –308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα –308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried. PMID:26286396

  10. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Released by Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Critical for Inhibiting Th17 Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Cai, Wei; Sun, Yang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Honglin

    2016-03-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Th17 cell differentiation from naïve T cells can be induced in vitro by the cytokines transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin-6. However, it remains unclear whether other regulatory factors control the differentiation of Th17 cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising candidate for inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that several molecules have been linked to the immunomodulatory function of MSCs, many other key MSC-secreted regulators that are involved in inhibiting Th17 cell polarization are ill-defined. In this study, we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal administration of skin-derived MSCs (S-MSCs) substantially ameliorated the development of EAE in mice. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a key mediator in the pathophysiology of MS and EAE, was capable of promoting Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, under inflammatory conditions, we demonstrated that S-MSCs produced high amounts of soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1), which binds TNF-α and antagonizes its function. Knockdown of sTNFR1 in S-MSCs decreased their inhibitory effect on Th17 cell differentiation ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, our data identified sTNFR1 and its target TNF-α as critical regulators for Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting a previously unrecognized mechanism for MSC therapy in Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26819253

  11. Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population. PMID:22532633

  12. Avascular Necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  13. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  14. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  15. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ...

  16. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sickle cell anemia Urinary tract blockage Sickle cell anemia is a common cause of renal papillary necrosis in children. ... Controlling diabetes or sickle cell anemia may reduce your risk. To ... using medications, including over-the-counter pain relievers.

  17. [An unsual case of an extensive heat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Redi, Th

    2004-12-01

    We report on an unusual case of an extensive heat necrosis of the tibia and its surrounding tissues including the skin after closed IM nailing. The first clinical sign appeared shortly after the procedure as circular skin necrosis over the tibial crest. The severe necrosis of a bone segment, the surrounding soft parts as well as the skin was probably the sequella of reaming of a pathologically altered bone with the tourniquet inflated. Only after a free latissimus dorsi transfer and the resection of the dead bone that was then bridged by a segmental bone transport according to the Ilizarov technique the situation could be salvaged. We concluded that reaming with the tourniquet inflated should never be done, as it can cause severe damage due to abnormal heat generation. PMID:15651167

  18. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  20. Cutaneous necrosis from calcific uremic arteriolopathy.

    PubMed

    Coates, T; Kirkland, G S; Dymock, R B; Murphy, B F; Brealey, J K; Mathew, T H; Disney, A P

    1998-09-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis) is an uncommon complication of chronic renal failure that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 16 patients (13 female) who presented between 1985 and 1996. All patients developed painful livido reticularis that progressed to cutaneous necrosis and ulceration (11 cases on the proximal extremities and five cases on the distal extremities). Two patients with predominately distal leg disease survived; the cause of death in the other 14 patients was sepsis (six patients), withdrawal from dialysis (three), cardiac arrest (three), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (two). Mesenteric ischemia from intestinal vascular calcification occurred in two cases. Clinical factors identified included the use of warfarin therapy in seven cases and significant weight loss (>10% body weight) in seven cases in the 6 months preceding the development of calcific uremic arteriolopathy. Skin pathology was studied in 12 cases, with all showing calcific panniculitis and small vessel calcification. Electron microscopic spectral analysis of the mineral content of the calcific lesions in the subcutaneous tissue showed only calcium and phosphorous. In two cases, substitution of low molecular weight heparin for warfarin therapy resulted in clinical improvement. Current theories of pathogenesis and treatment are reviewed. This study confirms the high morbidity and mortality of calcific uremic arteriolopathy producing ischemic tissue necrosis while drawing attention to significant weight loss and warfarin therapy as risk factors for the development of ischemic tissue necrosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy warrants further study. PMID:9740153

  1. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  3. Dry skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

  4. Cerebral radiation necrosis.

    PubMed

    Na, Angelika; Haghigi, Neda; Drummond, Katharine J

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral radiation-induced injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late irreversible radiation necrosis (RN). Cerebral RN is poorly responsive to treatment, is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death. We review the literature regarding cerebral RN after radiotherapy for various brain and head and neck lesions and discuss its clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment. For new enhancing lesions on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, apart from tumor progression or recurrence, RN needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Further studies are required to design chemoradiotherapy protocols that are effective in treating tumors while minimizing risk of RN. Current available treatments for RN, steroid and surgery, only relieve the mass effect. None of the experimental treatments to date have consistently been shown to reverse the pathologic process of RN. PMID:24175987

  5. Low skin temperatures produced by new skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Strick, R A; Moy, R L

    1985-12-01

    Temperatures produced by Cryosthesia -30 degrees C, Cryosthesia -60 degrees C, and Frigiderm were measured in minipigs. Cryosthesia -60 degrees C and Cryosthesia -30 degrees C were both found to rapidly lower skin temperatures to levels that have been shown to cause cell injury, necrosis, and loss of melanocytes. Use of these agents requires extreme caution in dermabrasion. PMID:3905895

  6. A comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test in refractory inflammatory disease patients screened for latent tuberculosis prior to the initiation of a first tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Houtman, Pieternella M; Weel, Jan F L; Spoorenberg, Johanna P L; Jansen, Tim L T A

    2011-04-01

    Treatment with TNFα inhibitors increases risk of reactivating a latent tuberculosis\\infection (LTBI). Therefore screening, prior to therapy with TNFα inhibitors, has been recommended, even in low-endemic areas such as well-developed Western Europe countries. We evaluated interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), as opposed to tuberculin skin test (TST), for detection of LTBI in refractory inflammatory disease patients prior to the initiation of a first TNFα inhibitor. In addition, we evaluated the impact of impaired cellular immunity on IGRA. Patients starting on TNFα inhibition were screened for LTBI by TST and IGRA (Quantiferon-TB Gold). Data on tuberculosis exposure and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination were obtained. Cellular immunity was assessed by CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count. Nine out of 56 patients (16.1%) tested positive for LTBI. A concordant positive result was present in three patients with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure. Six patients with discordant test results had either: (1) a negative TST and positive IGRA in combination with a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 1) or (2) a positive TST and negative IGRA in combination with BCG vaccination (n = 3) or a medical history of tuberculosis exposure (n = 2). CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell counts were within normal limits, and no indeterminate results of IGRA were present. IGRA appears reliable for confirming TST and excluding a false positive TST (due to prior BCG vaccination) in this Dutch serie of patients. In addition, IGRA may detect one additional case of LTBI out of 56 patients that would otherwise be missed using solely TST. Immune suppression appears not to result significantly in lower CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell counts and indeterminate results of IGRA, despite systemic corticosteroid treatment in half of the patients. Confirmation in larger studies, including assessment of cost-effectiveness, is required. PMID:20737179

  7. [Dystrophy and necrosis following radiotherapy for maxillary cancer (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bertoin, P; Dutou, L; Lacroze, M; Bailly, C

    1979-01-01

    About 10% of patients developed severe sequelae following radiotherapy, which had been associated with surgical treatment, even though they were, or appeared to be cured. Complications affected the skin and soft tissues (causing skin retraction, loss of substance, and sometimes trismus) and bone (necrosis required surgical treatment, and when there was associated cutaneous dystrophy, resulted in exposure of the bone and severe functional and esthetic problems). A critical study of the radiotherapeutic techniques used suggests that the dose given should be reduced, the fields modified, and Cobalt used in preference to electrons in most cases. PMID:288159

  8. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  9. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing ... surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  10. Ionic skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Keplinger, Christoph; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    Electronic skins (i.e., stretchable sheets of distributed sensors) report signals using electrons, whereas natural skins report signals using ions. Here, ionic conductors are used to create a new type of sensory sheet, called "ionic skin". Ionic skins are highly stretchable, transparent, and biocompatible. They readily measure strains from 1% to 500%, and pressures as low as 1 kPa. PMID:25355528

  11. Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. PMID:26612377

  12. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  13. Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting. PMID:22570780

  14. Spontaneous Necrosis of Choroidal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Thareja, Shalini; Rashid, Alia; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical presentations and pathological features of spontaneously necrotic choroidal melanomas. Methods The clinical and histological features of patients who underwent enucleation for uveal melanoma from 1989 to 2012 at Emory University and were found to have spontaneously necrotic choroidal melanomas were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 6 cases were identified. All cases had 90-100% tumor necrosis and also exhibited marked ischemic necrosis of the iris and ciliary body; 5 of 6 cases exhibited marked ischemic necrosis of the retina. The tumor consisted of melanoma ghost cells often surrounded by a zone of pigmented macrophages. Thrombi were not found in any of the cases. All of the tumors in our cases were centered around the equatorial choroid and 2 extended into the ciliary body. One of the cases exhibited a wedge-shaped infarct in a lateral aspect of the tumor. In most of the cases, microscopic areas of intact tumor cells were present in the peripheries of the tumors. Conclusions Spontaneous necrosis may occur in uveal melanoma. We believe that this occurs secondary to tumor hypoxia in the center of the tumor, followed by secondary inflammation, generalized ischemia and finally complete tumor necrosis.

  15. On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.

    PubMed

    OPIE, E L

    1962-03-01

    Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation. PMID:14482110

  16. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ...

  17. Programmed necrosis in microbial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Haripriya; Upton, Jason W

    2014-04-01

    Programmed cell death is an important facet of host-pathogen interactions. Although apoptosis has long been implicated as the major form of programmed cell death in host defense, the past decade has seen the emergence of other forms of regulated death, including programmed necrosis. While the molecular mechanisms of programmed necrosis continue to be unveiled, an increasing number of viral and bacterial pathogens induce this form of death in host cells, with important consequences for infection, control, and pathogenesis. Moreover, pathogen strategies to manipulate or utilize this pathway are now being discovered. In this review, we focus on a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens where a role for programmed necrosis is starting to be appreciated. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic details of how the host or the pathogen might appropriate this pathway for its own benefit. PMID:24565922

  18. Learning the lessons of antitumour necrosis factor therapy-associated psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Shale, Matt; Ghosh, Subrata

    2009-10-01

    Psoriasis or psoriasiform skin lesions, as an adverse effect of treatment with antitumor necrosis factor antibody therapy, have been described relatively recently. Patients with these lesions have no personal or family history of psoriasis. In a small number of cases, an association with Chlamydia has been suggested. The skin lesions may disappear on discontinuation of therapy or, in the majority of cases, even if antitumor necrosis factor antibody therapy is continued. Therefore, withdrawal of therapy is generally not required for this adverse effect but referral to a dermatologist may be desirable for confirmation of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19826641

  19. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-11-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  20. Warfarin-induced changes in procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Y

    1995-07-01

    Dicoumarol was found to be the causative agent of a haemorrhagic disease in cattle following the ingestion of spoiled sweet clover. Vitamin K deficiency in chickens caused bleeding. Dicoumarol was later determined to be a vitamin K antagonist. A more potent form of the drug was produced synthetically and, following its initial use as rat poison, was recognized as a potential anti-thrombotic treatment in humans. The mode of action of a coumarin derivative (i.e. warfarin) is described. The overall effect of high-dose and low-dose warfarin and the possibility of a transient state of hypercoagulability on the introduction and withdrawal of treatment is considered. PMID:8589201

  1. Tail tip necrosis in Ontario beef feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Drolia, Helen; Luescher, U. Andrew; Meek, Alan H.; Wilcock, Brian P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were performed to establish the prevalence and importance of tail tip necrosis in the southern Ontario beef feedlot industry and to characterize the gross appearance and histopathology of the condition. In a mail survey, 96% of 71 feedlots with slatted floors, but only 5% of 184 feedlots with solid floors, reported a problem with tail tip necrosis from 1982-1986. Treatments reported included antibiotics, amputation of the tail (therapeutic or preventive), and slaughter. Lameness was associated with tail tip necrosis. A scoring system for severity of necrosis was developed. Repeated inspections revealed that mild lesions were unlikely to progress to more severe stages. Histological alterations such as perivascular edema and hemorrhage, dermal scarring, follicular atrophy, and paucity of leukocytes were compatible with cutaneous ischemia. Of 441 tails inspected at slaughter plants, 34.5% were affected, with 3.4% involving skin lacerations and infection, and 4.3% amputated before slaughter. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17423716

  2. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  3. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    ... up during a check. This can indicate severe dehydration that needs quick treatment. You have reduced skin turgor and are unable ... Urinalysis Intravenous fluids may be needed for severe ... treat other conditions that affect skin turgor and elasticity.

  4. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies Treatment of skin infections depends on the cause.

  5. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  6. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signing Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... Skin abscesses or boils (a collection of pus in the skin) and cellulitis (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin ...

  7. Prediction of post-operative necrosis after mastectomy: A pilot study utilizing optical diffusion imaging spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Flap necrosis and epidermolysis occurs in 18-30% of all mastectomies. Complications may be prevented by intra-operative detection of ischemia. Currently, no technique enables quantitative valuation of mastectomy skin perfusion. Optical Diffusion Imaging Spectroscopy (ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter) measures the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin over a 1 × 1 cm area to obtain a non-invasive measurement of perfusion (StO2). Methods This study evaluates the ability of ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter to predict mastectomy flap necrosis. StO2 measurements were taken at five points before and at completion of dissection in 10 patients. Data collected included: demographics, tumor size, flap length/thickness, co-morbidities, procedure length, and wound complications. Results One patient experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Five patients underwent immediate reconstruction, including the patient with necrosis. Statistically significant factors contributing to necrosis included reduction in medial flap StO2 (p = 0.0189), reduction in inferior flap StO2 (p = 0.003), and flap length (p = 0.009). Conclusion StO2 reductions may be utilized to identify impaired perfusion in mastectomy skin flaps. PMID:19939277

  8. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  9. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  10. Exploring the prevalence of skin tears and skin properties related to skin tears in elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Minematsu, Takeo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nao; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Tabata, Keiko; Abe, Masatoshi; Murayama, Ryoko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-04-01

    The identification of appropriate skin tear prevention guidelines for the elderly requires clinicians to focus on local risk factors such as structural alterations of the epidermis and dermis related to skin tears. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore the prevalence of skin tears and to explore skin properties related to skin tears in elderly Japanese patients at a long-term medical facility. After doing the prevalence study, 18 participants with skin tears and 18 without were recruited and an evaluation of their skin properties using 20-MHz ultrasonography, skin blotting and also Corneometer CM-825, Skin-pH-meterPH905, VapoMeter, Moisture Meter-D and CutometerMPA580 was undertaken. A total of 410 patients were examined, the median age was 87 years and 73·2% were women. The prevalence of skin tears was 3·9%, and 50% of skin tears occurred on the dorsal forearm. The changes in skin properties associated with skin tears included increased low-echogenic pixels (LEP) by 20-MHz ultrasonography, decreased type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and increased tumour necrosis factor-α by skin blotting. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased dermal LEP, including solar elastosis, may represent a risk factor for skin tears; this indicates that skin tear risk factors might not only represent chronological ageing but also photoageing. PMID:24674027

  11. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  12. Does phosphodiesterase inhibition lessen facial flap necrosis in tobacco cigarette users?

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Miles; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking remains a serious risk factor for necrosis of local facial skin flaps. To date, no pharmacological therapies exist for cigarette smoke-induced impairment of skin flap tissue survival. Accumulating evidence suggest that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor therapy may counteract the negative effects of cigarette smoke on flap survival. Here, we evaluate skin flap survival in a series of consecutive tobacco cigarette users treated with the PDE-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, who underwent local flap facial reconstruction. We included 11 patients (5 females; median age: 64) with a significant smoking history. Seventeen facial flaps were performed for 14 defects. All patients received sildenafil in the postoperative setting. One complication of necrosis of the flap distal margin was encountered. Follow-up was available for all patients. Our results demonstrate that facial reconstruction in tobacco cigarette smokers can be performed with improved success and that sildenafil therapy may mitigate the deleterious effects of smoking on flap survival. PMID:24488644

  13. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  14. Visceral brown fat necrosis in postperinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, T J; Variend, S

    1987-01-01

    Fat necrosis was present in 22 of 400 cases of consecutive postperinatal mortalities investigated to assess the presence and pattern of deep fat necrosis. In just over 50% of the cases of fat necrosis the cause of death was categorised as sudden infant death syndrome, which also showed more severe degrees of necrosis. The mechanism of necrosis may be vascular hypoperfusion, possibly related to shock, and brown adipose tissue, on account of its high metabolic activity and rich capillary plexus, may be particularly vulnerable to infarction. The occurrence of fat necrosis in association with other causes of death did not provide any definite clue as to the nature of the alleged shock. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3654989

  15. Conservatively treated extended tracheal necrosis complicating pharyngolaryngectomy.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Julien; Fournier, Clement; Surmei, Ecaterina; Bellier, Jocelyn; Porte, Henri Lucien

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis is a rare life-threatening phenomenon that most often occurs after thyroid operations or prolonged intubation. Conservative treatment can be one choice in extensive tracheal necrosis. We report the case of a 59-year-old man, with tracheal necrosis that developed after pharyngolaryngectomy, that we treated conservatively using hyperbaric oxygen therapy and antibiotic therapy. The follow-up was assured by tracheobronchoscopy. A year after his discharge, the trachea was totally healed. PMID:25952216

  16. Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  17. Edmund Prince Fowler Award Thesis. Evaluation of random skin flap survival in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Pratt, M F

    1996-06-01

    The pathophysiology of random skin flap necrosis in the pig model was studied the effects of several drugs on skin flap survival were examined. The investigated drugs included acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), pentoxifylline (PTX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and an experimental 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G. Each drug altered different parameters known to be associated with tissue necrosis. Demonstrated mechanisms of skin flap failure included the alteration of erythrocyte flexibility and platelet function and the activation of neutrophils with resultant accumulation of damaging oxygen-free radicals. Random skin flap survival did not improve with ASA but did improve significantly with PTX, PGE2, and U-74389G. The results of this study underscore the importance of neutrophil-mediated necrosis in the pathophysiology of skin flap failure. The data further demonstrate the need to develop drugs aimed at reversing or preventing the tissue damage from oxygen-free radicals in order to enhance the survival of random skin flaps. PMID:8656954

  18. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  19. [Bitemporal scalp necrosis : a very rare manifestation of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Valesky, E M; Wahle, M; Vranes, S; Wolter, M; Kaufmann, R; Meissner, M

    2012-11-01

    A 71-year-old woman developed progressive spreading of bitemporal scalp necrosis within 4 weeks accompanied by headaches, myalgia of the shoulder girdle and muscle weakness that had started a few months previously. No additional diseases were reported. The suspected temporal giant cell arteritis could be confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Therapy with glucocorticoids led to a rapid resolution of clinical symptoms and was tapered over 18 months. Recovery of the scalp necrosis emerged following second intention healing and split-skin transplantation of necrotic areas after successful wound conditioning. The case study demonstrates a rare and serious complication of temporal arteritis which is often accompanied by a poor prognosis. PMID:22930065

  20. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  3. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy is a method of superfreezing tissue in order to destroy it. This article discusses cryotherapy of the skin. ... Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has been dipped into liquid nitrogen or a probe ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  5. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  6. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  7. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  8. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common forms of skin ... years. What are the most common forms of skin cancer? Three types of skin cancer are the most ...

  9. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  10. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergic skin conditions TTR Share | Allergic Skin Conditions Most people are bothered by skin irritations at ... immune system response, the irritation is an allergic skin condition. There are several types of allergic skin conditions. ...

  11. Dermal absorption and skin damage following hydrofluoric acid exposure in an ex vivo human skin model.

    PubMed

    Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-04-25

    The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures. PMID:26930472

  12. Piroxicam induced submassive necrosis of the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, D; Kerlin, P; Walker, N; Lynch, S; Strong, R

    1992-01-01

    Several widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported as causing severe hepatitis. Three cases of severe acute hepatitis have been reported in association with piroxicam. A fatal submassive necrosis that occurred in a 68 year old lady who had received piroxicam for 15 months is described. A 48 year old man who developed submassive hepatic necrosis six weeks after beginning piroxicam but was successfully treated with orthotopic liver transplantation is also reported. Piroxicam may induce submassive necrosis of the liver, probably as an idiosyncratic reaction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1446877

  13. Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Solez, K.; Miller, M.; Quarles, P. A.; Finer, P. M.; Heptinstall, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    To test the thesis that vasoconstriction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis caused by bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA), medullary plasma flow was determined in rats treated with BEA. Medullary blood flow was normal ½ to 1 hour after BEA treatment, and was actually elevated 6 hours after BEA. There was no increase in plasma levels of prostaglandins A and E, which would have been expected if there had been medullary ischemia. Pretreatment with reserpine, which inhibited the development of papillary necrosis, had little effect on medullary plasma flow. These observations do not support the notion that vasoconstriction is the mechanism by which BEA causes papillary necrosis. PMID:4472110

  14. Penile necrosis by calciphylaxis in a diabetic patient with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akio; Ohomori, Shintaro; Mizukami, Tomoko; Obi, Ryusei; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    The patient was a 41-year-old man who had suffered from diabetes for 24 years and had been on insulin therapy for 17 years. The patient had commenced hemodialysis in 1999. Some of his toes on both feet had been amputated in 2000 due to diabetic gangrene. The patient was admitted to our hospital in early March 2005 complaining of a painful ulcer on the tip of the penis. At the time of admission, multiple ulcers and necrosis were observed on the prepuce and penis, as well as an ulcer on the left foot and gangrene of the left great toe. Imaging studies demonstrated severe arteriosclerosis with calcification of both large and small arteries. After penile amputation was performed because of severe pain, the wound became ulcerated, and a rectal ulcer as well as skin ulcers also developed in the bilateral inguinal regions. The penile necrosis, skin ulcers, and rectal ulcer were thought to have been caused by calciphylaxis. Calciphylaxis is a disorder in which necrosis occurs at sites of arterial obstruction and calcification, and the prognosis is poor. Seventeen patients with penile necrosis due to calciphyalxis, including our patient, have been reported in Japan. They all had a long history of diabetes, and 15 of the 17 patients were on dialysis. PMID:17603238

  15. The role of tumor necrosis factor-? in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Salas-Alanis, Julio C

    2013-10-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired immune disorder of the skin characterized by the presence of white depigmented macules. Its immunopathogenesis is not completely understood, but inflammatory alterations in the skin microenvironment, and particularly increased expression of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), are thought to be essential regulators of melanocyte dysfunction and death. In this article we review the evidence that implicates TNF? in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, including studies on serum and tissue levels of TNF?, TNF? gene polymorphisms, in vitro studies, and therapeutic trials using TNF? inhibitors. TNF? emerges as a complex mediator with apparently conflicting roles in vitiligo. PMID:23912226

  16. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not sure. If you think the person is in shock, lie him or her down on the back and raise the legs about 12 inches. Call your local emergency number (such as 911) or take the person to the hospital. If the clammy skin may ...

  17. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  18. Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus play an important role in experimental skin infection.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis. PMID:25051890

  19. Arterial injuries at the elbow carry a high risk of muscle necrosis and warrant urgent revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, AG; Berry, MG; Kirkpatrick, JJR; Lees, VC; McGrouther, DA

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Revascularisation following axial arterial system injury is effective in upper limb salvage but necrosis of muscle, the tissue most sensitive to ischaemia, may still occur. We examined the frequency of necrosis, its related factors and its functional significance. METHODS The clinical findings and operative management of 13 patients with injuries at the elbow referred to 2 plastic surgical hand surgery units over a 30-month period were reviewed. Good outcome was defined as minimal impairment with return to previous occupation, intermediate outcome as moderate impairment with change in occupation and poor outcome as major functional loss preventing work. RESULTS Seven patients injured the brachial and six injured both the radial and ulnar arteries. Concomitant injuries were severe with nerve injuries in 11 and muscle damage in 12 patients. Functional outcome was good in four cases, intermediate in four and poor in five. Muscle necrosis developed in four brachial artery injuries. In all four cases, initial successful revascularisation failed post-operatively. Case review revealed delayed recognition in three cases where pain heralded ischaemia but distal skin circulation and pulses were adequate. Of patients with necrosis, three had a poor outcome and one had an intermediate outcome. CONCLUSIONS The risk of muscle necrosis must be considered when managing these injuries, particularly if initial revascularisation is unsuccessful. Every effort should be made to optimise repair technique and post-operative monitoring. Limb salvage is no longer enough. Fully viable muscle is necessary to restore function and livelihoods. PMID:22391384

  20. [Gastric fundus necrosis following acute gastric dilatation].

    PubMed

    Deret, C; Leborgne, J; Rochedreux, A; Jonet, D; Heloury, Y; Hepner, Y

    1987-11-01

    Total gastrectomy with immediate re-establishment of digestive continuity successfully treated a patient with gastric fundus necrosis due to acute dilatation of stomach. The very particular circumstances of onset of this major complication are outlined, diagnosis being dependent on radiological and endoscopic findings. In cases with necrosis of the fundus the extensive nature of the ischemic lesions as shown by results of histopathology strongly suggests the need for total gastrectomy in these patients. PMID:3429500

  1. Cortical necrosis in a renal transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhardt, R.; Growcock, G.; Lasher, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renogram is a well extabished noninvasive method for evaluating and following transplanted kidneys. The examination is useful in distinguishing rejection from acute tubular necrosis as well as demonstrating several less common complications such as vascular occlusion, urinary extravasation, obstruction, and lymphocele. A previously unreported condition involving a transplant kidney (i.e., renal cortical necrosis) is described which was diagnosed with renal scintigraphy in combination with sonography.

  2. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.40.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.00.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  3. Minimally invasive techniques in pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Chari, Suresh T; Baron, Todd H

    2009-11-01

    Traditional open surgical necrosectomy for treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality, leading to a shift toward minimally invasive endoscopic, radiologic, and laparoscopic approaches. Percutaneous drainage is useful as a temporizing method to control sepsis and as an adjunctive treatment to surgical intervention. It is limited because of the requirement for frequent catheter care and the need for repeated procedures. Endoscopic transgastric or transduodenal therapies with endoscopic debridement/necrosectomy have recently been described and are highly successful in carefully selected patients. It avoids the need for open necrosectomy and can be used in poor operative candidates. Laparoscopic necrosectomy is also promising for treatment of pancreatic necrosis. However, the need for inducing a pneumoperitoneum and the potential risk of infection limit its usefulness in patients with critical illness. Retroperitoneal access with a nephroscope is used to directly approach the necrosis with complete removal of a sequestrum. Retroperitoneal drainage using the delay-until-liquefaction strategy also appears to be successful to treat pancreatic necrosis. The anatomic location of the necrosis, clinical comorbidities, and operator experience determine the best approach for a particular patient. Tertiary care centers with sufficient expertise are increasingly using minimally invasive procedures to manage pancreatic necrosis. PMID:19855233

  4. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  5. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  6. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  7. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activities Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin ... Resources Related: Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation ...

  8. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers Bleed easily Occur in the nose or mouth Over time, these skin lesions can lead to scarring and loss of skin ... fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires a skin biopsy .

  9. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  10. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  11. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin for any unusual growths or skin changes. A skin self-exam helps find many skin problems early. Finding ... Look for several things when doing a skin self-exam. New skin markings: Bumps Moles Blemishes Changes in color Moles that have changed in: Size ...

  12. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis of fat necrosis is MRI.Histological confirmation of fat necrosis is important.Appropriate management of localised fat necrosis is surgical excision, with avoidance of further insulin injections into the affected area. PMID:25298886

  13. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  14. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  15. [Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].

    PubMed

    Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

  16. [Skin-sparing surgical revision in a woman with necrotizing fasciitis in her face].

    PubMed

    ten Voorde, Pia Cajsa; Breiting, Bro; Ebbesen, Liselotte Sabroe

    2015-06-22

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infection which is treated with aggressive debridement, antibiotics, intensive care and hyperbaric oxygen. We present a case where a 66-year-old woman with NF of the face and neck following an eye infection was treated with skin-sparing surgical revision. The affected subcutaneous tissue as well as necrosis around the left eye was removed, but the skin was left untouched. She was reconstructed with a full-skin transplant periorbitally. We suggest using a skin-sparing technique when the skin is unaffected and vital as a means to reduce morbidity. PMID:26099186

  17. Internal Heat Necrosis of Potato A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is an internal physiological disorder of potatoes characterized by necrotic patches of parenchymal tissue inside the vascular ring. It has been described in the literature since the early 20th century, albeit under several different names. ’Atlantic’, a popular and high-...

  18. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

  19. Acute retinal necrosis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuźmicz, Ewa; Fizia-Orlicz, Anna; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Pomorska, Maria; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Mec-Słomska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare but very severe form of retinitis. In contrast to progressive outer retinal necrosis acute retinal necrosis typically affects immunocompetent individuals. Herpes Simplex and Varicella-zoster viruses play the main role in the development of the disease. We report a case study of a healthy, young male who presented to the ophthalmologist with unilateral visual acuity decrease and eye irritation. The acute retinal necrosis was diagnosed and a therapy was started including both systemic and local anti-viral agents, as well as an oral anticoagulant. Additional systemic steroid therapy was introduced a week later. The regression of retinal inflammatory changes and the improvement of visual acuity were observed. The polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of viral DNA in serum was negative. The IgM antibody assay for potential causal pathogens was negative, but the level of Varicella-zoster virus IgG antibodies was markedly elevated. During the follow-up, the patient developed retinal detachment and pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade was performed. Although the surgery resulted in the successful retinal reattachment, the final visual acuity remained decreased. Six months after the surgery, the eye was free of the intraocular inflammation and the visual acuity slightly improved. PMID:26638546

  20. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Giulia; Spagnut, Giulia; Morandi, Francesco; Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a rare fat tissue inflammation of the newborn. Risk factors include cord prolapse, perinatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia, meconium aspiration, and sepsis. When present, hypercalcemia comes with lethargy, hypotonia, irritability, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, and dehydration. Kidney injury must be avoided. SCFN is often completely autoresolutive. PMID:26734138

  1. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  2. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  3. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  4. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  5. Skin Cancer: Atypical Moles

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Skin Cancer | Atypical Moles What are atypical moles? Atypical moles are skin growths that are usually bigger than ... and that can fade into the skin. Atypical moles can be more than 2 different colors (often ...

  6. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

  7. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Identify Skin Conditions About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ... care and the patient-physician partnership. The Skinsight Skin Condition Finder is not intended to diagnose your ...

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell carcinoma. ... be cured . Actinic keratosis Actinic keratosis is a skin condition that is not cancer , but sometimes changes into ...

  9. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell carcinoma. ... be cured . Actinic keratosis Actinic keratosis is a skin condition that is not cancer , but sometimes changes into ...

  10. ATP hydrolysis reduces neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in partial-thickness scald burns in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jill; DeLaRosa, Sara; Wu, Jianfeng; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N.; Su, Grace L; Hemmila, Mark; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Cederna, Paul S.; Wang, Stewart C; Xi, Chuanwu; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Extracellular ATP, present in thermally-injured tissue, modulates the inflammatory response and causes significant tissue damage. We hypothesize that neutrophil infiltration and ensuing tissue necrosis would be mitigated by removing ATP-dependent signaling at the burn site. Methods Mice were subjected to 30% total-body- surface-area partial-thickness scald burn by dorsal skin immersion in a water bath at 60°C or 20°C (non-burn controls). In the treatment arm, an ATP hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, was applied directly to the site immediately after injury. Skin was harvested after 24 hours and 5 days for hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E), elastase, and Ki-67 staining. TNF-α and IFN-β expression were measured through qRT-PCR. Results At 24 hours, the amount of neutrophil infiltration was different between the burn and burn + apyrase groups (p<0.001). Necrosis was less extensive in the apyrase group when compared to the burn group at 24 hours and 5 days. TNF-α and IFN-β expression at 24 hours in the apyrase group was lower than in the burn group (p <0.05). However, Ki-67 signaling was not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions Our results support the role of extracellular ATP in neutrophil activity. We demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis at the burn site allays the neutrophil response to thermal injury and reduces tissue necrosis. This decrease in inflammation and tissue necrosis is at least partially due to TNF-α and IFN-β signaling. Apyrase could be used as topical inflammatory regulators to quell the injury caused by inflammation. PMID:23877144

  11. An examination of the potential role of spider digestive proteases as a causative factor in spider bite necrosis.

    PubMed

    Foradori, M J; Keil, L M; Wells, R E; Diem, M; Tillinghast, E K

    2001-10-01

    Tissue necrosis following spider bites is a widespread problem. In the continental United States, the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa), hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis), garden spider (Argiope aurantia) and Chiracanthium species, among others, reportedly cause such lesions. The exact mechanism producing such lesions is controversial. There is evidence for both venom sphingomyelinase and spider digestive collagenases. We have examined the role of spider digestive proteases in spider bite necrosis. The digestive fluid of A. aurantia was assayed for its ability to cleave a variety of connective tissue proteins, including collagen. Having confirmed that the fluid has collagenases, the digestive fluid was injected into the skin of rabbits to observe whether it would cause necrotic lesions. It did not. The data do not support the suggestions that spider digestive collagenases have a primary role in spider bite necrosis. PMID:11574290

  12. New cancer therapies and jaw necrosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, V; Kelleher, M; Sproat, C; Kwok, J; McGurk, M

    2015-09-11

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has a number of causes, the most familiar being radiation or bisphosphonate induced. Various other novel anti-neoplastic and bone-targeting therapies that can also cause jaw necrosis have recently become available. This has led to the suggested acronym MRONJ for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. This article summarises the available information on these drugs and their implications for the dental surgeon. PMID:26361116

  13. Avascular necrosis secondary to postoperative steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Hurel, S J; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-08-01

    Hypothalamic and pituitary tumours may present with vague symptoms owing to excess or lack of hormone production, including diabetes insipidus. Corticosteroids are commonly employed to limit cerebral oedema and at much lower doses to treat secondary hypocorticalism. Continuation of steroids at inappropriately high doses predisposes to the development of avascular necrosis as in the case we describe in a young woman of 34 years. This is a potentially preventable crippling disorder. When prescribing steroids the lowest effective dose should be used. PMID:9337938

  14. Liquefaction necrosis of mitral annulus calcification.

    PubMed

    Mallisho, Maram; Hwang, Inyong; Alsafwah, Shadwan F

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction necrosis of the mitral annulus is a rare form of peri-annular calcification that the cardiologist must be able to differentiate from other cardiac masses. It classically looks like a round or semilunar hyperdense mass with a denser peripheral rim, located mainly in the posterior mitral annulus. The case we report here was diagnosed in a 78-year-old female patient who presented with an embolic cerebral vascular accident, which raises the question of its etiopathogenic responsibility. PMID:24420234

  15. EXPERIMENTAL LIVER NECROSIS; I. THE HEXON BASES.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H C; Pearce, R M

    1907-09-21

    1. The liver of the dog in which necrosis has been produced by injection of haematoxic immune sera is characterized in the less marked forms by a storing up of nitrogen in the persisting living cells, while in the diffuse forms the total nitrogen content is but slightly above the normal. This last is to be explained by the great diminution in persisting liver substance which limits the power of nitrogen accumulation. 2. In all forms of necrosis there occurs an absolute increase of nitrogen precipitable by phosphotungstic acid (hexon bases) but the percentage increase, in relation to total nitrogen, diminishes in those forms (focal) in which the products of autolysis may be readily carried off by the blood stream and greatly increases in the diffuse form with large areas in which the circulation is seriously impaired. 3. Although the absolute amount of nitrogen representing arginin and histidin varies, a relative increase is evident when this fraction is compared with the total diamino-nitrogen. This increase corresponds to the degree of necrosis and attendant circulatory disturbance and indicates that in necrosis as opposed to degeneration (Wakeman) arginin is not split up by arginase. The lysin also bears a definite relation to the total hexon nitrogen. 4. The diamino-nitrogen of the normal liver after autolysis in vitro shows a slight variable increase over that of the unautolyzed, while the necrotic livers showed a decided decrease. 5. The diamino-acid nitrogen of normal horse liver is only about one half of that of the dog; the relative proportion of the bases is about the same. In necrotic livers with amyloid the diamino-nitrogen is markedly increased which is in accord with Neuberg's observations on the high hexon base content of amyloid. PMID:19867108

  16. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  17. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis in photodynamic therapy with a chlorine photosensitizer: experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Bigbov, Elmir N.

    2011-02-01

    A photodynamic therapy experiment on 118 inbred white mice with transplanted Ehrlich's tumor (mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma) is performed to reveal mechanisms of necrosis formation. In 7-10 days the tumor of 1-1.5 cm diameter is formed under skin at the injection point, and PDT procedure is applied. There were used a chlorine type photosensitizer RadachlorineTM and 662 nm wavelength diode laser. The drug is injected by intravenously at the dose of 40 mg/kg; the irradiation is executed in 2-2.5 hours at the surface dose of about 200 J/cm2. Each of the mice had a photochemical reaction in form of destructive changes at the irradiation region with subsequent development of dry coagulation necrosis. After rejection of the necrosis there occurred epithelization of defect tissues in a tumor place. Histological investigations were conducted in different follow-up periods, in 5 and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after irradiation. They included optical microscopy, immune marker analysis, morphometry with measurements of volume density of epithelium, tumor stroma and necroses, vascular bed. The investigations showed that an important role in damaging mechanisms of photodynamic action belongs to hypoxic injuries of tumor mediated by micro vascular disorders and blood circulatory disturbances. The injuries are formed in a few stages: microcirculation angiospasm causing vessel paresis, irreversible stases in capillaries, diapedetic hemorrhages, thromboses, and thrombovasculitis. It is marked mucoid swelling and fibrinoid necrosis of vascular tissue. Progressive vasculitises result in total vessel obliteration and tumor necrosis.

  18. The biochemical pathology of liver cell necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J. L.; El-Mofty, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    Cell death and necrosis are important reactions of liver cells to injury that play a role in a wide variety of human liver diseases. A review is given of the important facets known about the biochemical basis of toxic liver cell death. Liver cells can withstand a great many specific biochemical and morphologic changes without loss of viability. Disturbances in RNA and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, or release of lysosomal enzymes do not play a primary causative role in cell death. Many previous studies have tended to implicate the plasma membrane and its presumed role in maintaining the proper Ca2+ balance as the primary site of the development of irreversible hepatocyte damage. These studies have generally faced a major difficulty in determining if the observed changes are the cause or an effect of cell death. Galactosamine-induced liver cell injury seems to offer a potentially analyzable model for the experimental analysis of liver cell necrosis. Our studies on the role of plasma membrane injury and associated increases in total cellular calcium are reviewed, and a tentative working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of galactosamine-induced liver cell necrosis is presented. PMID:1180333

  19. Idiopathic incus necrosis: Analysis of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail; Akdogan, Volkan; Avci, Suat; Ozluoglu, Levent

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with idiopathic incus necrosis who have conductive hearing loss and an intact ear drum. The study included four patients (3 women and 1 man; the ages of the patients were 22, 31, 35, and 56 years, respectively) with unilateral conductive hearing loss, no history of chronic serous otitis media, an intact ear drum, normal middle ear mucosa, and necrosis of the long processes of the incus. On preoperative pure tone audiometry, air-bone gaps were 24, 25, 38, and 33 dB. Bilateral tympanometry and temporal bone computed tomography results were normal. All 4 patients underwent an exploratory tympanotomy. During the operation, the mucosa of the middle ear was normal, with a mobile stapes foot plate and malleus. No evidence of any granulation tissue was found; however, necrosis of the incus long processes was seen. For ossicular reconstruction, we used tragal cartilage between the incus and the stapes in 1 patient; in the other 3 patients, glass ionomer bone cement was used (an interposition cartilage graft also was used in the patients who received the glass ionomer bone cement). In all patients, air-bone gaps under 20 dB were established in the first year after surgery. In the ossicular disorders within the middle ear, the incus is the most commonly affected ossicle. While, the most common cause of these disorders is chronic otitis media, it may be idiopathic rarely. Several ossicular reconstruction techniques have been used to repair incudostapedial discontinuity. PMID:23460219

  20. Acute Esophageal Necrosis Presenting With Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Gregory R.; Malik, Zubair; Schey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain and melena developed a palpable, purpuric rash and acute kidney injury. Skin and kidney biopsy confirmed Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse, circumferential, black-appearing mucosa of the esophagus consistent with acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also known as black esophagus. AEN is a very rare cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of AEN associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura or other vasculitis. PMID:26504868

  1. Harms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic diseases: A focused Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Archana; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2013-01-01

    We performed a focused review of risk of harms of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in adult rheumatic diseases. Increased risk of serious infections, tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections has been reported across various studies, with etanercept appearing to have modestly better safety profile in terms of tuberculosis and opportunistic infections and infliximab with higher risk of serious infections. Evidence suggests no increase in risk of cancer with anti-TNF biologics, but there is an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Elderly patients appear to be at increased risk of incident or worsening heart failure with anti-TNF biologic use. PMID:23444956

  2. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  3. The ability of intra-operative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography to predict mastectomy flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Munabi, Naikhoba C O; Olorunnipa, Olushola B; Goltsman, David; Rohde, Christine H; Ascherman, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    Mastectomy skin flap ischaemia leading to necrosis is a common occurrence. Laser-assisted indocyanine green (ICG) angiography can assist to locate these poorly perfused areas intra-operatively. Our study aims to identify specific perfusion values produced by ICG angiography that accurately predict mastectomy flap necrosis. A total of 42 patients undergoing autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction had mastectomy flaps imaged using laser-assisted ICG angiography at the completion of reconstruction. Intra-operative perfusion values were correlated with postoperative skin flap outcomes. Risk factors for abnormal perfusion were recorded and analysed. A total of 62 breast reconstructions were imaged, including 48 tissue expander reconstructions, six transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps, six deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps and two direct-to-implant reconstructions. Eight cases (13%) of full-thickness skin necrosis were identified postoperatively. A SPY Elite(®) value of ≤ 7 accurately predicted the development of flap necrosis at 88% sensitivity and 83% specificity. False-positive cases (those with perfusion values ≤ 7 which did not develop necrosis) were more likely to have a smoking history and/or to have had an epinephrine-containing tumescent solution used during mastectomy. Excluding patients with smoking or epinephrine use, a SPY value of ≤ 7 predicted flap necrosis with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 97%. Thus, these data suggest that laser-assisted ICG angiography predicts postoperative outcomes with high accuracy. In our series, a SPY value of ≤ 7 correlated well with mastectomy flap necrosis. Furthermore, smoking and intra-operative injections containing epinephrine should be considered when evaluating low perfusion values as they can lead to false-positive test results. PMID:24507962

  4. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion. PMID:21297902

  6. Comparing Quantitative Values of Two Generations of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography Systems: Can We Predict Necrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Mitchell S.; Rivara, Andrew; Dagum, Alexander B.; Huston, Tara L.; Ganz, Jason C.; Bui, Duc T.; Khan, Sami U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Several devices exist today to assist the intraoperative determination of skin flap perfusion. Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography (LAICGA) has been shown to accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis using quantitative perfusion values. The laser properties of the latest LAICGA device (SPY Elite) differ significantly from its predecessor system (SPY 2001), preventing direct translation of previous published data. The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical relationship of perfusion values between these 2 devices. Methods: Breast reconstruction patients were prospectively enrolled into a clinical trial where skin flap evaluation and excision was based on quantitative SPY Q values previously established in the literature. Initial study patients underwent mastectomy skin flap evaluation using both SPY systems simultaneously. Absolute perfusion unit (APU) values at identical locations on the breast were then compared graphically. Results: 210 data points were identified on the same patients (n = 4) using both SPY systems. A linear relationship (y = 2.9883x + 12.726) was identified with a high level or correlation (R2 = 0.744). Previously published values using SPY 2001 (APU 3.7) provided a value of 23.8 APU on the SPY Elite. In addition, postoperative necrosis in these patients correlated to regions of skin identified with the SPY Elite with APU less than 23.8. Conclusion: Intraoperative comparison of LAICGA systems has provided direct correlation of perfusion values predictive of necrosis that were previously established in the literature. An APU value of 3.7 from the SPY 2001 correlates to a SPY Elite APU value of 23.8. PMID:25525483

  7. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  8. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  9. Localized Interdental Bone Necrosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K Krishna Mohana; Shankar, B Shiva; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Sudhakar, Jaradoddi; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Restorative dentistry involves use of various intracoronal and intracanal medicaments. Commonly used endodontic medicaments include paraformaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. These agents are caustic and in higher and in inappropriate concentrations can cause immediate damage to the surrounding hard and/or soft tissues. Proper knowledge of such agents and careful use of such intracanal medicaments is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries. This report presented a case of localized alveolar bone necrosis which is an iatrogenic damage occurred because of improper use of intracanal medicaments and improper management of carious tooth structure. Subsequent management of the case is also discussed in this case report. PMID:25214737

  10. Skin lesions due to exposure to methyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Hezemans-Boer, M; Toonstra, J; Meulenbelt, J; Zwaveling, J H; Sangster, B; van Vloten, W A

    1988-06-01

    Six patients were occupationally exposed to high concentrations of methyl bromide during a fumigation procedure using adequate airway protection. Within a few hours all patients developed skin lesions, consisting of sharply demarcated erythema with multiple vesicles and large bullae. There was a striking predisposition for parts of the skin that were relatively moist or subject to mechanical pressure, such as axillae, groin, and abdomen. Microscopically, early skin lesions revealed necrosis of keratinocytes, severe edema of the upper dermis, subepidermal blistering, and diffuse infiltration of neutrophils and, to a lesser degree, eosinophils. Two patients developed an urticarial rash approximately one week after the exposure. On histologic examination, these late lesions showed combined features of a spongiotic dermatitis and urticaria. No immunopathologic manifestations were observed. In all patients, the skin returned to normal after four weeks, except for some residual hyperpigmentation. Plasma bromide levels after exposure strongly suggested percutaneous absorption of methyl bromide. PMID:2967677

  11. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  12. Effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on formation of coagulative necrosis in goat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqi; Gong, Xiaobo; Hu, Kai; Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2006-05-01

    The motives of the work are to explore the effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on HIFU ablation goat liver. A model-JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System was used. A 0.75 MHz focused transducer with 150mm aperture and 120mm focal length was used in all experiment. Acoustical power can be adjusted. 30 goats were divided into control group (HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU alone), experiment group 1(HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU combined with microbubble) and experiment group 2(Ribs in HIFU beam path were surgically removed, HIFU alone). 20 targeted regions at 5cm away from skin surface were applied for creating necrosis with linear scanning of 15mm length using HIFU in 3 groups. All animals were sacrificed two days later and exposed organs were dissected. After obtaining the maximal section, the volumes of the necrotic regions were measured, then to calculate Energy Efficiency Factor (EEF). Researched results showed that Ribs in HIFU beam path affected the formation of coagulative necrosis and enhanced EEF in control group. HIFU combined with microbubble could enhance the formation of coagulative necrosis and decrease EEF.

  13. Skin-sparing mastectomy. Oncologic and reconstructive considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G W; Bostwick, J; Styblo, T M; Moore, B; Bried, J T; Murray, D R; Wood, W C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors compared skin-sparing mastectomy and traditional mastectomy both followed by immediate reconstruction in the treatment of breast cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Skin-sparing mastectomy is used increasingly in the treatment of breast cancer to improve the aesthetic results of immediate reconstruction. The oncologic and reconstructive outcomes of this procedure have never been analyzed closely. METHODS: Institutional experience with 435 consecutive patients who underwent total mastectomy and immediate reconstruction from January 1989 through December 1994 was examined. Mastectomies were stratified into skin-sparing (SSM) and non-skin-sparing (non-SSM) types. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-seven SSMs and 188 non-SSMs were performed. The mean follow-up was 41.3 months (SSM, 37.5 months, non-SSM, 48.2 months). Local recurrences from invasive cancer occurred after 4.8% of SSMs versus 9.5% of non-SSMs. Sixty-five percent of patients who underwent SSMs had nothing performed on the opposite breast versus 45% in the group of patients who underwent non-SSM (p = 0.0002). Native skin flap necrosis occurred in 10.7% of patients who underwent SSMs versus 11.2% of patients who underwent non-SSMs. CONCLUSIONS: Skin-sparing mastectomy facilitates immediate breast reconstruction by reducing remedial surgery on the opposite breast. Native skin flap necrosis is not increased over that seen with non-SSM. Skin-sparing mastectomies can be used in the treatment of invasive cancer without compromising local control. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9193184

  14. Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand

    2013-01-01

    Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

  15. Necrosis Avidity: A Newly Discovered Feature of Hypericin and its Preclinical Applications in Necrosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Binghu; Wang, Jichen; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [123I]iodohypericin, [124I]iodohypericin, and [131I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin. PMID:24052807

  16. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  17. Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sivabalasundaram, Vithika; Habal, Flavio; Cherney, David

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple’s procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 μmol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m2). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials. PMID:25133152

  18. Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Sivabalasundaram, Vithika; Habal, Flavio; Cherney, David

    2014-08-16

    We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple's procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 μmol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials. PMID:25133152

  19. Melanoma of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  20. Skin Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  1. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  2. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...

  3. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ169 PREGNANCY Skin Conditions During Pregnancy • What are some of the common ... changes that can occur during pregnancy? Certain uncommon skin conditions can arise during pregnancy. They can cause signs ...

  4. Outbreak of comb necrosis in layer breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shirai, J; Imai, K; Hihara, H; Tanimura, N

    1997-01-01

    Comb necrosis with leg weakness was seen in 41-day-old female layer breeder chickens. This disease occurred in three flocks at a breeder farm, but not in other flocks of growing chickens and broiler breeder hens at the same farm. The disease started in 35-day-old chicks in three flocks. The morbidity of comb necrosis was 10% and that of leg weakness was 3%. Characteristic gross lesions of affected chickens were swelling and necrosis of the whole comb. Histologically, liquefactive necrosis of epidermal epithelial cells with hyperplasia, vesicle formation in the epidermis, congestion, and hemorrhages with fibrinous thrombi of underlying dermis in the comb were noted. In mature comb lesions, the epidermis showed eosinophilic necrosis (scab formation). In the livers, multiple fibrinous thrombi were present in the sinusoids and there was necrosis of hepatic cells. Staphylococcus aureus and Pasturella spp. were isolated from comb lesions. There were no significant lesions causing leg weakness. PMID:9087344

  5. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  6. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  7. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement. Images PMID:6859959

  8. Growth on demand: Reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Holland, Maria A.; Honda, Kord S.; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. redHere we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. redThis allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part.redTo demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

  9. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

  10. Taking Care of Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... are all common skin problems. Try not to scratch! Scratching can tear your skin and is another ... TOPIC Your Skin Movie: Skin Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Eek! It's Eczema! Fungal Infections How ...

  11. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  12. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  13. Microcirculatory Evaluation of the Abdominal Skin in Breast Reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Pripp, Are Hugo; Tindholdt, Tyge Tind

    2016-01-01

    Background: No studies have assessed the perfusion of the undermined abdominal skin in breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. A greater understanding of the procedure’s impact on the perfusion of the abdominal skin can be valuable in predicting areas susceptible to necrosis. Methods: Microcirculatory changes were monitored in the abdominal skin of 20 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Quantitative mapping was performed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging at 7 set intervals. Measurements were taken and recorded within 4 standardized zones covering the skin between the xiphoid process and the upper incisional boundary of the flap (zones 1–4; cranial to caudal). Results: Before commencing surgery, a significantly higher perfusion was registered in zones 3 and 4 when compared with zone 1. After undermining the abdominal skin, the perfusion in zones 1–3 increased significantly. After the abdominal closure, the perfusion dropped in all 4 zones and only the perfusion level in zone 1 remained significantly higher than preoperative mean. Postoperatively, the perfusion of each zone stabilized at a significantly higher level compared with preoperative values. No tissue necrosis was observed in any of the zones. Conclusions: Although perforators are divided during undermining of the abdominal skin, there seems to be a reactive hyperemia that exceeds the blood supply delivered by the perforators. Thus, due to microcirculatory mechanisms, the undermining of the abdomen during the procedure does not seem to present any great risk of tissue necrosis. PMID:27014545

  14. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  15. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marcus; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of regulated cell death presents tantalizing possibilities for gaining control over the life-death decisions made by cells in disease. Although apoptosis has been the focus of drug discovery for many years, recent research has identified regulatory mechanisms and signalling pathways for previously unrecognized, regulated necrotic cell death routines. Distinct critical nodes have been characterized for some of these alternative cell death routines, whereas other cell death routines are just beginning to be unravelled. In this Review, we describe forms of regulated necrotic cell death, including necroptosis, the emerging cell death modality of ferroptosis (and the related oxytosis) and the less well comprehended parthanatos and cyclophilin D-mediated necrosis. We focus on small molecules, proteins and pathways that can induce and inhibit these non-apoptotic forms of cell death, and discuss strategies for translating this understanding into new therapeutics for certain disease contexts. PMID:26775689

  16. Crystallization of human tumour necrosis factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nigel; Marcinowski, Stefan; Hillen, Heinz; Mächtle, Walter; Jones, Yvonne; Stuart, David

    1990-02-01

    Crystals of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor, an 157 amino acid protein expressed in Escherichia coli, have been obtained that are suitable for a full structure determination. A dramatic increase in crystal size was obtained with the addition of the non-ionic detergent β-octyl glucoside. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3121 with unit cell dimensions a=b=166.0 å and c=93.0 å, and diffract to 2.9 å. Crystal density measurements indicated a solvent content of close to 65%. Since TNF has been proposed to exist at the trimer in solution, this is consistent with an arrangement of two independent trimers, i.e. six molecules, in the asymmetric unit.

  17. Eosinophilic Gastritis Presenting as Tissue Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yong Min; Jang, Jin Seok; Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Jae; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is very rare disorder that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of any definite causes of eosinophilia. It is associated with various clinical gastrointestinal manifestations, and depends on the involved layer and site. We report a case of eosinophilic gastritis presenting with severe necrosis. The symptoms disappeared immediately after beginning steroid treatment, and the eosinophil count decreased to the reference range. The patient showed eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis. It is a unique presentation of eosinophilic gastritis. To the best of our knowledge, no case of eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis has been previously reported in Korea. PMID:26668805

  18. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  19. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  20. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  1. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patients quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  2. Plasma intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in neonates with bowel necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, R; Coakley, J; Murton, L; Campbell, N

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To determine if the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are biochemical markers of bowel necrosis in neonates. METHODS--Plasma ALP isoenzymes were measured in 22 babies with bowel necrosis, histologically confirmed, and in 22 matched controls. The isoenzymes were also measured in 16 infants with signs of necrotising enterocolitis, who recovered without histological confirmation of bowel necrosis. The isoenzymes were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Auxiliary tests for identification included neuraminidase digestion and treatment with monoclonal and polyclonal antiplacental antibodies. RESULTS--Intestinal ALP was detected in 16 infants with bowel necrosis--13 had fetal intestinal ALP (FI-ALP) and three had adult intestinal ALP (AI-ALP). FI-ALP was detected in nine of the controls. In the babies with bowel necrosis intestinal ALP was found over all gestations, but in the controls only in those less than 34 weeks. The percentages of total ALP activity due to intestinal ALP were significantly higher in those with bowel necrosis compared with matched controls (p = 0.028). In babies of all gestations diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of intestinal ALP as a marker of bowel necrosis was 73% and diagnostic specificity 59%. In babies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, diagnostic sensitivity fell to 60% but the test became completely specific. In two babies FI-ALP increased from zero/trace to high activity coincident with the episode of bowel necrosis. In 16 babies with signs of necrotising enterocolitis but unconfirmed bowel necrosis FI-ALP was detected in four. CONCLUSION--Intestinal ALP seems to be released into the circulation in some babies with bowel necrosis, but its detection does not have the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to be a reliable biochemical marker of the condition. Images PMID:8157755

  3. Four energy levels device for skin punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, D.; Ristici, Esofina; Mustata, Marina; Miclos, S.; Rusu, M. I.; Radu, C.; Savu, V.

    2007-03-01

    Generally, the beam distribution in the tissue in interaction with a pulsed laser is defined by optical properties (effective scattering and absorption coefficient). In 2900 nm range, the effective scattering coefficient is much smaller than the absorption coefficient. An Er:YAG skin puncher is presented. Thermal action of a laser beam can be described as one of three types: hyperthermia, coagulation and volatilization, depending on the degree and the duration of tissue heating. We are interested in the volatilization process that means a loss of material. The various constituents of the tissue disappear in smoke at above 100 0C in a relatively short time of around one tenth of a second. At the edges of the volatilization zone there is a region of coagulation necrosis. In presented case of an Er:YAG laser operating in a free generation mode, the mechanical effects can result from explosive vaporization. When the exposure time of the laser is lower than the characteristic time of the thermal diffusion in the tissue, it produces a thermal containment with an accumulation of heat without diffusion and an explosive vaporization of the target. The Er:YAG laser device has the pulse length of about 160 microseconds and four emitted energy levels. This device is used to punch the skin for blood sampling for different kinds of analysis. The front panel of the device has four keys to select the desired energy according to the skin type.

  4. Skin mirrors human aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  5. Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Fecal Peritonitis following Ostomy Necrosis and Detachment by Using NPT and Flexi-Seal

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Management of necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis following ostomy in elderly patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report management of frozen Open Abdomen (OA) with colonic fistula following ostomy necrosis and detachment in an elderly patient with comorbid disease and malignancy. 78-year-old woman with high stage rectum carcinoma was admitted to emergency department and underwent operation for severe peritonitis and sigmoid colonic perforation. Loop sigmoidostomy was performed. At postoperative 15th day, she was transferred to our clinic with necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis due to ostomy necrosis and detachment. Enteric effluent was removed from the OA wound by using the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System (FMS) (ConvaTec) and pesser tube in deeply located colonic fistula in conjunction with Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT). Maturation of ostomy was facilitated by using second NPT on ostomy side. After source control, delayed abdominal closure was achieved by skin flap approximation. PMID:26448894

  6. Upper eyelid necrosis and reconstruction after spider byte: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ribuffo, D; Serratore, F; Famiglietti, M; Greco, M; Fois, F; Atzori, L; Pau, M; Aste, N

    2012-03-01

    Spider bites are not very common, especially in the Mediterranean area, and those affecting the ocular-palpebral region involving reconstructive surgery are particularly rare. In May 2010, the case of a Caucasian 24-year-old female patient was brought to the attention of the Dermatology Department, University of Cagliari, Italy. The patient reported she woke up feeling an intense pain with itching and that also she had noticed a spider of an unknown species on her bed. The dermatosis had affected the right orbital region, where there was a considerable red and violet erythema and a hard edema, not foldable. When the necrosis appeared the patient was treated at the Plastic Surgery Unit where she underwent a reconstruction of the eyelid with a full thickness skin graft from the retroauricular area. The post-operative course was regular with a perfect in-take of the skin graft. When the patient was discharged she was sent to an Entomological University Centre to identify the spider species and the possible venom which caused the skin lesion. The spider which caused the injury has been a Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820). Loxoscelism is a necrotic arachnoidism caused by the poisonous bite of spiders belonging to the Loxosceles species. It is very important to identify what sort of lesion it is and to treat it in a combined way in order to choose the proper timing for surgery to avoid damages to the eyelid functioning. PMID:22530360

  7. Warfarin-induced Eosinophilia in a Child with urkitt Lymphoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, Kourosh; Ghazizadeh, Farid; Hoseini Tavassol, Hesameddin; Behnam, Behdad

    2015-01-01

    An important complication of chemotherapy is thromboembolic events that can occur during treatment course. In this way, Warfarin can be used as an efficient prophylactic agent to prevent these complications. Although bleeding is a common adverse effect of Warfarin, eosinophilia is a rare side effect of this drug. We have reported a 5-year-old boy with Burkitt lymphoma who underwent chemotherapy. In the course of chemotherapy, because of thrombosis of the left jugular vein, we initiated Warfarin as a prophylactic drug for TEE secondary to chemotherapy. Following Warfarin initiation, eosinophilia appeared and subsequent to cessation of drug, eosinophilia disappeared. This case is presented to point out physicians to consider eosinophilia as a rare adverse-effect of Warfarin and monitor blood cell differentiation regularly during the course of treatment with this drug. PMID:26330877

  8. Quercetin Attenuates Warfarin-induced Vascular Calcification in Vitro Independently from Matrix Gla Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Kelly E.; Eghtesad, Saman; Nurminskaya, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin can stimulate vascular calcification in vitro via activation of β-catenin signaling and/or inhibition of matrix Gla protein (MGP) carboxylation. Calcification was induced in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with therapeutic levels of warfarin in normal calcium and clinically acceptable phosphate levels. Although TGF/BMP and PKA pathways are activated in calcifying VSMCs, pharmacologic analysis reveals that their activation is not contributory. However, β-catenin activity is important because inhibition of β-catenin with shRNA or bioflavonoid quercetin prevents calcification in primary human VSMCs, rodent aortic rings, and rat A10 VSMC line. In the presence of quercetin, reactivation of β-catenin using the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor LiCl restores calcium accumulation, confirming that quercetin mechanism of action hinges on inhibition of the β-catenin pathway. Calcification in VSMCs induced by 10 μm warfarin does not associate with reduced levels of carboxylated MGP, and inhibitory effects of quercetin do not involve induction of MGP carboxylation. Further, down-regulation of MGP by shRNA does not alter the effect of quercetin. These results suggest a new β-catenin-targeting strategy to prevent vascular calcification induced by warfarin and identify quercetin as a potential therapeutic in this pathology. PMID:23223575

  9. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Bach, A D; Weyand, B; Stark, G B

    2003-10-01

    The coverage of extensive wounds with viable autologous keratinocytes remains the only option of treatment if autologous donor skin is not obtainable. There is evidence that proliferating keratinocytes, as suspended cells or as a single layer, are adequate for wound closure. Understanding keratinocyte-matrix interactions not only allows us to influence keratinocyte outgrowth, adhesion, and migration, but may also guide us to modify matrix molecules for enhancing keratinocyte take. Further approaches may include the generation of genetically manipulated keratinocytes, which allow the use of an off-the-shelf epidermal replacement. As surgeons, our goal is to help burn patients with the best quality of skin in the shortest time possible. As tissue engineers, we have not achieved the goal of a universal skin product. By continually reviewing the options and using them, we can at least use the proper material in the adequate situation. Because of the limited resources, the need for comparisons of clinical effectiveness and cost are ever more important. As anatomy and physiology of engineered skin substitutes improve, they will become more similar to native skin autografts. Improvement of skin substitutes will result from inclusion of additional cell types (eg, melanocytes) and from modifications of culture media and scaffolds. Skin-substitute materials may be able to stimulate regeneration rather than repair, and tissue-engineered skin may match the quality of split-skin autografts, our present gold standard. PMID:14621305

  10. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  11. Neuroendocrinology of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A

    2011-01-01

    The concept on the skin neuro-endocrine has been formulated ten years ago, and recent advances in the field further strengthened this role. Thus, skin forms a bidirectional platform for a signal exchange with other peripheral organs, endocrine and immune systems or brain to enable rapid and selective responses to the environment in order to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. In this context, it is not surprising that the function of the skin is tightly regulated by systemic neuro-endocrine system. Skin cells and skin appendages not only respond to neuropeptides, steroids and other regulatory signals, but also actively synthesis variety of hormones. The stress responses within the skin are tightly regulated by locally synthesized factors and their receptor expression. There is growing evidence for alternative splicing playing an important role in stress signaling. Deregulation of the skin neuro-endocrine signaling can lead or/and be a marker of variety of skin diseases. The major problem in this area relates to their detailed mechanisms of crosstalk between skin and brain and between the local and global endocrine as well as immune systems. PMID:21519402

  12. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock Itch Scalp Ringworm Body Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor ...

  13. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  14. Surfactants, skin cleansing protagonists.

    PubMed

    Corazza, M; Lauriola, M M; Zappaterra, M; Bianchi, A; Virgili, A

    2010-01-01

    The correct choice of cosmetic products and cleansers is very important to improve skin hydration, to provide moisturizing benefits and to minimize cutaneous damage caused by surfactants. In fact, surfactants may damage protein structures and solubilize lipids. Soaps, defined as the alkali salts of fatty acids, are the oldest surfactants and are quite aggressive. Syndets (synthetic detergents) vary in composition and surfactant types (anionic, cationic, amphotheric, non-ionic). These new skin cleansing products also contain preservatives, fragrances, and sometimes emollients, humectants and skin nutrients. We present a revision of the literature and discuss recent findings regarding skin cleansers. PMID:19614860

  15. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  16. Tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses.

    PubMed

    Cunnion, K M

    1999-08-01

    Poxviruses encode several cytokine response modifying (Crm) proteins. The Crm proteins possess sequence homology to several human proteins important in immunity. This homology and the conservation of Crm proteins among poxvirus strains suggest an immunomodulatory function that provides a survival advantage to the virus. Cowpox virus encodes several tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family homologues: CrmB, CrmC, and CrmD. CrmB and CrmD encode a similar approximately 155 amino acid COOH-terminus region distal to their TNF ligand-binding portions. These C-terminus regions contain no significant homology with sequences in public databases. It is not known whether the C-terminus regions have a complementary function to the TNF ligand-binding domains, or an unrelated function. Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, encodes a protein termed T2 which is homologous to CrmB and CrmD. Deletion of the T2 gene results in decreased pathogenicity of myxoma in rabbits. T2 has also been shown to interfere with TNF-induced apoptosis in vitro. Understanding the role viral TNF receptor homologues play in altering host immune responses may suggest ways to develop specific anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:10444338

  17. Rabbit tumor necrosis factor: mechanism of action.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, M R; Gifford, G E

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was examined for effects on normal and transformed cells in culture. Several assays for killing of L-929 cell targets were developed, and their sensitivities were compared. Normal cells were not killed by TNF, and the discrimination between normal and transformed cells was shown not to be due to a cell cycle-dependent mechanism. TNF killing of L-929 cells was delayed for 10 to 12 h and thereafter showed concentration and time-dependent increases in cytolysis. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide treatment of L-929 cells resulted in an enhancement of the rate of cell killing as well as a shortening of the preceding lag period. TNF killing of L-929 cells was temperature dependent; cells were considerably more resistant to lysis at 25 degrees C and showed enhanced killing at 39 degrees C as compared to 37 degrees C controls. The slope of the dose curve showed less than single-hit kinetics. A model for cell killing whose general features incorporate both the specificity and catalytic properties of an enzymatic reaction is proposed for TNF action. PMID:7216452

  18. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  19. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  20. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  1. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  2. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA amplified from lesional skin of seropositive dogs.

    PubMed

    Berzina, Inese; Krudewig, Christiane; Silaghi, Cornelia; Matise, Ilze; Ranka, Renate; Müller, Norbert; Welle, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is caused by the rickettsial microorganism Anaplasma phagocytophilum. CGA is typically characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia, lethargy, anorexia, arthropy, and other nonspecific clinical signs. Skin lesions have been described in naturally infected lambs and humans. The pathophysiology of CGA is not entirely clear, and the persistence of the organism after the resolution of clinical signs has been described. The aim of the study was to investigate if A. phagocytophilum can be detected in canine lesional skin biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs with etiologically unclear skin lesions that improved after the treatment with doxycycline. Paraffin-embedded lesional skin biopsies were allocated into separate groups: biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs responsive to treatment with doxycycline (n=12), biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seronegative dogs (n=2), and biopsies in which skin lesions histopathologically resembled a tick bite (n=10). The serological status of the latter group was unknown. Histology of the seropositive and seronegative dog skin lesions did not indicate an etiology. DNA was extracted, and a conventional PCR for partial 16S rRNA gene was performed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified from 4/12 seropositive dogs' skin biopsies. All sequences were 100% identical to the prototype A. phagocytophilum human strain (GenBank accession number U02521). Anaplasma phagocytophilum was not amplified from the 2 seronegative and 10 suspected tick bite dogs. Serum antibody titers of the PCR-positive dogs ranged from 1:200 to 1:2048. Histopathologically, a mild-to-moderate perivascular to interstitial dermatitis composed of a mixed cellular infiltrate and mild-to-moderate edema was seen in all seropositive dogs. In 8/12 seropositive dogs, vascular changes as vasculopathy, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel walls, and leukocytoclastic changes were observed. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in the skin may be causative for otherwise unexplained skin lesions in seropositive dogs. PMID:24637068

  4. Targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to keratinocytes with a pemphigus monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Lin, Chenyan; Schechter, Norman; Siegel, Don; Yang, Xiaoping; Seykora, John T.; Stanley, John R

    2013-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of using an anti-desmoglein (Dsg) monoclonal antibody, Px44, to deliver a biologically active protein to keratinocytes. Recombinantly produced Px44-green fluorescent protein (GFP) injected into mice and skin organ culture delivered GFP to the cell surface of keratinocytes. We replaced GFP with tumor necrosis factor -related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to produce Px44TRAIL. We chose TRAIL as a biologic model because it inhibits activated lymphocytes and causes apoptosis of hyperproliferative keratinocytes, features of various skin diseases. Px44TRAIL formed a trimer, the biologically active form of TRAIL. Standard assays of TRAIL activity showed that Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of Jurkat cells and inhibited interferon-γ production by activated CD4+ T cells. Enzyme-linked immunoassay with Px44TRAIL showed delivery of TRAIL to Dsg. Immunofluorescence with Px44TRAIL incubated on skin sections and cultured keratinocytes or injected into mouse skin, human organ culture or human xenografts detected TRAIL on keratinocytes. Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of hyperproliferative, but not differentiating, cultured keratinocytes through binding to Dsg3. Foldon, a small trimerization domain, cloned into Px44TRAIL maintained its stability and biological activity at 37° for at least 48 hr. These data suggest that such targeted therapy is feasible and may be useful for hyperproliferative and inflamed skin diseases. PMID:23439393

  5. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcets disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy. PMID:26155327

  6. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  9. Skin problems in children.

    PubMed

    Verbov, J L

    1976-09-01

    Common skin problems in 340 children routinely seen during a winter period, included napkin rashes in infants, atopic eczema throughout childrhood, and acne vulgaris in late childhood. Skin infections and psoriasis were also commonly seen. If possible, when topical steroid preparations more potent than hydrocortisone cream BPC are used in children, they should be used sparingly and for short periods only. PMID:135974

  10. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  11. Tanning and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Farah R; Feldman, Steven R; Williford, Phillip M; Krowchuk, Daniel; Kaur, Mandeep

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is a large and growing problem in the United States. Sun and other ultraviolet (UV) light exposures play a key role in the development of skin cancer. Pediatricians can play an important role in counseling patients and are in a position to help educate children and their families about skin cancer. The purpose of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with the magnitude of the skin cancer problem and the evidence that ultraviolet light exposure, particularly indoor tanning, contributes to this problem. We reviewed the literature on ultraviolet light and skin cancer (based on a MEDLINE search of articles using the headings "ultraviolet light" and "skin cancer") and found that skin cancer is the most rapidly growing cause of cancer deaths in the United State. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for the relationship between UV exposure and nonmelanoma skin cancer and growing evidence for the relationship between indoor tanning and melanoma. We recommend that pediatricians counsel children and their parents about UV protection. Measures such as use of sunscreen and hats for outdoor play, both at home and in school, should be encouraged. PMID:16354251

  12. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  13. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  14. Autoamplification of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Neels, Jaap G.; Pandey, Manjula; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Samad, Fahumiya

    2006-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is elevated in adipose tissue in obesity and may contribute to the cardiovascular and metabolic risks associated with this condition, the mechanisms leading to elevated TNF-α remain elusive. We hypothesized that autoamplification of TNF-α contributes to the maintenance of elevated TNF-α in obesity. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-α, or injection of TNF-α into C57BL/6J mice, up-regulated TNF-α mRNA in adipocytes and in adipose tissues, respectively. Ob/ob male but not female mice lacking TNF-α receptors showed significantly lower levels of adipose TNF-α mRNA when compared with TNF-α receptor-expressing ob/ob mice. Thus, the lack of endogenous TNF-α signaling reduced adipose TNF-α mRNA in ob/ob male mice. Additionally, hyperinsulinemia potentiated this TNF-α-mediated autoamplification response in adipose tissues and in adipocytes in a synergistic and dose-dependent manner. Studies in which TNF-α was injected into lean mice lacking individual TNF-α receptors indicated that TNF-α autoamplification in adipose tissues was mediated primarily via the p55 TNF-α receptor whereas the p75 TNF-α receptor appeared to augment this response. Finally, TNF-α autoamplification in adipocytes occurred via the protein kinase C signaling pathway and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, TNF-α can positively autoregulate its own biosynthesis in adipose tissue, contributing to the maintenance of elevated TNF-α in obesity. PMID:16436658

  15. Secondary reconstruction with a transverse colon covered with a pectoralis major muscle flap and split thickness skin grafts for an esophageal defect and wide skin defects of the anterior chest wall.

    PubMed

    Sadanaga, Noriaki; Morinaga, Keigo; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Necrosis of a reconstructed organ after esophagectomy is a rare postoperative complication. However, in case this complication develops, severe infectious complications can occur, and subsequent surgical reconstruction is quite complicated. To treat esophageal conduit necrosis after esophageal reconstruction with the terminal ileum and ascending colon, we reconstructed the esophagus using a transverse colon, which was covered with a pectoralis major muscle flap to reinforce the anastomotic site. In addition, split thickness skin grafts were applied to the wide skin defect to cover the reconstructed organs at the antesternal route. Widely extended split thickness skin grafts can adhere to the reconstructed organs without excessive tension. Therefore, this method enabled successful treatment of an esophageal defect and wide skin defects of the anterior chest wall. PMID:26943390

  16. Neuropeptides and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Rana; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Neuropeptides (NP) are peptides that are released as chemical messengers from nerve cells. They act either in an endocrine manner, where they reach their target cells via the bloodstream or a paracrine manner, as co-transmitters modulating the function of neurotransmitters. To date approximately 100 different NP have been described in the literature. In recent years, several studies have documented that human skin expresses several functional receptors for NP, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, melanocortins, β-endorphin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide. These receptors modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, proliferation, differentiation, lipogenesis and hormone metabolism in human skin cells. In addition, several NP are directly produced by human skin cells, indicating the complexity of understanding the real functions of NPs in human skin. In this review we address the possible effects of neuropeptides on the pathogenesis of aged skin. PMID:25436744

  17. Treatment of Hyaluronic Acid Filler-Induced Impending Necrosis With Hyaluronidase: Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Biesman, Brian S; Dayan, Steven H; DeLorenzi, Claudio; Lambros, Val S; Nestor, Mark S; Sadick, Neil; Sykes, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Injection-induced necrosis is a rare but dreaded consequence of soft tissue augmentation with filler agents. It usually occurs as a result of injection of filler directly into an artery, but can also result from compression or injury. We provide recommendations on the use of hyaluronidase when vascular compromise is suspected. Consensus recommendations were developed by thorough discussion and debate amongst the authors at a roundtable meeting on Wednesday June 18, 2014 in Las Vegas, NV as well as significant ongoing written and verbal communications amongst the authors in the months prior to journal submission. All authors are experienced tertiary care providers. A prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment with high doses of hyaluronidase (at least 200 U) are critically important. It is not felt necessary to do a skin test in cases of impending necrosis. Some experts recommend dilution with saline to increase dispersion or lidocaine to aid vasodilation. Additional hyaluronidase should be injected if improvement is not seen within 60 minutes. A warm compress also aids vasodilation, and massage has been shown to help. Some experts advocate the use of nitroglycerin paste, although this area is controversial. Introducing an oral aspirin regimen should help prevent further clot formation due to vascular compromise. In our experience, patients who are diagnosed promptly and treated within 24 hours will usually have the best outcomes. PMID:25964629

  18. Platelets support a protective immune response to LCMV by preventing splenic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Gilbert David; Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Moseley, Nelson B.; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Severe arenaviral infections in humans are characterized by clinical findings common to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, skin and internal organ hemorrhages, high viral replication, splenic necrosis, and death. Host responses, rather than direct damage by the arenaviral replication, account for most of the observed pathology, but it is not known what protective roles platelets may have in each of the manifestations. To address this issue in an animal model, we compared nondepleted (100%), partially depleted (15%), and profoundly (< 2.5%) platelet-depletedmice infected with the mouse arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Here, we describe that systemic bleedings and death were seen only in those animals receiving the stronger depletion treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the nonhemorrhagic but partially platelet-depleted mice were unable to control the viral replication because of generalized splenic necrosis, affecting innate and adaptive immune cells. These data suggest that, by their supportive roles in hemostasis, platelets may be preventing the severe pathology observed in human arenaviral infections. PMID:22566603

  19. Predictors of avascular necrosis of the hip in Emiratis patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Al Saleh, Jamal; El Sayed, Manal; Salah, Naema; Harb, Deemah; Khan, Naureen; Mohammed, Nagi

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip is a known complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data on the prevalence of bone avascular necrosis (AVN) in Arab SLE patients are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional and retrospective case-control study on 126 SLE patients from Dubai to determine prevalence and predictors of symptomatic hip AVN. 8.7% of our lupus cohort demonstrated evidence of symptomatic hip AVN and had longer disease duration, higher cumulative steroid dose, and received cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil more often than the SLE patients without AVN (controls). Skin manifestations, serositis, lupus nephritis, neuropsychiatric lupus, and sero-positivity for autoantibodies: anti-DNA, Anti-Sm, and antiphospholipid antibodies were higher in patients than controls. Administration of hydroxychloroquine prior to onset of AVN was less frequent in cases than controls. In conclusion, disease activity, steroids, cytotoxic drugs, and antiphospholipid antibodies are important predictors of symptomatic AVN in Emirati patients with SLE, Hydroxychloroquine may play a protective role against developing AVN in Emiratis with SLE. Controlled longitudinal studies are essential to validate these findings. PMID:22053607

  20. Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

    2014-04-01

    We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

  1. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... feels rough Skin tightness, especially after bathing Itching Cracks in the skin that may bleed You can get dry skin anywhere on your body. But it commonly shows up on the hands, feet, arms, and lower legs.

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  3. Delineation of liver necrosis using double contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Dupas, B; Bach-Gansmo, T; Nomballais, M F; Meflah, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the combination of gadolinium and dysprosium to enhance the different between normal and necrotic liver tissue. Small regions of acute necrosis were induced by injecting 200-300 microliters of 95% alcohol into the liver of 26 rats. MRI was performed 24 hours after necrosis induction, before and immediately after injection of one or both contrast agents. Using a mixed T1/T2-weighted sequence, the signal intensity of (SI) of the normal liver was reduced by 70%, whereas the necrotic regions had more than a 50% increase in SI after double contrast. The region that was enhanced corresponded largely with the region of necrosis as observed postmortem. The lesion size, when identified, was largely underestimated using either of the agents along, albeit using the common pulse sequences. The double contrast effect of simultaneous administration of gadolinium and dysprosium allows accurate delineation of liver necrosis. PMID:9170029

  4. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

  5. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  6. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  7. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  8. Skin Diseases in Horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-08-01

    Skin disease in horses is a common and potentially challenging clinical problem. Information pertaining to skin disease is lacking in horses when compared with that in other companion animal species. Certainly, both horse-specific and location-specific patterns are present, but these can often be confounded by other factors. There are many possible ways in which to organize skin disease; in this article, they are organized based loosely on their most common clinical feature. Space limits the number of conditions that can be described here, and those chosen were seen relatively frequently in a multiinstitutional study of equine biopsies. PMID:26037605

  9. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  10. Chromophores in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Antony R.

    1997-05-01

    Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

  11. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma , which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma , which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma ...

  12. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...

  13. Skin diseases in musicians.

    PubMed

    Crépy, Marie-Noelle

    2015-10-01

    Instrumental musicians are a risk group for skin diseases. A systematic review was performed on Pubmed database and in the musical literature. Most publications on dermatoses in musicians are case reports. The exact prevalence of skin diseases in musicians is unknown but high rates have been reported. The most at-risk musicians are percussionists, string and wind instrumentalists. Repeated physical trauma is a frequent cause of skin conditions in musicians (callosities, fiddler's neck syndrome…). The allergens most often reported in musicians' allergic contact dermatitis are metals (nickel, dichromate), exotic woods and cane reed components, colophony and propolis. The key preventive measures are early management of the skin disease, specific tests and avoidance of the causative allergens, together with better adjustment of playing techniques to reduce trauma. PMID:25905552

  14. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... warm to the touch, and sometimes swollen, and gas bubbles may form under the skin. The person ... those caused by Clostridia and mixed bacteria, produce gas (see page Gas Gangrene ). The gas creates bubbles ...

  15. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area to stop any bleeding. Or the area may be burned with a cautery. Neither of these will hurt. ... the area to stop any bleeding. Or the area may be burned with a cautery. SKIN EXCISION - FULL THICKNESS This ...

  16. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  17. Laser Skin Renewal

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Skin Renewal, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient wanted the appearance of his acne scars minimized by laser treatment. Procedure Overview Photorejuvenation, simply put, is the ...

  18. Skin Tag (Acrochordon)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Conditions References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1863-1864. New York: Mosby, 2003. Freedberg, Irwin ... Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . 6 th ed, pp. 767, 993-994, 1827. New York: McGraw-Hill, ...

  19. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  20. Skin manifestations in CDG.

    PubMed

    Rymen, D; Jaeken, J

    2014-09-01

    The group of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) has expanded tremendously since its first description in 1980, with around 70 distinct disorders described to date. A great phenotypic variability exists, ranging from multisystem disease to single organ involvement. Skin manifestations, although inconsistently present, are part of this broad clinical spectrum. Indeed, the presence of inverted nipples, fat pads and orange peel skin in a patient with developmental delay are considered as a hallmark of CDG, particularly seen in PMM2 deficiency. However, over the years many more dermatological findings have been observed (e.g., ichthyosis, cutis laxa, tumoral calcinosis…). In this review we will discuss the variety of skin manifestations reported in CDG. Moreover, we will explore the possible mechanisms that link a certain glycosylation deficiency to its skin phenotype. PMID:24554337

  1. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... wounds, insect bites and minor skin infections Erythrasma Melasma Melanoma Moles ( nevi ), bathing trunk nevi, or giant nevi Mongolian blue spots Pityriasis alba Radiation therapy Rashes Sensitivity to the sun due to medication ...

  2. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  3. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, often resulting in an itchy rash. Scabies and lice are examples of parasitic infestations. Both ... Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Impetigo Paronychia Scabies Diaper Rash Cellulitis Word! Ringworm Fungal Infections Help! ...

  5. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  6. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  7. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... subcutaneous fat layer thins so it has less insulation and padding. This increases your risk of skin ... maintain body temperature. Because you have less natural insulation, you can get hypothermia in cold weather. Some ...

  8. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  9. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  10. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  11. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  12. Iontophoretic delivery of a nitric oxide donor improves local skin flap viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, John A.; Connor, Nadine P.; Hartig, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The dimensions of local flaps are often limited by the vascular supply to the distal aspect of the flap. Distal flap necrosis occurs if the vascular supply is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iontophoretic delivery of NO donors to a local skin flap model to improve the survival area of the flap. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (300g) were divided into 7 experimental groups to determine the effect of iontophoretic delivery of nitric oxide (NO) on surface perfusion and flap survival area. A caudally based 3 x 11 cm dorsal skin flap was used to measure the effect of iontophoretic delivery of NO donors to a local skin flap to improve survival area of the flap. Results Iontophoretic delivery of the NO donors’ sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethyltriamine NONOate (DETA-NO) resulted in a significant increase in survival area and surface perfusion when compared with sham controls. Iontophoretic delivery of saline was associated with a 13% improvement in flap survival when compared with non-treated controls. Conclusions Iontophoretic delivery and subcutaneous injection of NO donors (SNP and DETA-NO) increased skin flap viability by demonstrating improved flap survival areas. The results of this study suggest that NO may serve as a postoperative treatment of skin flaps to encourage skin flap survival and prevent distal necrosis. PMID:20437327

  13. Skin pigmentation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A

    2001-10-01

    The highest incidences of cancer are found in the skin, but endogenous pigmentation is associated with markedly reduced risk. Agents that enhance skin pigmentation have the potential to reduce both photodamage and skin cancer incidence. The purpose of this review is to evaluate agents that have the potential to increase skin pigmentation. These include topically applied substances that simulate natural pigmentation: dihydroxyacetone and melanins; and substances that stimulate the natural pigmentation process: psoralens with UVA (PUVA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), L-tyrosine, L-Dopa, lysosomotropic agents, diacylglycerols, thymidine dinucleotides, DNA fragments, melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) analogs, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), nitric oxide donors, and bicyclic monoterpene (BMT) diols. These agents are compared with regards to efficacy when administered to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes, animal skin, and human skin. In addition, mechanisms of action are reviewed since these may reveal issues related to both efficacy and safety. Both dihydroxyacetone and topically applied melanins are presently available to the consumer, and both of these have been shown to provide some photoprotection. Of the pigmentation stimulators, only PUVA and MSH analogs have been tested extensively on humans, but there are concerns about the safety and side effects of both. At least some of the remaining pigmentation stimulators under development have the potential to safely induce a photoprotective tan. PMID:11684462

  14. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  15. Pregnancy and skin.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J; Chaudhari, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  16. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  17. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  18. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  19. Bovine ischaemic teat necrosis: a further potential role for digital dermatitis treponemes.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Carter, S D; Stewart, J P; Amin, D M; Blowey, R W; Evans, N J

    2016-01-16

    A recent outbreak of ischaemic teat necrosis (ITN) on mainland UK has resulted in large economic losses for dairy farmers. Typical cases start as an area of dry, thickened and encrusted skin on the medial aspect of the base of the teat, where the teat joins the udder, often with a fetid odour. The erosion spreads down the teat, often causing intense irritation, which in turn leads to more severely affected animals removing the entire teat. Due to the severity of ITN and the substantial economic costs to the industry, analyses were undertaken to ascertain if an infectious agent might be involved in the pathology. The study has considered a role for digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes in the aetiopathogenesis of ITN because, as well as being the prime bacteria associated with infectious lameness, they have been associated with a number of emerging skin diseases of cattle, including udder lesions. A high association between presence of DD-associated treponemes and incidence of ITN (19/22), compared with absence in the control population is reported. Furthermore, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of treponeme isolates supports the hypothesis that the identified treponemes are similar or identical to those isolated from classical foot DD lesions in cattle (and sheep). Further studies are required to allow effective targeted prevention measures and/or treatments to be developed. PMID:26743503

  20. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  1. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  2. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A. . E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  3. Lymphoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Connors, Joseph M; Hsi, Eric D; Foss, Francine M

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the various ways in which the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas can involve the skin, how these diseases should be assessed, standard treatments available in 2002, and new directions in research. The goal of the session is to succinctly review recent developments in lymphoma classification and treatment as they apply to the unique aspects of lymphoma when manifest in the skin. In Section I, Dr. Eric Hsi reviews the special characteristics of the lymphomas seen when they proliferate in the skin and the application of the new World Health Organization classification system to the cutaneous lymphomas, emphasizing the unique challenges of recognizing and correctly classifying these diseases. He summarizes the evidence in favor of including the skin lymphomas in the overall lymphoma classification scheme and concludes with a practical description of the specific skin lymphoma entities. In Section II, Dr. Joseph Connors describes the current optimal treatment of the B-cell lymphomas when they present in or metastasize to the skin. Building on the classification scheme described by Dr. Hsi, Dr. Connors outlines a treatment approach based on current understanding of pathophysiology of these diseases and application of each of the effective modalities available for cutaneous lymphoma including radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. In Section III, Dr. Francine Foss concludes the session with a discussion of the different T-cell lymphomas that start in or spread to the skin concentrating on mycosis fungoides, cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. She includes comments on the newer anti-T-cell chemo- and immuno-therapeutics focusing on agents and techniques specific for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. PMID:12446427

  4. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin absorption coefficient of human skin of various pigmentation and races will be presented.

  5. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  6. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  7. Flap Necrosis after Palatoplasty in Patients with Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Palatal necrosis after palatoplasty in patients with cleft palate is a rare but significant problem encountered by any cleft surgeon. Few studies have addressed this disastrous complication and the prevalence of this problem remains unknown. Failure of a palatal flap may be attributed to different factors like kinking or section of the pedicle, anatomical variations, tension, vascular thrombosis, type of cleft, used surgical technique, surgeon's experience, infection, and malnutrition. Palatal flap necrosis can be prevented through identification of the risk factors and a careful surgical planning should be done before any palatoplasty. Management of severe fistulas observed as a consequence of palatal flap necrosis is a big challenge for any cleft surgeon. Different techniques as facial artery flaps, tongue flaps, and microvascular flaps have been described with this purpose. This review article discusses the current status of this serious complication in patients with cleft palate. PMID:26273624

  8. Chemical regulation of signaling pathways to programmed necrosis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji Hyun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Young Sik

    2014-06-01

    Necroptosis is an active and well-orchestrated necrosis, distinctive from apoptosis in microscopic structure, and biochemical and molecular features. Unlike apoptosis-undergoing cells, which are removed by macrophage or neighboring cells, necrotic cell death releases danger signals and provokes inflammation, and further a severe damage to neighbor tissue. A regulated necrosis, termed as necroptosis or programmed necrosis, is emerging as a new paradigm of cell death that can be activated when apoptotic machinery is genetically or pathogenically defective. It plays biological significances in pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory diseases as well as in a beneficial innate immune defense mechanism. This review highlights the identification of hits against necroptosis, and comprehensive approaches to discovery of small molecules that regulate necroptotic cell death. Also, the signaling molecular mechanism of necroptosis and future clinical uses of necroptosis inhibitor will be described in brief. PMID:24715577

  9. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ... Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair ...

  10. A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Bressler, V.

    1963-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious pancreatic necrosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) has been experimentally authenticated for the first time in the western United States. The cutthroat trout represents a new host. Brook trout fin tissue culture inoculated with bacteria-free filtrate from the diseased fish tissue showed marked degenerative changes after 24 hours. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), kokanee (O. nerka), and silver salmon (O. kisutch) were not susceptible to the virus when inoculated. Histologically, extensive pancreatic necrosis was observed in the original and experimental materials, but striated muscle hyalinization was detected only in the original material.

  11. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

    2013-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as "black esophagus" or "acute necrotizing esophagitis", is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

  12. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

    2013-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as black esophagus or acute necrotizing esophagitis, is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

  13. [Skin diseases with photosensitivity].

    PubMed

    Amblard, P; Leccia, M T

    1992-06-01

    Skin diseases associated with photosensitivity are numerous and may be divided into three main groups: photo-aggravated dermatoses, genophotodermatoses and metabolic photodermatoses. Photo-aggravated dermatoses are autonomous skin diseases in which exposure to sunlight may make the disease worse or precipitate its onset and/or its progressiveness; this group includes lupus erythematosus, autoimmune bullous diseases, acantolytic dyskeratoses, acne vulgaris, rosacea and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. To these must be added photosensitive forms of autonomous dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, herpes labialis, erythema multiforme, granuloma and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Genophotodermatoses are genodermatoses which are made photosensitive by a recognized or as yet unidentified deficiency of the natural photoprotection system. In this group are albinism, vitiligo, xeroderma pigmentosum and poikiloderma. Metabolic photodermatoses are diseases in which photosensitization reactions, often revealing, are due to the accumulation in the skin of an endogenous chromophore as a result of a congenital (porphyria) or acquired (pellagra) enzymatic disorder. PMID:1529248

  14. Transparent active skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Yong; An, Kuang Jun; Kang, Junmo; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Toan, Nguyen Canh; Kim, Baek Chul; Chung, Jin Ah; Hong, Byung Hee; Choi, Jaeboong; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a transparent and stretchable dielectric elastomer actuator(DEA). The device, called "active skin" is under development as a new means of human interfaces. The active skin consists of elastomeric films sandwiched between compliant patterned electrodes. Thus, depending on the properties of the elastomer or electrodes, it is possible to realize a wide variety of implementations as transducers. As a critical issue of the transparent active skin, transparency in the electrode including that of the substrate is challenging, which has not been solved yet. In this paper, a compliant, transparent and highly conductive electrode layer on the elastomeric film by using graphene is presented. The fabrication method of graphene electrodes dedicated to the elastomeric materials is addressed and its compatibility to the existing materials is discussed. Also, preliminary implementations on the embossed actuator are given to validate the proposed idea.

  15. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  16. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  17. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  18. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  19. [Radiotherapy and skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Calitchi, E; Kirova, Y; Le Bourgeois, J P

    1998-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilovoltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi's sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. PMID:9868400

  20. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  1. Full-thickness skin avulsion of right leg following car accident trauma.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad Zaghi

    2008-05-15

    The report presents a 24 year-old man who admitted at the orthopedic center with full-thickness skin avulsion of the right leg, due to his leg being caught under the wheel of a truck and subsequently traumatized. The day after injury, plastic and reconstructive surgery consult was done. After thoroughly irrigation, the 20 cm laceration was repaired above the knee. There was full-thickness skin necrosis below the knee down to the dorsal surface of the right leg (atypical form of skin avulsion). Debridment and graft was performed for the first stage. During the second stage, re-grafting was performed and the gasterocnemious flap was transposed to cover the Tibia bone. This study confirms early Plastic and reconstructive surgery consult from the trauma of lower extremities associated with skin lesion. PMID:18817278

  2. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  3. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  4. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  5. [Results of myocutaneous flap for extensive skin defect in the external genitalia].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, A; Okaneya, T; Hirabayashi, N; Sakai, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Ishizuka, O; Muraishi, O

    1991-03-01

    We reviewed 12 patients who underwent myocutaneous flap plasties to reconstruct the genital skin. The patients included 9 who underwent a radical excision of malignant tumor involving the genital, inguinal or sacral skin, 1 with an extensive radiation ulcer of the genitalia and 2 with an ulcerating cancer of the scrotum or groin. In the latter 2 patients the plasty was intended to cover an unresectable ulcerating cancer. A gracilis myocutaneous flap was used in 10 patients, and a tensor fascia lata myocutaneous flap in 2 patients. Postoperatively, partial or total necrosis of the skin of the flap developed in 8 patients. In 4 of these, infection complicated the necrosis. Although debridement, resuture or free skin transplantation was needed in these patients, wound healing was ultimately achieved in 10 patients who underwent radical excision of malignant tumor or radiation ulcer. In contrast, the intended coverage of an unresectable ulcerating cancer was unsuccessful in two other patients. No patients had motor disturbance after wound healing. However, one patient developed stricture of the urethra and vagina which had been opened through the flap, and another patient complained of gait disturbance and difficult defecation because of an swelling of the flap around the anus. Incision or excision was required to relieve the complaints in these 2 patients. These results indicate that a myocutaneous flap is useful to cover an extensive skin defect of the genitalia, but may be accompanied by postoperative complications particularly before wound healing. Appropriate management is necessary to achieve the intended reconstruction. PMID:2072604

  6. Stress-induced changes in skin barrier function in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Altemus, M; Rao, B; Dhabhar, F S; Ding, W; Granstein, R D

    2001-08-01

    Despite clear exacerbation of several skin disorders by stress, the effect of psychologic or exertional stress on human skin has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of three different stressors, psychologic interview stress, sleep deprivation, and exercise, on several dermatologic measures: transepidermal water loss, recovery of skin barrier function after tape stripping, and stratum corneum water content (skin conductance). We simultaneously measured the effects of stress on plasma levels of several stress-response hormones and cytokines, natural killer cell activity, and absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes. Twenty-five women participated in a laboratory psychologic interview stress, 11 women participated in one night of sleep deprivation, and 10 women participated in a 3 d exercise protocol. The interview stress caused a delay in the recovery of skin barrier function, as well as increases in plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and an increase in circulating natural killer cell activity and natural killer cell number. Sleep deprivation also decreased skin barrier function recovery and increased plasma interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and natural killer cell activity. The exercise stress did not affect skin barrier function recovery, but caused an increase in natural killer cell activity and circulating numbers of both cytolytic T lymphocytes and helper T cells. In addition, cytokine responses to the interview stress were inversely correlated with changes in barrier function recovery. These results suggest that acute psychosocial and sleep deprivation stress disrupts skin barrier function homeostasis in women, and that this disruption may be related to stress-induced changes in cytokine secretion. PMID:11511309

  7. Skin-to-skin contact. Part two: the evidence.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Health professionals are increasingly recognising that skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby immediately after birth has important and significant health benefits for all babies. UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative has recently increased recommended minimum time spent in skin contact after birth from 30 minutes to one hour. This article looks at recent research into the benefits of skin contact and summarises the findings. PMID:21739738

  8. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  9. Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr. )

    1989-11-01

    We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads.

  10. STABILITY OF INTERNAL HEAT NECROSIS IN TETRAPLOID X DIPLOID POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a severe physiological disorder of tubers, characterized by brown spots that first appear towards the apical end of the tuber parenchyma, although most of the parenchyma tissue is involved in severe cases. 'Atlantic' is the predominant potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) c...

  11. Serratia marcescens Necrotizing Fasciitis Presenting as Bilateral Breast Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Tayyab; Moore, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an extremely rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis. We report the first case of necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall due to infection with S. marcescens that initially manifested as bilateral breast necrosis. The patient had a fulminant course leading to death within 72 h of presentation. Literature pertinent to S. marcescens-mediated necrotizing fasciitis is also reviewed. PMID:22837315

  12. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  13. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  14. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

  15. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that moisturizes. Limit time in the bathtub or shower . A 5- to 10-minute bath or shower adds moisture to the skin. Spending more time ... once a day. Moisturize right after baths and showers . To lock in moisture from a bath or ...

  16. Skin ulcer caused by venous extravasation of heroin.

    PubMed

    Onesti, Maria G; Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Massera, Diego; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolo

    2014-08-01

    The accidental leakage of the compound, in this case heroin, from the veins where it is injected, causes the formation of tissue lesions. Similar mechanisms lead to progressive tissue necrosis, which, if not immediately treated, results in the loss of the relevant function. A 57-year-old man presented a skin lesion on the posterior region of the left forearm with extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous layer involving the underlying muscle planes, caused by a venous extravasation of heroin that he reports having injected himself. The wound size is 15 × 10 cm; it had a sanious, fibrinous, secreting and smelly bottom. In this period, the patient was subjected to daily focused dressing before debridement of the lesion through a collagenase plus hyaluronic acid ointment: Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical, Abano, Italy). The therapeutic choice was rewarded with a complete resolution of the wound through a non-invasive technique and over a short period. Avoiding the hospitalisation of the patient achieved a reduction of risks for him and of the costs for the National Health Service (NHS). The Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical) as well as allowing the healing of the wound also decreased significantly the pain felt by the patient, the amount of exudate and the bad smell improving in a non-negligible way his quality of life. PMID:23107007

  17. Bullous skin reaction seen after extravasation of calcium gluconate.

    PubMed

    Celbek, G; Gungor, A; Albayrak, H; Kir, S; Guvenc, S C; Aydin, Y

    2013-03-01

    Intravenous (IV) calcium is usually given to temporarily treat the effects of hyperkalaemia on muscle and heart. When extravasation of a calcium gluconate infusion occurs, there may be rapid and marked swelling and erythema, with signs of soft-tissue necrosis or infection, and ensuing extensive local calcification, called calcinosis cutis. We report a 26-year-old woman who was hospitalized for exacerbation of acute intermittent porphyria. She had a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure. On the second day of her hospitalization, she developed hyperpotassaemia (6.7 mEq/L potassium; normal range 3.5-5 mEq/L). She was given an IV infusion of 10 mL calcium gluconate into the left dorsal pedal vein. Bullous skin reactions occurred in the infusion area nearly 2 h after administration. The patient's leg was elevated and the lesions cleaned with 0.9% saline. By day 9 of hospitalization, the lesions had markedly regressed. Several drugs have been associated with dermoepidermal blistering as an adverse drug reaction, but there is only one existing report in the literature about this side-effect associated with calcium gluconate. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of bullous skin reactions, which may be a predictor of extravasation and necrosis, when treating patients with IV calcium gluconate. PMID:22830330

  18. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction in patients with macromastia using the Passot breast reduction pattern.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian; Thornton, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate tissue expander reconstruction poses a challenge in the patient with macromastia or excessive ptosis. Skin reduction via the Wise pattern has been described but is associated with high rates of skin necrosis. The study group consisted of 43 women with grade 2 or 3 ptosis who underwent SSM and immediate reconstruction with tissue expanders, using the Passot (horizontal) skin reduction pattern. Age ranged from 31 to 67 years (mean, 51 years). The endpoints measured were time to final expansion, mastectomy skin flap necrosis, infectious complications, and total complications. Thirty reconstructions were bilateral and 13 were unilateral (73 breasts total). Follow-up ranged from 6 to 55 months (mean, 20). Common comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 16), obesity (n = 22), and smoking (n = 9). The mean body mass index was 30.6 (range, 19.4-58.6). Twenty-one patients underwent chemotherapy; 12 received radiation. The mean initial fill was 196 mL (range, 0-420 mL), and the mean time to final expansion was 84 days (range, 28-225 days). Five patients did not complete the reconstruction, 2 because of cancer recurrence and 3 because of infection. There were 3 cases of mastectomy flap necrosis occurring after tissue expander placement (7%). There were 7 infectious complications (16%). The use of a horizontal breast reduction pattern at the time of expander placement produces consistently good esthetic outcomes and a low rate of skin necrosis, and it should be considered as an option in patients with macromastia or ptosis undergoing SSM and immediate reconstruction. PMID:24835873

  19. The Role of the Skin Barrier in Occupational Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Bosco, Joanna; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are the second most common occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is the most frequent OSD, and comprises irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. There are many endogenous and exogenous factors which affect the development of OCD, including age, sex, ethnicity, atopic skin diathesis, certain occupations and environmental factors. One of the most important contributing causes is skin barrier dysfunction. The skin provides a first-line defense from environmental assaults and incorporates physical, chemical and biological protection. Skin barrier disturbance plays a crucial role in various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis, ICD and ACD. Genetic factors, such as filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, and external factors, such as skin irritants interfering with stratum corneum structure and composition, may lead to abnormalities in skin barrier function and increased vulnerability to skin diseases. FLG encodes the cornified envelope protein, filaggrin, which is involved in skin barrier function. FLG mutation is associated with the development of OCD. High-risk occupations for OCD include health care workers, hairdressers and construction workers. There are often multiple contributing causes to OCD, as workers are exposed to both irritants and allergens. AD is also associated with skin barrier disruption and plays an important role in OCD. ICD often precedes and facilitates the development of ACD, with impairment of the skin barrier contributing to the concurrence of ICD and ACD in many workers with OCD. PMID:26844905

  20. The effects of treatment the avascular necrosis of the femoral head with extracorporeal focused shockwave therapy.

    PubMed

    Kusz, Damian; Franek, Andrzej; Wilk, Robert; Dolibog, Paweł; Błaszczak, Edward; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Król, Piotr; Dolibog, Patrycja; Kusz, Błażej

    2012-01-01

    Background.Avascular necrosis of the femoral head continues to represent a major challenge for the orthopaedist and trauma surgeon. A fully effective method of treatment is yet to be introduced. After femoral head collapse, only total hip replacement can help the patient. Our study aims to assess the effects of treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with extra corporeal focused shockwave therapy.Material and methods. A prospective study was carried out in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, ARCO stage I-III, diagnosed by MRI imaging. Shock waves are applied under x-ray guidance. Four points are marked on the skin above the lesion. Each spot receives a dose of 1500 pulses at an energy flux density of 0.4 mJ/mm2 and a frequency of 4 Hz. Each patient undergoes 5 therapy sessions. A posturometric and stabilometric assessment is carried out before and after the therapy. Other examinations include a tensometric evaluation of the strength of the treated limb, and an assessment of pain intensity (VAS scale)and hip function (Harris hip score). Follow-up visits are scheduled at 6 weeks and 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment.Results. Nine patients were treated with shockwave therapy at the Department of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Traumatology, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Silesia, between 5 May 2011 and 1 June 2012. The patients demonstrated pain reduction and improved mobility of the treated joint (VAS score decreasing from 6.75 +/- 0.71 to 2.5 +/- 1.7; Harris hip score increasing from 55.21 +/- 15.45 to 89.21 +/- 8.26). Tensometric platform testing carried out after the treatment revealed a statistically significant difference between mean velocity of the centre of pressure (CoP) movement when walking with eyes open and closed (p<0.05) and mean CoP movement along the x (walking with eyes closed) and y (free standing with eyes closed) axes.Conclusions. 1. Extracorporeal focused shockwave therapy resulted in considerable improvement in the patients' quality of life at 6 weeks' follow-up. 2. At 6 months some patients reported intensified pain and worse hip function. PMID:23208935

  1. A new method for skin color enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  2. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24300178

  3. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  4. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  5. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... may sometimes be mistaken for a suntan. This skin discoloration often develops slowly, starting at the elbows, knuckles, ... care provider for an appointment if you have: Skin discoloration that causes significant concern Persistent, unexplained darkening or ...

  6. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  7. A case of febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease requiring debridement of necrotic skin and epidermal autograft.

    PubMed

    Yanaba, K; Ito, M; Sasaki, H; Inoue, M; Nobeyama, Y; Yonemoto, H; Ishiji, T; Tanaka, H; Kamide, R; Niimura, M

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease (FUMHD) in a 21-year-old man. This disease is a severe form of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA) and is characterized by the sudden onset of diffuse ulcerations associated with high fever and systemic symptoms. It is sometimes lethal especially in elderly patients. In the present case, intense generalized maculopapular erythematous plaques with central necrosis developed progressively in association with a high fever. Initial treatment with systemic betamethasone had been unsuccessful and the skin lesions, which covered about 50% of the body surface, became severely ulcerated. Although the development of new lesions had ceased spontaneously, widespread ulceration of the skin remained. Debridement of the necrotic skin and skin grafting using cultured epidermal autografts and meshed allografts of cadaver skin led to prompt reepithelization. PMID:12452879

  8. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  9. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  10. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  11. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on ... skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous cell carcinoma are confined to the skin and do not ...

  12. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the

  13. Microbial Skin Inhabitants: Friends Forever.

    PubMed

    Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gallo, Richard L; Knight, Rob

    2016-05-01

    To gain insight into the stability of the microbial communities that inhabit our skin, Oh et al., in a tour-de-force effort, map the human skin metagenomes over time. Remarkably, their data indicate that the individual, not the environment, primarily drives the composition of skin microbial communities. PMID:27153488

  14. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  15. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    A skin or mucosal culture may be done along with this test. Other studies are often done on a skin sample to determine if cancer is present. Viral skin lesions like herpes simplex are examined by other tests or a viral culture.

  16. [Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in young adults].

    PubMed

    Vasey, H M

    1984-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a well-defined entity. The underlying diseases originate from very different types of pathological conditions. Alcoholism, cortisone therapy, gout or hyperuricemia, sickle cell anaemia and others all lead, through various pathways, to the impairment of the medullary blood flow. In many instances, a compartment syndrome can be demonstrated in the femoral head. Death of the osteocytes follows bone marrow necrosis. Revascularisation originates in the periphery of the necrotic segment. Vascular buds and fibroblasts invade the medullary space. New bone is laid over the necrotic trabeculae. Mechanical failure results from changes in the bony framework at three different levels. The subchondral boneplate may be weakened by the process of revascularisation, the necrotic trabeculae may fail because of diminished stiffness and strength, and overloading has been demonstrated at the junction between dead and living bone. Elevation of the intramedullary pressure is the first objective sign of impending or established bone necrosis. Scintigraphy with Technetium 99 m - Sulphur colloid can now show the early stages of marrow necrosis. Roentgenographic changes only appear in a later phase of the disease. Aseptic necrosis must be considered as involving both hips, unless proven otherwise. Attention given to the "silent hip" may allow salvage and prevent the occurrence of osteo-arthritic changes leaving merely unilateral disease. As long as the geometrical shape of the femoral head is maintained operation may well prove useful. The aim at this stage is to prevent collapse. It is impossible to know in the early stages whether mechanical failure will occur, but there is general agreement that the femoral head will eventually undergo deformation. A spherical epiphysis is therefore considered a success. All the conservative methods aim to decompress the medullary cavity. Core biopsy, curettage, bone grafting and intertrochanteric osteotomy all have their advocates. After fracture of the subchondral bone plate has occurred, there is evidence that grafts are unable to restore the strength of the necrotic area. Intertrochanteric osteotomy brings under the main load-bearing zone a vital part of the femoral head. Varus osteotomy can be successful if necrosis has spared sufficient of the lateral portion of the head. Rotation osteotomies, as proposed by Sugioka, are more radical and difficult operations. The published results are promising. Revascularisation of the weight-bearing area by pedicle grafts has been attempted, alone or in addition to osteotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6386708

  17. [Skin tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Knam, F; Weyand, B; Stark, G B

    2003-09-01

    Cultivated epithelial autografts as multilayered, thin sheets represent a common standard in clinically applied tissue engineering substitutes, outnumbering all experimental alternatives. However, the unsatisfying short- and long-term results concerning mechanical stability and scarring require alternatives. The cultivation and transplantation of cultured autologous keratinocytes as a single cell suspension in a fibrin matrix, combined with allogenic skin grafting, has been investigated extensively in athymic nude mice. Wounds can be reliably reepithelialized after a cultivation period of only 14 days. Moreover, the successful combination of keratinocyte fibrin suspension and acellular dermis in an attempt to regenerate full thickness skin defects in a pig model has been demonstrated. The usefulness of subconfluently cultured keratinocytes-which can be harvested very early and are easy to handle-is enhanced by cotransplantation with decellularized dermis. PMID:14504791

  18. Newborn skin care.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jonathan A

    2013-02-01

    Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from individual anecdotal experience or cultural tradition, rather than evidence-based or pathomechanistically derived data. While research in this area has historically been limited, it is increasing in scope and volume, and recent work has shed light on the changes experienced by the cutaneous organ during this period of transition. This increased understanding has driven new recommendations in skin care protocols for newborn infants and neonates. PMID:23419756

  19. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  20. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  1. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC. PMID:22557848

  2. Skin care in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patrick D; Hatef, Daniel A; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population. PMID:20676310

  3. Skin changes in menopause.

    PubMed

    Bolognia, J L; Braverman, I M; Rousseau, M E; Sarrel, P M

    1989-12-01

    Skin signs and symptoms were examined in 46 menopausal women prior to estrogen replacement therapy. Several symptoms such as pruritus, bruising, dryness and thinning were seen more frequently in sun-exposed skin emphasizing the contribution of photoaging. At the end of a 6-mth treatment period, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence or severity of the cutaneous signs and symptoms when patients receiving transdermal 17 beta-estradiol (Estraderm) were compared with controls (the only exception was cutaneous flushing). Elastic fibers from sun-protected (buttock) skin of menopausal women were studied by light and electron microscopy. In 3 women (ages 30-37) with a history of premature menopause, the elastic fibers had several degenerative changes including coalescence of cystic spaces into lacunae, peripheral fragmentation, granular degeneration and splitting of the fibers into strands. Similar age-related ultrastructural changes are normally found in individuals that are at least 20 yrs older than these patients. These findings are suggestive of a relationship between premature aging of the dermal elastic fibers and estrogen deprivation. PMID:2693917

  4. [APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS OF CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WHILE HIGH RISK OF POSTOPERAIVE PERITONITIS OCCURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Sheyko, V D; Sytnik, D A; Shkurupiy, O O

    2015-11-01

    Processes of apoptosis and necrosis of peripheral neutrophils were investigated in 43 patients, operated on for an acute abdominal organs diseases on the first and fourth postoperative days. Changes of apoptosis and necrosis processes in peripheral neutrophils in dynamics were established. Unfavorable course of early postoperative period in patients with initial high and average risk of postoperative peritonitis occurrence was accompanied by shift in necrosis/apoptosis ratio towards necrosis of peripheral neutrophils. PMID:26939426

  5. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro- a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Claudia; Brenner, Christiane; Habicht, Jüri; Wallich, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The promise of mesotherapy is maintenance and/or recovery of a youthful skin with a firm, bright and moisturized texture. Currently applied medications employ microinjections of hyaluronic acid, vitamins, minerals and amino acids into the superficial layer of the skin. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying mesotherapy are still elusive. Here we analysed the effect of five distinct medication formulas on pivotal parameters involved in skin ageing, that is collagen expression, cell proliferation and morphological changes using normal human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Whereas in the presence of hyaluronic acid, NCTF135(®) and NCTF135HA(®) , cell proliferation was comparable to control cultures; however, with higher expression of collagen type-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, addition of Soluvit(®) N and Meso-BK led to apoptosis and/or necrosis of human fibroblasts. The data indicate that bioactive reagents currently applied for skin rejuvenation elicit strikingly divergent physiological processes in human skin fibroblast in vitro. PMID:22151394

  6. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  7. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  8. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

  9. Carrot yellow leaf virus is associated with carrot internal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ian P; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  10. Autophagy protects C. elegans against necrosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Dai, Li-Li; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-08-26

    Autophagy, a conserved pathway that delivers intracellular materials into lysosomes for degradation, is involved in development, aging, and a variety of diseases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays a protective role against infectious diseases by diminishing intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is involved in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. P. aeruginosa infection induces autophagy via a conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Intriguingly, impairment of autophagy does not influence the intestinal accumulation of P. aeruginosa, but instead induces intestinal necrosis. Inhibition of necrosis results in the survival of autophagy-deficient worms after P. aeruginosa infection. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role for autophagy in protection against necrosis triggered by pathogenic bacteria in C. elegans and implicate that such a function of autophagy may be conserved through the inflammatory response in diverse organisms. PMID:25114220

  11. Cation dyshomeostasis and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the Fleckenstein hypothesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Brian J.; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing loss of cardiomyocytes to apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways contributes to the progressive nature of heart failure. The pathophysiological origins of necrotic cell loss relate to the neurohormonal activation that accompanies acute and chronic stressor states and which includes effector hormones of the adrenergic nervous system. Fifty years ago, Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers hypothesized the hyperadrenergic state, which accompanies such stressors, causes cardiomyocyte necrosis based on catecholamine-initiated excessive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation (EICA), and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading in particular, in which the ensuing dysfunction and structural degeneration of these organelles leads to necrosis. In recent years, two downstream factors have been identified which, together with EICA, constitute a signal–transducer–effector pathway: (i) mitochondria-based induction of oxidative stress, in which the rate of reactive oxygen metabolite generation exceeds their rate of detoxification by endogenous antioxidant defences; and (ii) the opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) followed by organellar swelling and degeneration. The pathogenesis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes is likely related to this pathway. Other factors which can account for cytotoxicity in stressor states include: hypokalaemia; ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia with resultant elevations in parathyroid hormone serving as a potent mediator of EICA; and hypozincaemia with hyposelenaemia, which compromise antioxidant defences. Herein, we revisit the Fleckenstein hypothesis of EICA in leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and the central role played by mitochondria. PMID:21398641

  12. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  13. Fish DNA vaccine against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: efficacy of various routes of immunization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corbeil, Serge; Kurath, Gael; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2000-01-01

    The DNA vaccine, pIHNVw-G, contains the gene for the glycoprotein (G) of the rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a major pathogen of salmon and trout. The relative efficacy of various routes of immunisation with pIHNVw-G was evaluated using 1.8 g rainbow trout fry vaccinated via intramuscular injection, scarification of the skin, intraperitoneal injection, intrabuccal administration, cutaneous particle bombardment using a gene gun, or immersion in water containing DNA vaccine-coated beads. Twenty-seven days after vaccination neutralising antibody titres were determined, and 2 days later groups of vaccinated and control unvaccinated fish were subjected to an IHNV immersion challenge. Results of the virus challenge showed that the intramuscular injection and the gene gun immunisation induced protective immunity in fry, while intraperitoneal injection provided partial protection. Neutralising antibodies were not detected in sera of vaccinated fish regardless of the route of immunisation used, suggesting that cell mediated immunity may be at least partially responsible for the observed protection.

  14. A Case of Sarcoidosis Associated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Baha, Ayse; Hanazay, Cigdem; Kokturk, Nurdan; Turktas, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves the lungs but can affect many organs or tissues in the body, such as the lymphatic system, skin, eyes, and liver. Typical histopathological lesions are noncaseating granulomas in the affected organ or tissue. Indications, type of treatment, and duration of sarcoidosis treatment is currently debated. Despite studies showing that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment can successfully be used in refractory sarcoidosis, there are some case reports regarding the development of sarcoidosis with these agents. There have been reports of 47 anti-TNF-associated cases of sarcoidosis until 2012. The patient is a 54-year-old Caucasian male. During routine examinations of the patient who had been followed for psoriasis vulgaris for 20 years and who had been on several anti-TNF regimens thereafter, new pulmonary pathologies due to sarcoidosis were detected. We present here a case of sarcoidosis that developed after infliximab treatment and showed obvious radiologic regression with discontinuation of treatment. During anti-TNF treatment, it should be kept in mind that autoimmune and granulomatous diseases may develop and particular care should be given to patient follow-ups. PMID:26425632

  15. A Case of Sarcoidosis Associated With Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanazay, Cigdem; Kokturk, Nurdan; Turktas, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves the lungs but can affect many organs or tissues in the body, such as the lymphatic system, skin, eyes, and liver. Typical histopathological lesions are noncaseating granulomas in the affected organ or tissue. Indications, type of treatment, and duration of sarcoidosis treatment is currently debated. Despite studies showing that anti–tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment can successfully be used in refractory sarcoidosis, there are some case reports regarding the development of sarcoidosis with these agents. There have been reports of 47 anti-TNF-associated cases of sarcoidosis until 2012. The patient is a 54-year-old Caucasian male. During routine examinations of the patient who had been followed for psoriasis vulgaris for 20 years and who had been on several anti-TNF regimens thereafter, new pulmonary pathologies due to sarcoidosis were detected. We present here a case of sarcoidosis that developed after infliximab treatment and showed obvious radiologic regression with discontinuation of treatment. During anti-TNF treatment, it should be kept in mind that autoimmune and granulomatous diseases may develop and particular care should be given to patient follow-ups. PMID:26425632

  16. Comparative Genomic Profiling of Synovium Versus Skin Lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Belasco, Jennifer; Louie, James S; Gulati, Nicholas; Wei, Nathan; Nograles, Kristine; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Krueger, James G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To our knowledge, there is no broad genomic analysis comparing skin and synovium in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Also, there is little understanding of the relative levels of cytokines and chemokines in skin and synovium. The purpose of this study was to better define inflammatory pathways in paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue in patients with PsA. Methods We conducted a comprehensive analysis of cytokine and chemokine activation and genes representative of the inflammatory processes in PsA. Paired PsA synovial tissue and skin samples were obtained from 12 patients on the same day. Gene expression studies were performed using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Confirmatory quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on selected transcripts. Cell populations were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results Globally, gene expression in PsA synovium was more closely related to gene expression in PsA skin than to gene expression in synovium in other forms of arthritis. However, PsA gene expression patterns in skin and synovium were clearly distinct, showing a stronger interleukin-17 (IL-17) gene signature in skin than in synovium and more equivalent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-? gene signatures in both tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive molecular comparison of paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue samples in PsA. Our results support clinical trial data showing that PsA skin and joint disease are similarly responsive to TNF antagonists, while IL-17 antagonists have better results in PsA skin than in PsA joints. Genes selectively expressed in PsA synovium might direct future therapies for PsA. PMID:25512250

  17. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  18. Simplified technique without skin flap for the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA®) implant

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, R

    2008-01-01

    Summary Aim of this report is to present a new surgical technique for the BAHA® system implant and to discuss the operational techniques and complications related to this type of surgery. The common technique for the positioning of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA®, Cochlear Limited, Englewood, CO, USA) titanium implant into the temporal bone is based on the use of either a free or a pedunculated skin flap. Reported complications of this type of surgery include skin flap necrosis with healing by second intention, infection of the flap, skin growth over the abutment, failure of osseointegration and implant extrusion. In order to reduce the incidence of these problems, different types of surgery have already been presented over the years. Herewith, a new technique is proposed for implanting a BAHA® screw in the temporal bone, that is simple, rapid to perform, and does not require the use of a flap. This technique appears to offer two main advantages: i) the speeding up of the procedure; ii) the low risk of complications, such as infection and necrosis, within the skin surrounding the implant. PMID:19186455

  19. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established. PMID:27225207

  20. The intriguing biology of the tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily: players, rules and the games

    PubMed Central

    Hehlgans, Thomas; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)/tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily are critically involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the immune system. The biological functions of this system encompass beneficial and protective effects in inflammation and host defence as well as a crucial role in organogenesis. At the same time, members of this superfamily are responsible for host damaging effects in sepsis, cachexia, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent progress in the immunbiology of the TNF/TNFR superfamily focusing on results obtained from animal studies using gene targeted mice. The different modes of signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune organ development as well as host defence are reviewed. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that demonstrate a therapeutic potential by targeting individual receptors or ligands for the treatment of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases are discussed. PMID:15819693

  1. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. PMID:21570537

  2. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  3. Exploring Theranostic Potentials of Radioiodinated Hypericin in Rodent Necrosis Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Yu, Jie; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present animal experiments were conducted to evaluate radioiodinated Hypericin (Hyp) for its regional distribution as well as theranostic potentials. Materials and Methods: Rat models of reperfused liver infarction (RLI) and hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) were surgically induced. R1 models received Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) intravenously at 10 mg/kg 24 h prior to radioiodinated Hyp. Three groups of 6 rats each containing 3 RLI and 3 R1 models received iv injections of 123I-Hyp at 37, 74, and 185 MBq/kg respectively and followed by 0.1 ml of 1% Evans blue solution were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 48 hour post injection immediately after in vivo examination of MRI and planar gamma scintigraphy. Besides, two groups of 6 R1 models that received either 300 MBq/kg of 131I-Hyp or vehicle intravenously were examined using MRI to compare tumor growth for 12 days. Autoradiography, gamma counting, and histopathology were performed for postmortem verifications and quantification. Results: Necrosis as seen in vivo on contrast-enhanced MRI corresponded well with the hot spots on planar scintigraphy. Autoradiography and gamma counting revealed intense accumulation of 123I-Hyp in necrotic liver (3.94 ± 1.60, 5.38 ± 1.04, and 6.03 ± 2.09 %ID/g ± SD) and necrotic tumor (4.27 ± 0.76, 5.57 ± 0.76, and 5.68 ± 1.33 %ID/g ± SD) relative to normal liver (1.76 ± 0.54, 0.41 ± 0.18, and 0.16 ± 0.07 %ID/g ± SD), with a high necrosis-to-liver ratio of 2.3, 14.0, and 37.0 at 4, 24 and 48 h respectively. Tumor volumes in R1 models that received 131I-Hyp and vehicle changed from 0.45 ± 0.09, and 0.47 ± 0.12 cm3 (p > 0.05) on day 0 to1.32 ± 0.76 and 3.63 ± 0.72 cm3 (p < 0.001) on day 12, with the corresponding necrosis ratios from 73 ± 12 %, and 76 ± 17 % to 47 ± 18% and 17 ± 13 % (p < 0.01), and with the tumor DT of 7.3 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Radioiodinated Hyp as a necrosis avid tracer appears promising for non-invasive imaging diagnosis of necrosis-related pathologies. Its prominent targetability to necrosis allows targeted radiotherapy for malignancies on top of a prior necrosis-inducing treatment. PMID:23139728

  4. Identification of dirty necrosis in colorectal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianhuang; Jiang, Weizhong; Yang, Yinghong; Chen, Zhifen; Feng, Changyin; Li, Hongsheng; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-06-01

    Dirty necrosis within glandular lumina is often considered as a characteristic of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that is a diagnostically useful feature of CRCs with DNA microsatellite instability (MSI). Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is based on the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence signals, was used to identify dirty necrosis. Our results demonstrated that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of dirty necrosis and the signal intensity as well as an emission spectrum that can help to differentiate dirty necrosis from cancer cells. These findings indicate that MPM may be helpful in distinguishing MSI colorectal carcinoma via the identification of dirty necrosis.

  5. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  6. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Miller, Naomi R; Harland, Christopher C; Bamber, Jeffrey C

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion. PMID:24343434

  7. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  8. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  9. Shedding skin and tears.

    PubMed

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear. PMID:17718352

  10. Cannabis and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Anaïs

    2011-01-01

    From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients. PMID:21282088

  11. Simulated human skin scales

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Julienne; Brighton, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Human skin scales which have been shed naturally bear a flora of microorganisms which is unknown until tested. To replace these scales in a study of the micro-environment of both the human body and of models a method has been devised of making synthetic scales which behave both physically and aerodynamically in a similar way to the natural material. The synthetic materials carry no natural flora and it is possible to include in them test markers of several kinds to assist in identification after dispersion. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4506999

  12. Adverse drug reactions and organ damage: The skin.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Angelo V; Borghi, Alessandro; Cugno, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are frequent, affecting 2-3% of hospitalized patients and in one twentieth of them are potentially life-threatening. Almost any pharmacologic agent can induce skin reactions, and certain drug classes, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antiepileptics, have drug eruption rates ranging from 1% to 5%. Cutaneous drug reactions recognize several different pathomechanisms: some skin manifestations are immune-mediated like allergic reactions while others are the result of non immunological causes such as cumulative toxicity, photosensitivity, interaction with other drugs or different metabolic pathways. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be classified into two groups: common non-severe and rare life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Non-severe reactions are often exanthematous or urticarial whereas life-threatening reactions typically present with skin detachment or necrosis of large areas of the body and mucous membrane involvement, as in the Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the signs and symptoms of all cutaneous adverse drug reactions thought to be due to drugs and immediately discontinue drugs that are not essential. Short cycles of systemic corticosteroids in combination with antihistamines may be necessary for widespread exanthematous rashes, while more aggressive corticosteroid regimens or intravenous immunoglobulins associated with supportive treatment should be used for patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. PMID:26674736

  13. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  14. Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries. PMID:23162239

  15. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  16. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  17. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  18. Chronology of healing events in pulsed CO2 laser skin resurfacing in fuzzy rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.; Nolan, Kathy

    1998-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative histopathologic procedures were used to study the chronology of healing and mechanism(s) of wrinkle removal using pulsed CO2 laser irradiation. Lesions placed on 'Fuzzy' rat skin were examined pathologically at 0, 2 and 10 days and 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Re-epithelialization began before 2 days and was complete by 10 days. Lethal thermal damage of the epidermis and superficial dermis led to necrosis and slough of the necrotic tissue. Fibrous dermal scar formation was well established at 10 days and, over the next 10 weeks the scar matured and contracted. The proposed mechanisms of wrinkle removal are (1) lethal thermal damage to the upper layers of the skin, (2) slough of the necrotic tissue and (3) re-epithelialization and (4) fibrous scar formation producing a smooth skin surface.

  19. Measuring skin while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

    1995-12-31

    A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

  20. [Skin engineering for burns treatment].

    PubMed

    Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Eric; Thepenier, Cédrix; Prat, Marie; Leclerc, Thomas; Bargues, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Severely burned patients need effective and permanent wound coverage. The outcome of massive burn injuries has improved with the use of cultured epithelial autografts (CEA), despite their fragility, frequent failure to take, high cost and long-term tendency to contract. Combining CEA with dermal substitutes provides earlier skin closure and satisfactory functional results. Another promising line of research is skin regeneration with epidermal stem cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair, and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells have been evaluated in radiation-induced skin damage. PMID:22043629

  1. Lipid oxidation in the skin.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and exerts several physiological functions such as a protective barrier against moisture loss and noxious agents including ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidation of skin may impair such functions and induce skin disorders including photoaging and skin cancer. Skin surface lipids, a mixture of sebaceous and epidermal lipids, have unique species and fatty acid profile. The major unsaturated lipids are squalene, sebaleic aicd, linoleic acid, and cholesterol. Singlet oxygen and ozone as well as free radicals and enzymes are important oxidants for skin lipids. Squalene is the major target for singlet oxygen, giving rise to twelve regio-isomeric squalene hydroperoxides. Ultraviolet radiation activates lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, inducing specific enzymatic oxidation of lipids. Free radical mediated lipid peroxidation gives multiple oxidation products. Lipid oxidation products produced by these mechanisms are observed in human skin and induce various skin diseases, but in contrast to plasma and other tissues, identification and quantitative measurement of lipid oxidation products in skin are scarce and should be the subjects of future studies. PMID:25312699

  2. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  3. Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

    2006-01-01

    The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

  4. Fernblock, a nutriceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin. PMID:22272084

  5. Trophic Skin Ulceration of Leprosy: Skin and Serum Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Oon, Beng Bee; Khong, Kit Yew; Greaves, Malcolm W.; Plummer, Valerie M.

    1974-01-01

    Skin and serum zinc measurements have been made in patients with leprosy with and without trophic skin ulceration and in several other groups. Serum zinc concentrations were decreased in leprosy irrespective of the presence or absence of skin ulceration. Serum zinc concentrations in leprosy were also unrelated to smears positive for Mycobacterium leprae and to the clinical type of leprosy. Since a decrease of the serum zinc was also found in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and pulmonary tuberculosis it seems likely that the decreased serum zinc in leprosy is a nonspecific metabolic consequence of chronic skin and internal disease. The mean skin zinc concentration in leprosy did not differ significantly from the corresponding value in control subjects, the lack of agreement between serum and skin concentrations being possibly related to the presence of nonexchangeable keratin-bound zinc in skin. Though the clinical significance of lowered serum zinc concentrations in leprosy is uncertain therapeutic trials of zinc treatment in leprosy with trophic skin ulceration seem justifiable. PMID:4601207

  6. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production. PMID:18274396

  7. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

  8. Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

  9. Nitrate patch prevents steroid-related bone necrosis.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Wolf; Beckmann, Rainer; Kasch, Richard; Pufe, Melanie; Knobe, Matthias; Kweider, Nisreen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Tingart, Markus; Pufe, Thomas; Kadyrov, Mahmed

    2011-10-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a common complication with disabling effect for young patients after high-dose corticosteroid treatment. We could show that steroids have a vasoconstrictive effect on lateral epiphyseal arteries of the femoral head which could lead to ischemia and subsequent necrosis. In this study we investigated the preventive effect of a nitrate patch on steroid-related bone necrosis in a rabbit model. New Zealand White rabbits (male; 3-4.5 kg bodyweight) were injected with 20 mg/kg bodyweight methylprednisolone (GC group; n = 6). Control animals (n = 6) were treated with phosphate-buffered saline. A third group (GC + N; n = 6) additionally received a nitrate patch (0.675 mg/day). Four weeks after i.m. methylprednisolone injection the animals were sacrificed. For histology and immunohistochemistry, tissue samples were fixed in 3% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, dewaxed, and stained with Ladewig. For quantification of empty lacunae, a histologic sign of FHN, histomorphometry was performed. Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase of empty lacunae in glucocorticoid-treated animals compared to controls and GC + N-treated animals. No significant difference in empty lacunae count was detected between the GC + N group and controls. HE staining revealed the different osteocyte amount in the GC versus GC and nitrate patch-treated groups. This study demonstrates an increased number of empty osteocyte lacunae representing a pathologic feature of osteonecrosis, in the GC group. Less empty lacunae were counted in the GC animals after additional treatment with a nitrate patch. This finding suggests that nitrate co-treatment has the potential to prevent steroid-associated FHN. PMID:21469180

  10. Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J. P. W.; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H.; Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A.

    1962-01-01

    A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio. In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability. Images PMID:14449812

  11. Cocaine hepatotoxicity: a study on the pathogenesis of periportal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Powell, C J; Charles, S J; Mullervy, J

    1994-12-01

    Cocaine is reported to produce either periportal or mid-zonal necrosis in mice pretreated with the enzyme inducer phenobarbitone (James et al. 1987; Powell et al. 1991; Charles & Powell 1992). Dose-response and time course experiments were performed in phenobarbitone treated male DBA/2Ha mice to study the pathogenesis of this unusual cocaine induced lesion. An increase in the dose of cocaine from 60 to 90 or 120 mg/kg produced more extensive and severe periportal and linking portal damage and elevated plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in a dose dependent manner. Scattered hepatocyte degeneration began at the edge of the periportal region and was detectable by electron microscopy within 30 minutes of administration of 60 mg/kg of cocaine, with conspicuous disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum being one of the earliest changes. Significant elevations of plasma AST and ALT were observed 3 hours after cocaine administration and were sustained for 12 hours, at which time progressive hepatocyte damage had developed into a network of confluent necrosis at the periphery of the periportal region. The rapidity of organelle derangement and subsequent cell death, and absence of any effect on total cytochrome P-450 or FAD-mono-oxygenase levels, appear to distinguish this periportal lesion from previous reports of cocaine induced centrilobular necrosis in non-enzyme induced mice, suggesting that the two types of damage may develop by different mechanisms. The observation that periportal lesions commence at the periphery of the periportal area, progressing portalwards with increasing dose and time, offers an explanation for the previously conflicting reports of cocaine induced mid-zonal and/or periportal lesions in phenobarbitone treated mice. PMID:7734331

  12. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula; Burger, Dieter; Langer, Mathias; Timme-Bronsert, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Seemann, Wolfgang-Schultze

    2015-01-01

    Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG) can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence. PMID:26793538

  13. Calcified myocardial necrosis in pediatric patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Stenzel, Werner; Martin, Hubert; Heppner, Frank L; Guddat, Saskia S; Tsokos, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report three autopsy cases of wide-spread myocardial necrosis with calcification in pediatric patients after temporary generalized hypoxia and initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but subsequent in-hospital death. Autopsy and histological workup in all three cases showed multiple circumscribed calcified and necrotic areas in progressive stages of organization within the myocardium. We conclude that these macro- and microscopic autopsy features appear to be related to reperfusion injuries in children as a consequence of hypoxic-ischemic changes occurring in the peri- and postresuscitation period. PMID:23264200

  14. Identification of brain tissue necrosis by MRI: validation by histomorphometry.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Michael; Blau, Cornelia; Reinl, Herbert; Breidt, Jrg; Gersonde, Klaus; Baethmann, Alexander; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2004-06-01

    The volume of an experimental necrotic lesion of the cortex expands up to 400% of its initial size within the first 24 h after the insult. Lesion expansion, a clinically well known phenomenon, is often accompanied by perifocal brain edema and consequently difficult to image and to analyze by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore we aimed to validate a T(2)-weighted spin echo sequence upon its ability to distinguish necrotic from edematous brain tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per group) were subjected to a cortical freezing lesion leading to immediate tissue necrosis with subsequent perifocal vasogenic brain edema. Immediately and 4, 12, and 24 h after the lesion the maximal area of necrosis was quantified longitudinally by coronal T(2)-weighted spin echo MRI-scans. After the last scan, animals were sacrificed for direct comparison of the lesion area obtained by MRI and histomorphometry. In parallel groups of animals, lesion expansion was quantified by histology. The acquired T(2)-maps clearly distinguish the cortical necrosis from perifocal edema and healthy brain. Focal freezing led to a cortical lesion of 5.24 +/- 0.36 mm(2) immediately after trauma (0 h; 100%) which expanded progressively to a maximum of 6.82 +/- 0.34 mm(2) after 24 h (131%; *p < 0.01 vs. 0 h). Lesion expansion quantified by histology was almost identical (132% within 24 h). Histological assessment resulted in smaller absolute lesion areas compared to MRI, most likely due to shrinking during tissue processing (4.72 +/- 0.26 mm(2) vs. 6.82 +/- 0.34 mm(2), p < 0.01). The current study shows that necrotic brain tissue can be distinguished from surrounding brain edema by T(2)-mapping. The technique is sensitive enough to detect small changes in necrosis expansion in vivo as validated by histology. The presented technique may be a useful future tool for the non-invasive identification of necrotic brain tissue following brain injury (e. g., from trauma or ischemia). PMID:15253801

  15. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Genevay, Muriel; Abrassart, Sophie; Schwitzguébel, Adrien Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described. PMID:26380138

  16. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors – state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawińska, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

  17. Renal papillary necrosis following emergency department treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Witting, M D

    1996-01-01

    New medications have lessened the need for narcotic medications in the acute treatment of migraine. Some of these new medications include parenteral dihydroergotamine (DHE), sumatriptan, and ketorolac. Treatment failures still occur, though, and some cases necessitate adding a second agent to one that has been ineffective. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who suffered renal papillary necrosis 12 days after receiving parenteral DHE, sumatriptan, and ketorolac for treatment of a severe migraine headache. There were no signs of an adverse drug reaction at the time of his emergency department visit. The case illustrates a potential hazard of this combination in the acute treatment of migraine. PMID:8782036

  18. Emerging concepts in the management of acute retinal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert William; Jumper, J Michael; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Fu, Arthur; Lujan, Brandon J; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2013-05-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), also known as Kirisawa-type uveitis, is an uncommon condition caused by infection of the retina by one of the herpes family of viruses, most typically varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus and less commonly cytomegalovirus. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging and is often aided by PCR-based analysis of ocular fluids. Treatment typically involves extended use of one or more antiviral agents. Long term retinal detachment risk is high. We review the literature on ARN and present an approach to the diagnosis and management of this serious condition. PMID:23235944

  19. Using temperature of pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin to detect deep tissue injury: an observational, retrospective, correlational study.

    PubMed

    Farid, Karen J; Winkelman, Chris; Rizkala, Adel; Jones, Katherine

    2012-08-01

    Pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin (PRIDAS) are generally described as an area of nonblanching erythema (Stage I pressure ulcer) or deep tissue injury (DTI), but the validity of these definitions has not been tested. Preclinical studies and forensic observations have shown that skin temperature may help identify nonviable tissue. To investigate the effect of temperature difference between a PRIDAS and its adjacent intact skin and the subsequent development of skin necrosis, an observational, retrospective, correlational study was conducted. Data from all acute care hospital patients with an observed PRIDAS who received a skin integrity consult, including a skin temperature measurement of a PRIDAS site, were abstracted to ascertain if PRIDAS temperature correlated with the development of skin necrosis after 7 to 14 days and to examine the effect of additional patient variables on the progression or resolution of a PRIDAS. Skin temperatures were measured using a commercial, hand-held, infrared thermography camera, and the presence or absence of capillary refill was documented. Among the 85 patients studied, the difference between PRIDAS temperature and adjacent skin ranged from -3.2 ̊ C. to +3.0 ̊C. Of the 55 PRIDAS with a lower temperature at baseline than adjacent skin ("cool", average -1.2 ̊ C), 29 progressed to necrosis, compared to one of 30 PRIDAS with a higher temperature than adjacent skin ("warm", average + 1.2 ̊ C) (P <0.001). After adjusting for patient age, skin color, and PRIDAS site, the cool PRIDAS were 31.8 times more likely to progress to necrosis than the warm PRIDAS. Combining the presence/absence of capillary refill and PRIDAS temperature, 0% of 26 patients with signs of blanching and a warm PRIDAS versus 65% of 26 patients with a nonblanching and cool PRIDAS developed skin necrosis (P <0.001, Fisher exact test for the difference between the two combined values). Research examining the delayed appearance of DTI and large, multicenter, prospective validation studies are warranted. The current National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel definition of a Stage I pressure ulcer needs to be amended to reflect the strong relationship to DTI development. PMID:22879313

  20. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  1. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  2. Beta-carotene prevents ozone-induced proinflammatory markers in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, G; Pecorelli, A; Mencarelli, M; Maioli, E; Davis, P A

    2009-01-01

    Beta-carotene has been thought to protect against oxidative stress generated by ultraviolet radiation and thus prevents skin cancer and skin aging (Biesalski and Obermueller-Jevic, 2001). However, nothing is known about its potential effects against other environmental sources of oxidative stress such as ozone (O3) in skin. Intake of oral beta-carotene supplements before exposure to sunlight (and thus inevitably also to (O3) has been recommended on a population-wide basis. However, although some studies have shown beta-carotene as providing skin protection as an antioxidant, other studies using skin cells in culture have shown that beta-carotene may have unexpected prooxidant properties (Obermüller-Jevic, et al., 2001). Given this, there is an ongoing debate regarding the protective or potentially harmful role(s) of beta-carotene in human skin. In this study, the effect of beta-carotene on ozone's effects on the skin of hairless mice was assessed. After feeding a diet supplemented with 0.5% beta-carotene for 1 month, mice were subjected to O3 exposure (0.8 ppm 6 h/day; 7 days) and the induction of proinflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and markers of oxidative stress, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were quantitated. The data showed that beta-carotene downregulated the induction of TNFalpha, MIP2, iNOS, and HO-1 in response to O3. We conclude that beta-carotene provides protection against O3-induced skin oxidative stress in vivo, which is consistent with a protective role for beta-carotene in the skin. PMID:19651793

  3. [Bovine udder skin (BUS): testing of skin compatibility and skin protection].

    PubMed

    Pittermann, Wolfgang F; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    New concepts of the horny layer as a metabolically active part of the epidermal permeability barrier elicited a re-evaluation of conventional mechanisms of occupational skin protection. Both skin protection products and noxae must penetrate the horny layer of the skin to be effective. The isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS) model reflects the natural penetration pattern; hence skin irritation, penetration and absorption can be investigated simultaneously. Using whole skin biopsies the degree of irritation in untreated (control), treated and pre-treated skin is measured by assessing the irritancy (PGE2-concentration) and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) after the exposure period of 0.5 h, 1.0 h and 5.0 h. Two types of skin protection studies were reported. One was a laboratory study using the water-soluble sodiumlaurylsulphate (10%, 15%) as noxa. The other study was initiated by a severely skin irritating water-soluble coolant (approx. 5%). This well documented case occurred in a metal working plant. In both studies different degrees of protective potential against the model noxae SLS and the coolant could be observed. PMID:16688383

  4. Verrucous carcinoma of skin.

    PubMed

    Klima, M; Kurtis, B; Jordan, P H

    1980-04-01

    Five different cases of verrucous proliferative lesions of skin are described and discussed. One of each developed in a chronic ulcer on a heel, in a scar on a lower leg, and on the penis, and two appeared in the region of the buttock in relation to chronic inflammatory sinuses. All these lesions showed morphological and clinical features of verrucous carcinoma which are described. It has been concluded that the variously named verrucous lesions in the literature (epithelioma cuniculatum, florid papillomatosis, giant cutaneous papilloma and papillomatosis cutis carcinoides), as well as our five cases represent a verrucous carcinoma which is a particular type of squamous cell carcinoma. This tumor develops typically in moist areas which are frequently sites of chronic inflammation. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is a potentially invasive tumor. PMID:7372883

  5. A novel approach for inguinal lymph node dissection without inguinal skin incision for invasive extramammary Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Teramoto, Yukiko; Yeh, Yu-Wen; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-11-01

    Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for skin cancer is associated with a high incidence of wound complications. The traditional skin approaches are associated with a high risk of wound/flap necrosis of the inguinal skin, which leads to wound dehiscence and wound infection. We report a novel approach for ILND without inguinal skin incision for patients with invasive extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) to minimize the wound complications inherent in conventional ILND. We totally performed this procedure in 3 patients with invasive EMPD with inguinal nodal metastases. No patient had complications, including flap necrosis, wound dehiscence, or wound infection. Our novel surgical approach would retain the vascular supply because there was no inguinal skin incision, preventing postoperative wound complications. In addition, ILND was easily performed with satisfactory exposure of the surgical field. However, the number of patients was small and the follow-up period was short. Further evaluation of a larger case series with longer follow-up is essential to investigate the effect, safety, and indications for this novel approach. PMID:26088165

  6. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin to crack and become dry or chapped. Cutting and lubricating oils and greases can block skin pores. This can cause acne or skin irritation. Contact with acids, alkalis or heavy metals can cause painful burns. Skin Allergies. Contact with ...

  7. Monte Carlo simulations for optimal light delivery in photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, R. M.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Ibbotson, S. H.; Moseley, H.

    2012-10-01

    The choice of light source is important for the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of non-melanoma skin cancer. We simulated the photodynamic dose (PDD) delivered to a tumour during PDT using theoretical radiation transfer simulations performed via our 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer (MCRT) model for a range of light sources with light doses up to 75 J cm-2. The PDD delivered following superficial irradiation from (A) non-laser light sources, (B) monochromatic light, (C) alternate beam diameters and (D) re-positioning of the tumour within the tissue was computed. (A) The final PDD deposited to the tumour at a depth of 2 mm by the Paterson light source was 2.75, 2.50 and 1.04 times greater than the Waldmann 1200, Photocure and Aktilite, respectively. (B) Tumour necrosis occurred at a depth of 2.23 mm and increased to 3.81 mm for wavelengths 405 and 630 nm, respectively. (C) Increasing the beam diameter from 10 to 50 mm had very little effect on depth of necrosis. (D) As expected, necrosis depths were reduced when the tumour was re-positioned deeper into the tissue. These MCRT simulations show clearly the importance of choosing the correct light source to ensure optimal light delivery to achieve tumour necrosis.

  8. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin. PMID:24946740

  9. Rheological behaviour of reconstructed skin.

    PubMed

    Pailler-Mattei, C; Laquièze, L; Debret, R; Tupin, S; Aimond, G; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

    2014-09-01

    Reconstructed skins have been developed to replace skin when the integrity of tissue has been compromised following severe injury, and to provide alternative methods validating the innocuousness and effectiveness of dermatological and cosmetic products. However the functional properties of tissue substitutes have not been well characterised, mainly since mechanical measurement devices have not been designed to test cell culture materials in vitro. From the mechanical standpoint, reconstructed skin is a heterogeneous multi-layer viscoelastic material. To characterise the time-dependent behaviour of reconstructed skin, spherical indentation load-relaxation tests were performed with a specific original device adapted to measure small soft tissue samples. Load-relaxation indentation tests were performed on a standard reconstructed skin model and on sub-components of the reconstructed skin (3D-scaffold alone and dermal equivalent). Generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models are proposed for analysing the mechanical behaviour of each biological tissue. The results indicated a modification of the rheological behaviour of the samples tested as a function of their biological structure. The 3D-scaffold was modelled using the one-branch Maxwell model, while the dermis equivalent and the reconstructed skin were modeled using a one-branch and a two-branch Kelvin-Voigt model, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that skin cells contribute to global mechanical behaviour through an increase of the instantaneous relaxation function, while the 3D-scaffold alone influences the mechanical response of long relaxation times. PMID:24956159

  10. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  11. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  12. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  13. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  14. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  15. Effects of magnesium deficiency--more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Weir, Christopher; Alfraji, Sumaya; Grice, Jeff; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2014-10-01

    Dead Sea and magnesium salt therapy are two of the oldest forms of treatment for skin disease and several other disorders, supported by a body of largely anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review possible pathways for penetration of magnesium ions through the epidermis to reach the circulation, in turn replenishing cellular magnesium levels. We also discuss mechanisms for intercellular movement of magnesium ions and possible mechanisms for the interaction between magnesium ions and inflammatory mediators. Upon addition of magnesium ions in vitro, the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and nuclear factor ?? (NF??) is down regulated. Dysregulation of these and other inflammatory mediators has been linked to several inflammatory disorders, including asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuroinflammation. PMID:24928863

  16. Autoinflammation: From monogenic syndromes to common skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien V; Cowen, Edward W; Leslie, Kieron S

    2013-05-01

    Autoinflammation is characterized by aberrant regulation of the innate immune system and often manifests as periodic fevers and systemic inflammation involving multiple organs, including the skin. Mutations leading to abnormal behavior or activity of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß)-processing inflammasome complex have been found in several rare autoinflammatory syndromes, for which anticytokine therapy such as IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibition may be effective. It is becoming clear that features of autoinflammation also affect common dermatoses, some of which were previously thought to be solely autoimmune in origin (eg, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus). Recognizing the pathogenetic role of autoinflammation can open up new avenues for the targeted treatment of complex, inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23453357

  17. Bacterial skin infections: management of common streptococcal and stapylococcal lesions.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, J A; Parish, L C

    1982-10-01

    Skin infection occurs in any age-group, sex, and race but is particularly common in children. It is usually minor, but may indicate underlying systemic disease or may lead to systemic infection. Streptococci and staphylococci are common causes. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci account for the majority of streptococcal infections in man. Infection most often involves the lower extremities and produces spreading erythema and necrosis but little purulence. Staphylococcal infections most commonly involve the face, the hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts being the initial sites. Lesions appear as bullae and pustules with a narrow rim of erythema. Intense cellulitis surrounding the lesions usually points to a virulent, penicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus. Treatment of both types of infection consists of cleansing with antibacterial agents, removal of crusts, application of warm compresses, and use of topical or systemic antibiotics, depending on the severity of the infection and the type of pyoderma involved. PMID:7122351

  18. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms. PMID:26754110

  19. Dorsal skin necrosis secondary to a solar-induced thermal burn in a brown-coated dachshund.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Julia P; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Fowlkes, Natalie; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat. PMID:26933270

  20. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis-like Reaction With Severe Satellite Cell Necrosis Associated With Nivolumab in a Patient With Ipilimumab Refractory Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Namrata; Briscoe, Karen; Fernandez Penas, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Nivolumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody to PD-1, which has shown improved overall and progression-free survival. Across studies of nivolumab, grade 3 or 4 rash has been noted in <1% of patients. We present a case report of patient with metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab through expanded access program, who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ours is the first case report, reporting grade 4 skin toxicity associated with nivolumab. A 64-year-old female presented with widespread maculopapular skin rash with bullae and areas of skin detachment after receiving 2 doses of nivolumab for ipilimumab refractory metastatic melanoma (BRAF wild-type). She was initially treated with prednisone, which was soon changed to methyprednisone followed by immunoglobulin with minimal response to the rash. After discussion with Dermatology, she was given cyclosporine and high-dose prednisone with gradual but significant improvement in her rash. Her skin biopsy showed interface dermatitis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermoepidermal junction and apoptotic keratinocytes with focal areas of complete necrosis of the epidermis with minimal infiltrate. PMID:26938948

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Signaling in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, Narayanan; Patial, Sonika

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) was cloned over 2 decades ago and its identification in part led to the discovery of a super family of tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) and their receptors. TNFα signals through two transmembrane receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, and regulates a number of critical cell functions including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. Macrophages are the major producers of TNFα and interestingly are also highly responsive to TNFα. Aberrant TNFα production and TNF receptor signaling have been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, sepsis, diabetes, and obesity. TNFα has been shown to play a pivotal role in orchestrating the cytokine cascade in many inflammatory diseases and because of this role as a “master-regulator” of inflammatory cytokine production, it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for a number of diseases. Indeed anti-TNFα drugs are now licensed for treating certain inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we discuss the discovery of TNFα and its actions especially in regulating macrophage biology. Given its importance in several human diseases, we also briefly discuss the role of anti-TNFα therapeutics in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:21133840

  2. X-ray-induced cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    1994-10-01

    X-ray-induced cell death in MOLT-4N1, a subclone of MOLT-4 cells, and M10 cells was studied with respect to their modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. MOLT-4N1 cells showed radiosensitivity similar to that of M10 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of L5178Y, as determined by the colony formation assay. Analysis of cell size demonstrated that MOLT-4N1 cells increased in size at an early stage after irradiation and then decreased to a size smaller than that of control cells, whereas the size of irradiated M10 cells increased continuously. Apoptosis detected by morphological changes and DNA ladder formation (the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments) occurred in X-irradiated MOLT-4N1 cells but not in M10 cells. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ladder formation involved an intermediate-sized DNA (about 20 kbp). Most of the DNA was detected at the origin in both methods of electrophoresis in the case of M10 cells, though a trace amount of ladder formation was observed. Heat treatment of M10 cells induced apoptosis within 30 min after treatment, in contrast to MOLT-4N1 cells. The results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are induced by X rays in a manner which is dependent on the cell line irrespective of the capability of the cells to develop apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was the earliest change observed in the development of apoptosis. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Serine racemase: a key player in apoptosis and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Canu, Nadia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    A fine balance between cell survival and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. However, an excess of cell death can occur following trauma, exposure to neurotoxins or alcohol, and some developmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) support synaptic plasticity and survival of many neuronal populations whereas inappropriate activation may promote various forms of cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis representing the two extremes of a continuum of cell death processes both “in vitro” and “in vivo.” Hence, by identifying the switches controlling pro-survival vs. apoptosis and apoptosis vs. pro-excitotoxic outcome of NMDAR stimulation, NMDAR modulators could be developed that selectively block the cell death enhancing pro-survival signaling or synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDAR. Among these modulators, a role is emerging for the enzyme serine racemase (SR) that synthesizes D-serine, a key co-agonist with glutamate at NMDAR. This review summarizes the experimental evidence from “in vitro” neuronal cultures—with special emphasis on cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)—and “in vivo” models of neurodegeneration, where the dual role of the SR/D-serine pathway as a master regulator of apoptosis and the apoptosis-necrosis shift will be discussed. PMID:24795622

  4. Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-09-27

    Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. "Gas-bloat" syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

  5. Genome structure of tobacco necrosis virus strain A.

    PubMed

    Meulewaeter, F; Seurinck, J; Van Emmelo, J

    1990-08-01

    An almost complete sequence of the RNA genome of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) strain A has been determined. The genome organization is very similar to that of carnation mottle virus (CarMV) and turnip crinkle virus (TCV). The 5'-proximal open reading frame (ORF) encodes a 23-kDa protein and read-through of its amber codon into the second ORF is presumably used for the translation of a 82-kDa protein. The third large ORF encodes the 30-kDa coat protein. Two small ORFs are located upstream and one immediately downstream of this coat protein cistron. Extensive sequence similarity was found between the TNV 82-kDa protein and the putative polymerases of TCV, CarMV, cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The TNV coat protein is very similar to southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) capsid protein. Of the predicted small proteins only a 7.9-kDa protein shows some sequence similarity with a corresponding protein of MCMV, CarMV, and TCV. The others are unique to TNV. Except for the first four nucleotides at the 5' end no homology was found with the RNA of STNV (satellite of TNV). PMID:2371773

  6. Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. “Gas-bloat” syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

  7. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  8. [Malignancies of the skin and immunomodulatory antirheumatic therapy].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, H; Weisenseel, P; Radtke, M A; Krüger, K

    2016-02-01

    For the clinical practice there is uncertainty as to what degree the therapeutic immunomodulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a weakening of protective tumor immunity. Neoplasms of the skin in particular are known to exhibit increased incidence rates in association with therapeutic immunosuppression in transplantation medicine; however, the immunosuppression required for the prevention of allogenic graft rejection is much more intensive and thus not directly transferable to the potential risks for an onset or relapse of melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), e. g. spinocellular and basal cell carcinomas in association with the antirheumatic treatment of RA. This review covers the association of RA and its pharmacotherapy with conventional synthetic (cs) and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) on the basis of a systematic literature search. The incidence rates of NMSC are twice as high in biologic-naive RA patients compared to the general population, whereas the respective incidence rates for melanoma do not differ. A biologic treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers compared with administration of csDMARD only has a minor, if any effect on the increase of NMSC risk but is associated with a trend towards an elevated incidence rate of new onset melanoma although significance level was not reached in all of the reviewed studies. The data on non-TNF blocking biologics is sparse. Accordingly, it is inappropriate to draw any strong conclusions on potentially associated skin cancer risks from the present lack of safety signals. The consideration of individual risk factors, recommendations on sufficient UV protection and regular skin monitoring may serve to improve the safety of DMARD therapy in RA. PMID:26813688

  9. Preliminary experiences on diode laser welding of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, Umberto M.; Borgognoni, L.; Martini, L.; Chiarugi, C.; Gori, F.; Pini, Roberto; Toncelli, F.; Vanni, U.

    1994-12-01

    Dye enhanced laser welding has been recently proposed for skin closures to exploit the advantages of laser procedure (possible reduction of scar formation, no inflammatory reaction). In this preliminary study we used the diode laser-assisted technique to perform welding of rats' skin. In the pilot phase of the study we investigated the effect of the interaction between diode laser radiation and 20 full thickness skin wounds, performed on the shaved backs of 10 Wistar rats, using laser power in the range of 200 - 150 mW and, as the photoenhancing chromophore, Indocyanine Cardio-green (ICG) dye saturated solution in plasma. Ten wounds were sutured with 4.0 nylon thread, to provide a comparison with the traditional procedure. Wounds' samples were explanted on day 3 and 7 after the treatment, for histological evaluation. Clinical examination on the same days showed a high percentage of wounds dehiscence and presence of scales and crusts. Histologic examination demonstrated evidence of thermal injury and a heightened inflammation, superior to that of suture closures. In the second phase of the study, a lower laser power (150 - 80 mW), ICG-plasma-non saturated solution (ICG-sol) and ICG-plasma-saturated-sodium hyaluronate gel (ICG-gel), were used. Six wounds were filled with ICG-sol and six with ICG-gel, then irradiated at 150, 120 and 80 mW. Postoperative explants were performed on day 3 and 7. Clinical and histological results from this group were satisfactory: we recorded only one case of dehiscence, well healed wounds, no epidermal necrosis and a mild inflammatory reaction, reduced respect to that of traditional closure. We characterized the optimum range of parameters of diode laser-assisted technique to achieve an effective skin welding and the corresponding clinical and histologic pattern was described.

  10. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

  11. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... the development of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin...

  12. Euro Skin Bank: large scale skin-banking in Europe based on glycerol-preservation of donor skin.

    PubMed

    de Backere, A C

    1994-01-01

    Although skin banking has been well developed through the years as a means of providing sufficient skin which is instantly accessible to the burn patient, the methods of preservation and the scale on which various institutions bank skin vary considerably. In 1984, the Dutch National Skin Bank started using glycerol as a preservant for skin allografts. Since then there has been a marked increase in both the volume of glycerol skin grafts applied and the area over which these have been distributed. The procedure and organizational aspects of the Euro Skin Bank, as our own institution is now called, and its current method of skin preservation are described. PMID:8198742

  13. Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

  14. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Melanoma skin cancer stages Tests for melanoma skin cancer Most melanomas are brought to a doctor’s ... and doesn’t need a biopsy. Types of skin biopsies If the doctor thinks a spot might ...

  15. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell carcinoma. ... be cured . Actinic keratosis Actinic keratosis is a skin condition that is not cancer , but sometimes changes into ...

  16. RIP1 and RIP3 complex regulates radiation-induced programmed necrosis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Arabinda; McDonald, Daniel G; Dixon-Mah, Yaenette N; Jacqmin, Dustin J; Samant, Vikram N; Vandergrift, William A; Lindhorst, Scott M; Cachia, David; Varma, Abhay K; Vanek, Kenneth N; Banik, Naren L; Jenrette, Joseph M; Raizer, Jeffery J; Giglio, Pierre; Patel, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    Radiation-induced necrosis (RN) is a relatively common side effect of radiation therapy for glioblastoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved and the ways RN mechanisms differ from regulated cell death (apoptosis) are not well understood. Here, we compare the molecular mechanism of cell death (apoptosis or necrosis) of C6 glioma cells in both in vitro and in vivo (C6 othotopically allograft) models in response to low and high doses of X-ray radiation. Lower radiation doses were used to induce apoptosis, while high-dose levels were chosen to induce radiation necrosis. Our results demonstrate that active caspase-8 in this complex I induces apoptosis in response to low-dose radiation and inhibits necrosis by cleaving RIP1 and RI. When activation of caspase-8 was reduced at high doses of X-ray radiation, the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome complex II is formed. These complexes induce necrosis through the caspase-3-independent pathway mediated by calpain, cathepsin B/D, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AIF has a dual role in apoptosis and necrosis. At high doses, AIF promotes chromatinolysis and necrosis by interacting with histone H2AX. In addition, NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 play a crucial role in radiation-induced inflammatory responses embedded in a complex inflammatory network. Analysis of inflammatory markers in matched plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolated from in vivo specimens demonstrated the upregulation of chemokines and cytokines during the necrosis phase. Using RIP1/RIP3 kinase specific inhibitors (Nec-1, GSK'872), we also establish that the RIP1-RIP3 complex regulates programmed necrosis after either high-dose radiation or TNF-α-induced necrosis requires RIP1 and RIP3 kinases. Overall, our data shed new light on the relationship between RIP1/RIP3-mediated programmed necrosis and AIF-mediated caspase-independent programmed necrosis in glioblastoma. PMID:26684801

  17. Skin cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common and recognizable of all cancers. The human dermis can turn malignant due to excessive solar exposure and chronic injury, with the influence of genetic risk and inherited pigmentation. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in lighter pigmented individuals, spreads locally, and usually appears pearly and often ulcerative. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in darker pigmented people, metastasizes to lymph nodes 2-5 percent of the time, appears often scaly, smooth, nodular, ulcerative, or even pigmented. Malignant melanoma accounts for 2 percent of skin cancers, but for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. All three can mimic each other. Solar or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is the most common carcinogen; however, any chronic irritant can increase the risk, and efforts to avoid such exposure is apropos. Though not yet absolutely proven, skin cancer research strongly supports the following statements: sunscreen is protective, tanning devices are causative, and the routine screening of high-risk individuals is preventative. Authorities strongly recommend avoiding excess sun and UV light, using sunscreen, and keeping a watchful eye for unusual skin lesions. PMID:25985614

  18. The Effect of Enoxaparin and Clopidogrel on Survival of Random Skin Flap in Rat Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; S Forootan, Kamal; S Jalali, Seyed Ziaaddin; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Pedram, Mir Sepehr

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Necrosis of skin flaps is considered as an important complication in reconstructive surgery. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular weight heparin, clopidogrel and their combination to improve the flap survival. METHODS Forty male, adult Sprague-Dawlay rats were divided randomly into 4 groups. Standard rectangular, distally based dorsal random pattern skin flap was elevated. To prevent the graft effect, a sterile sheet was put under the flap. No pharmacological agent was administered for the control group. In group 2, single subcutaneous dose of enoxaparin (3.2 mg/kg) was immediately administrated after surgery. In group 3, clopidogrel (25 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days. In group 4, both enoxaparin and clopidogrel were administrated. The rats were evaluated on post-operative day 7 for viable and necrotic portions of flaps. RESULTS The mean and SD of necrosis was 17.79+2.5 cm in the control group, 16.203.1 cm in low-molecular weight heparin, 15.25+3.8 cm in combined therapy group and 13.69+2.7 cm in clopidogrel group. Clopidogrel was the only pharmaceutical agent that produced a significant increase in the flap survival area. CONCLUSION Clopidogrel may be an effective pharmaceutical agent that significantly increases viability of random skin flaps in rats, but low-molecular weight heparin and their combination did not have any significant beneficial effects. PMID:25734046

  19. The importance of skin care and assessment.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Samantha; Jones, Vanessa

    This article discusses the importance of skin care, including the more general aspects of skin care for the whole body. The information provided should be of benefit to both general and specialist nurses who have a specific responsibility for patients at risk of skin breakdown or damage. By outlining the structure and function of the skin, explaining how skin is damaged, examining the effects of incontinence and questioning current skin cleansing practices, the practitioner will be guided through the process of skin assessment and be introduced to skin care protocols. PMID:16509432

  20. Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A

    2008-04-01

    Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

  1. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 may play important roles in symptom development and may be crucial for virulence, necrosis-inducing activity, or cell death during infection by P. capsici. PMID:24886309

  2. Localized radiation necrosis model in mouse brain using proton ion beams.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Takata, Takushi; Takai, Nobuhiko; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Kume, Kyo; Toho, Taichiro; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Brain radiation necrosis is the most serious late adverse event that occurs after 6 months following radiation therapy. Effective treatment for this irreversible brain necrosis has not been established yet. This study tries to establish brain radiation necrosis mouse model using proton or helium beam. The right cerebral hemispheres of C57BL/6J mouse brains were irradiated at doses of 40, 50, 60 Gy with charged particles. In 60 Gy group, brain necrosis that recapitulates human disease was detected after 8 months. PMID:26260449

  3. Tumours of the skin*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, E.; Frese, K.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. ImagesFig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 49Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48 PMID:4547652

  4. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  5. Skin-sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto O.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  6. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    González, Eduardo G; Rancati, Alberto O

    2015-12-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  7. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  8. Microlymphatics of human skin.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, A

    1993-02-01

    Microlymphatics of human skin form two superposed networks. The superficial one located at the level of dermal papillae may be visualized by fluorescence microlymphography. Microlymphatics fill from a subepidermal depot of minute amounts of FITC-dextran 150,000. In primary lymphedema with late onset the depicted network with vessels of normal size is significantly larger than in healthy controls, whereas in congenital lymphedema (Milroy's disease) microlymphatics are aplastic or ectatic (diameter > 90 microns). Lymphatic microangiopathy with obliterations of microvessels develops in chronic venous insufficiency, in lipedema (preliminary results) and after recurrent erysipelata. In healthy controls microlymphatics are permeable to FITC-dextran 40,000 and impermeable to the larger molecule 150,000. Preserved fragments of the network in chronic venous insufficiency exhibit increased permeability to FITC-dextran 150,000. After visualization of the vessels by the fluorescent dye microlymphatic pressure may be measured by the servo-nulling technique. First results indicate that microlymphatic hypertension contributes to edema formation in patients with primary lymphedema. PMID:8473066

  9. Original inhibition method of excessive synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine of tumour necrosis factor α

    PubMed Central

    Zinchuk, AleXander; Holubovska, Olga; Shkurba, Andrij; Hrytsko, Roman; Vorozhbyt, Olga; Richniak, Mykhailo

    2015-01-01

    Influence on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of an ill person is an urgent aspect of treatment of many diseases. For inhibition of synthesis of a high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, medications which are recombinant monoclonal antibodies, especially to tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), are used. However, these methods of treatment require further improvement by elaborating new approaches with a wider spectrum of influence on the immune system. A completely new method of reduction in high activity of TN F-α with the method of intradermal autoleukocyte immunization is presented in the article. Investigation was performed in a group of patients with psoriasis (24) with a high level of TNF-α in the blood (over 30 pg/ml). Simultaneously such investigation was performed on patients with psoriasis (9) without TNF-α detected (0 pg/ml). As a result of immunization, a significant reduction in TNF-α occurred in all patients with its high level, in 16 (66.7%) from 24 patients – to 0-5 pg/ml. The level of reduction and duration of the achieved effect was of an individual character and requires further investigation. However, the achieved results prove the expediency of administration of this immunization method for patients requiring reduction of TNF-α synthesis. However, the content of TNF-α in blood serum could not be detected in most patients with a low level of cytokine (in 6 from 9) after immunization (as well as before immunization), but an increase in its level from 0 to 5-8 pg/ml was observed in 3 patients. On the basis of the conducted research, the authors suggest that the influence of immunization on cytokine synthesis depends on the condition of immune cells and correlation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a patient's skin. PMID:26648779

  10. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  11. The Usefulness of Leukosan SkinLink for Simple Facial Laceration Repair in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Choi, Jaehoon; Jung, Woonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Repair of facial laceration in the emergency department can pose a number of difficulties. Children can be uncooperative, but adults can also be if they have sustained head trauma or are intoxicated. Leukosan SkinLink consists of topical adhesive and adhesive tape that can be applied easily to long or tense wounds. In this study, the authors compared conventional suturing with Leukosan SkinLink for facial laceration patients in the emergency department. Methods The prospective study was carried out from March 2013 to September 2013 with linear facial laceration patients visiting the emergency department. Exclusion criteria were open fractures, joint injuries, skin defects, hairy skin, and mucosa. The author used Leukosan SkinLink for skin closure in the experimental group and used conventional suturing in the control group. The scar evaluation using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) along with satisfaction scores, procedure times, and complications were compared. Results A total of 77 patients (30 in the control group and 47 in the experimental group) participated and underwent follow-up for 6 months postoperatively. The scar assessment using the POSAS and the satisfaction score in both groups were similar. The average procedure time in the experimental group was shorter. In the control group, there were four cases of wound dehiscence, two of infection, and one of skin necrosis, whereas four cases of wound dehiscence and one allergic reaction occurred in the experimental group. Conclusions With a simple application technique, Leukosan SkinLink is a new effective method for facial laceration repair especially useful for children and uncooperative adults. PMID:26217563

  12. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

  13. Brain radiation necrosis following treatment of an esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neurocytoma).

    PubMed

    Baron, S H

    1979-02-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant nasal tumor which may be difficult to diagnose. Once diagnosed, selection of treatment may be a dilemma. Some advocate preoperative radiation and surgery; others, surgery and postoperative radiation if needed. A case that developed brain necrosis from postoperative radiation is presented. It is felt that the possibility exists that the patient might still be living with tumor had irradiation not been given. This is a plea for the conservative approach to treatment. The author agrees with John S. Lewis that it is unwise to use all modalities at once as there is no definite evidence that any one method of treatment or a combination of surgery and irradiation will alter the prognosis. The paper stresses the brain hazards of irradiation. PMID:423661

  14. Programmed necrosis in inflammation: Toward identification of the effector molecules.

    PubMed

    Wallach, David; Kang, Tae-Bong; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, programmed cell death was conceived of as a single set of molecular pathways. We now know of several distinct sets of death-inducing mechanisms that lead to differing cell-death processes. In one of them--apoptosis--the dying cell affects others minimally. In contrast, programmed necrotic cell death causes release of immunostimulatory intracellular components after cell-membrane rupture. Defining the in vivo relevance of necrotic death is hampered because the molecules initiating it [such as receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, or caspase-1] also serve other functions. Proteins that participate in late events in two forms of programmed necrosis [mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in necroptosis and gasdermin-D in pyroptosis] were recently discovered, bringing us closer to identifying molecules that strictly serve in death mediation, thereby providing probes for better assessing its role in inflammation. PMID:27034377

  15. Mechanisms of coagulative necrosis in malignant epithelial tumors (Review)

    PubMed Central

    CARUSO, ROSARIO A.; BRANCA, GIOVANNI; FEDELE, FRANCESCO; IRATO, ELEONORA; FINOCCHIARO, GIUSEPPE; PARISI, ANTONIO; IENI, ANTONIO

    2014-01-01

    Histological tumor necrosis (TN) has been reported to indicate a poor prognosis for different human cancers. It is generally accepted that TN results from chronic ischemic injury due to rapid tumor growth. However, whether insufficient tumor vascularization and inadequate tumor cell oxygenation are the only factors causing TN remains controversial. Mitotic catastrophe is considered to occur as a result of dysregulated/failed mitosis, leading to cell death. We hypothesize that mitotic catastrophe, induced by hypoxic stress, may lead to the TN which is observed in high grade carcinomas. The current review describes the morphological features of TN in malignant epithelial tumors. In addition, evidence regarding the involvement of mitotic catastrophe in the induction of TN in human carcinomas is discussed. PMID:25202341

  16. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Troyer, Ryan M.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  17. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. PMID:25846017

  18. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 suppress tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, G; Cantoni, L; Sironi, M; Ghezzi, P

    1993-09-01

    We tested the effect of different inhibitors of cytochrome P450 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. Metyrapone and SKF525A (100 and 50 mg/kg, ip, respectively) suppressed serum TNF induced by cotreatment with endotoxin (LPS), (2.5 micrograms/mouse). Inhibition was independent of endogenous corticosteroids since it was also observed in adrenalectomized mice. In vitro production of TNF by endotoxin-stimulated human monocytes was also inhibited by metyrapone and SKF525A. Since lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitors also block TNF production and metyrapone was reported to inhibit LO, we suggest that inhibition by metyrapone and SKF525A might be due to inhibition of either LO or a cytochrome P450 implicated in the oxidation of endogenous substrates involved in the inflammatory response. PMID:8370080

  19. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, K; Inoue, M; Ishida, S; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, S; Katsura, H

    2001-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome (PORN) is a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and the majority of the described cases were related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a patient who is HIV negative with nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone use for 4 months who showed clinical features of PORN. Low CD4 counts and lymphocytopenia suggested immunosuppression. In the left eye, tractional retinal detachment at the posterior pole followed by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment developed. In addition to intravenous administration of acyclovir, vitreous surgeries including stripping of the posterior hyaloid and silicone-oil tamponade were successfully performed to repair the retinal detachment in the left eye and to prevent it in the right eye. PMID:11195746

  20. Poultry Femoral Head Separation and Necrosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Packialakshmi, B; Rath, N C; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-09-01

    Femoral head separation (FHS) is a degenerative skeletal problem in fast-growing poultry wherein the growth plate of the proximal femur separates from its articular cartilage. At its early phase, FHS may remain asymptomatic but lead to epiphyseal breakage, infection, and femoral head necrosis (FHN). Healthy femoral head is viewed as a positive trait for genetic selection. However, the etiology of FHS is poorly understood for use in noninvasive diagnosis and genetic selection. Focal cell death and atrophic changes are likely associated with separation of tissues and necrotic changes. Fibrotic thickening of the articular surface can also impair free movement of the proximal epiphysis in the acetabulum, leading to FHS, under strain. The major limitation to understanding the pathophysiology of FHN is the lack of suitable experimental models and biomarkers to diagnose the problem. In this review, we discuss the possible etiologic factors, anatomic features of the chicken femoral head, biomarkers, and molecular mechanisms relevant to FHN. PMID:26478152

  1. Avascular necrosis of bone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Giri, N; Nair, C N; Pai, S K; Kurkure, P A; Gopal, R; Advani, S H

    1987-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of bone (AVNB) is a known complication of systemic adrenocorticosteroid therapy and is thought to be dose related. However, despite the large amount of prednisolone that has been used in the standard treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), AVNB has rarely been reported with this disease. We have described our experience with an adolescent girl with ALL who developed multifocal AVNB after aggressive chemotherapy, which included high cumulative doses of corticosteroids along with other cytotoxic drugs, some of which have been associated with AVNB. Five similar cases from literature are reviewed. The occurrence of AVNB may become more common in the future with the increasing use of aggressive chemotherapy. Awareness of this possibility will lead to a more rapid diagnosis and early treatment of AVNB. PMID:3473945

  2. Ultrastructure and Sequential Development of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moss, L. Howard; Gravell, Maneth

    1969-01-01

    The morphology and sequential development of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, a pathogen of trouts, were studied by electron microscopy. Mature virions were seen in the cytoplasm of infected cells incubated at 24 C as early as 6 hr after infection. These virions were hexagonal in profile and approximately 55 nm in diameter. Generally between 8 to 10 hr after infection, virus crystals of various sizes were occasionally observed. Although virus replication did not appear to be confined to a particular cytoplasmic locus, mature virions were sometimes seen in association with unidentified tubular structures approximately 45 nm in outside diameter. Negative stains of virus revealed unenveloped icosahedra approximately 65 nm in diameter with probably 92 capsomeres. Contrary to a previous communication which reported IPN virus to have picornavirus-like morphology, we found it to morphologically resemble members of the reovirus group. Images PMID:5772492

  3. Penile strangulation and necrosis due to condom catheter.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Heval S; İrkoren, Saime; Sivrioğlu, Nazan

    2015-06-01

    Condom catheters are often used in the management of male urinary incontinence, and are considered to be safe. As condom catheters are placed on the male genitalia, sometimes adequate care is not taken after placement owing to poor medical care of debilitated patients and feelings of embarrassment and shame. Similarly, sometimes the correct size of penile sheath is not used. Strangulation of penis due to condom catheter is a rare condition; only few such cases have been reported in the literature. Proper application and routine care of condom catheters are important in preventing this devastating complication especially in a neurologically debilitated population. We present a case of penile necrosis due to condom catheter. We will also discuss proper catheter care and treatment of possible complications. PMID:23758994

  4. Mediation of mouse natural cytotoxic activity by tumour necrosis factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortaldo, John R.; Mason, Llewellyn H.; Mathieson, Bonnie J.; Liang, Shu-Mei; Flick, David A.; Herberman, Ronald B.

    1986-06-01

    Natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in the mouse has been associated with two types of effector cells, the natural killer (NK) cell and the natural cytotoxic (NC) cell, which seem to differ with regard to their patterns of target selectivity, cell surface characteristics and susceptibility to regulatory factors1. During studies on the mechanism of action of cytotoxic molecules, it became evident that WEHI-164, the prototype NC target cell, was highly susceptible to direct lysis by both human and mouse recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that NC, but not NK activity mediated by normal splenocytes, is abrogated by rabbit antibodies to recombinant and natural TNF, respectively. Thus, the cell-mediated activity defined as NC is due to release of TNF by normal spleen cells and does not represent a unique natural effector mechanism.

  5. Antiviral selection in the management of acute retinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patrick MK; Hooper, Claire Y; Lightman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal antiviral regimen in the management of acute retinal necrosis, a disease caused by herpetic viruses with devastating consequences for the eye. The current gold standard is based on retrospective case series. Because the incidence of disease is low, few well-designed, randomized trials have evaluated treatment dosage and duration. Newer oral antiviral agents are emerging as alternatives to high-dose intravenous acyclovir, avoiding the need for inpatient intravenous treatment. Drug resistance is uncommon but may also be difficult to identify. Antiviral drugs have few side effects, but special attention needs to be paid to patients who have underlying renal disease, are pregnant or are immunocompromised. PMID:20169044

  6. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  7. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    PubMed Central

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse. PMID:26213697

  8. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    PubMed

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-07-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse. PMID:26213697

  9. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Neuroinflammation and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) molecules play an important role in the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Several TNF superfamily molecules are known to control alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and immunity. Development of transgenic and gene knockout animals, and monoclonal antibodies against TNFSF molecules have increased our understanding of individual receptor–ligand interactions, and their intracellular signaling during homeostasis and neuroinflammation. A strong clinical association has been observed between TNFSF members and CNS autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis and also in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, they are promising targets for alternative therapeutic options to control autoimmunity. Although, TNFSF ligands are widely distributed and have diverse functions, we have restricted the discussions in this review to TNFSF receptor–ligand interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26257732

  10. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI.

    PubMed

    Siskas, N; Lefkopoulos, A; Ioannidis, I; Charitandi, A; Dimitriadis, A S

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be "cortical laminar necrosis", without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1-2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1-2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. PMID:12743663

  11. Potential roles for tumour necrosis factor alpha during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wride, M A; Sanders, E J

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence indicating possible roles for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in development. It is proposed that TNF alpha may have essentially three major roles during embryonic development, which may be analogous to its roles in the immune system and during inflammation: a role in programmed cell death; a role as a cellular growth and differentiation factor; and also a role in the remodelling of extracellular matrix, and the regulation of cell adhesion molecules and integrins. The concept of the existence of a cytokine array during embryogenesis, analogous to that occurring in inflammation, is discussed, as well as potential roles for TNF alpha in the induction of ubiquitin; protective mechanisms embryonic cells may employ against TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity; and a consideration of the role TNF alpha may play in a "free radical theory of development". PMID:7717528

  12. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  13. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-? therapy in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Sobrin, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reported use in 2001 of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agent, infliximab, for the treatment of uveitis, several new anti-TNF-? agents have emerged for the treatment of refractory noninfectious uveitides, although their use remains off-label in the US. These agents have demonstrated remarkable clinical antiinflammatory efficacy and a potential immunoregulatory role in selected uveitis patients, but it is currently unclear whether they can modify the natural history of disease. We review the rationale and clinical indications for this therapy, the differences between agents, how to manage dosing and intervals, and how to screen for and identify potential side effects. We also present a summary of the science behind the use of anti-TNF-? agents in ocular inflammation and the evidence for their efficacy. PMID:26164735

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Lymphotoxin Production in Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Claudia; Jones, David B.; Morrison, Kendall; Schlüter, Carsten; Feist, Werner; Ulmer, Artur J.; Arnoldi, Jörg; Matthes, Jesco; Diamantstein, Tibor; Flad, Hans-D.; Gerdes, Johannes

    1990-01-01

    It is likely that the characteristic histologic features of Hodgkin's disease reflect cytokine production by the tumor cell population. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and lymphotoxin (tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-β]) are important inflammatory mediators with wide-ranging effects within the lymphoreticular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate TNF-α and lymphotoxin production in the Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines L428 and L540. At the product level, both cytokines could be demonstrated by immunostaining with specific monoclonal antibodies. TNF-α could be demonstrated by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture supernatants from both cell lines as well as in cell lysates of L428 and L540 cells. Cytotoxic activity could be achieved only in L428 supernatants. This cytotoxic activity could not be blocked by the addition of a polyclonal antibody against TNF-α, but was partially inhibited with the monoclonal antibody against lymphotoxin. Synthesis of TNF-α and lymphotoxin in both L428 and L540 was confirmed by demonstrating the intracellular-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) using specific cDNA clones in Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization studies with the TNF-α cDNA probe gave positive hybridization signals in L428 and in L540. These results demonstrate the transcription, translation, and export of TNF-α and lymphotoxin in cultured Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines. In addition, results of preliminary experiments are presented in which we demonstrate Reed-Sternberg cells positive for TNF-α protein and mRNA in different Hodgkin's disease tissue biopsies, indicating that, at least for TNF-α, our cell line data are relevant to the neoplastic population present in Hodgkin's disease tissue. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:2386200

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco necrosis virus strain D.

    PubMed

    Coutts, R H; Rigden, J E; Slabas, A R; Lomonossoff, G P; Wise, P J

    1991-07-01

    The complete sequence of the RNA genome of tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D) consisting of 3759 nucleotides has been determined. The positive strand contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The 5'-proximal ORF encodes a 22K protein terminating with an amber codon which may be read through to produce a 82K protein (p82). Two small centrally located ORFs each encode two out-of-frame 7K proteins (p7a and p7b). The 3'-proximal ORF encodes the 29K coat protein (CP), the N terminus of which has been sequenced directly. The genomic organization of TNV-D is very similar to that of TNV-A but differs in the placement of the p7a ORF, which does not overlap the p82 ORF in TNV-D, and in the absence of an ORF downstream of the CP gene in TNV-D. The p82 ORF shows extensive sequence similarity with the putative polymerases of the carmovirus group. This ORF is also as closely related to the corresponding ORF of TNV-A as it is to the corresponding ORF of the tombusvirus cucumber necrosis virus. The amino acid sequence of the TNV-D CP gene is similar to both the TNV-A and southern bean mosaic virus CP genes. Of the two p7 ORFs, p7a exhibits amino acid sequence similarity with corresponding proteins from TNV-A, melon necrotic spot virus, carnation mottle virus, turnip crinkle virus and maize chlorotic mottle virus, whereas the p7b ORF appears to be unique to TNV-A and TNV-D. Only the 3'-terminal three nucleotides of TNV-D genomic RNA are identical to the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the TNV satellite virus. PMID:1856691

  17. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  20. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to lack of bladder control can develop cracks or sores. The following are preventive measures you ... or sheepskin pads are best because they allow air to circulate next to the skin. Massage A ...

  1. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sun damage to the body is caused by invisible ultraviolet (UV) radia- tion. People recognize sunburn as ... uncovered skin, especially your lips, nose, ears, neck, hands, and feet. • Apply sunscreen 15 minutes before going ...

  2. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  3. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  4. Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy in breast cancer patients: 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Stanec, Zdenko; Žic, Rado; Budi, Srećko; Stanec, Sanda; Milanović, Rudolf; Vlajčić, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Rudman, Franjo; Martić, Krešimir; Held, Rebeka; Božo, Gorjanc

    2014-11-01

    Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy (SNSM) and primary reconstruction have been popular for breast cancer treatment in the last decade. An advantage of the SNSM technique is the removal of all breast tissue as a radical surgical procedure while preserving native breast integrity, nipple-areola complex (NAC), and submammary fold. This retrospective 15-year clinical study analyzes medical records from our breast surgery database collected at our department between 1997 and 2012. A total number of 3757 patients were treated for breast cancer; 411 (10.9%) patients had a skin-sparing mastectomy with the median (range) length follow-up of 63 months. This is the longest follow-up for SNSM in breast cancer patients; 3.7% of patients who underwent SNSM developed disease local recurrence, whereas occult NAC involvement with cancer occurred in 7.7% and local recurrence in the NAC in 1.2%. Partial necrosis of the NAC developed in 9.4% and total necrosis in 0.7% of operated breasts. All disease recurrences occurred in the first 10 years of the follow-up period. Local recurrence developed as first recurrence event has longer median cancer-specific survival time of 70 months than those with only distant metastases with 50 months and locoregional plus distant metastases with 35.5 months. The "Omega" pattern incision combines an oncological radical procedure with a lower incidence of skin flap necrosis. Patients reconstructed with autologous tissue were the group most satisfied. SNSM is an oncological safe procedure for breast cancer treatment with low recurrence in properly selected patients. PMID:24378808

  5. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Use of lanthanum to detect changes in the permeability barrier of rat skin after dermal exposure to organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Mattie, D.R.; McDougal, J.N.; Chase, M.R.; Hixson, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Occupational dermal exposures to organic solvents are of importance due to local effects in the skin and systematic toxicity if penetration occurs through the skin. Repeated or prolonged contact with organic solvents have been shown to penetrate the skin; little information is available however, concerning effects on the barrier properties of skin after dermal exposure to solvents. This investigation examines the ultrastructural changes in rat skin after exposure of 3 organic chemicals and to correlate changes with the location of an electron-dense tracer, lanthanum, which is normally excluded by the permeability barrier in the stratum corneum. Male rats were exposed for 24 h to sterile saline, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PERC), or toluene using dermal-exposure cells developed in this laboratory. Rat skin exposed to saline for 24 h appeared normal. Rat skin exposed to neat TCE, PERC or toluene for 24 h caused acute, coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and upper 1/2 to 1/3 of the dermis.

  7. Photoprotective properties of skin melanin.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2002-04-01

    Melanins are a ubiquitous class of biological pigments, which play an important role in the photoprotection of skin. Recent advances in the chemistry of melanins have demonstrated their diversity. The various types of melanin show different physico-chemical properties, suggesting that their photobiological properties are not unique. In this review, the implications of melanin diversity for the natural photoprotection of skin are discussed. PMID:11966725

  8. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  9. Parkinson's disease and the skin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Ralph; Miller, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The concept that the skin is a mirror of Parkinson's disease dates to the start of the last century. Despite dermatological disorders being recognised as a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, they are often overlooked. This article reviews the various skin disorders seen in Parkinson's disease and addresses the other dermatological questions that are frequently raised by those attending Parkinson's disease clinics. PMID:25862733

  10. Allogenic skin: transplant or dressing?

    PubMed

    Burd, Andrew; Lam, P K; Lau, Henry

    2002-06-01

    The use of biological dressings is an established aspect of contemporary burns care. The type and source of these biological materials can give rise to both legal and ethical issues. This paper looks at these issues in relation to allogenic skin. It is argued, from a medical perspective, that non-viable allogenic skin, cannot be transplanted and so should therefore be classified both medically and legally as a dressing. PMID:12052374

  11. Evaluation of topically applied copper(II) oxide nanoparticle cytotoxicity in human skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Dror; Soroka, Yoram; Ma'or, Zeev; Oron, Miriam; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Brggre, Franois Menahem; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hai, Noam; Milner, Yoram

    2013-02-01

    The increasing use of nano-sized materials in our environment, and in many consumer products, dictates new safety concerns. In particular, adequate experimental models are needed to evaluate skin toxicity of metal oxide ions, commonly found in cosmetic and dermatologic preparations. We have addressed the biological effects of topically applied copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in human skin organ cultures, using light and electron microscopy, and biochemical tests. Nanoparticles were more toxic than micro-sized particles, and their effects were stronger when supplied in growth medium than in topical application. Still topically applied CuO nanoparticles induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and necrosis, especially in epidermis deprived of its protective cornea. Since nanoparticle penetration was not seen, we propose that they may adhere to skin surface, react with the local acidic environment, and generate soluble ions that make their way to inner sites. This work illustrates the abilities of skin organ culture to evaluate the biological effects of topically-applied materials on skin in vitro. PMID:22954531

  12. Magnesium sulphate given topically by iontophoresis for viability of random skin flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    André Yu, Renato; Brumini, Christine; Esteves Junior, Ivaldo; Masako Ferreira, Lydia; Eloin Liebano, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate given by iontophoresis on the viability of random skin flaps in rats. Endovenous magnesium sulphate is used to treat pre-eclampsia and diseases of blood vessels. Iontophoresis is an electrotherapeutic method which has shown satisfactory results in controlling ischaemia within the boundaries of the area in which it was given. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats, weighing 300 to 440 g were randomly divided into three groups of 15 animals each: random skin flap (control); random skin flap treated with magnesium sulphate without electrical stimulation; and random skin flap treated with magnesium sulphate with electrical stimulation of 4 mA for 20 minutes. The treatments were applied immediately after the operation and repeated on the following two days. The percentage of necrotic area was measured on the seventh postoperative day using a paper template. For each group, the mean percentage of flap necrosis was as follows: control, 46%; magnesium sulphate without electrical stimulation, 34%; and magnesium sulphate with electrical stimulation, 42%. There was no significant difference among the groups (p = 0.18). Magnesium sulphate given by iontophoresis does not increase the viability of random skin flaps in rats. PMID:19688642

  13. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  14. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  15. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  16. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  17. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  18. Cultured skin substitutes: a review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, S T

    1996-01-01

    Skin substitutes composed of cultured cells and biopolymers provide alternative materials for study of skin biology and pathology, treatment of skin wounds, safety testing of consumer products, and therapeutic delivery of gene products. Most frequently, substitutes for epidermis consist of cultured keratinocytes and dermal substitutes consist of resorbable biopolymers populated with cultured fibroblasts. Preclinical models characterize cellular morphogenesis, antigen expression, and barrier properties in vitro, and recovery of tissue function after grafting. Clinical considerations include time required to prepare cultured autografts, time required for graft vascularization, management of microbial contamination in wounds, mechanical fragility of cultured grafts, and high cost. Safety in graft preparation generally requires the use of materials and procedures that comply with standards for quality assurance. Efficacy of engineered skin substitutes has been evaluated predominantly by subjective criteria, but evaluation may become more objective and quantitative by application of noninvasive biophysical instrumentation. Future directions with engineered skin substitutes are expected to include gene therapy by addition or deletion of selected gene products and establishment of international standards for fabrication and assessment of engineered skin. PMID:19877957

  19. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  20. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  1. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  2. The association between skin characteristics and skin cancer prevention behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Ruczinski, Ingo; Alani, Rhoda M.; Clipp, Sandra; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Jorgensen, Timothy J.; Ligeois, Nanette J.; Strickland, Paul T.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Behaviors such as sunscreen use and wearing sun-protective clothing are thought to prevent certain types of skin cancer and precancerous lesions, but few studies have examined differences in these prevention behaviors by skin type. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study (n = 6,858) nested within a community-based prospective cohort in Washington County, MD. We measured the associations between skin type, complexion, freckling, and eye color, and sunscreen and sun-protective clothing use. Results The prevalence of regular sunscreen use was 23% and regular sun-protective clothing use was 21%. There were consistent trends indicating those with the most sun-sensitive skin type were most likely to engage in prevention behaviors. For example, compared to those who tan without burning, those who develop blistering sunburns were more likely to use sunscreen (odds ratio (OR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8212.95 men, OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.34 7.16 women) and sun-protective clothing (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.71 4.80 men, OR 4.44, 95% CI 2.88 6.85 women). Health-related characteristics such as body mass index and cigarette smoking were also significantly associated with prevention behaviors. Conclusion The overall prevalence of prevention behaviors was low. Those with phenotypic risk factors for skin cancer were most likely to use sunscreen and sun-protective clothing. Those with high-risk skin cancer phenotypes may also be those who are most receptive to skin cancer prevention educational interventions. PMID:19755654

  3. World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Malangoni, Mark A; May, Addison K; Viale, Pierluigi; Kao, Lillian S; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Fred A; Peitzman, Andrew B; Coimbra, Raul; Leppaniemi, Ari; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Koike, Kaoru; Girardis, Massimo; Ordonez, Carlos A; Tavola, Mario; Cainzos, Miguel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P; Gerych, Igor; Kelly, Michael D; Taviloglu, Korhan; Wani, Imtiaz; Marwah, Sanjay; Bala, Miklosh; Ghnnam, Wagih; Shaikh, Nissar; Chiara, Osvaldo; Faro, Mario Paulo; Pereira, Gerson Alves; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Coccolini, Federico; Tranà, Cristian; Corbella, Davide; Brambillasca, Pietro; Cui, Yunfeng; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Khokha, Vladimir; Kok, Kenneth Yy; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Yuan, Kuo-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of pathological conditions ranging from simple superficial infections to severe necrotizing soft tissue infections. Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are potentially life-threatening infections of any layer of the soft tissue compartment associated with widespread necrosis and systemic toxicity. Successful management of NSTIs involves prompt recognition, timely surgical debridement or drainage, resuscitation and appropriate antibiotic therapy. A worldwide international panel of experts developed evidence-based guidelines for management of soft tissue infections. The multifaceted nature of these infections has led to a collaboration among surgeons, intensive care and infectious diseases specialists, who have shared these guidelines, implementing clinical practice recommendations. PMID:25422671

  4. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in Helicobacter pylori gastritis in tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Thalmaier, Ulrike; Lehn, Norbert; Pfeffer, Klaus; Stolte, Manfred; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf

    2002-06-01

    Increased gastric production of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease. In the present study we used a mouse model to demonstrate whether loss of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) function leads to differences in gastric inflammation or the systemic immune response in H. pylori infection. Six different clinical isolates of H. pylori (three cytotoxin-positive and three cytotoxin-negative strains) were adapted to C57BL/6 mice. TNF-R1-deficient (TNF-R1(-/-)) mice (n = 19) and isogenetic controls (n = 24) were infected and sacrificed after 4 weeks of infection. Inflammation of the stomach and the humoral immune response to H. pylori were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical, and serological methods. There was no detectable difference in the grade or activity of gastritis in TNF-R1(-/-) mice when they were compared with wild-type mice, but the number of lymphoid aggregates was slightly reduced in the gastric mucosa of TNF-R1(-/-) mice. Interestingly, total immunoglobulin G (IgG), as well as IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3, H. pylori-specific antibody titers were significantly higher in wild-type mice. As revealed by immunoblot analysis, the difference in reactivity against H. pylori antigens was not based on a failure to recognize single H. pylori antigens in TNF-R1(-/-) mice. We therefore suggest that TNF-R1-mediated TNF-alpha signals might support a systemic humoral immune response against H. pylori and that the gastric inflammatory response to H. pylori infection seems to be independent of TNF-R1-mediated signals. PMID:12011009

  5. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Helicobacter pylori Gastritis in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thalmaier, Ulrike; Lehn, Norbert; Pfeffer, Klaus; Stolte, Manfred; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf

    2002-01-01

    Increased gastric production of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease. In the present study we used a mouse model to demonstrate whether loss of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) function leads to differences in gastric inflammation or the systemic immune response in H. pylori infection. Six different clinical isolates of H. pylori (three cytotoxin-positive and three cytotoxin-negative strains) were adapted to C57BL/6 mice. TNF-R1-deficient (TNF-R1−/−) mice (n = 19) and isogenetic controls (n = 24) were infected and sacrificed after 4 weeks of infection. Inflammation of the stomach and the humoral immune response to H. pylori were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical, and serological methods. There was no detectable difference in the grade or activity of gastritis in TNF-R1−/− mice when they were compared with wild-type mice, but the number of lymphoid aggregates was slightly reduced in the gastric mucosa of TNF-R1−/− mice. Interestingly, total immunoglobulin G (IgG), as well as IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3, H. pylori-specific antibody titers were significantly higher in wild-type mice. As revealed by immunoblot analysis, the difference in reactivity against H. pylori antigens was not based on a failure to recognize single H. pylori antigens in TNF-R1−/− mice. We therefore suggest that TNF-R1-mediated TNF-α signals might support a systemic humoral immune response against H. pylori and that the gastric inflammatory response to H. pylori infection seems to be independent of TNF-R1-mediated signals. PMID:12011009

  6. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  9. Pancreatic necrosis: results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains.

    PubMed Central

    Branum, G; Galloway, J; Hirchowitz, W; Fendley, M; Hunter, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment of pancreatic necrosis at a tertiary referral center was reviewed to effect better patient outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic necrosis is a devastating disease that leads to death in 10% to 50% of cases. Infected necrosis is particularly deadly because 80% of deaths from necrosis are due to infection or its complications. Therapeutic strategies center on aggressive support of organ systems and prevention and treatment of infectious complications. METHODS: Records of all patients who underwent pancreatic necrosectomy from 1990 to 1996 at Emory University Hospital were reviewed. Patients with infected necrosis were debrided as soon as the diagnosis was made. Reoperation for completion necrosectomy with ultimate closure over lavage catheters was performed as necessary. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis in the study period, 50 underwent pancreatic debridement. The mean age was 52 years, and 74% of patients were transferred from other institutions. Eighty-four percent of patients had infected necrosis, and all patients underwent sequential debridement with eventual closure over drains. Organ failure occurred in 72% of cases, and the overall mortality rate was 12%. The mean length of stay was 54 days. CONCLUSIONS: The management of pancreatic necrosis demands the allocation of extensive resources. An aggressive operative strategy of multiple debridements with ultimate closure over drains can lead to a low mortality rate in patients with this complex disease, but the determination of when to explore patients with sterile necrosis remains difficult. PMID:9637550

  10. A strain of Clover yellow vein virus that causes severe pod necrosis disease in snap bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) has been associated with severe virus epidemics in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the upper Midwestern states, New York, and Ontario, Canada. The causal agent of a disease causing severe mosaic, apical necrosis stunting and extensive pod necrosis wa...

  11. Analysis of risk and predictors of brain radiation necrosis after radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hongqing; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Junjie; Chang, Joe Y; Wang, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we examined the factors contributing to brain radiation necrosis and its predictors of patients treated with Cyberknife radiosurgery. A total of 94 patients with primary or metastatic brain tumours having been treated with Cyberknife radiotherapy from Sep. 2006 to Oct. 2011 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Skull based tracking was used to deliver radiation to 104 target sites. and the prescribed radiation doses ranged from 1200 to 4500 cGy in 1 to 8 fractions with a 60% to 87% isodose line. Radiation necrosis was confirmed by imaging or pathological examination. Associations between cerebral radiation necrosis and factors including diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, target volume, isodose line, prescribed dosage, number of fractions, combination with whole brain radiation and biologically equivalent dose (BED) were determined by logistic regression. ROC curves were created to measure the predictive accuracy of influence factors and identify the threshold for brain radiation necrosis. Our results showed that radiation necrosis occurred in 12 targets (11.54%). Brain radiation necrosis was associated by BED, combination with whole brain radiotherapy, and fractions (areas under the ROC curves = 0.892±0.0335, 0.650±0.0717, and 0.712±0.0637 respectively). Among these factors, only BED had the capability to predict brain radiation necrosis, and the threshold dose was 7410 cGy. In conclusion, BED is the most effective predictor of brain radiation necrosis, with a dose of 7410 cGy being identified as the threshold. PMID:26675376

  12. Skin transcriptome profiles associated with skin color in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color. PMID:26030885

  13. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color. PMID:26030885

  14. Cell Death Induced on Cell Cultures and Nude Mouse Skin by Non-Thermal, Nanosecond-Pulsed Generated Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Guilhem; Gapihan, Guillaume; Starikovskaia, Svetlana M.; Rousseau, Antoine; Janin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions. PMID:24358244

  15. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  16. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  17. Histologic evaluation of the width of soft tissue necrosis adjacent to carbon dioxide laser incisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pogrel, M.A.; McCracken, K.J.; Daniels, T.E. )

    1990-11-01

    This study evaluated the width of tissue necrosis lateral to carbon dioxide laser incisions on human intraoral excisional biopsy specimens. Measurements were made on specimens including epithelium, muscle, dense and loose connective tissue, and salivary gland. Results showed a mean width of tissue necrosis of 86 microns in epithelium, 85 microns in muscle, 51 microns in loose connective tissue, 96 microns in dense connective tissue, and 41 microns in salivary gland. The range of thermal necrosis in different tissue types is probably based on the water content within each type. A cellular partially homogenized zone of reversible thermal damage up to 500 microns in width was visible adjacent to the zone of thermal necrosis. The relatively narrow width of tissue necrosis with this technique may account for the claimed superior properties of laser-induced wounds compared with those created by electrosurgery.

  18. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  19. Removing bonded skin from a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

  20. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and skin permeability has been found. • Structural rules for optimizing sensitization and penetration were established.