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Penile ischemia and loss due to warfarin-induced skin necrosis.  


A 30-year-old man with a history of bilateral deep vein thromboses and recurrent penile ischemic episodes presented for distal penile amputation and skin graft. Despite suspicion, serologies indicated no hypercoagulable disorder. After surgery, the patient was bridged from enoxaparin to warfarin. Nine days after initiation of warfarin therapy, he developed necrotic arm ulcers, which were subsequently proved to be secondary to warfarin-induced skin necrosis. PMID:20451980

Talbert, Melissa; Wood, Hadley



Extensive warfarin-induced skin necrosis successfully treated with negative pressure wound therapy.  


A 55-year-old woman presented with an extensive warfarin-induced skin necrosis while an inpatient for treatment of a pulmonary embolism and thromboembolic stroke. She had a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Her warfarin was stopped and she was anticoagulated with low-molecular weight heparin. The wound was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotic, debridement and negative pressure wound therapy. PMID:24744069

Murad, Aizuri A; Daly, Toddy; Mulligan, Niall; Lenane, Patsy



Percutaneous alcohol absorption and skin necrosis in a preterm infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 27-week gestation infant developed severe haemorrhagic skin necrosis on the back and buttocks after umbilical arterial catheterisation. Before catheterisation the skin was cleaned with methylated spirits. A blood alcohol level taken 18 hours after catheterisation showed a blood ethanol level of 259 mg\\/100 ml and a blood methanol level of 26 mg\\/100 ml. We conclude that the methylated spirits

V Harpin; N Rutter



Type I protein S deficiency and skin necrosis.  

PubMed Central

A kindred with Type I protein S deficiency is described in which the index case developed skin necrosis during induction of oral anticoagulant therapy for deep venous thrombosis. Two other family members with protein S deficiency have been detected, and demonstrate the clinical variability of this condition. Images Figure 1

Craig, A.; Taberner, D. A.; Fisher, A. H.; Foster, D. N.; Mitra, J.



Skin Necrosis Associated with Thromboprophylaxis after Total Knee Replacement  

PubMed Central

Thromboprophylaxis are routinely given to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients after total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (fractioned heparin) is effective in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The predicable effect of LMWH has popularized it for routine clinical use. Although LMWH has lesser complication rate, compared to unfractioned heparin (UFH), sporadic clinical complication has been reported. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to use of LMWH tinzaparin used for routine thromboprophylaxis after total knee replacement.

Karuppiah, S. V.; Johnstone, A. J.



Skin necrosis of scrotum due to endovascular embolisation: a case report.  


The aim of our case report was to analyse the results obtained with the Matriderm® system and autologous skin grafting for the surgical treatment of skin necrosis of scrotum as a result of endovascular embolisation. We recruited one patient with scrotum skin necrosis as a result of endovascular embolisation admitted at the department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata'. The patient underwent Matriderm® system and autologous skin grafting for skin necrosis treatment. After a single treatment, reduction of the skin necrosis was obtained, after 30 days from the surgical treatment. Patient experienced a reduction in pain and a complete restoration of the loss in volume and quality of skin was noticed. Matriderm® system and autologous skin grafting is a simple, safe and feasible technique. When comparing this treatment with others, Matriderm® is a simpler, more economic and less time-consuming method, and does not require sophisticated laboratory facilities. PMID:21883935

Cervelli, Valerio; Brinci, Lorenzo; Palla, Ludovico; Spallone, Diana; Izzo, Valentina; Curcio, Cristiano Beniamino; Lucarini, Lucilla; De Angelis, Barbara



Management dilemmas in patients with mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced major bleeding  

PubMed Central

Management of warfarin-induced major bleeding in patients with mechanical heart valves is challenging. There is vast controversy and confusion in the type of treatment required to reverse anticoagulation and stop bleeding as well as the ideal time to restart warfarin therapy safely without recurrence of bleeding and/or thromboembolism. Presently, the treatments available to reverse warfarin-induced bleeding are vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates and recombinant activated factor VIIa. Currently, vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma are the recommended treatments in patients with mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced major bleeding. The safe use of prothrombin complex concentrates and recombinant activated factor VIIa in patients with mechanical heart valves is controversial and needs well-designed clinical studies. With regard to restarting anticoagulation in patients with warfarin-induced major bleeding and mechanical heart valves, the safe period varies from 7-14 d after the onset of bleeding for patients with intracranial bleed and 48-72 h for patients with extra-cranial bleed. In this review article, we present relevant literature about these controversies and suggest recommendations for management of patients with warfarin-induced bleeding and a mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for separate specific guidelines from major associations/ professional societies with regard to mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced bleeding.

Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Muslahi, Muhanna; Haque, Mohammed A; Shehab, Abdullah



Predictors of warfarin-induced bleeding in a South Indian cardiology unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Warfarin-induced bleedingresults in increased morbidity and mortality and higher cost of healthcare. The objective of the study is to identify the predictors of warfarin-induced bleeding in the Cardiology Unit of a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 235 patients were enrolled in the study, to identify the predictors of warfarin-induced bleeding. Only prescriptions with warfarin were selected for the study. The chi square test was used to find the association between demography and risk factors. Results: Out of 235 patients, 61 (25.95%) had developed warfarin-induced bleeding and the majority were in the age group of 41 – 61 years (60.65%), and it was also found to be higher in women (62.29%). The length of stay was > 14 days (65.57%) and the number of drugs prescribed was in the range of 6 – 12 (52.45%). Aspirin (40.98%), Heparin (36.06%), Clopidogrel (22.95%), and Streptokinase (14.75%) were the most common drugs involved, and other comorbid conditions like diabetes (37.70%), hypertension (32.78%), smoking (57.37%), and alcohol (32.78%) were found to be major predictors of warfarin-induced bleeding in this study. The severity of warfarin-induced most of the bleeding reactions were moderate (44.26%) and the most common site of bleeding was gastrointestinal system (34.42%). Conclusion: Predictors of warfarin-induced bleeding were found to be female gender, length of stay, number of medications, drugs like aspirin, heparin, and clopidogrel, and other comorbidities like smoking, alcohol, and hypertension.

Nekkanti, Haritha; Mateti, Uday Venkant; Vilakkathala, Rajesh; Rajakannan, Thiyagu; Mallayasamy, Surulivelrajan; Padmakumar, Ramachandran



Bilateral extensive skin necrosis of the lower limbs following prolonged epidural blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin necrosis has not been described as a complication following epidural sympathetic blockade. We report a case of bilateral\\u000a extensive skin necrosis of the lower limbs after a 48-hour lumbar epidural blockade in a 71-year-old patient with right hemiplegia\\u000a and mitral valve regurgitation, without any preoperative clinical evidence of peripheral vascular disease or diabetes, who\\u000a underwent transurethral prostatectomy.

Vito A. Peduto; Giancarlo Boero; Antonio Marchi; Riccardo Tani



Skin necrosis as a complication of therapeutic hypothermia.  


This case report describes a complication caused by cooling pads used for therapeutic hypothermic resuscitation. The authors hope to highlight and emphasize the importance of a thorough evaluation of all skin surfaces that are in direct contact with such cooling pads. Skin injury from the cooling pads used for therapeutic hypothermia should be recognized as a potential complication of treatment. PMID:24043239

Liu, Yuk Ming; Ibrahim, Amir; Jan, Taha; Chang, Phillip; Fagan, Shawn; Goverman, Jeremy



Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management  

PubMed Central

Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD) used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL) was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required.

Lee, Ji Hwan; Chang, Choong Hyun; Park, Chan Heun



Tumour necrosis factor ? is expressed in refractory skin lesions from patients with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is expressed in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) skin lesions. Methods The in situ expression of TNF? in refractory lesional and non?lesional skin biopsy specimens from patients with SCLE was analysed using an immunohistochemical approach. At the time of biopsy these patients were receiving treatment with systemic medications such as antimalarial agents, immunosuppressive drugs, and thalidomide. Expression of TNF? was also evaluated in cutaneous lesions of patients with other inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases as controls. Results The data showed that refractory lesional skin tissue from patients with SCLE displays a strongly positive distribution of TNF?, particularly within the epidermis. No prominent staining was seen in non?lesional skin from the same group of patients or in cutaneous lesions from the control group. Conclusions These findings suggest that TNF? is localised and produced by epidermal cells within SCLE skin lesions and support its potential role in the pathogenesis of SCLE. The tissue localisation of TNF? may represent a potential therapeutic target providing a new perspective in the treatment of refractory skin lesions in patients with SCLE.

Zampieri, S; Alaibac, M; Iaccarino, L; Rondinone, R; Ghirardello, A; Sarzi-Puttini, P; A Peserico; Doria, A



Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy for Nasal Skin Necrosis after Filler Injection  

PubMed Central

With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medical professionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. We herein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injections and were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) therapy. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane) injection in her forehead, glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammation was observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who received a filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm) on her nasal dorsum and tip at a private clinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containing ADSCs harvested from each patient's abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected into the lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additional treatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6 months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated the acute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring, and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics.

Sung, Ha Min; Lee, Hoon-Bum; Tak, Kyoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Min; Jung, Min Su



Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy for Nasal Skin Necrosis after Filler Injection.  


With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medical professionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. We herein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injections and were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) therapy. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane) injection in her forehead, glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammation was observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who received a filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm) on her nasal dorsum and tip at a private clinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containing ADSCs harvested from each patient's abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected into the lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additional treatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6 months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated the acute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring, and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics. PMID:22783492

Sung, Ha Min; Suh, In Suck; Lee, Hoon-Bum; Tak, Kyoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Min; Jung, Min Su



TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification.

Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.



Levamisole-contaminated cocaine: an emergent cause of vasculitis and skin necrosis.  


The prevalence of cocaine adulterated with levamisole-induced vasculitis is increasing and physicians should be aware of this unique entity. There have been many reports of cutaneous vasculitis syndrome caused by cocaine which is contaminated with levamisole. Levamisole was used as an antihelminth drug and later was rescinded from use in humans due to adverse effects. Through this paper, we will report a 39-year-old crack cocaine user who presented with purpuric rash and skin necrosis of his ear lobes. Levamisole-induced vasculitis syndrome was suspected. A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, opiates, and marijuana. Blood work revealed positive titres of ANA and p-ANCA, as well as anti-cardiolipin antibody. Biopsy taken from the left ear showed focal acute inflammation, chronic inflammation with thrombus formation, and extravasated blood cells. Treatment was primarily supportive with wound care. PMID:24778656

Souied, Osama; Baydoun, Hassan; Ghandour, Zahraa; Mobarakai, Neville



Reconstruction of cubital fossa skin necrosis with radial collateral artery perforator-based propeller flap (RCAP).  


In recent years, perforator flaps have become an indispensable tool for the reconstruction process. Most recently, "propeller" perforator flaps allow each perforator vessels to become a flap donor site. Once the perforator of interest is identified by acoustic Doppler, the cutaneous or fascio-cutaneous island is designed and then customized according to the principle of "perforasome". So, the flap can be rotated such a propeller, up to 180°. Ideally the donor site is self-closing, otherwise it can be grafted at the same time. Through a skin necrosis secondary to a contrast medium extravasation of the cubital fossa in a 47-year-old man, we describe the use of propeller perforator flap based on a perforator of the radial collateral artery (RCAP). The perforator was identified preoperatively by acoustic Doppler then the flap was adapted bespoke to cover the loss of substance. Ultimately, the result was very satisfying. Well experienced for lower-extremity reconstruction, perforator-based propeller flap are still few reported for upper limb. It is likely that in the future, propeller flap supersede in many indication not only free flaps and locoregional flaps but also, leaving no room for uncertainties of the vascular network, the classic random flaps. PMID:23891106

Chaput, B; Gandolfi, S; Ho Quoc, C; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L



Two cases of warfarin-induced tracheobronchial calcification after fontan surgery.  


This study identified tracheobronchial cartilage calcification in children with congenital heart disease. Calcification of the tracheobronchial airways has been found previously in adults receiving warfarin and in children receiving warfarin after mitral valve replacement. A 9-year-old girl who had received a Fontan repair 6 years previously underwent a cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate pulmonary artery size. The result was an incidental finding of extensive tracheobronchial cartilage calcification. A retrospective review of all pediatric Fontan patients who had undergone cardiac CT was conducted to search for calcification of the tracheobronchial cartilage. The study investigated ten pediatric Fontan patients who had undergone cardiac CT scanning. Two patients with extensive calcification of the tracheobronchial airways were identified. The index case had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and the patient had undergone a staged repair with the Fontan at the age of 3 years. A 16-year-old boy with tricuspid atresia had undergone staged repair and Fontan at the age of 3.5 years. These two patients had received continuous warfarin therapy for 6 and 13 years, respectively. Other common causes of airway calcification were excluded from the study. This report describes warfarin-induced tracheobronchial calcification in patients after the Fontan procedure. This finding has possible implications for airway growth and vascular calcification. PMID:24584210

Eckersley, Luke; Stirling, John; Occleshaw, Christopher; Wilson, Nigel



Ciprostene and indomethacin partially reverse the mechanisms of distal end necrosis in the rat random skin flap.  


Survival of random skin flap distal end depends on hemodynamic, cellular, and coagulation mechanisms. This study was designed to evaluate whether administration of ciprostene, a stable prostaglandin I2 analogue, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase-hydroperoxydase enzyme inhibitor, would improve the survival rate of random skin flaps. Forty-five male rats were divided into nine groups and injected with sesame oil (control), ciprostene (20 micrograms/kg/day), and/or indomethacin (2 mg/kg/day). Injections were done before (pretreatment for 4 days), after (posttreatment for 6 days), and before/after (pre/posttreatment for 4 and 6 days, respectively) the elevation of random dorsal skin flaps. In the pretreatment and pre/posttreatment studies, the flap survival rate of all drug-injected groups was significantly higher than that of the control group (p less than 0.02). In addition administration of ciprostene alone yielded a trend of better flap survival rate, which, however, was not statistically significant (p less than 0.12). Of interest in the posttreatment study, only the simultaneous administration of ciprostene and indomethacin significantly increased skin flap viability compared with the other groups (p less than 0.02). Therefore, the results demonstrated that administration of ciprostene and indomethacin either alone or together partially reversed the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause necrosis of random skin flap distal end. These pharmacological changes significantly improved random skin flap survival rate. PMID:1622033

Salerno, G M; McBride, D M; Bleicher, J N; Watson, P; Stromberg, B V



Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin  

PubMed Central

Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses.

Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Biro, Tamas; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf



Psoriasiform lesions induced by tumour necrosis factor antagonists: a skin-deep medical conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rarely, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)? antagonist therapy has been associated with de novo psoriasiform eruptions. This is unusual in that these same drugs are used to treat psoriasis. Most of these cases involve the palms and soles, yet palmoplantar pustular psoriasis represents only 1.7% of all cases of psoriasis. Keratoderma blenorrhagicum is a psoriasiform rash that occurs primarily on the

J D Carter; H C Gerard; A P Hudson



Reactive Oxygen Species in Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Activated Primary Human Keratinocytes: Implications for Psoriasis and Inflammatory Skin Disease  

PubMed Central

The multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is known to play an important role in inflammatory and immunological responses in human skin. Although it has been documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in TNF-?-induced signaling pathways associated with certain inflammatory diseases, their role in TNF-? signaling cascades has not been examined in primary human keratinocytes used as a model of inflammatory skin disease and psoriasis. Employing a series of in vitro and in cellulo approaches, we have demonstrated that in primary human keratinocytes (i) TNF-? rapidly induces ROS generation, I?B degradation, NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, and ultimately production of inflammatory cytokines; (ii) TNF-?-induced cytokine production is mediated both by the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway via NF-?B activation and by ROS; (iii) TNF-?-dependent NF-?B activation (that is, I?B degradation and NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation) is not mediated by ROS; and (iv) a cell-penetrating derivative of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, as well as taurine and N-acetyl-cysteine attenuate the TNF-?-induced production of cytokines. These latter results suggest that catalase and perhaps other antioxidants should be considered as part of a more specific and effective therapy for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis.

Young, Chen N.; Koepke, Jay I.; Terlecky, Laura J.; Borkin, Michael S.; Boyd, Savoy L.; Terlecky, Stanley R.



Extensive skin necrosis induced by low-molecular-weight heparin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome.  


Low-molecular-weight heparin-induced skin necrosis can occur as a clinical feature of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and antiphospholipid syndromes have some clinical features in common, including thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events. We describe a 46-year-old woman who developed extensive necrosis in the breast and other sites secondary to the use of enoxaparin after an elective hysterectomy. During the postoperative period, diagnoses of systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome were made because of some clinical and laboratory features (seizure, nephritis, bicytopenia, positive nuclear antibody, and positive antiphospholipid antibodies with a previous thrombotic event). The patient's clinical course improved only after corticosteroid therapy and the suspension of enoxaparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and antiphospholipid syndromes can have platelet factor 4 as a common denominator in their pathogenesis because platelet factor 4 tetramers can bind ?2-glycoprotein molecules. This case suggests that use of low-molecular-weight heparins could be more risky in patients with an underlying immune disease and/or could trigger immune reactions that must be analyzed in larger studies. PMID:22647862

Yazbek, Michel A; Velho, Paulo; Nadruz, Wilson; Mahayri, Nazira; Appenzeller, Simone; Costallat, Lilian Tereza Lavras



Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ‘sunburn’ response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans' cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-?, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the ‘sunburn’ response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast

Laurence J Walsh



Correlations between skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor-? and selected cytokines in Crohn's disease patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation between the appearance of skin lesions and concentration of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23 and interferon-? (IFN-?) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients during anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) therapy METHODS: A prospective study included 30 adult patients with CD of Caucasian origin (19 men and 11 women; mean age ± SD 32.0 ± 8.6 years) during biological therapy with anti-TNF-? antibodies from January 2012 to March 2013. Eighteen patients were treated with infliximab, seven with adalimumab and five with certolizumab. Inclusion criteria were exacerbation of the underlying disease, Crohn’s Disease Activity Index over 300 and the ineffectiveness of previously used non-biological therapies. Patients with a history of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other autoimmune skin lesions were excluded from the study. The control group consisted of 12 healthy subjects. A diagnostic survey was carried out, blood tests and careful skin examination were performed, and the serum levels of IL-17, IL-23 and IFN-? were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays technique. Dermatoses that have developed in the course of biological therapy in patients who had no pre-existing skin lesions of similar character were qualified as skin lesions induced by anti-TNF-? therapy. RESULTS: Skin manifestations occurred in 18 of CD patients during the anti-TNF-? therapy (60%), in the average time of 10.16 ± 3.42 mo following the beginning of the 52-wk treatment cycle. Skin lesions observed in CD patients during biological therapy included psoriasiform lesions (44.4%), and eczema forms lesions (22.2%). In CD patients with drug induced skin lesions significantly higher levels of hemoglobin (13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL vs 10.8 ± 1.9 g/dL, P = 0.018) and hematocrit (39.9% ± 4.5% vs 34.3% ± 5.4%, P = 0.01), as well as a significantly lower level of platelets (268 ± 62 × 103/?L vs 408 ± 239 × 103/?L, P = 0.046) was observed compared with CD patients without skin manifestations. The concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23 in CD patients with skin lesions developed under anti-TNF-? therapy were significantly higher compared to those in patients without lesions (IL-17A: 39.01 ± 7.03 pg/mL vs 25.71 ± 4.90 pg/mL, P = 0.00004; IL-23: 408.78 ± 94.13 pg/mL vs 312.15 ± 76.24 pg/mL, P = 0.00556). CONCLUSION: Skin lesions in CD patients during biological therapy may result from significantly increased concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23, which are strongly associated with TNF-?/Th1 immune pathways.

Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Wojcik, Bartosz; Loga, Karolina; Fichna, Jakub; Wisniewska-Jarosinska, Maria



Tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling in keratinocytes triggers interleukin-24-dependent psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice.  


Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a prevalence of about 2% in the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we report that the development of psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific inhibition of the transcription factor NF-?B was triggered by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-dependent upregulation of interleukin-24 (IL-24) and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in keratinocytes. IL-24 was strongly expressed in human psoriatic epidermis, and pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B increased IL-24 expression in TNF-stimulated human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that this mechanism is relevant for human psoriasis. Therefore, our results expand current views on psoriasis pathogenesis by revealing a new keratinocyte-intrinsic mechanism that links TNFR1, NF-?B, ERK, IL-24, IL-22R1, and STAT3 signaling to disease initiation. PMID:24211183

Kumari, Snehlata; Bonnet, Marion C; Ulvmar, Maria H; Wolk, Kerstin; Karagianni, Niki; Witte, Ellen; Uthoff-Hachenberg, Claudia; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Kollias, George; Toftgard, Rune; Sabat, Robert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Haase, Ingo



Ca2+ responses to interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Possible implications for Reye syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Elevated concentrations of cytokines were found in the plasma of patients acutely ill with Reye syndrome (RS) but not in control subjects or recovered RS patients. To determine whether this disorder involves a genetically determined abnormal response to cytokines, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 on intracellular free Ca2+ were compared in cultured skin fibroblasts from control subjects and patients with RS. IL-1 and TNF caused rapid, transient, and concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic free Ca2+. The peak cytosolic free Ca2+ was greater and occurred at higher concentrations of IL-1 and TNF in patient cells than in cells from age-matched controls. In control cells, the Ca2+ transient diminished sharply with increasing amounts of IL-1 or TNF above the maximum stimulatory concentration. In contrast, in patient fibroblast this bell-shaped curve of concentration dependency was much less apparent. Bradykinin-stimulated Ca2+ transients were similar in the two groups and did not exhibit the bell-shaped concentration dependency. Thus, plasma cytokine levels are elevated in RS patients and the Ca2+ response to cytokines is increased in cells derived from these patients. We propose that the increased response reflects a genetic defect in cytokine receptor-modulated signal transduction.

Corkey, B E; Geschwind, J F; Deeney, J T; Hale, D E; Douglas, S D; Kilpatrick, L



Skin necrosis following Haemaccel.  

PubMed Central

Haemaccel is a plasma substitute in frequent clinical use with a low incidence of side effects. I report a patient who developed necrotic blisters following two Haemaccel-insulin infusions, a previously undescribed complication. The rationale behind carrier solutions for insulin therapy is discussed and some of the problems associated with Haemaccel use are considered. I conclude by urging caution in the use of Haemaccel as a carrier solution for insulin therapy. Images Figure 1

Allen, M. B.



The Major Acute-Phase Protein, Serum Amyloid P Component, in Mice Is Not Involved in Endogenous Resistance against Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Lethal Hepatitis, Shock, and Skin Necrosis  

PubMed Central

The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) induces lethal hepatitis when injected into d-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice on the one hand or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in normal mice on the other hand. We studied whether serum amyloid P component (SAP), the major acute-phase protein in mice, plays a protective role in both lethal models. For this purpose, we used SAP0/0 mice generated by gene targeting. We studied the lethal response of SAP0/0 or SAP+/+ mice to both lethal triggers but found no differences in the sensitivity of both types of mice. We also investigated whether SAP is involved in establishing two types of endogenous protection: one using a single injection of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) for desensitization and clearly involving a liver protein, the other by tolerizing mice for 5 days using small doses of human TNF-?. Although after IL-1? or after tolerization the SAP levels in the serum had risen fourfold in the control mice and not in the SAP0/0 mice, the same extents of desensitization and tolerization were achieved. Finally, we observed that the induction of hemorrhagic necrosis in the skin of mice by two consecutive local injections with TNF-? was not altered in SAP0/0 mice. We conclude that the presence or absence of SAP has no influence on the sensitivity of mice to TNF-?-induced hepatitis, SIRS, and hemorrhagic necrosis or on the endogenous protective mechanisms of desensitization or tolerization.

Van Molle, Wim; Hochepied, Tino; Brouckaert, Peter; Libert, Claude



Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: An extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and cartilage  

PubMed Central

Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a relatively new entity in people who use cocaine. We describe a 44-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use who presented with a complaint of a painful rash of 2-3 month’s duration on her extremities, cheeks, nose, and earlobes. She had not experienced fever, weight loss, alopecia, dry eyes, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, or arthralgia. Examination revealed tender purpuric eruptions with central necrosis on her nose, cheeks, earlobes, and extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed neutropenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of lupus anticoagulant, low complement component 3 (C3), and presence of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was positive for levamisole. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and small vessel thrombosis. Necrotic lesions of the nose led to its self-amputation. Large bullae on the lower extremities ruptured, leading to wound infection and extensive necrosis that required multiple surgical debridements. When necrosis progressed despite debridement, bilateral above-knee amputation of the legs was performed. Once new lesions stopped appearing, the patient was discharged home. Two months later, she had a recurrence related to cocaine use. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of levamisole-induced vasculitis that required above-knee amputation.



Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  


Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N



Levamisole-induced occlusive necrotising vasculitis in cocaine abusers: an unusual cause of skin necrosis and neutropenia.  


We present three cases describing the various skin manifestations of presumed levamisole-contaminated cocaine use. Antibody-mediated vasculitis and neutropenia were consistent findings in these cases and repeat exposure resulted in distinct dermatologic complications. This phenomenon of levamisole-induced vasculitis and neutropenia is being increasingly described and has characteristic wound manifestations that must be recognised and treated early. PMID:22716045

Belfonte, Cassius D; Shanmugam, Victoria K; Kieffer, Nicole; Coker, Shodeinde; Boucree, Suelyn; Kerr, Gail



Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ex vivo human skin has been used extensively for cosmeceutical and drug delivery studies, transplantable skin allografts, or skin flaps. However, it has a half-life of a few days due to ischemic necrosis. Traditional methods of assessing viability can be time-consuming and provide limited metabolic information. Using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) we assess ischemic necrosis of ex vivo skin by NAD(P)H autofluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime. Ex vivo skin is stored in the presence and absence of nutrient media (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium) at -20, 4, and 37 °C and room temperature over a 7-day time course to establish different rates of metabolic deterioration. At higher temperatures we observe a decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, higher image noise, and a significant increase in the average fluorescence lifetime (?m) from ~1000 to 2000 ps. Additionally, significant distortions in NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime histograms correspond to the reduction in autofluorescence. Skin kept at 4 °C, with or without media, showed the least change. Our findings suggest that MPT-FLIM enables useful noninvasive optical biopsies to monitor the metabolic state and deterioration of human skin for research and clinical purposes.

Sanchez, Washington Y.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington H.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.



Murine Insulin Growth Factor-like (IGFL) and Human IGFL1 Proteins Are Induced in Inflammatory Skin Conditions and Bind to a Novel Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member, IGFLR1*  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a human skin condition characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and infiltration of multiple leukocyte populations. In characterizing a novel insulin growth factor (IGF)-like (IGFL) gene in mice (mIGFL), we found transcripts of this gene to be most highly expressed in skin with enhanced expression in models of skin wounding and psoriatic-like inflammation. A possible functional ortholog in humans, IGFL1, was uniquely and significantly induced in psoriatic skin samples. In vitro IGFL1 expression was up-regulated in cultured primary keratinocytes stimulated with tumor necrosis factor ? but not by other psoriasis-associated cytokines. Finally, using a secreted and transmembrane protein library, we discovered high affinity interactions between human IGFL1 and mIGFL and the TMEM149 ectodomain. TMEM149 (renamed here as IGFLR1) is an uncharacterized gene with structural similarity to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Our studies demonstrate that IGFLR1 is expressed primarily on the surface of mouse T cells. The connection between mIGFL and IGFLR1 receptor suggests mIGFL may influence T cell biology within inflammatory skin conditions.

Lobito, Adrian A.; Ramani, Sree R.; Tom, Irene; Bazan, J. Fernando; Luis, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Wayne J.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Gonzalez, Lino C.



Warfarin-induced pulmonary metastatic calcification and calciphylaxis in a patient with end-stage renal disease.  


Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (HD) suffer from a number of metabolic derangements. Ectopic deposition of calcium in the skin, soft tissues, blood vessels, and viscera is a potentially devastating consequence of disorders of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. We report the case of a patient with ESRD and secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving HD who developed metastatic pulmonary calcification and calciphylaxis following initiation of warfarin therapy after mechanical valve replacement. Because not all patients with ESRD receiving HD develop ectopic calcification, there appears to be a complex cascade of metabolic interactions that predispose patients to this process. Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist with inhibitory effects not only on proteins of the coagulation cascade, but also on other important protein systems. Its role in ectopic calcium deposition has been the subject of theories and has been reported in the literature, but no link with metastatic pulmonary calcification has been made. Patients receiving HD have an increased incidence of conditions that require chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, such as VTE, atrial fibrillation, and valvular heart disease requiring valve replacement surgery. Bioprosthetic valves should be considered in these patients because of the potential risk of metastatic calcification when warfarin is used in the setting of mechanical valve replacement. PMID:21652561

Cadavid, Juan C; DiVietro, Matthew L; Torres, Elio A; Fumo, Peter; Eiger, Glenn



Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population.

Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM



Mechanisms of JP-8 jet fuel cell toxicity. II. Induction of necrosis in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes and modulation of levels of Bcl-2 family members.  


JP-8 induces apoptosis in rat lung epithelial cells, primary mouse T lymphocytes, Jurkat T lymphoma cells, and U937 monocytic cells (Stoica et al., 2001). Here, we have observed a different mechanism of cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes grown in culture as well as when grafted onto nude mice. At lower levels of JP-8 (80 microg/ml; 1 x 10(-4) dilution), sufficient to induce apoptosis in other cell types, including lung epithelial cells (Stoica et al., 2001), no apoptosis was observed. At higher levels (>200 microg/ml; 2.5 x 10(-4) dilution), JP-8 is cytotoxic to both primary and immortalized human keratinocytes, as evidenced by the metabolism of calcein, as well as by morphological changes such as cell rounding and cell detachment. There was no evidence of activation of caspases-3, -7, or -8 either by enzyme activity or immunoblot analysis, and the stable expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of apoptosis (FADD-DN) did not increase the survival of keratinocytes to JP-8. The pattern of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was also characteristic of necrosis. PARP has been also been implicated in necrosis via its ability to lower levels of ATP in damaged cells. However, fibroblasts derived from PARP-/- mice underwent necrotic cell death similar to those derived from PARP+/+ mice, indicating that the effects of JP-8 are independent of PARP. Immunoblot analysis further revealed that exposure of keratinocytes to the toxic higher levels of JP-8 markedly downregulates the expression of the prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), and upregulates the expression of antisurvival members of this family, including Bad and Bak. Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) have been shown to preserve mitochondrial integrity and suppress cell death. In contrast, Bak and Bad both promote cell death by alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, in part by heterodimerization with and inactivation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), and either inducing necrosis or activating a downstream caspase program. High intrinsic levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) may prevent apoptotic death of keratinocytes at lower levels of JP-8, while perturbation of the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members at higher levels may ultimately play a role in necrotic cell death in human keratinocytes. Finally, when human keratinocytes were grafted to form a human epidermis on nude mice, treatment of these grafts with JP-8 revealed cytotoxicity and altered histology in vivo. PMID:11222086

Rosenthal, D S; Simbulan-Rosenthal, C M; Liu, W F; Stoica, B A; Smulson, M E



Comparison of the effectiveness of gene therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor or shock wave therapy to reduce ischaemic necrosis in an epigastric skin flap model in rats.  


The effect of gene therapy with adenovirus-mediated (Ad) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was compared to that of shock wave (SW) therapy on skin flap survival in a rat model, using the epigastric skin flap, based solely on the right inferior epigastric vessels. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (SW-group, Ad-VEGF-group, and Control-group) of 10 rats each. Immediately after surgery, the SW-group was administered 2500 impulses at 0.15mJ/mm(2), in the Ad-VEGF-group injections were made to the subdermal space whereas the Control-group received no treatment. Flap viability was evaluated on day 7 after the operation. Standardised digital pictures of the flaps were taken and transferred to the computer, and necrotic zones relative to total flap surface area were measured and expressed as percentages. Overall, significantly smaller areas of necrotic zones were noted in the SW-group and the Ad-VEGF-group compared with the Control-group (SW-group: median 2.23% (range: 0-5.1) versus Control-group: median 17.4% (range: 11.8-22.8) (p<0.05); Ad-VEGF-group: median 9.25% (range: 7.6-11.9) versus Control-group: median 17.4% (range: 11.8-22.8) (p<0.05)). Furthermore, in the SW-group, areas of necrotic zones were significantly smaller than in Ad-VEGF-group (SW-group: median 2.23% (range: 0-5.1) versus Ad-VEGF-group: median 9.25% (range: 7.6-11.9) (p<0.05)). We conclude that treatment with SW enhances epigastric skin flap survival significantly more than Ad-VEGF treatment and also represents a feasible and cost effective technique to improve blood supply in ischaemic tissue. PMID:17293284

Meirer, R; Huemer, G M; Oehlbauer, M; Wanner, S; Piza-Katzer, H; Kamelger, F S



Necrotizing Skin Infections  


... incisions or even healthy skin. Sometimes people with diverticulitis, intestinal perforation, or tumors of the intestine develop ... Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations bullae cellulitis coccal diverticulitis fasciitis immune globulin necrosis necrotizing fasciitis Back to ...


An unusual complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a well-described cause of subcutaneous calcification occurring in a young infant. Calcification of areas of fat necrosis in the neonate is a rare condition. In this case, the radiographic demonstration of soft-tissue calcification revealed the skin calcification in the absence of clinical signs of SCFN and without hypercalcaemia in the first 48 h of life.

Alaoui, Kaltoum; Abourazzak, Sana; Oulmaati, Abdellah; Hida, Moustapha; Bouharrou, Abdelhak



Localization of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors in normal and psoriatic skin: epidermal cells express the 55-kD but not the 75-kD TNF receptor.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF receptor (TNF-R) and p75 TNF-R in normal skin and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients has been investigated, using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. In normal skin, and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients, p55 TNF-R is associated with epidermal keratinocytes and a network of upper dermal dendritic cells. This suggests that the actions of TNF-alpha on epidermal cells in vivo are mediated by binding to the p55 TNF-R. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining of the parakeratotic stratum corneum and increased expression of p55 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels. Staining for p75 TNF-R in normal skin was restricted to eccrine sweat ducts and dermal dendritic cells, and was absent from the epidermis. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining for p75 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels and perivascular infiltrating cells. TNF-alpha in normal skin was predominantly localized to the basal cell layers of the epidermis, and was seen in association with eccrine ducts and sebaceous glands. In lesional psoriasis skin, and to a lesser extent in uninvolved psoriasis skin, TNF-alpha was distributed throughout the epidermis, and was also specifically localized to upper dermal blood vessels. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF-R and p75 TNF-R on dermal blood vessels in psoriasis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition by promoting cutaneous recruitment of inflammatory cells. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8

Kristensen, M; Chu, C Q; Eedy, D J; Feldmann, M; Brennan, F M; Breathnach, S M



Skin Pigment  


... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...


Large necrosis: a rare complication of medial thighplasty.  


Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can have bariatric surgery. Weight loss causes excess skin on the body, including the thighs. This leads to difficulty walking and psychological disorders such as devalued self-image. Medial thighplasty is an intervention to reduce excess skin and fat in the thighs. The main complications are scar migration, scar infection, hematoma, lymphedema, gaping vulva, and, rarely, skin necrosis. We describe a case of flap necrosis after a reoperation of medial thighplasty. Treatment included debridement of necrotic tissue and healing of the wound by secondary intention (vacuum-assisted closure and dressings with calcium alginate). Complete healing was achieved in 4 months. As the patient refused any new procedure, skin grafting was not performed. The aesthetic results of plastic surgery procedures are often imperfect. Patients should be clearly prepared and informed about the results expected from the operation. Surgeons should know contraindications for reoperation. PMID:21607533

Bertheuil, N; Aillet, S; Heusse, J L; Flecher, E; Watier, E



Bilateral scalp necrosis with giant cell arteritis.  


We present a patient with bilateral scalp necrosis caused by giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis). A 67-year-old woman, who had been treated with 5 mg of oral prednisolone every other day for polymyalgia rheumatica, developed painful egg-sized regions of necrosis on both of her temples. Doppler pulsemetory revealed bilateral obstruction of the temporal arteries. Biopsy revealed ischemic necrosis of the skin and necrotic angiitis of the temporal arteries with giant cell infiltration. Bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid arteries and moderate retinal bleeding were revealed by angiography. Daily administration of prednisolone (20 mg/day) with intravenous and topical limaprost alphadex markedly improved her condition. The ulcers reepithelized without surgical treatment. There are few reports of bilateral scalp necrosis. Rapid and complete obstruction of the temporal artery may result in this condition. Simultaneous development of two ulcerative lesions in the ventro-parietal cranial regions is thought to correspond to systemic arterial involvement, including involvement of the internal carotid arteries. PMID:12692357

Matsushima, Midori; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-ichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi



Skin Cancer  


... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... see a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...


Acute retinal necrosis syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare syndrome with characteristic fundal appearances which can have devastating effects on vision. We present six cases (nine eyes) seen in the Medical Eye Unit of St Thomas's Hospital over the past six years and discuss the clinical features, aetiology, and management. Our findings support the present consensus that the condition is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV). One of our patients, who was atypical in having common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia, had suffered a widespread zosteriform rash immediately prior to the onset of ARN, while another had suffered a herpes simplex uveomeningoencephalitis. All cases had characteristic confluent peripheral retinal necrosis, and three of the nine eyes developed retinal detachment. Retinal arteritis was a prominent and helpful diagnostic feature in one case. From combining all reports to date of this rare condition it is possible to conclude that ARN is unilateral in 65% of cases. Images

Gartry, D. S.; Spalton, D. J.; Tilzey, A.; Hykin, P. G.



Necrosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis was long regarded as an accidental cell death process resulting from overwhelming cellular injury such as chemical\\u000a or physical disruption of the plasma membrane. Such a definition, however, proved to be inapplicable to many necrotic scenarios.\\u000a The discovery that genetic manipulation of several proteins either protected or enhanced necrotic cell death argued in favor\\u000a of a regulated and hence

Tobias Eisenberg; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez; Sabrina Büttner; Nektarios Tavernarakis; Frank Madeo



Fat necrosis in the breast from methylene blue dye injection  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard of clinical care in staging axillary lymph nodes for breast carcinoma. While deemed safe and effective, methylene blue dye has been associated with infection, fibrosis, and skin and fat necrosis. The variable appearance of surgical dye-related fibrosis and fat necrosis on imaging studies poses a challenge to both radiologists and clinicians. We present a patient in whom a new enhancing lesion was visualized on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging for known breast carcinoma in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Parish, David; Hamilton, Raynal; Wang, Jean C.



Skin Conditions  


... redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, ...


Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  


... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...


Skin tightening.  


Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. PMID:21865807

Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N



Skin Changes Induced by Uv-Irradiated Linolenic Acid Extract.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subcutaneous administration of an aqueous extract of ultraviolet-irradiated linolenic acid resulted in alopecic plaque in the skin of mice. The extract induced necrosis in the epidermis; its epithelial appendages and dermis; followed by an inflammatory re...

V. S. Waravdekar L. D. Saslaw W. A. Jones J. G. Kuhns



Virus Necrosis of Tobacco Veins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virus necrosis of tobacco veins (browning of tobacco veins) occurs all over Poland and causes major economic losses. Studies of a number of orders show that the necrosis of tobacco veins is caused by a virus, which belongs to the group of potato virus Y (...

J. Berbec



Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate  

PubMed Central

Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma.

Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert



Polyarteritis Nodosa with Bilateral Asynchronous Testicular Necrosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic vasculitis which may result in thrombosis or aneurysm formation in any organ of the body. We report a case polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) resulting in bilateral asynchronous testicular necrosis. A 55-year-old male developed acute onset of left testicular pain resulting in a left orchiectomy and right orchidopexy for an ischemic left testicle without evidence of torsion. Three weeks later, the patient developed acute right-sided scrotal pain, and surgical exploration revealed a right necrotic testicle resulting in a right orchiectomy. Pathologic evaluations demonstrated benign testes with acute interstitial hemorrhage and focal atrophy. The patient also experienced abdominal skin necrosis, penile pain and swelling, and temporary loss of vision. This is a unique case of PAN and the only case of asynchronous testicular necrosis in the medical literature.

Toepfer, Nicholas J.; Lountzis, Nektarios I.; Ugoeke, Joseph C.; Ferringer, Tammie C.



Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene polymorphism in alopecia areata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) phenotypes of two polymorphic systems were determined in 50 patients with alopecia areata, a common inflammatory disease of the skin. The distribution of TNF-a T1, T2 phenotypes differed between patients with the patchy form of disease and patients with totalis\\/universalis disease. There was no significant difference in the distribution of TNF-a G,A phenotypes between patient

Gillian M. P. Galbraith; Janardan P. Pandey



An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely.

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.



Dry Skin  


... for dealing with dry skin: • Take short, warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils ... and are not necessarily bad; in fact, most bath bars are detergents and not soaps. Often, detergents ...


Skin Cancer  


Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...


Skin Complications  


... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...


Artificial skin.  


Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H




PubMed Central

Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation.

Opie, Eugene L.



On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.  


Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation. PMID:14482110




Cutaneous necrosis induced by acenocoumarol.  


Cutaneous necrosis is an infrequent but well-documented complication of oral anticoagulants. In the pathogenesis of cutaneous necrosis induced by oral anticoagulants recent hypotheses favour the combined role of local factors and a transient unbalance of coagulation mechanisms leading to an hypercoagulable state. There exists a genetic factor that determines a decreased level of two vitamin-K dependent glycoproteins, namely protein C and protein S. We present the case of an obese woman that developed an extensive cutaneous necrosis while receiving acenocoumarol for a deep venous thrombosis. She had an heterozygous deficit for protein C. The histopathologic findings of vessel thrombi and red blood cell extravasation were consistent with the clinical picture. A biopsy specimen taken from an initial lesion disclosed images of leucocytoclastic vasculitis. We reviewed the literature focusing on the pathogenesis and the histopathology of the disease. PMID:15009309

Valdivielso, M; Longo, I; Lecona, M; Lázaro, P



Warfarin-induced purple toe syndrome successfully treated with apixaban.  


Purple toe syndrome is a recognised adverse effect of warfarin therapy. The literature has described resolution of the ischaemic symptoms on withdrawal of the warfarin and switching to a low molecular weight heparin alternative. We present a case of an 82-year-old man with bilateral blanching vivacious toes and a livedo-reticularis type rash developing 2?weeks after being loaded with warfarin for first detected atrial fibrillation. Vascular surgical review and haematology thrombotic screen did not yield any other pathology and a diagnosis of purple toe syndrome due to warfarin was carried out. The warfarin was stopped and oral anticoagulation started with an oral factor Xa inhibitor, apixaban with resolution of his symptoms. This is the first case report of one of the novel oral anticoagulants being used to treat purple toe syndrome. PMID:24925541

Cakebread, Holly E; Knight, Hui Min; Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Cooper, John P



Reversal of Warfarin-Induced Hemorrhage in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Warfarin, an oral vitamin K antagonist, is used to prevent arterial and venous thromboembolism in patients suffering from a multitude of diseases. In 2004, 31 million warfarin prescriptions were dispensed in the United States. Warfarin inhibits the activation of the vitamin K–dependent clotting factors (Factors II, VII, IX, and X) and regulatory proteins (proteins C, S, and Z). It is one of the leading drugs implicated in emergency room visits for adverse drug reactions. Annually the frequency of bleeding complications associated with overanticoagulation is 15% to 20%, with fatal bleeds measuring as high as 1% to 3%. The most effective method of warfarin reversal involves the use of Four Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC), which is widely used throughout Europe but is unavailable in the United States. The current therapies available to emergency room physicians in the United States are fresh frozen plasma, recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa), Factor Eight Inhibitory Bypassing Activity, or Three Factor PCC concomitantly administered with vitamin K. We review the advantages and disadvantages of these therapies and recommend Three Factor PCC with small doses of rFVIIa and with vitamin K in life-threatening situations if Four Factor PCC is unavailable.

Zareh, Meena; Davis, Andrew; Henderson, Sean



Tail tip necrosis in Ontario beef feedlot cattle  

PubMed Central

Studies were performed to establish the prevalence and importance of tail tip necrosis in the southern Ontario beef feedlot industry and to characterize the gross appearance and histopathology of the condition. In a mail survey, 96% of 71 feedlots with slatted floors, but only 5% of 184 feedlots with solid floors, reported a problem with tail tip necrosis from 1982-1986. Treatments reported included antibiotics, amputation of the tail (therapeutic or preventive), and slaughter. Lameness was associated with tail tip necrosis. A scoring system for severity of necrosis was developed. Repeated inspections revealed that mild lesions were unlikely to progress to more severe stages. Histological alterations such as perivascular edema and hemorrhage, dermal scarring, follicular atrophy, and paucity of leukocytes were compatible with cutaneous ischemia. Of 441 tails inspected at slaughter plants, 34.5% were affected, with 3.4% involving skin lacerations and infection, and 4.3% amputated before slaughter. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.

Drolia, Helen; Luescher, U. Andrew; Meek, Alan H.; Wilcock, Brian P.



Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.



Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the metabolic disposition of acetaminophen and the susceptibility of hamsters, mice and rats to acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis has been examined. The fraction of low doses of acetaminophen converted to the mercapturic acid metabolite was highest in the most susceptible species (hamsters, mice), and lowest in the more resistant species (rat). Pretreatment regimens known to potentiate the hepatotoxicity

D. J. Jollow; S. S. Thorgeirsson; W. Z. Potter; M. Hashimoto; J. R. Mitchell



An unusual cause of toe necrosis  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vascular disease is a rare feature of pheochromocytoma. This potentially catastrophic but curable tumor should be suspected in combination of distal necrosis with hypertension and palpable pulses. We report such an unusual case of pheochromocytoma presenting as toe necrosis.

Bandawar, Mayur S.; Ansari, Mohammad S.; Behera, Arunanshu; Bhadada, Sanjay K.



Skin Tightening  


... used for this non-invasive skin tightening include: Infrared laser Pulsed infrared light Radiofrequency Signs of Aging Treated Different devices ... References: Alexiades-Armenakas MR, Dover JS, Arndt KA. “Laser Therapy.” In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP et ...


Skin Cancer  


... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...


Dry skin  


... air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The ... as chemicals and solvents Sudden changes in body temperature or stress, which may cause you to sweat ...


Aging Skin  


... on Aging skin Read more from Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information about varicose and spider veins, including the causes, prevention, potential dangers, and treatment. ...


Skin lumps  


... the kind that feel soft and roll easily (lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , ...


Skin Examinations  


... when performing a skin self-exam: Full-length mirror Handheld mirror Well-lit room that offers privacy Pen or ... Examine your body front and back in the mirror, then right and left sides with arms raised. ...


Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;



Skin dimples.  


Skin dimples are a common occurrence in children. Besides being of cosmetic significance, they may give an important clue to an underlying genetic or metabolic problem. A simplified location-based algorithmic approach to diagnose the underlying cause of skin dimples is presented. Clinical significance of medically important dimples, especially sacral dimples, its association with occult spinal dysraphism, and a cost-effective diagnostic strategy for its imaging is discussed. PMID:24738724

Kumar, Ajay; Kanojia, Rajesh K; Saili, Arvind



The biochemistry of neuronal necrosis: rogue biology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When stressed beyond their tolerance, cells undergo necrosis, an acute, non-apoptotic form of cell death. Necrosis is crucial to the damage that injury and disease inflict on the nervous system. Recent discoveries have shed light onto the molecular requirements for necrosis, and provide new evidence that, as is the case for apoptosis, the mechanisms of necrotic cell death are conserved

Popi Syntichaki; Nektarios Tavernarakis



Temporal arteritis presenting with tongue necrosis.  


Spontaneous glossodynia is uncommon and glossodynia progressing to necrosis is especially rare. Although the commonest cause of lingual necrosis is giant cell arteritis, only a few cases of a new diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, clinically presenting with isolated lingual necrosis, have been reported. PMID:23166175

Kumarasinghe, Anuttara Panchali; Hepburn, Alastair; Reuther, William John; Pratt, Clive



Clinical pharmacokinetics of tumor necrosis factor antagonists.  


Clinical pharmacokinetics of the 3 existing marketed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists, adalimumab (Abbott Laboratories), etanercept (Amgen, Inc.), and infliximab (Centocor, Inc.) are reviewed. The relevance and potential clinical implications of any differences in their pharmacokinetic properties are outlined. The major therapeutic goal when administering TNF antagonists is to eliminate the surplus of TNF from the circulation and from sites of inflammation. Within the causal chain of events after a drug is administered the exposure (or pharmacokinetics) precedes the effect (or pharmacodynamics). The differences in the observed concentration-time profiles and the exposure characteristics derived from them are induced either by differences of the inherent properties of the molecules (such as binding to various receptors, absorption and clearance mechanisms and rates, etc.), or by the differences in the dosage and administration regimens of the drugs (such as dose magnitude, administration frequency, route of administration, etc.). Review of the dose exposure-response cascade of the TNF antagonists shows that: (1) their pharmacokinetic properties should be interpreted in the context of the "therapeutic window" paradigm; and (2) exposure of tissues and fluids is a primary determinant of the drug action/adverse action. Therefore, efforts should be made to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the TNF antagonists in such tissues/fluids of interest as the inflammation sites (e.g., synovium, gut mucosa, skin lesions) and sites of potential adverse effects (e.g., lungs). PMID:15742459

Nestorov, Ivan



Skin care and incontinence  


Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...


Skin color - patchy  


Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...


Reconstruction of soft tissue necrosis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia.  


Cryoglobulinaemia is an uncommon immunological disorder that can lead to extensive areas of skin and soft-tissue necrosis. The reconstructive surgeon may be faced with the wound complications of cryoglobulinaemia but there are few case reports in the literature to help guide the reconstructive approach. Moreover, the literature suggests that these wounds are refractory to conventional wound care principles and routine reconstructive practices, and can signify a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cryoglobulinaemia leading to severe bilateral lower limb ulceration with necrosis extending through subcutaneous tissues and muscle to the level of bone. Faced with the possibility of above knee amputation, these wounds with exposed bone denuded of periosteum were successfully reconstructed with the dermal regeneration template Pelnac(®) (Gunze Corp., Kyoto, Japan) and secondary split skin grafting. As far as we are aware, this is the first case reported in the literature where reconstruction was successful, disease remission was achieved, and significant morbidity or mortality did not ensue. We discuss caveats to the reconstruction of soft tissue loss secondary to cryoglobulinaemia, and highlight the multimodal approach to treatment. PMID:24755034

Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Maitz, Peter K M



Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat’ precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days), 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days), and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day) was given for 4 months. Results At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN.

Pikkel, Yoav Y.; Pikkel, Joseph



A Case Report of the Use of Nanocrystalline Silver Dressing in the Management of Acute Surgical Site Wound Infected With MRSA to Prevent Cutaneous Necrosis Following Revision Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the use of nanocrystalline silver (Acticoat 7, Smith and Nephew, London, UK) in an acute surgical wound to prevent localized skin necrosis due to infection, thereby avoiding skin grafting as a secondary procedure. Two patients were successfully treated with Acticoat 7 dressings without using systemic antimicrobials after developing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the surgical site. Despite

Mayukh Bhattacharyya; Helen Bradley



Your Skin  


... about it. Back Continue Dermis = Lots of Blood Vessels Your dermis is also full of tiny blood vessels. These keep your skin cells healthy by bringing ... need and by taking away waste. These blood vessels are hard to see in kids, but you ...


Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome as a cause of hepatic centrilobular hemorrhagic necrosis.  


Extensive and severe hepatic centrilobular hemorrhagic necrosis is a common finding in hepatic vein obstruction and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Some drugs, including allopurinol, can also cause this histopathologic appearance but to our knowledge in this setting the lesions are not so massive. Here we report a case of a 41-year-old female who developed fever, pruritic skin rash, jaundice, eosinophilia, abnormal liver function tests, and acute renal failure 3 weeks after the beginning of allopurinol treatment, complicated with severe hepatocyte necrosis around most terminal hepatic venules suggesting Budd-Chiari syndrome. PMID:14989119

Mete, N; Yilmaz, F; Gulbahar, O; Aydin, A; Sin, A; Kokuludag, A; Yuce, G; Sebik, F



Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.



Skin of Color  


... a dermatologist. Skin cancer Anyone, regardless of skin color or ethnicity, can develop skin cancer, so it is important to practice sun safety. Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, can ...


Skin Allergy Quiz  


Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...


Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  


... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...


Allergy testing - skin  


Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...


Skin Cancer Foundation  


... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... Lamps Skin Cancer Prevention Guidelines The Skin Cancer Foundation’s Response to the EWG 2014 Sunscreen Report Study: ...


Bacterial Skin Infections  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections ...


Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Tumor Necrosis via Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1-Expressing Endothelial Cells of the Tumor Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Activation of endothelial cells, fibrin deposition, and coagulation within the tumor vasculature has been shown in vivo to correlate with the occurrence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced tumor necrosis in mice. In the present study we investigated which target cells mediate the TNF-induced necrosis in fibrosarcomas grown in wild type (wt), TNF receptor type 1-deficient (TNFRp55?/?), and TNF receptor type 2-deficient (TNFRp75?/?) mice. TNF administration resulted in tumor necrosis exclusively in wt and TNFRp75?/?, but not in TNFRp55?/? mice, indicating a dependence of TNF-mediated tumor necrosis on the expression of TNF receptor type 1. However, using wt and TNFRp55?/? fibrosarcomas in wt mice, we found that TNF-mediated tumor necrosis was completely independent of TNF receptor type 1 expression in tumor cells. Thus we could exclude any direct tumoricidal effect of TNF in this model. Soluble TNF induced leukostasis in wt and TNFRp75?/? mice but not in TNFRp55?/? mice. TNF-induced leukostasis in TNFRp55?/? mice was restored by adoptive bone marrow transplantation of wt hematopoietic cells, but TNF failed to induce tumor necrosis in these chimeric mice. Because TNF administration resulted in both activation and focal damage of tumor endothelium, TNF receptor type 1-expressing cells of the tumor vasculature, likely to be endothelial cells, appear to be target cells for mediating TNF-induced tumor necrosis.

Stoelcker, Benjamin; Ruhland, Brigitte; Hehlgans, Thomas; Bluethmann, Horst; Luther, Thomas; Mannel, Daniela N.



Avascular necrosis and protease inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

Avascular necrosis (AVN) indicates ischemic death of the bone due to insufficient arterial blood supply. The incidence rate of AVN is higher in HIV-infected patients than in the general population. Although the exact etiology of AVN remains unclear, the literature has shown a relationship between AVN and exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It should be noted, however, that AVN has been reported before the era of HAART, thus suggesting the involvement of other causative factors as well. Three case reports based on patients attending the infectious disease clinic are presented. No cases of AVN are reported in our clinic population prior to this report. Affected sites of AVN included the hip and shoulders. The incidence of AVN within our patient population was higher than the general population. Although the introduction of HAART has improved patient longevity, it has also led to longer exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Thus, it is likely that treatment-related complications may become more apparent in the HIV-infected population. This may be the case with AVN. Therefore, clinicians need to be alert to the potential complication of AVN in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. Images Figure 1

Reddy, Ramani; Daftary, Monika N.; Delapenha, Robert; Dutta, Arjun; Oliver, Jacquay; Frederick, Winston



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Skin side effects of inflammatory bowel disease therapy.  


Skin manifestations are common in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and can be associated with the disease itself, with nutritional deficiencies, or with therapy. All drugs currently used for treating IBD have the potential to cause dermatologic manifestations that can have a wide range of clinical presentations, from mild drug eruptions to potentially life-threatening immune-mediated reactions. The wider use of thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor in the past years has led to the recognition of 2 more skin complications of IBD therapy: the potentially disfiguring non-melanoma skin cancer associated with the current or past use of thiopurines and the paradoxical new onset or exacerbation of anti-tumor necrosis factor-associated psoriasis. Despite being rare, these complications can be severe and lead to therapy discontinuation, and therefore, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with their epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Herein, we reviewed the skin side effects of IBD therapy, specially focusing in thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and in the recently described skin cancer and psoriasis, and we tried to advance some practical algorithms that can provide some help to the clinicians dealing with these complications in their day-by-day practice. PMID:23474780

Torres, Joana; Buche, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric



Acute Retinal Necrosis after Herpetic Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of unilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic encephalitis Case Report A young man was referred with a chief complaint of blurred vision and pain of the left eye 1 month after herpetic encephalitis in the left frontotemporal lobe. The patient had multiple foci of retinitis in the retinal periphery associated with vitritis, blot retinal hemorrhage and retinal arteriolitis. The impression of acute retinal necrosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of aqueous humor by detecting herpes simplex virus type 2; therefore, the patient received intravenous acyclovir. Conclusion Herpetic encephalitis may be a risk factor for acute retinal necrosis. The virus may reach the eye by the trans-axonal route. Prophylaxis with acyclovir may be necessary after herpetic encephalitis to prevent acute retinal necrosis.

Kianersi, F.; Masjedi, A.; Ghanbari, H.



Skin graft - series (image)  


... barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: extensive wounds burns specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur. The most common sites of harvest for skin grafts are the buttocks ...


Stages of Skin Cancer  


... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


Pulpal necrosis with sickle cell anaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

DemirbasKaya A, Aktener BO, Unsal C¸. Pulpal necrosis with sickle cell anaemia. International Endodontic Journal, 37, 602-606, 2004. Aim To investigate radiographic manifestations of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and whether or not a pulpal necrosis may develop without a pathological history. Methodology Thirty-six patients with homozygous SCA were evaluated, and a further 36 individuals without SCA were included in the

A. Demirbas Kaya; B. O. Aktener; C. Unsal



Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Reserpine is able to exert a pronounced inhibitory effect on the development of papillary necrosis following the administration of bromoethylamine hydrobromide to the rat. This inhibitory effect has been observed using light microscopy, histochemistry, indigo carmine excretion and urine output. These observations suggest that vasoconstriction may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis, but the evidence for this is incomplete. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6

Wyllie, R. G.; Hill, G. S.; Murray, G.; Ramsden, P. W.; Heptinstall, R. H.



Skin layers (image)  


... temperature. The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important ...


Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.



Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo.  


Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite. PMID:22612149

Yanina, Irina Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Navolokin, Nikita A; Matveeva, Olga V; Bucharskaya, Alla B; Maslyakova, Galina N; Altshuler, Gregory B



Adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis reduces neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in partial-thickness scald burns in mice.  


Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), present in thermally injured tissue, modulates the inflammatory response and causes significant tissue damage. The authors hypothesize that neutrophil infiltration and ensuing tissue necrosis would be mitigated by removing ATP-dependent signaling at the burn site. Mice were subjected to 30% TBSA partial-thickness scald burn by dorsal skin immersion in a water bath at 60 or 20°C (nonburn controls). In the treatment arm, an ATP hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, was applied directly to the site immediately after injury. Skin was harvested after 24 hours and 5 days for hematoxylin and eosin stain, elastase, and Ki-67 staining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? expression were measured through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. At 24 hours, the amount of neutrophil infiltration was different between the burn and burn + apyrase groups (P < .001). Necrosis was less extensive in the apyrase group when compared with the burn group at 24 hours and 5 days. TNF-? and IFN-? expression at 24 hours in the apyrase group was lower than in the burn group (P < .05). However, Ki-67 signaling was not significantly different among the groups. The results of this study support the role of extracellular ATP in neutrophil activity. The authors demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis at the burn site allays the neutrophil response to thermal injury and reduces tissue necrosis. This decrease in inflammation and tissue necrosis is at least partially because of TNF-? and IFN-? signaling. Apyrase could be used as topical inflammatory regulators to quell the injury caused by inflammation. PMID:23877144

Bayliss, Jill; Delarosa, Sara; Wu, Jianfeng; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N; Su, Grace L; Hemmila, Mark; Krebsbach, Paul H; Cederna, Paul S; Wang, Stewart C; Xi, Chuanwu; Levi, Benjamin



A study of the necrotic actions of the venom of the wolf spider, Lycosa godeffroyi, on mouse skin.  


1. The venom of the wolf spider, Lycosa godeffroyi, caused cutaneous necrosis when injected into mice. 2. A strong inflammatory response and total loss of epidermal cellularity were features of this in vivo necrosis. 3. Mouse skin envenomated while in tissue culture showed epidermal detachment and reduced cellular adhesion. 4. Triprolidine and methysergide, used together, indomethacin, heparin and human and mouse sera all failed to inhibit the necrosis significantly. 5. The venom caused moderate haemolysis, complement consumption and inhibition of clotting, these apparently not being the main reasons for the necrosis. 6. Neither Atrax infensus venom nor hyaluronidase caused similar epithelial damage. PMID:1977558

Atkinson, R K; Wright, L G



The role of inflammation in skin cancer.  


Cancer is an environmental disease and skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma) is the most common of all cancers. Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest "chronic inflammation" to be one of the hallmarks in solar ultraviolet radiation and several other environmental agent-mediated skin cancers. The identification of transcription factors, mainly nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) and their gene products i.e. prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytokines [tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-?)], chemokines [CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL)] and chemokine receptors suggest critical role of inflammation in skin carcinogenesis. Considering the potential role of inflammation in tumor initiation and its major role in promotion/progression, as well as tumor angiogenesis and metastasis; inflammatory pathways may become attractive targets for skin cancer prevention. Hence this review focuses on compiling available evidence and understanding the role of chronic inflammation in the development of skin cancer. PMID:24818733

Maru, Girish B; Gandhi, Khushboo; Ramchandani, Asha; Kumar, Gaurav



Adaptive Skin Color Classificator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color is an important feature of faces. Various ap- plications benefit from robust skin color detection. Skin color may look quite different, depending on camera set- tings, illumination, shadows, people's tans, ethnic groups. That variation is a challenging aspect of skin color classi- fication. In this paper, we present an approach that uses a high level vision module to

Matthias Wimmer; Bernd Radig; Informatik IX



Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... melanoma appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...


Comparative study of 1,064-nm laser-induced skin burn and thermal skin burn.  


Infrared lasers are widely used in medicine, industry, and other fields. While science, medicine, and the society in general have benefited from the many practical uses of lasers, they also have inherent safety issues. Although several procedures have been put forward to protect the skin from non-specific laser-induced damage, individuals receiving laser therapy or researchers who use laser are still at risk for skin damage. This study aims to understand the interaction between laser and the skin, and to investigate the differences between the skin damage caused by 1,064-nm laser and common thermal burns. Skin lesions on Wistar rats were induced by a 1,064-nm CW laser at a maximum output of 40 W and by a copper brass bar attached to an HQ soldering iron. Histological sections of the lesions and the process of wound healing were evaluated. The widths of the epidermal necrosis and dermal denaturalization of each lesion were measured. To observe wound healing, the epithelial gap and wound gap were measured. Masson's trichrome and picrosirius red staining were also used to assess lesions and wound healing. The thermal damage induced by laser intensified significantly in both horizontal dimension and in vertical depth with increased duration of irradiation. Ten days after wounding, the dermal injuries induced by laser were more severe. Compared with the laser-induced skin damage, the skin burn induced by an HQ soldering iron did not show a similar development or increased in severity with the passage of time. The results of this study showed the pattern of skin damage induced by laser irradiation and a heated brass bar. This study also highlighted the difference between laser irradiation and thermal burn in terms of skin damage and wound healing, and offers insight for further treatment. PMID:23559275

Zhang, Yi-Ming; Ruan, Jing; Xiao, Rong; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yue-Sheng



The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.  


The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

Holland, G N



Paper sections of macroenzymatically delineated myocardial necrosis.  


Until now, the disadvantages of the nitroblue tetrazolium method of detecting myocardial necrosis have been that the colour reaction tended to fade and the wet heart slices were inconvenient for demonstration and storage. We have therefore modified the rapid technique of mounting sections of whole organs on paper to preserve the colour reaction. We can now show the extent of necrosis in permanent, readily portable, paper-mounted heart sections within 24 hours (although 48 hours is more convenient). Multiple preparations from multiple slices can be prepared for clinicopathological correlation, comparison with other cases, teaching, presentation at meetings, use in the case notes and distribution with the postmortem report. PMID:2432021

Derias, N W; Whimster, W F



Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion  

PubMed Central

Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion.

Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.



Estrogens and aging skin  

PubMed Central

Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies.

Thornton, M. Julie



[Calciphylaxis: ischemic tissue necrosis in chronic renal failure. Case report and review of the literature].  


Calciphylaxis is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication in chronic renal failure. It is characterized by ischemic tissue necrosis primarily of the skin. The typical histopathologic finding is microvascular calcification with endovascular fibrosis. Patients typically present with violaceous, mottled and painful lesions which tend to progress to non-healing ulcers and necrosis. Most frequently the lower extremities are involved in a symmetric fashion but the trunk may also be affected. Sepsis from superinfection of the lesions accounts for the high mortality of this disease which is of importance for dermatologists and nephrologists alike. 61-year-old female patient developed lesions of calciphylaxis on both calves two years after beginning hemodialysis to treat renal failure due to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. We discuss aspects of the pathogenesis of calciphylaxis, as well as diagnosis, treatment and means of prevention, and review the current literature. PMID:10663038

Schwarz, G; Laukhuf, F; Bittinger, F; Knop, J; Saloga, J



Bone marrow necrosis complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia.  


Two women with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase were found to have bone marrow necrosis when severe bone pains and falling blood counts prompted a marrow examination to exclude blast transformation. One patient survived for 12 months following the event without transforming. The second patient died soon after and was found to have widespread extramedullary disease. PMID:1934927

Macheta, A T; Cinkotai, K I; Love, E M; Geary, C G; Liu Yin, J A



Salmonid viruses: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epizootics occurred among young trout in France, and the behavior and symptoms suggested infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Specimens preserved in glycerol were sent to the U.S.A. for virological examination. Virus was isolated from four of five lots, but neutralization with antiserum against ATCC VR299 strain IPN virus was incomplete. Electron microscopy, bioassay, histopathology, and serology were used to

Ken Wolf; M. C. Quimby



Cutaneous Necrosis and Calcinosis Following Electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report 2 children who developed circumscribed dystrophic calcifications at the site of electrode placement after electroencephalographic examination. Deep cutaneous necrosis was a prominent clinical feature. A biopsy showed focal dermal calcification confirmed by a diffractometer analysis of a calcific granule. Cutaneous calcinosis is a possible risk of the usage of an electrode paste containing calcium chloride. Prolonged exposure

G. Mancuso; A. Tosti; P. A. Fanti; R. M. Berdondini; R. Mongiorgi; A. Morandi



Delayed radiation necrosis of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cases of six patients are presented to delineate the clinical profile of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain. In five the diagnosis was verified histologically. Symptoms most often begin 9 months to 2 years after radiotherapy. Progressive visual impairment and dementia are common following perisellar irradiation, while hemispheric signs predominate following irradiation of the cerebrum. Cerebrospinal fluid protein may

Albert N. Martins; James S. Johnston; James M. Henry; Thomas J. Stoffel; G. DiChiro



Epigenetic Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) is a potent cytokine which regulates inflammation via the induction of adhesion molecules and chemokine expression. Its expression is known to be regulated in a complex manner with transcription, message turnover, message splicing, translation, and protein cleavage from the cell surface all being independently regulated. This study examined both cell lines and primary cells to

K. E. Sullivan; A. B. M. Reddy; K. Dietzmann; A. R. Suriano; V. P. Kocieda; M. Stewart; M. Bhatia



Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.  


Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand



Skin-sparing mastectomy. Oncologic and reconstructive considerations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors compared skin-sparing mastectomy and traditional mastectomy both followed by immediate reconstruction in the treatment of breast cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Skin-sparing mastectomy is used increasingly in the treatment of breast cancer to improve the aesthetic results of immediate reconstruction. The oncologic and reconstructive outcomes of this procedure have never been analyzed closely. METHODS: Institutional experience with 435 consecutive patients who underwent total mastectomy and immediate reconstruction from January 1989 through December 1994 was examined. Mastectomies were stratified into skin-sparing (SSM) and non-skin-sparing (non-SSM) types. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-seven SSMs and 188 non-SSMs were performed. The mean follow-up was 41.3 months (SSM, 37.5 months, non-SSM, 48.2 months). Local recurrences from invasive cancer occurred after 4.8% of SSMs versus 9.5% of non-SSMs. Sixty-five percent of patients who underwent SSMs had nothing performed on the opposite breast versus 45% in the group of patients who underwent non-SSM (p = 0.0002). Native skin flap necrosis occurred in 10.7% of patients who underwent SSMs versus 11.2% of patients who underwent non-SSMs. CONCLUSIONS: Skin-sparing mastectomy facilitates immediate breast reconstruction by reducing remedial surgery on the opposite breast. Native skin flap necrosis is not increased over that seen with non-SSM. Skin-sparing mastectomies can be used in the treatment of invasive cancer without compromising local control. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Carlson, G W; Bostwick, J; Styblo, T M; Moore, B; Bried, J T; Murray, D R; Wood, W C



Scalded skin syndrome  


Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...


Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...


Hormones and the Skin  


... Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts Prevention and care Hormones and the skin Hormones ...


Laser Skin Rejuvenation  


... Best for early signs of aging. Intense pulsed light (IPL) – Not a laser, this light therapy penetrates deeper into the skin than a ... solution that makes the skin more sensitive to light is applied and left on for 30 minutes ...


Comparative Genetic Association of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha with Dermatitis Herpetiformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic subepidermal vesicular autoimmune skin disease characterized by a strong association with the human Ieukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype. Although the strongest major histocompatibility complex association has been shown to be with the DQw2 (DQB1*0201\\/ DQA1*0501) heterodimer, recent evidence has suggested that there may be up to three susceptibility loci within the major histocompatibility complex. Tumor necrosis

Anthony G. Wilson; Frances E. Clay; Alison M. Crane; Michael J. Cork; Gordon W. Duff



Skin-sparing mastectomy flap ischemia salvage using urgent hyperbaric chamber oxygen therapy: a case report.  


Since its introduction in 1991, skin-sparing mastectomy has emerged as an acceptable surgical technique in the management of breast cancer patients, providing optimal oncological safety and efficacy with favorable aesthetic results. Rates of native skin flap ischemia and necrosis after skin-sparing mastectomy are 2%-30% and result in a decreased aesthetic outcome and delay of necessary adjuvant treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been advocated for the management of various compromised flaps, and when instituted immediately postoperatively, may prevent progression of ischemia into necrosis. We report the case of a 41-year-old female who developed skin flap ischemia after undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy and was immediately treated with hyperbaric oxygen. The patient received a total of five hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions, achieving full resolution of the ischemia without any complications. Further research is essential to determine the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in managing skin flap ischemia post skin-sparing mastectomy. Until such studies exist, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be considered a preferred option in the management of native skin flap ischemia after skin-sparing mastectomy. PMID:24851552

Fredman, Rafi; Wise, Itay; Friedman, Tali; Heller, Lior; Karni, Tami



Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain



On skin expansion.  


This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N



Skin disinfection and acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe need for skin disinfection before insertion of an acupuncture needle is controversial and there is no specific research on this topic. However research and observations on the effect of, and the need for, skin disinfection before injections forms a good analogy of acupuncture. Whilst micro-organisms present on the surface of the skin are accessible to disinfection, those located under

Peter Hoffman



Color based skin classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin detection is used in applications ranging from face detection, tracking body parts and hand gesture analysis, to retrieval and blocking objectionable content. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate (1) the effect of color space transformation on skin detection performance and finding the appropriate color space for skin detection, (2) the role of the illuminance component of a color

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger; Abdul Bais


Acute bilateral striatal necrosis with rotavirus gastroenteritis and inborn metabolic predisposition.  


We present a 9-month-old male with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis who developed an acute encephalopathy with focal seizures and developmental regression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral striatal necrosis and raised glutarylcarnitine levels on tandem mass spectrometry of a (crisis) blood spot, and chromatography of organic acids revealed increased urinary excretion of dicarboxylic acid. Skin biopsy demonstrated a partial decrease in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The case was not typical for either rotavirus encephalitis/rotavirus-associated encephalopathy or for glutaric aciduria type I. The patient has developmental delay and continues to receive physiotherapy, speech therapy, and local developmental follow-up. PMID:15934490

Mordekar, Santosh; Jaspan, Tim; Sharrard, Mark; Morton, Richard; Whitehouse, William P



The ability of intra-operative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography to predict mastectomy flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: a prospective trial.  


Mastectomy skin flap ischaemia leading to necrosis is a common occurrence. Laser-assisted indocyanine green (ICG) angiography can assist to locate these poorly perfused areas intra-operatively. Our study aims to identify specific perfusion values produced by ICG angiography that accurately predict mastectomy flap necrosis. A total of 42 patients undergoing autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction had mastectomy flaps imaged using laser-assisted ICG angiography at the completion of reconstruction. Intra-operative perfusion values were correlated with postoperative skin flap outcomes. Risk factors for abnormal perfusion were recorded and analysed. A total of 62 breast reconstructions were imaged, including 48 tissue expander reconstructions, six transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps, six deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps and two direct-to-implant reconstructions. Eight cases (13%) of full-thickness skin necrosis were identified postoperatively. A SPY Elite(®) value of ? 7 accurately predicted the development of flap necrosis at 88% sensitivity and 83% specificity. False-positive cases (those with perfusion values ? 7 which did not develop necrosis) were more likely to have a smoking history and/or to have had an epinephrine-containing tumescent solution used during mastectomy. Excluding patients with smoking or epinephrine use, a SPY value of ? 7 predicted flap necrosis with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 97%. Thus, these data suggest that laser-assisted ICG angiography predicts postoperative outcomes with high accuracy. In our series, a SPY value of ? 7 correlated well with mastectomy flap necrosis. Furthermore, smoking and intra-operative injections containing epinephrine should be considered when evaluating low perfusion values as they can lead to false-positive test results. PMID:24507962

Munabi, Naikhoba C O; Olorunnipa, Olushola B; Goltsman, David; Rohde, Christine H; Ascherman, Jeffrey A



Basic Information about Skin Cancer  


... Buttons and Badges Cancer Home Basic Information About Skin Cancer Cancer is a disease in which cells in ... cancer starts in the skin, it is called skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in ...


Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.


Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up.

Bhatt, Malay Y.; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.



Imaging manifestations of mediastinal fat necrosis.  


Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up. PMID:24369521

Bhatt, Malay Y; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Watson, Kenneth R; Walker, Christopher M; Kunin, Jeffrey R



Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors.

Redlich, Carrie A.



Avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head.  


Avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head is uncommon. It is most often seen following a distal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus. In this setting surgery has usually involved extensive periarticular dissection as well. Although many cases may be subclinical, in its most pronounced form it is a powerful cause of failure of bunion surgery. This article examines the underlying factor contributing to this problem as well as its long-term management. PMID:15831261

Edwards, William H B



The vascular calcification-cutaneous necrosis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although medial calcification of larger elastic arteries in chronic kidney failure and with advancing age is relatively common, calcification of the cutaneous vascular system is rare.Objective: Our purpose was to describe three patients with the vascular calcification-cutaneous necrosis syndrome and review the cause, clinical and pathologic features, and treatment of this syndrome.Methods: We describe three patients with ischemic necrotic

Patrick R Dahl; R. K Winkelmann; Suzanne M Connolly



Clinically unsuspected neuritic leprosy with caseation necrosis.  


Leprosy is a devastating disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It includes a spectrum of clinicopathological lesions. Neuritic leprosy with caseation necrosis (abscess) manifesting as a soft tissue mass is a relatively rare presentation of leprosy. Here, the authors report their experience with three patients with neuritic leprosy. The patients presented with swellings in the right ulnar nerve, the right great auricular nerve, and the temporal branch of the right sixth cranial nerve. The clinical impression was that of tumorous masses. Gross examination of the biopsy specimens revealed caseous necrotic materials. Further histological evaluation disclosed tuberculoid granulomas with extensive caseation necrosis. Stains for acid-fast bacilli were positive in the third case. A comparison between the caseation encountered in the tuberculoid neurotic leprosy and the neurolysis of lepromatous neurotic leprosy has been also discussed. The findings here emphasize "mass lesion with necrosis" as a possible clinical presentation of the neuritic leprosies. The clinicopathologic features were addressed and the relevant literature was reviewed. PMID:23216235

Omar, Abd-Elhady M; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abd-Elwahed




PubMed Central

1. In focal and diffuse necroses of the liver due to hæmotoxic sera there occurs an increased elimination of total nitrogen with a corresponding augmented output of urea. The ammonia excretion becomes slightly diminished at first, but later rises somewhat above normal. The undetermined nitrogen is markedly increased. 2. In diffuse degeneration with no necrosis on the other hand only a slightly increased output of total nitrogen is evident. A rearrangement of the urea-ammonia proportion occurs in that the ammonia excretion is augmented while the urea elimination is correspondingly diminished. The undetermined nitrogen rises but little. 3. In control experiments with normal serum no effect is produced. 4. These results would appear to indicate that in lesions characterized by uniform degeneration of the liver parenchyma, in contradistinction to necrosis, there occurs no increased nitrogen elimination but merely a disturbance of the urea-forming function of the cell without the appearance in the urine of products of autolysis. On the other hand in necrosis, of even considerable extent, the total-nitrogen is greatly augmented, as is also the rest-nitrogen; while the production of urea, on account of the persistence of normally functioning liver cells, remains relatively unchanged. This "factor of safety"32 possessed by the liver is, we think, one of the most important results brought out in this investigation and must be given great weight in any consideration of the chemistry of hepatic disturbances.

Pearce, Richard M.; Jackson, Holmes C.



Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis



Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)



Cosmetic and aesthetic skin photosurgery using a computer-assisted CO2 laser-scanning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first application of CO2 laser in skin photosurgery, various techniques such as laser pulsing, beam scanning and computer-assisted laser pulse generator have been introduced for the purpose of reducing tissue carbonization and thermal necrosis. Using a quite simple XY optical scanner equipped with two galvanometric driven mirrors and an appropriate software to process the scanning data and control

Doru C. Dutu; Dan C. Dumitras; Ioan Nedelcu; Sergiu Ghetie



Acoustic impedance variations at burn--nonburn interfaces in porcine skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique for measurement of the depth of burn necrosis in porcine skin (Med. Phys. 4, 259--263 (1977)) has led to the present investigation of the specific acoustic impedance difference between the necrotic (burn) tissue and the underlying viable (nonburn) tissue. Experimental results show that the ultrasonic group velocities and mass densities are approximately the

John H. Cantrell; R. E. Goans; R. L. Roswell



Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model  

PubMed Central

Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and neutrophil platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting.

Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, Francois



Localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene) in a spinal cord injury patient - a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Men with spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have a greater incidence of bacterial colonisation of genital skin as compared to neurologically normal controls. We report a male patient with paraplegia who developed rapidly progressive infection of scrotal skin, which resulted in localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene). Case presentation This male patient developed paraplegia at T-8 level 21 years ago at the age of fifteen years. He has been managing his bladder by wearing a penile sheath. He noticed redness and swelling on the right side of the scrotum, which rapidly progressed to become a black patch. A wound swab yielded growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Necrotic tissue was excised. Culture of excised tissue grew MRSA. A follow-up wound swab yielded growth of MRSA and mixed anaerobes. The wound was treated with regular application of povidone-iodine spray. He made good progress, with the wound healing gradually. Conclusion It is likely that the presence of a condom catheter, increased skin moisture in the scrotum due to urine leakage, compromised personal hygiene, a neurogenic bowel and subtle dysfunction of the immune system contributed to colonisation, and then rapidly progressive infection in this patient. We believe that spinal cord injury patients and their carers should be made aware of possible increased susceptibility of SCI patients to opportunistic infections of the skin. Increased awareness will facilitate prompt recourse to medical advice, when early signs of infection are present.

Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Hughes, Peter L; Mansour, Paul; Singh, Gurpreet; Darroch, James; Oo, Tun



Modern skin cleansers.  


The course of development of skin cleansers has been one of continual improvement. Soap-based products, used since antiquity, offered improved cleansing over mechanical methods or water alone but could irritate and dry skin. Bars based on synthetic detergents that offer improved skin compatibility compared with soap have become available over the past several decades. Body washes have been growing in consumer popularity. Some of the first body washes introduced into the market offered a moisturization benefit in addition to mildness. Some second-generation body washes that are now on the market use even more sophisticated formulation schemes, such as coacervate technology, to deliver emulsified petrolatum to the skin during washing, providing mild cleansing and a significant dry skin improvement benefit. Consumer demand and the formulation possibilities provided by new product formats, new technologies, and new ingredients will undoubtedly lead to the delivery of even greater skin benefits in the future. PMID:11059364

Ertel, K



Plasma skin regeneration technology.  


Plasma skin regeneration is a novel type of skin rejuvenation technology developed over the last 3 years. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. Although high temperature plasmas have been used in surgery for over a decade, plasma had previously been used as a conduction medium for electric current. Unlike lasers which rely on the principle of selective photothermolysis to deliver heat to specific targets in the skin, plasma technology delivers heat energy directly to tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The plasma itself produces controlled thermal damage to the skin surface to elicit changes such as new collagen formation and improvement in photodamaged skin. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal effects to deeper dermal heating. PMID:18038498

Bogle, Melissa A; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S



The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment.

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.



Successful plasma exchange combined with rituximab therapy in aggressive APS-related cutaneous necrosis.  


Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis or recurrent fetal loss associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and/or a lupus anticoagulant. The skin appears to be an important target organ and many cases of APS may present with skin manifestations. These lesions may be manifold and may take the form of livedo reticularis, livedo racemosa, ulcerations, digital gangrene, subungeal splinter hemorrhages, superficial venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, pseudovasculitic manifestations, extensive cutaneous necrosis, or primary anetoderma. We report a case of fulminant APS-related cutaneous necrosis. A 38-year-old Caucasian male with a past history of APS, multiple deep vein thrombi/pulmonary emboli, presented with necrotic lesions on his right upper and right lower extremities. Initially, baseline anticoagulation was increased without improvement. Subsequently, plasma exchange was initiated on a daily schedule. Furthermore, rituximab 1,000 mg IV was administered on days 1 and 15. After six consecutive daily sessions of plasma exchange, there was significant regression of the necrotic lesions. After a 22-day hospital stay, the patient was discharged to home on fondaparinux. The patient presented approximately 2 months later after missing follow-up appointments. At the time, his initial lesions looked remarkably improved. PMID:20556455

Costa, Rubens; Fazal, Salman; Kaplan, Robert B; Spero, Joel; Costa, Ricardo



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Spontaneous complete necrosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.  


We present a rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in which spontaneous complete necrosis was confirmed with surgical resection. An 80-year-old man with HCC was referred to Nippon Medical School Tama Nagayama Hospital. The medical history included hypertension, managed with medication, and partial lobectomy of the lung owing to a lung schwannoma. A previously untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm, 51 mm in maximum diameter, was detected. The serum concentration of proteins induced by vitamin k antagonism or absence (PIVKA-2) was 14,300 mAU/mL, and that of alpha-fetoprotein was 184.2 ng/mL. Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens and hepatitis C virus were not detected in the serum. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a hypervascular tumor, 68 mm in diameter, in the left paramedian sector of the liver with washout of contrast medium in the delayed phase. An HCC in the left paramedian sector was diagnosed. Laparotomy was performed 40 days after CT scanning. Intraoperative ultrasonography showed that the HCC had shrunk to 30 mm in diameter. A left paramedian sectionectomy was performed. On macroscopic examination the surgical specimen was a firm mass, 30 mm in diameter, with a fibrous capsule. Histologic examination showed that the tumor in the cirrhotic liver had been completely replaced by central coagulative necrosis, circumferential fibrosis, and dense infiltrates of inflammatory cells. No viable HCC cells were observed in the coagulative necrosis. Organized thrombi in the hepatic artery were detected in the tumor. The tumor also contained multiple foci of old hemorrhage, ductular proliferation, and granulation tissue. The patient was discharged 10 days after the operation. After 1 month, the serum concentrations of PIVKA-2 (25 mAU/mL) and alpha-fetoprotein (5.9 ng/mL) had decreased to within their normal ranges. PMID:22791123

Yokoyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Makino, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Seiji; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Hosone, Masaru; Uchida, Eiji



Liquefaction necrosis of mitral annulus calcification.  


Liquefaction necrosis of the mitral annulus is a rare form of peri-annular calcification that the cardiologist must be able to differentiate from other cardiac masses. It classically looks like a round or semilunar hyperdense mass with a denser peripheral rim, located mainly in the posterior mitral annulus. The case we report here was diagnosed in a 78-year-old female patient who presented with an embolic cerebral vascular accident, which raises the question of its etiopathogenic responsibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:382-383, 2014. PMID:24420234

Mallisho, Maram; Hwang, Inyong; Alsafwah, Shadwan F



Activated Langerhans Cells Release Tumor Necrosis Factor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Langerhans cell act as antigen presenting cells in immune reactions in the skin. What other roles they may play in inflammation are less well defined. We have tested whether these cells can produce TNF-alpha, an important mediator of inflammation. Resting...

J. W. Larrick T. Shi V. Morhenn Y. L. Chiang



Suppressed Alloantigen Presentation, Increased TNF-?, IL1, IL1Ra, IL10, and Modulation of TNF-R in UV-Irradiated Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines induced in skin by ultraviolet radiation cause local and systemic immunosuppression. Tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 are key mediators in the mouse, but less is known about cytokine synthesis and function in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin. We exposed human skin to 3 minimal erythema doses of solar-simulated radiation and raised suction blisters at intervals to 72 h. Alloantigen

Robert M. Barr; Susan L. Walker; Wailin Tsang; Graham I. Harrison; Parisa Ettehadi; Malcolm W. Greaves; Antony R. Young



Traditional electrosurgery and a low thermal injury dissection device yield different outcomes following bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Although a skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomy technique offers distinct cosmetic and reconstructive advantages over traditional\\u000a methods, partial skin flap and nipple necrosis remain a significant source of post-operative morbidity. Prior work has suggested\\u000a that collateral thermal damage resulting from electrocautery use during skin flap development is a potential source of this\\u000a complication. This report describes the case of a smoker

Richard E Fine; Joshua G Vose



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...


The spectrum of postoperative scleral necrosis.  


An otherwise healthy 62-year-old woman developed necrotizing scleritis 23 years following pterygium excision with adjunctive beta-radiation. Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis (SINS) was diagnosed, but the scleritis progressed despite anti-inflammatory therapy, and 10 weeks after presentation the patient developed a hypopyon and decreased vision. After cultures revealed no growth at 72 hours, immunosuppressive therapy was escalated, with a subsequent deterioration in the patient's clinical course. Scedosporium superinfection was eventually cultured and found on histological examination of the enucleated globe. In reported cases, infectious scleral necrosis occurs most commonly following pterygium (71.4%) and scleral buckling (97.2%) surgery. Hypopyon is uncommon (10.0%) in patients with postoperative scleral necrosis, but when present is a strong predictor of infection (odds ratio, 21.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-157.5). Rates of underlying autoimmune disease are generally low (0.0-12.5%) except following cataract and lens procedures, where the occurence of SINS heralds systemic illness in 42.9% of cases. PMID:23410842

Doshi, Rishi R; Harocopos, George J; Schwab, Ivan R; Cunningham, Emmett T



Crosstalk between apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy.  


Apoptosis and necrosis are the two major modes of cell death, the molecular mechanisms of which have been extensively studied. Although initially thought to constitute mutually exclusive cellular states, recent findings reveal cellular contexts that require a balanced interplay between these two modes of cellular demise. Several death initiator and effector molecules, signaling pathways and subcellular sites have been identified as key mediators in both processes, either by constituting common modules or alternatively by functioning as a switch allowing cells to decide which route to take, depending on the specific situation. Importantly, autophagy, which is a predominantly cytoprotective process, has been linked to both types of cell death, serving either a pro-survival or pro-death function. Here we review the recent literature that highlights the intricate interplay between apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, focusing on the relevance and impact of this crosstalk in normal development and in pathology. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. PMID:23770045

Nikoletopoulou, Vassiliki; Markaki, Maria; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios



Magnetic resonance imaging of feline hippocampal necrosis.  


The clinical, neuropathologic, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in four cats with necrosis of the hippocampus and piriform lobe are described. All cats had acute generalized seizures and behavioral changes including aggression, salivation, polyphagia, and disorientation. Routine hematologic, serum chemistry, and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were normal. MR imaging abnormalities were restricted to the area of the hippocampus and piriform lobe. The lesions were T2-hyperintense, T1-hypointense, and were characterized by various degrees of contrast enhancement. Lesions were consistent with necrotizing encephalitis. Two cats were euthanized and underwent postmortem examination within a week after MR imaging due to the lack of response to antiepileptic drug therapy and progressive encephalopathy [corrected] The remaining two cats lived for about four months and were then euthanized because of persistent behavioral and neurologic signs; only one of these cats underwent postmortem examination with histopathologic examination. Histopathological findings were typical of severe, diffuse, bilateral symmetric necrosis, and degeneration of neurons in the hippocampus and piriform lobe, but an etiologic agent was not apparent. This apparently unique feline syndrome, now reported in Switzerland and Italy, has no known cause at this time. PMID:18720764

Schmied, Oliver; Scharf, Gernot; Hilbe, Monika; Michal, Ulrike; Tomsa, Kamil; Steffen, Frank



Ballistic skin simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10–20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials

Jorma Jussila; Ari Leppäniemi; Mikael Paronen; Erkki Kulomäki



Sun on Skin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

Collins, Margaret



Occupational skin infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of skin infections may complicate different occupations depending on the working environment and level of exposure to a particular agent. These in turn may affect the productivity of an individual worker and ultimately the company as a whole. This review aims to highlight some common and important skin infections that may be acquired at work. Epidemiology, clinical features,

M. J. Harries; J. T. Lear



Bleeding into the skin  


Bleeding under the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny pinpoint red dots (called ... Aside from the common bruise, bleeding into the skin or mucous membranes is a very significant sign and should always be checked out by a health care ...


Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith




Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms that are known or suspected to cause skin diseases in cetaceans are briefly reviewed. Viruses belonging to four families i.e. Caliciviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae were detected by electron microscopy, histology and molecular techniques in vesicular skin lesions, black dots perceptible by the touch, warts and tattoos in several species of odontocetes and mysticetes. Herpesviruses, poxviruses and likely a

Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; Koen Van Waerebeek; Leonardo Flach; Julio César Reyes; Marcos César de Oliveira; Salvatore Siciliano; Monica Echegaray; Francisco Viddi; Fernando Felix; Enrique Crespo; Gian Paolo Sanino; Isabel Cristina Avila; Natalia Fraijia; Cristina Castro


Allergic Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the two allergic skin diseases which are most common in the world, but the least familiar to surgeons – atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.The skin is the largest immunologic organ in humans, accounting for approximately 15% of our body weight, with a surface area of 1 to 2 square meters in an adult. Immune dysfunction can

Andrew J. Heller


Assessment of skin irritation and molecular responses in rat skin exposed to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane.  


Aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute a major portion of jet fuels, kerosene and other solvents. This study investigated the effects of dermal exposures of selected aliphatic hydrocarbons (nonane, dodecane and tetradecane) on the skin irritation (erythema), transepidermal waterloss (TEWL) and expression of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the skin and blood of hairless rats. Dermal exposures were carried out by occlusive application of chemicals (230 microl for 1 h, using Hill Top Chambers) for 1 h. The expression of IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and the regulatory proteins NFkappaB and IkappaBalpha were measured by Western blot analysis. The skin irritation and TEWL data indicate that the irritation was in the following decreasing order: nonane > dodecane > tetradecane. Likewise, nonane significantly increased the expression of IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 in skin and blood as compared to control at different time points. Dodecane and tetradecane did not show any increase in the expression of IL-1alpha and MCP-1 as compared to control (P > 0.05), but the expression of TNF-alpha by dodecane and tetradecane was significantly higher than control at all time points. The release of cytokines by nonane exposure was further supported by activation of NFkappaB p65 and corresponding degradation of IkappaBalpha in the skin. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the biophysical parameters (TEWL and erythema scores) were correlated to the biomarker expressions after dermal exposures with nonane but not with dodecane and tetradecane. Dodecane produced only mild irritation in response to experimental conditions of the present study and further did not show significant differences in IL-1alpha and MCP-1 levels in skin and blood. However, TNF-alpha was well expressed in response to all the chemicals. Tetradecane did not show any visible signs of skin irritation and also did not produce any significant difference in IL-1alpha and MCP-1 release profiles as compared with control. The expression of TNF-alpha in skin due to tetradecane support the fact that visually indistinguishable skin irritation reactions can induce significant changes in the biological marker profile. PMID:15451557

Babu, R J; Chatterjee, A; Singh, M



Skin biopsy and psoriasis.  


A total of 33 skin biopsies were sent to Bangladesh institute of health Science (BIHS) hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka by Consultant skin for histopathological diagnosis between a period of one year and three months. Out of these 33 skin biopsies histopathological diagnosis of psoriasis was made for 13(39.39%), chronic non specific dermatitis (eczema) in 4(12.12%), lichenoid lesion 4(12.12%). Ashy dermatosis 3(9.09%), Nevus 2(6.06%) and corn, hemangioma, prurigo simplex, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), dermatofibroma, 1(3.03%) each. The main presenting feature of these patients were erythematous, prurituc, silvery, scale, plaques or papules for a period between 2 months to 15 years. It is evident from the present study that among different skin lesions sent for histological diagnosis, Psoriasis is common skin pathology in dermatological practice. PMID:20639826

Rahman, M T; Monami, N S; Ferdousi, S; Tahmin, T



General Information about Skin Cancer  


... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?  


... statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Melanoma is a cancer that starts in a ... tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...


Skin Substitutes and Uses Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to improved methods for organotypic culture of skin substitutes. In some embodiments, the dermal equivalent of the skin substitute is lifted to air interface of the cul...

C. A. R. Ivarie L. A. Hoffman P. Barth



Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants do not prevent tumour necrosis factor-induced necrosis of L929 cells.  


Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is widely reported as a central effector during TNF-induced necrosis. The effect of a family of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants on TNF-induced necrosis of L929 cells was studied. While the commonly used lipid-soluble antioxidant BHA effectively protected cells from TNF-induced necrosis, the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ(3), MitoQ(5), MitoQ(10) and MitoPBN had no effect on TNF-induced necrosis. Since BHA also acts as an uncoupler of mitochondrial membrane potential, two additional uncouplers were tested. FCCP and CCCP both provided dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-induced necrosis. In conclusion, the generation of mitochondrial ROS may not be necessary for TNF-induced necrosis. Instead, these results suggest alternative mitochondrial functions, such as a respiration-dependent process, are critical for necrotic death. PMID:17729122

Jarvis, Reagan M; Göttert, Jana; Murphy, Michael P; Ledgerwood, Elizabeth C



Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis V. Correlation of Hepatic Necrosis, Covalent Binding and Glutathione Depletion in Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously postulated that acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis in mice results from the formation of a reactive metabolite that arylates vital cellular macro-molecules. While studying species differences in susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis, hamsters were found to be particularly vulnerable. We now report the relationships between hepatic glutathione depletion, arylation of hepatic macromolecules in vivo and in vitro and hepatic necrosis

W. Z. Potter; S. S. Thorgeirsson; D. J. Jollow; J. R. Mitchell



Sensitive skin: an overview.  


Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H



Thermal Skin fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

Milam, T. B.



The Skin Punch Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7

Blakeman, J. M.



Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods. Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400/cm2 on the breast to 400,000/cm2 in the axillae. An iodine preparation removed 95% of accessible organisms, but about 20% of bacteria were protected by follicles, crevices, and lipids. Commensals in over 20% of people produced antibiotics against a wide range of pathogens. Conversely, “satellitism” was demonstrable in 12% of people. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5

Selwyn, Sydney; Ellis, Harold



Upper eyelid necrosis and reconstruction after spider byte: case report and review of the literature.  


Spider bites are not very common, especially in the Mediterranean area, and those affecting the ocular-palpebral region involving reconstructive surgery are particularly rare. In May 2010, the case of a Caucasian 24-year-old female patient was brought to the attention of the Dermatology Department, University of Cagliari, Italy. The patient reported she woke up feeling an intense pain with itching and that also she had noticed a spider of an unknown species on her bed. The dermatosis had affected the right orbital region, where there was a considerable red and violet erythema and a hard edema, not foldable. When the necrosis appeared the patient was treated at the Plastic Surgery Unit where she underwent a reconstruction of the eyelid with a full thickness skin graft from the retroauricular area. The post-operative course was regular with a perfect in-take of the skin graft. When the patient was discharged she was sent to an Entomological University Centre to identify the spider species and the possible venom which caused the skin lesion. The spider which caused the injury has been a Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820). Loxoscelism is a necrotic arachnoidism caused by the poisonous bite of spiders belonging to the Loxosceles species. It is very important to identify what sort of lesion it is and to treat it in a combined way in order to choose the proper timing for surgery to avoid damages to the eyelid functioning. PMID:22530360

Ribuffo, D; Serratore, F; Famiglietti, M; Greco, M; Fois, F; Atzori, L; Pau, M; Aste, N



Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal



Type III cryoglobulinemia complicated by renal cortical necrosis.  


Renal involvement is rare in patients with type III cryoglobulinemia. We report a case of renal cortical necrosis in a patient with type III cryoglobulinemia. Renal function improved partially after treatment with plasma exchange, steroids, and cyclophosphamide. Renal magnetic resonance imaging was a valuable tool in the evaluation of the extent of renal cortical necrosis and improvement in renal vascularization after treatment. PMID:15861340

Thaunat, Olivier; Aaron, Laurent; Desbene, Cédric; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Karras, Alexandre; Lesavre, Philippe; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Fakhouri, Fadi



Chromophores in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

Young, Antony R.



Skin Cancer Trends  


... Tanning Choose Your Cover Campaign Buttons and Badges Trends for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Note: The word "significantly" below refers to statistical ...


Skin Cancer Screening  


... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


Skin Cancer Prevention  


... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...


Melanoma of the Skin  


... who have been exposed to natural or artificial sunlight (such as tanning beds) over long periods of ... common in skin that is often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...


Healthy Skin Matters  


... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...


Skin or nail culture  


Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to three weeks to get results for a nail culture. Further tests can be done to identify ...


Skin graft (image)  


... stretch it into a larger patch. If the defect involves a great loss of tissue, a full thickness graft, a flap of skin with underlying muscle and blood vessels, may be required. Taking the graft from the ...


Skin Conditions during Pregnancy  


... not clear what causes PUPPP. It usually goes away after you give birth. What is prurigo of pregnancy? With prurigo of pregnancy, tiny, itchy bumps that look like insect bites can appear almost anywhere on the skin. This ...


Men's Skin Care  


... used on people who have darker skin tones. Athlete's foot, jock itch and nail fungus Tinea fungus can cause three common fungal infections: athlete's foot, jock itch, and nail fungus. Tinea fungus can ...


Rosacea Treatment: Thickening Skin  


... describes each of these treatments: Lasers and other light therapies. While earlier laser treatments removed the top ... a significant portion of skin. Other lasers and light therapies also may be used. To see best ...


Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.



Imaging manifestations of abdominal fat necrosis and its mimics.  


Intraabdominal fat is a metabolically active tissue that may undergo necrosis through a number of mechanisms. Fat necrosis is a common finding at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic findings of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include torsion of an epiploic appendage, infarction of the greater omentum, and fat necrosis related to trauma or pancreatitis. In addition, other pathologic processes that involve fat may be visualized at computed tomography, including focal lipohypertrophy, pathologic fat paucity (lipodystrophies), and malignancies such as liposarcoma, which may mimic benign causes of fat stranding. Because fat necrosis and malignant processes such as liposarcoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis may mimic one another, knowledge of a patient's clinical history and prior imaging studies is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:22084185

Kamaya, Aya; Federle, Michael P; Desser, Terry S



Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging  

PubMed Central

The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology.

Chen, Ying; Lyga, John



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.



Intra-Amniotic Administration of E coli Lipopolysaccharides Causes Sustained Inflammation of the Fetal Skin in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is associated with in utero infection and inflammation. Although the fetal membranes and fetus contribute to the intra-amniotic inflammatory profile, the relationships between a proinflammatory exposure to the fetal compartment and cytokine expression in the fetal skin are unknown. Using an ovine model, we asked whether the fetal skin would generate an extended response to inflammatory stimuli. Relative to control, intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced significant increases in cytokine/chemokine (interleukin 1?, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) expression in skin that lasted for at least 15 days. Histological analysis demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration in skin between 2 days and 15 days post-LPS exposure. In contrast to the fetal lung, the fetal skin continues to express proinflammatory cytokines for at least 15 days after exposure to LPS. These novel data suggest that the fetal skin may cause prolonged in utero inflammatory response causally associated with preterm birth.

Saito, Masatoshi; Jobe, Alan; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Thomas; Kramer, Boris; Yang, Huixia; Kemp, Matthew W.



Effect of Low-Dose Cyclosporin A Microemulsion on Disease Severity, Interleukin6, Interleukin8 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Severe Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The release of cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)] by skin cells is involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: To evaluate the effect of low-dose cyclosporin A (CyA) on clinical symptoms and cytokine secretion in severe pediatric AD. Methods: Ten children with severe AD (SCORAD index >50) were treated for 8 weeks with

Rita Bunikowski; Kerstin Gerhold; Matthias Bräutigam; Eckard Hamelmann; Harald Renz; Ulrich Wahn



Peoniflorin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-? induced chemokine production in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells by blocking nuclear factor-?B and ERK pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peoniflorin (PF) extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora pall displays anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties in several animal models. Chemokines are vital for directing the\\u000a movement of circulating leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory\\u000a skin diseases. Herein, we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of PF on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)

Tao Chen; Zai-pei Guo; Xiao-yan Jiao; Rui-zhen Jia; Yu-hong Zhang; Jing-yi Li; Xu-lei Huang; Hong-jie Liu



Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? and Granulocyte–Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Increases Epidermal Langerhans' Cell Numbers in Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate primary and stimulate secondary T-cell responses. We conducted a phase I trial of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with cancer to increase DCs in peripheral blood or skin based on in vitro data that showed that CD34+ hematopoietic precursors require these cytokines to mature into functional antigen-presenting DCs. Eleven patients

John E. Janik; Langdon L. Miller; William C. Kopp; Dennis D. Taub; Harry Dawson; Diane Stevens; Paige Kostboth; Brendan D. Curti; Kevin C. Conlon; Barbara K. Dunn; Sarah E. Donegan; Robert Ullrich; W. Gregory Alvord; Barry L. Gause; Dan L. Longo



The relationship between pityriasis rubra pilaris and inflammatory arthritis: case report and response of the arthritis to anti-tumor necrosis factor immunotherapy.  


Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) refers to a group of erythematous, scaling dermatologic conditions that have been associated with seronegative arthritis. We report a case of polyarthritis in a young man with PRP in which magnetic resonance imaging suggested an entheseal-based pathology for the joint disease. The arthritis, but not the skin condition, demonstrated dramatic response to anti-tumor necrosis factor immunotherapy. PMID:10513817

Conaghan, P G; Sommer, S; McGonagle, D; Veale, D; Waldmann, H; Hale, G; Goodfield, M; Emery, P; Isaacs, J



Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis is a challenging complication of end-stage renal disease, with an unknown underlying mechanism. Several risk factors have been identified, such as hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, low serum albumin levels, and history of warfarin therapy. This article presents a case of calciphylaxis provoked by reintroduction of warfarin therapy, introducing the possibility of direct induction.

Saifan, Chadi; Saad, Marc; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne



Prothrombin complex concentrates to reverse warfarin-induced coagulopathy in patients with intracranial bleeding.  


Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) offer a means for the rapid reversal of warfarin, particularly in the setting of life-threatening bleeding. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a PCC-based protocol in patients with warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subdural hematoma (SDH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This was a retrospective case-series review of patients treated with an institution-approved warfarin reversal protocol. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage and known warfarin use with an international normalized ratio (INR)>1.4 received fresh frozen plasma (FFP), vitamin K (phytonadione), and weight-based, 3-factor PCC (Profilnine(®) SD) dose based on the initial INR. Demographic and clinical information, the degree of and time to INR normalization, and adverse events were recorded. The thirty study patients included 19 with primary ICH, 7 with SDH, and 4 with SAH. The mean age was 72.8 (±11) years, including 11 (37%) patients ?80years old. The median presenting INR was 2.3 (IQR 2-3.3) and post-treatment INR was 1.4 (IQR 1.3-1.5, Z score 6.4, p<0.001). Median time from PCC administration to the first follow up INR was 95 (IQR 50-140) min. No patient's INR increased by more than 0.3 over 72h. Nine patients (30%) underwent neurosurgical procedures after PCC administration and no procedure-related bleeding complication was noted. Adverse events included 3 instances of early hematoma expansion, one ischemic stroke in a patient with endocarditis on post-PCC day 1, one pulmonary embolism 5weeks after PCC treatment, and one coronary in-stent thrombosis 60days after PCC treatment. 6 patients died prior to hospital discharge of anticipated complications of their initial event, and none from identifiable thrombotic complications of PCC. A 3-factor PCC preparation (Profilnine(®) SD), administered with FFP and vitamin K to patients with acute warfarin-associated intracranial bleeding is a reasonable approach to urgent warfarin reversal. However, randomized, prospective trials are needed to verify the safety and clinical effectiveness of PCC administration in this population. PMID:22835715

Cabral, Katherine P; Fraser, Gilles L; Duprey, Jennifer; Gibbons, Beth A; Hayes, Timothy; Florman, Jeffrey E; Seder, David B



Factors protecting skin from injury: relationships between age, skin colour and skin elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsOur work demonstrates that after both rape and consensual sexual intercourse, women with light skin have higher ano-genital injury prevalence than women with dark skin. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of dark skin may be more protective than those of light skin. If these findings are generalisable, they may have an impact on criminal justice proceedings, where injury

J S Everett; J D Fargo; M S Sommers



Tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses.  


Poxviruses encode several cytokine response modifying (Crm) proteins. The Crm proteins possess sequence homology to several human proteins important in immunity. This homology and the conservation of Crm proteins among poxvirus strains suggest an immunomodulatory function that provides a survival advantage to the virus. Cowpox virus encodes several tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family homologues: CrmB, CrmC, and CrmD. CrmB and CrmD encode a similar approximately 155 amino acid COOH-terminus region distal to their TNF ligand-binding portions. These C-terminus regions contain no significant homology with sequences in public databases. It is not known whether the C-terminus regions have a complementary function to the TNF ligand-binding domains, or an unrelated function. Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, encodes a protein termed T2 which is homologous to CrmB and CrmD. Deletion of the T2 gene results in decreased pathogenicity of myxoma in rabbits. T2 has also been shown to interfere with TNF-induced apoptosis in vitro. Understanding the role viral TNF receptor homologues play in altering host immune responses may suggest ways to develop specific anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:10444338

Cunnion, K M



"Troponin elevation in coronary ischemia and necrosis".  


Detection of a rise and/or fall of cardiac troponin (cTn) is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). For the acute risk, it is hypothesized that cTn mirrors activated coagulation and platelet reactivity and indicates the presence of a ruptured plaque, which may help to identify patients at high risk who benefit particularly from aggressive pharmacological treatment and early invasive strategy. High-sensitivity assays using the 99th percentile as the threshold for positivity can achieve sensitivity at presentation of 90 % or more, and performance further improves with subsequent measurements within 3 to 6 h. By 3 h, negative predictive values of almost 100 % have been reported. However, use of assays with higher sensitivity lead ultimately to a loss of clinical specificity. Thus, other conditions than MI, such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, acute perimyocarditis, Takotsubo, acute heart failure and tachycardia also can go with elevated troponin levels. The detection of brief rise and subsequent fall of troponin concentration in marathon runners, and even in healthy subjects, after a standardized exercise test has cast doubts on the hypothesis that troponin is released only upon irreversible damage. This kind of troponin leakage may originate from a cytosolic compartment of the cells and not from the necrosis of thin filaments. PMID:24425063

Agewall, Stefan; Giannitsis, Evangelos



Inactivated infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) vaccines.  


The inactivation dynamics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by b-propiolactone (BPL), binary ethylenimine (BEI), formaldehyde or heat and the antigenic and immunogenic properties of the inactivated vaccines were evaluated. Chemical treatment of IHNV with 2.7 mm BPL, 1.5 mm BEI or 50 mm formaldehyde abolished virus infectivity within 48 h whereas heat treatment at 50 or 100 degrees C rendered the virus innocuous within 30 min. The inactivated IHNV vaccines were recognized by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, IHNV-specific antibodies and were differentially recognized by antigenic site I or antigenic site II IHNV glycoprotein-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The BPL inactivated whole virus vaccine was highly efficacious in vaccinated rainbow trout challenged by waterborne exposure to IHNV 7, 28, 42 or 56 days (15 degrees C) after immunization. The formaldehyde inactivated whole virus vaccine was efficacious 7 or 11 days after vaccination of rainbow trout but performed inconsistently when tested at later time points. The other vaccines tested were not efficacious. PMID:18752542

Anderson, E; Clouthier, S; Shewmaker, W; Weighall, A; LaPatra, S



Redox Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) is a key cytokine that has been shown to play important physiologic (e.g., inflammation) and pathophysiologic (e.g., various liver pathologies) roles. In liver and other tissues, TNF treatment results in the simultaneous activation of an apoptotic pathway (i.e., TRADD, RIP, JNK) and a survival pathway mediated by NF-?B transcription of survival genes (i.e., GADD45?, Mn-SOD, cFLIP). The cellular response (e.g., proliferation versus apoptosis) to TNF is determined by the balance between the apoptotic signaling pathway and the NF-?B survival pathway stimulated by TNF. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important modulators of signaling pathways and can regulate both apoptotic signaling and NF-?B transcription triggered by TNF. ROS are important in mediating the sustained activation of JNK, to help mediate apoptosis after TNF treatment. In some cells, ROS are second messengers that mediate apoptosis after TNF stimulation. Conversely, ROS can cause redox modifications that inhibit NF-?B activation, which can lead to cell death triggered by TNF. Consequently, the redox status of cells can determine the biologic response that TNF will induce in cells. In many liver pathologies, ROS generated extrinsically (e.g., inflammation) or intrinsically (i.e., drugs, toxins) may act in concert with TNF to promote hepatocyte death and liver injury through redox inhibition of NF-?B. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2245–2263.

Ybanez, Maria D.; Ahmadi, Sara; Yeh, Kelvin; Kaplowitz, Neil



Skin erythema meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin erythema meter is a fibre-optic, dual wavelength reflectance meter which measures the reflectance of the skin on two wavelengths, one the blood/haemoglobin absorption band (555 nm) and another a reference (660 nm). The instrument consists of a fibre-optic sensor head, a microprocessor-based control and analysis unit and a plotter, and it presents the relation between the measured reflectance results in terms of a reflectance index (R(555nm):R(660nm)). The measurement cycle, including printing, takes 5 seconds. Stability tests on the erythema meter (constant distance, reference object) showed the standard deviation of the reflectance index to be +/- 0.1%, while that in repeatability tests was <+1- 0.5% for skin and <+1- 0.2% for paper with hand-held positioning and repetition. The dynamic change in the reflectance index was about 30% with strong irritation. Results of various irritation test series on human skin are also presented. Finally, the performance and applicability of the skin erythema meter with respect to allergy test procedures, irritancy testing and measurement of UV-induced erythema are discussed.

Kopola, Harri K.; Lahti, Arto; Myllylae, Risto A.; Hannuksela, Matti



Platelets support a protective immune response to LCMV by preventing splenic necrosis.  


Severe arenaviral infections in humans are characterized by clinical findings common to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, skin and internal organ hemorrhages, high viral replication, splenic necrosis, and death. Host responses, rather than direct damage by the arenaviral replication, account for most of the observed pathology, but it is not known what protective roles platelets may have in each of the manifestations. To address this issue in an animal model, we compared nondepleted (100%), partially depleted (15%), and profoundly (< 2.5%) platelet depleted mice infected with the mouse arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Here, we describe that systemic bleedings and death were seen only in those animals receiving the stronger depletion treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the nonhemorrhagic but partially platelet-depleted mice were unable to control the viral replication because of generalized splenic necrosis, affecting innate and adaptive immune cells.These data suggest that, by their supportive roles in hemostasis, platelets may be preventing the severe pathology observed in human arenaviral infections. PMID:22566603

Loria, Gilbert David; Romagnoli, Pablo A; Moseley, Nelson B; Rucavado, Alexandra; Altman, John D



Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.  


We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian



Platelets support a protective immune response to LCMV by preventing splenic necrosis  

PubMed Central

Severe arenaviral infections in humans are characterized by clinical findings common to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, skin and internal organ hemorrhages, high viral replication, splenic necrosis, and death. Host responses, rather than direct damage by the arenaviral replication, account for most of the observed pathology, but it is not known what protective roles platelets may have in each of the manifestations. To address this issue in an animal model, we compared nondepleted (100%), partially depleted (15%), and profoundly (< 2.5%) platelet-depletedmice infected with the mouse arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Here, we describe that systemic bleedings and death were seen only in those animals receiving the stronger depletion treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the nonhemorrhagic but partially platelet-depleted mice were unable to control the viral replication because of generalized splenic necrosis, affecting innate and adaptive immune cells. These data suggest that, by their supportive roles in hemostasis, platelets may be preventing the severe pathology observed in human arenaviral infections.

Loria, Gilbert David; Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Moseley, Nelson B.; Rucavado, Alexandra



Incus and stapes necrosis associated with diabetes mellitus.  


Chronic otitis media is often associated with ossicular defects, the most frequent being necrosis of the long process of incus. Except for infection and cholesteatoma; trauma and local pressure by chorda tympani are uncommon causes leading to incus erosion. In the literature, no case of incus necrosis has been reported associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). A patient is presented in this report with incus and stapes suprastructure necrosis and associated type II DM who was admitted to the out-patient clinic with complaints of conductive hearing loss. PMID:16834796

Tüz, M; Do?ru, H; Yasan, H; Döner, F; Yarikta?, M



Piecemeal necrosis of the liver revisited a review.  


Piecemeal necrosis of the liver is thought to lead to liver cell necrosis. However the process does not lead to necrosis but rather lead to gradual progressive piecemeal removal of liver cell cytoplasm by T lymphocytes which are sensitized to antigens presented on the liver cell surface to form the immunologic synapse. The cytoplasm is taken up by the T cell and digested by the lysosome in the lymphocyte. By this mechanism the liver cell gradually disappears like the Cheshire cat in Alice in Wonderland. PMID:24704429

French, S W; Enbom, E T



Anti-necrosis potential of polyphenols against snake venoms.  


Polyphenols from the extracts of Areca catechu L. and Quercus infectoria Oliv. inhibited phospholipase A(2), proteases, hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase of Naja naja kaouthia Lesson (NK) and Calloselasma rhodostoma Kuhl (CR) venoms by in vitro tests. Both extracts inhibited the hemorrhagic activity of CR venom and the dermonecrotic activity of NK venom by in vivo tests. The inhibitory activity of plant polyphenols against local tissue necrosis induced by snake venoms may be caused by inhibition of inflammatory reactions, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The result implies the therapeutic potential of plant polyphenols against necrosis in snakebite victims. PMID:19874222

Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol



Avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head. A different perspective.  


Avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head has been reported as a potential complication associated with osteotomies at the first metatarsal head for repair of hallux abducto valgus deformity. However, most if not all of the radiographic and clinical findings associated with avascular necrosis at this level may also be explained by other processes. A critical review of avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head is presented in conjunction with a discussion of alternative etiologies for the radiographic and clinical findings that may be noted following capital osteotomies. PMID:10507212

Banks, A S



Laser skin resurfacing.  


There has always been interest in looking younger, but recently there seems to have been an explosion of public interest in facial rejuvenation. Physicians have been treating photodamaged skin for many years by removing the epidermis and a variable thickness of dermis with dermabrasion or chemical peels, with the expectation that reepithialization and collagen remodeling will result in a more youthful appearance. With the recent development of short-pulsed high-peak power and rapidly scanned carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers, the ability to remove photodamaged skin in a precise and reproducible manner while leaving behind a narrow zone of thermal damage has been achieved. This development has generated tremendous interest in laser skin resurfacing as a technique to reverse photoaging. PMID:8948536

Dover, J S; Hruza, G J



Sprayed skin turbine component  


Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

Allen, David B



Skin friction balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.



Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)



Complement in skin diseases.  


Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

Kotnik, V



Limitations of skin protection.  


Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the implementation of 'active gloves' that are intended to gradually release ingredients that help to strengthen and preserve skin barrier integrity. PMID:17312367

Schliemann, Sibylle



Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Neck skin rejuvenation.  


The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

Duplechain, J Kevin



Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.



Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

Burke, J. A.; Mulcahy, D.



Measuring skin conductance over clothes.  


We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath. PMID:22814995

Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk



Austin bunionectomy: postoperative MRI evaluation for avascular necrosis.  


The authors used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the formation rate of avascular necrosis following performance of 20 modified Austin bunionectomies. Five modified McBride bunionectomies without first metatarsal osteotomy were also performed as an MRI control. Results showed an avascular necrosis formation rate of 50%. The majority of the avascular necrosis areas were found dorsally within the cancellous bone substance of the first metatarsal head. These lesions, in all cases, did not cause any patient disability or result in any decline in the degree of patient satisfaction. The MRI positive avascular necrosis evaluations do suggest potential problem areas with the surgical technique that may be eliminated through further modification of the classic Austin bunionectomy procedure. PMID:1430828

Wilkinson, S V; Jones, R O; Sisk, L E; Sunshein, K F; Van Manen, J W



Post-facelift flap necrosis treatment using charged polystyrene microspheres  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy constitutes a vexing and grievous complication to the patient and the surgeon. Treatment modalities that can expedite wound healing and re-epithelialization rates are highly desired. OBJECTIVES: To assess wound healing and re-epithelialization rates of open wounds following postrhytidectomy flap necrosis treated with commercially available charged polystyrene microspheres (Polyheal-1, Polyheal Ltd, Israel). METHODS: Flap necrosis following rhytidectomy with open wounds in three female patients were treated using dressings soaked with Polyheal-1. Wound closure rates were documented. RESULTS: The wounds demonstrated both accelerated granulation tissue formation and rapid re-epithelialization rates. No complications or side effects were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Charged polystyrene microspheres may offer a new and efficacious way to treat open wounds due to flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy. Further research with larger patient numbers is still needed to verify these findings.

Weissman, Oren; Farber, Nimrod; Remer, Eric; Tessone, Ariel; Trivizki, Omer; Bank, Jonathan; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac; Haik, Josef



Hepatic Zonal Degeneration and Necrosis in Reye Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven pediatric cases with hepatic peripheral zonal degeneration or necrosis in the liver, or both, were studied. From the standpoint of clinicopathological features, these cases fit best into the spectrum of Reye syndrome. Exogenous toxins, such as phosp...

R. E. Brown K. G. Ishak



Fueling the Flames: Mammalian Programmed Necrosis in Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death driven by TNF-like death cytokines, toll-like receptors and antigen receptors. Unlike necrosis induced by physical trauma, a dedicated pathway is involved in programmed necrosis. In particular, a kinase complex composed of the receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 is a central step in necrotic cell death. Assembly and activation of this RIPK1-RIPK3 “necrosome” is critically controlled by protein ubiquitination, phosphorylation and caspase mediated cleavage events. The molecular signals cumulate in formation of intracellular vacuoles, organelle swelling, internal membrane leakage, and eventually plasma membrane rupture. These morphological changes can result in spillage of intracellular adjuvants to promote inflammation and further exacerbate tissue injury. Because of the inflammatory nature of necrosis, it is an attractive pathway for therapeutic intervention in acute inflammatory diseases.

Chan, Francis Ka-Ming



About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  


... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...


Skin Absorption Pharmacology of Topical Skin Protectant ICD Number 2289.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the effectiveness of washing Topical Skin Protectant (TSP) ICD Number 2289 from the skin of male euthymic hairless guinea pigs 24 hours after TSP appli...

E. M. Kurt E. H. Braue



???????Using temperature of pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin to detect deep tissue injury: an observational, retrospective, correlational study.  


Pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin (PRIDAS) are generally described as an area of nonblanching erythema (Stage I pressure ulcer) or deep tissue injury (DTI), but the validity of these definitions has not been tested. Preclinical studies and forensic observations have shown that skin temperature may help identify nonviable tissue. To investigate the effect of temperature difference between a PRIDAS and its adjacent intact skin and the subsequent development of skin necrosis, an observational, retrospective, correlational study was conducted. Data from all acute care hospital patients with an observed PRIDAS who received a skin integrity consult, including a skin temperature measurement of a PRIDAS site, were abstracted to ascertain if PRIDAS temperature correlated with the development of skin necrosis after 7 to 14 days and to examine the effect of additional patient variables on the progression or resolution of a PRIDAS. Skin temperatures were measured using a commercial, hand-held, infrared thermography camera, and the presence or absence of capillary refill was documented. Among the 85 patients studied, the difference between PRIDAS temperature and adjacent skin ranged from -3.2 ? C. to +3.0 ?C. Of the 55 PRIDAS with a lower temperature at baseline than adjacent skin ("cool", average -1.2 ? C), 29 progressed to necrosis, compared to one of 30 PRIDAS with a higher temperature than adjacent skin ("warm", average + 1.2 ? C) (P <0.001). After adjusting for patient age, skin color, and PRIDAS site, the cool PRIDAS were 31.8 times more likely to progress to necrosis than the warm PRIDAS. Combining the presence/absence of capillary refill and PRIDAS temperature, 0% of 26 patients with signs of blanching and a warm PRIDAS versus 65% of 26 patients with a nonblanching and cool PRIDAS developed skin necrosis (P <0.001, Fisher exact test for the difference between the two combined values). Research examining the delayed appearance of DTI and large, multicenter, prospective validation studies are warranted. The current National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel definition of a Stage I pressure ulcer needs to be amended to reflect the strong relationship to DTI development. PMID:22879313

Farid, Karen J; Winkelman, Chris; Rizkala, Adel; Jones, Katherine



Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis  

PubMed Central

Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay



Necrosis of the penis with multiple vessel atherosclerosis.  


Penile necrosis is a very rare complication because of its rich collateral supply. Conservative management is apt to be ineffective; thus penectomy is usually performed. We present a case of penile necrosis and claudication of both legs with multiple atherosclerosis in a type II diabetes mellitus patient who was successfully treated with angioplasty, penoplasty, and additional intracavernous injections of prostaglandin E1. The treatment resulted in relief of the leg pain and healing of the penile ischemic lesions. PMID:24872955

Kim, Sung Dae; Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Young-Joo



Necrosis of the Penis with Multiple Vessel Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Penile necrosis is a very rare complication because of its rich collateral supply. Conservative management is apt to be ineffective; thus penectomy is usually performed. We present a case of penile necrosis and claudication of both legs with multiple atherosclerosis in a type II diabetes mellitus patient who was successfully treated with angioplasty, penoplasty, and additional intracavernous injections of prostaglandin E1. The treatment resulted in relief of the leg pain and healing of the penile ischemic lesions.

Kim, Sung Dae; Huh, Jung Sik



Implication of Snail in Metabolic Stress-Induced Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNecrosis, a type of cell death accompanied by the rupture of the plasma membrane, promotes tumor progression and aggressiveness by releasing the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine high mobility group box 1. It is commonly found in the core region of solid tumors due to hypoxia and glucose depletion (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Thus, metabolic stress-induced necrosis has important clinical

Cho Hee Kim; Hyun Min Jeon; Su Yeon Lee; Min Kyung Ju; Ji Young Moon; Hye Gyeong Park; Mi-Ae Yoo; Byung Tae Choi; Jong In Yook; Sung-Chul Lim; Song Iy Han; Ho Sung Kang; Robert Means



Sex Differences in Postischemic Neuronal Necrosis in Gerbils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Twenty-four hour postischemic neuronal necrosis was compared in male vs. female Mongolian gerbils subjected to a 3-h period of severe incomplete hemispheric ischemia produced by unilateral carotid occlusion. The incidence of stroke-prone males was 42.9% versus 26.7% for the females. Among the stroke-prone animals, the males displayed significantly greater neuronal necrosis at 24 h after ischemia compared to the

Edward D. Hall; Kay E. Pazara; Kelley L. Linseman



Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.  


Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24054057

Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M



Cellular and molecular pathways to myocardial necrosis and replacement fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrosis is a fundamental component of the adverse structural remodeling of myocardium present in the failing heart. Replacement\\u000a fibrosis appears at sites of previous cardiomyocyte necrosis to preserve the structural integrity of the myocardium, but not\\u000a without adverse functional consequences. The extensive nature of this microscopic scarring suggests cardiomyocyte necrosis\\u000a is widespread and the loss of these contractile elements, combined

Malay S. Gandhi; German Kamalov; Atta U. Shahbaz; Syamal K. Bhattacharya; Robert A. Ahokas; Yao Sun; Ivan C. Gerling; Karl T. Weber



Spontaneous necrosis of gallbladder carcinoma in patient with pancreaticobiliary maljunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

While gallbladder carcinoma is occasionally associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction, spontaneous necrosis of carcinoma\\u000a is extremely rare. We herein present a case of spontaneous necrosis of gallbladder carcinoma associated with direct invasion\\u000a of viable cancer cell nests to the muscularis propria and subserosal layer located beneath the primary nodules. A 65-year-old\\u000a Japanese man was admitted to a local hospital, complaining of

Yoichi Sakurai; Mitsutaka Shoji; Toshiki Matsubara; Masashi Suganuma; Shigeru Hasegawa; Hiroki Imazu; Masahiro Ochiai; Takahiko Funabiki; Makoto Urano; Yoshikazu Mizoguchi; Makoto Kuroda



Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States.BackgroundThe national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized avascular necrosis (AVN) in renal transplant recipients has not been reported.MethodsThis historical cohort study consisted of 42,096 renal transplant recipients enrolled in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. The data source was USRDS

Kevin C Abbott; Robert J Oglesby; Lawrence Y Agodoa



Aldosterone: A Mediator of Myocardial Necrosis and Renal Arteriopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of aldosterone in mediating cardiovascular damage, we performed ablation\\/replacement experiments with aldo- sterone in a rat model of cardiac injury. Administration of angiotensin II and Nv-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; nitric oxide syn- thesis inhibitor) to male rats drinking 1% saline caused hypertension, severe biventricular myocardial necrosis, proteinuria, and fibrinoid necrosis of renal and cardiac vessels. Removal




Caseous Necrosis of Mitral Annulus: A Rare Cause of Stroke  

PubMed Central

The current report describes a rare case of a caseous necrosis presenting as a pseudotumor in ventricle, revealed by stroke. Cerebral MRI, showing multiples lacunes, evocates a cardioembolic mechanism. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography demonstrate a large hyperechogenic mass fixed to the posterior mitral valve and annulus while thoracic tomography revealed a fully calcified lesion, at the mitral annulus, evocative of caseus necrosis. Medical therapy was preferred (anticoagulation), because of her age and the decaying nature of surgery.

Corre, Jerome; Leroux, Lionel; Coste, Pierre



Inflammation of the Fetal Ovine Skin Following in utero Exposure to Ureaplasma parvum  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence linking in utero infection and inflammation to preterm birth. Many commensal urogenital tract microorganisms, including the Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas, are commonly detected in association with preterm birth. Using an ovine model of sterile fetal inflammation, we demonstrated previously that the fetal skin generates a robust inflammatory response following in utero exposure to lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli. The fetal skin’s response to colonization of the amniotic fluid by viable microorganisms remains unstudied. We hypothesised that in utero infection with Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 would induce a proinflammatory response in the fetal skin. We found that (1) cultured fetal keratinocytes (the primary cellular constituent of the epidermis) respond to U. parvum exposure in vitro by increasing the expression of the chemotactant monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) but not interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, or tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?); (2) the fetal skin’s response to 7 days of U. parvum exposure is characterized by elevated expression of MCP-1, TNF-?, and IL-10; and (3) the magnitude of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression in the fetal skin is dependent on the duration of U parvum exposure. These novel findings provide further support for the role of the fetal skin in the development of fetal inflammation and the preterm birth that may follow.

Kemp, Matthew W.; Saito, Masatoshi; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Li, Shaofu; Kramer, Boris; Zhang, Li; Knox, Christine; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Newnham, John P.



Cytokines and the Skin Barrier  

PubMed Central

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

Hanel, Kai H.; Cornelissen, Christian; Luscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte



Cytokines and the skin barrier.  


The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23531535

Hänel, Kai H; Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte



Skin Surgery Codes

Skin C440–C449 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;


Skin Cancer Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school curriculumâÂÂa part of Emory University's CancerQuest website, which focuses on the biology, detection and treatment of cancerâÂÂoffers resources for teaching about skin cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States.

Patricia Ann Marsteller (Emory University;)



Causes of Aging Skin  


... applied 20 minutes before going outdoors to all skin that will be exposed. It should be reapplied after sweating or being in water. Treatment . If you are bothered by visible signs of aging, a number of treatments are available. Injectable fillers and botulinum toxin are suitable for people with ...


Skin Cancer Prevention Study

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.


Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis.  


The skin manifestations of sarcoidosis are classified as specific, where biopsy reveals non-caseating granulomas, and non-specific, typically erythema nodosum. The most frequent specific (granulomatous) skin lesions are maculopapules, subcutaneous nodules, scar sarcoidosis, plaques and lupus pernio. Skin biopsy allows early diagnosis of sarcoidosis through a non-aggressive procedure. In sarcoidosis, erythema nodosum is usually associated with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on the chest radiograph, this being known as Löfgren's syndrome. Cutaneous lesions have prognostic significance. Löfgren's syndrome is usually associated with good prognosis and spontaneous resolution. Maculopapular lesions and subcutaneous nodules are more often associated with remission of the systemic disease at two years, while plaques and, mainly, lupus pernio are hallmarks of chronic disease. Most cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis are only mildly symptomatic and do not require treatment. However, chronic skin lesions, particularly lupus pernio, are disfiguring and can have a strong psychological and social impact. Treatment of these lesions is a challenge since they do not respond well to conventional treatments. The introduction of biological agents has been an important although not definitive advance in the treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis. PMID:22579238

Mañá, Juan; Marcoval, Joaquim



Polymeric membrane dressings for radiotherapy-induced skin damage.  


Radiotherapy is one of the mainline treatments for cancer. One of the side effects associated with radiotherapy includes skin problems, which range from mild (dull erythema and tightening of the skin) to severe (moist desquamation resulting in open wounds that can be very painful associated with sloughy and, in some severe cases, necrosis). The increased use of advanced radical treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT), can also result in a higher number of patients experiencing skin reactions. It is estimated that approximately 87% of patients will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction (Harris et al, 2011) An evaluation was undertaken in 20 patients with head and neck cancer following a prescribed treatment of radiotherapy to compare a polymeric membrane dressing (PolyMem®) against the standard treatment. The standard treatment consisted of topical aqueous cream at the start of radiotherapy with the addition of paraffin gauze when moist desquamation occurred. A bespoke evaluation form was completed for a period of 4 weeks or until healed. Patients were asked to complete both qualitative descriptions and numerical scores of pain for symptoms and procedural pain. Analgesia and sleep patterns were logged and, in addition, free text diaries were provided for up to 4 weeks. Common themes were identified and qualitative data analysed. PMID:24851807

Scott, Audrey



Skin Penetration Mechanisms of Helminths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and physiology of human skin are described and related to the following penetration mechanisms of the Schistosoma mansoni cercaria: Brief exploration of the sebum-covered skin surface for entry sites. Attempted entry at irregularities associ...

M. A. Stirwalt



Candida infection of the skin  


... may also be helpful to those with diabetes. Antifungal skin creams or ointments may be used to ... yeast infection of the skin, mouth, or vagina. Antifungal medications taken by mouth may be necessary for ...


Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.



Improved electrodes for skin contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design is described of thick, flexible electrodes with appropriate metal surfaces which prevent unnecessary skin motion. Electrodes provide sufficient radial pressure directed toward body surface to depress skin a noticeable portion of its normal resilient thickness.

Castle, J. G.; Lattanzi, R. R.



Bullous skin reaction seen after extravasation of calcium gluconate.  


Intravenous (IV) calcium is usually given to temporarily treat the effects of hyperkalaemia on muscle and heart. When extravasation of a calcium gluconate infusion occurs, there may be rapid and marked swelling and erythema, with signs of soft-tissue necrosis or infection, and ensuing extensive local calcification, called calcinosis cutis. We report a 26-year-old woman who was hospitalized for exacerbation of acute intermittent porphyria. She had a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure. On the second day of her hospitalization, she developed hyperpotassaemia (6.7 mEq/L potassium; normal range 3.5-5 mEq/L). She was given an IV infusion of 10 mL calcium gluconate into the left dorsal pedal vein. Bullous skin reactions occurred in the infusion area nearly 2 h after administration. The patient's leg was elevated and the lesions cleaned with 0.9% saline. By day 9 of hospitalization, the lesions had markedly regressed. Several drugs have been associated with dermoepidermal blistering as an adverse drug reaction, but there is only one existing report in the literature about this side-effect associated with calcium gluconate. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of bullous skin reactions, which may be a predictor of extravasation and necrosis, when treating patients with IV calcium gluconate. PMID:22830330

Celbek, G; Gungor, A; Albayrak, H; Kir, S; Guvenc, S C; Aydin, Y



Skin ulcer caused by venous extravasation of heroin.  


The accidental leakage of the compound, in this case heroin, from the veins where it is injected, causes the formation of tissue lesions. Similar mechanisms lead to progressive tissue necrosis, which, if not immediately treated, results in the loss of the relevant function. A 57-year-old man presented a skin lesion on the posterior region of the left forearm with extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous layer involving the underlying muscle planes, caused by a venous extravasation of heroin that he reports having injected himself. The wound size is 15 × 10 cm; it had a sanious, fibrinous, secreting and smelly bottom. In this period, the patient was subjected to daily focused dressing before debridement of the lesion through a collagenase plus hyaluronic acid ointment: Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical, Abano, Italy). The therapeutic choice was rewarded with a complete resolution of the wound through a non-invasive technique and over a short period. Avoiding the hospitalisation of the patient achieved a reduction of risks for him and of the costs for the National Health Service (NHS). The Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical) as well as allowing the healing of the wound also decreased significantly the pain felt by the patient, the amount of exudate and the bad smell improving in a non-negligible way his quality of life. PMID:23107007

Onesti, Maria G; Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Massera, Diego; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolo



Follow-Up During Early Infancy of Newborns Diagnosed with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (ScFN) is an uncommon condition caused by generalized and/or local tissue hypoperfusion. The skin lesions of ScFN tend to improve spontaneously. However, ScFN may also lead to complications which cause serious problems. The severity of the etiologic factors contributing to the development of the disease determines the severity of complications. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for complications, especially for hypercalcemia which may be life-threatening. The severity and duration of hypercalcemia are associated with the extensity of skin lesions. We present a newborn who developed ScFN as a result of systemic hypotension. The ScFN resolved after the first few weeks of life, but the patient developed mild hypercalcemia during the 4-month follow-up period. The infant was breast-fed during follow-up, and vitamin D prophylaxis was not initiated. The hypercalcemia resolved within four months without any complications. We would like to draw attention to the need to monitor serum calcium levels in these infants and to refrain from initiating vitamin D prophylaxis in the first months of life. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Ak?n, Leyla; Sar?c?, Dilek; Y?lmaz, Ibrahim; Balkanl?, Suleyman; Kurtoglu, Selim



Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction in patients with macromastia using the passot breast reduction pattern.  


Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate tissue expander reconstruction poses a challenge in the patient with macromastia or excessive ptosis. Skin reduction via the Wise pattern has been described but is associated with high rates of skin necrosis. The study group consisted of 43 women with grade 2 or 3 ptosis who underwent SSM and immediate reconstruction with tissue expanders, using the Passot (horizontal) skin reduction pattern. Age ranged from 31 to 67 years (mean, 51 years). The endpoints measured were time to final expansion, mastectomy skin flap necrosis, infectious complications, and total complications. Thirty reconstructions were bilateral and 13 were unilateral (73 breasts total). Follow-up ranged from 6 to 55 months (mean, 20). Common comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 16), obesity (n = 22), and smoking (n = 9). The mean body mass index was 30.6 (range, 19.4-58.6). Twenty-one patients underwent chemotherapy; 12 received radiation. The mean initial fill was 196 mL (range, 0-420 mL), and the mean time to final expansion was 84 days (range, 28-225 days). Five patients did not complete the reconstruction, 2 because of cancer recurrence and 3 because of infection. There were 3 cases of mastectomy flap necrosis occurring after tissue expander placement (7%). There were 7 infectious complications (16%). The use of a horizontal breast reduction pattern at the time of expander placement produces consistently good esthetic outcomes and a low rate of skin necrosis, and it should be considered as an option in patients with macromastia or ptosis undergoing SSM and immediate reconstruction. PMID:24835873

Rinker, Brian; Thornton, Brian P



Retrospective Comparison of Non-Skin-Sparing Mastectomy and Skin-Sparing Mastectomy with Immediate Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background. We compared Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate breast reconstruction and Non-skin-sparing mastectomy (NSSM), various types of incision in SSM. Method. Records of 202 consecutive breast cancer patients were reviewed retrospectively. Also in the SSM, three types of skin incision were used. Type A was a periareolar incision with a lateral extension, type B was a periareolar incision and axillary incision, and type C included straight incisions, a small elliptical incision (base line of nipple) within areolar complex and axillary incision. Results. Seventy-three SSMs and 129 NSSMs were performed. The mean follow-up was 30.0 (SSM) and 41.1 (NSSM) months. Respective values for the two groups were: mean age 47.0 and 57; seven-year cumulative local disease-free survival 92.1% and 95.2%; post operative skin necrosis 4.1% and 3.1%. In the SSM, average areolar diameter in type A & B was 35.4?mm, 43.0?mm in type C and postoperative nipple-areolar plasty was performed 61% in type A & B, 17% in type C, respectively. Conclusion. SSM for early breast cancer is associated with low morbidity and oncological safety that are as good as those of NSSM. Also in SSM, Type C is far superior as regards cost and cosmetic outcomes.

Kinoshita, Satoki; Nojima, Kimihiro; Takeishi, Meisei; Imawari, Yoshimi; Kyoda, Shigeya; Hirano, Akio; Akiba, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Takeyama, Hiroshi; Uchida, Ken; Morikawa, Toshiaki



Determination of skin repigmentation progression.  


In this paper, we describe an image processing scheme to analyze and determine areas of skin that have undergone repigmentation in particular, during the treatment of vitiligo. In vitiligo cases, areas of skin become pale or white due to the lack of skin pigment called melanin. Vitiligo treatment causes skin repigmentation resulting in a normal skin color. However, it is difficult to determine and quantify the amount of repigmentation visually during treatment because the repigmentation progress is slow and moreover changes in skin color can only be discerned over a longer time frame typically 6 months. Here, we develop a digital image analysis scheme that can identify and determine vitiligo skin areas and repigmentation progression on a shorter time period. The technique is based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis which converts the RGB skin image into a skin image that represent skin areas due to melanin and haemoglobin only, followed by segmentation process. Vitiligo skin lesions are identified as skin areas that lack melanin (non-melanin areas). In the initial studies of 4 patients, the method has been able to quantify repigmentation in vitiligo lesion. Hence it is now possible to determine repigmentation progression objectively and treatment efficacy on a shorter time cycle. PMID:18002737

Nugroho, Hermawan; Fadzil, M H Ahmad; Yap, V V; Norashikin, S; Suraiya, H H



Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher



Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail:



Wound Healing and Skin Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of insults can result in injury to the skin including mechanical, thermal, chemical, nuclear, and infectious. In all cases, the injury to the skin triggers a response aimed at restoring the integrity and function of the skin. Wound healing is a dynamic process that involves a complex and closely orchestrated interaction between blood cells, cutaneous parenchymal cells, soluble

Adam J. Singer; Marcia Simon


Relationship between the skin permeation movement of propranolol and skin inflammatory reactions.  


We studied inflammatory reactions induced by dermal application of the beta-blocker propranolol (PRL) in ethanol to guinea pigs in order to elucidate the relation of the reactions with the cumulative PRL permeating amount through the stratum corneum or the PRL content in the stripped skin, and to investigate the chemical mediators responsible for the reactions. The cumulative PRL permeating amount through the stratum corneum increased rapidly up to 2 h after dermal application, then increased linearly with time up to 24 h after application. Visual observation revealed formation of erythema and edema at the applied site of PRL, and histopathological examination revealed infiltration of pseudoeosinophiles of dermis and epidermis and degeneration/necrosis of epidermis. In general, it was considered that the duration and the extent of these reactions were dependent on the PRL dosage and application time. It was expected that the cumulative PRL permeating amount through the stratum corneum could be used to predict possible inflammatory reactions during development of transdermal drug delivery systems. On the other hand, contact of PRL with guinea pig skin tissues released histamine, and intradermal injection of PRL caused an increase of capillary permeability at the site of application. Also, the inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory agents (diphenhydramine, dexamethasone, indomethacin, cyproheptadine hydrochloride, CV3988 and AA-861) to PRL-induced erythema formation demonstrated that histamine and prostaglandins were responsible for the inflammatory reactions induced by PRL. PMID:9781843

Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M



Genetics Home Reference: Acral peeling skin syndrome  


... skin syndrome? Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by painless peeling of the top layer ... be mild and similar to those of other skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed. What genes are ...


From human skin to Nano-Skin: an experimental study on human skin temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human state in human–machine systems should be monitored to improve system performance. In monitoring it is preferable to use physiological cues such as skin temperature. The sensing capabilities of human skin were analyzed. The sensing system of human skin was modeled, and inspired the design of a Nano-Skin for physiological measurement in dynamic human–machine contact for human state recognition.

Hongjie Leng; Yingzi Lin



Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km\\/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction

Woong Sagong; Sangho Choi; Chulkyu Kim; Woo-Pyung Jeon; Haecheon Choi



Skin contamination dosimeter  


A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR) [Corvallis, OR



Journey to the skin  

PubMed Central

The peripheral axons of vertebrate tactile somatosensory neurons travel long distances from ganglia just outside the central nervous system to the skin. Once in the skin these axons form elaborate terminals whose organization must be regionally patterned to detect and accurately localize different kinds of touch stimuli. This review describes key studies that identified choice points for somatosensory axon growth cones and the extrinsic molecular cues that function at each of those steps. While much has been learned in the past 20 years about the guidance of these axons, there is still much to be learned about how the peripheral axons of different kinds of somatosensory neurons adopt different trajectories and form specific terminal structures.

Wang, Fang; Julien, Donald P.; Sagasti, Alvaro



Combined effects of gender, skin type and polymorphic genes on clinical phenotype: use of rate of increase in numbers of basal cell carcinomas as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with a basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have an increased risk of further tumors. We studied the individual and combined impact of gender, skin type and allelic genes cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6), vitamin D receptor (VDR), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-?) on the rate of increase in BCC numbers after first presentation. Individually, male gender, skin type 1, CYP2D6 EM, VDR TT

Sudarshan Ramachandran; Anthony A Fryer; Tracy J Lovatt; Andrew G Smith; John T Lear; Peter W Jones; Richard C Strange



Radon exposure of the skin: I. Biological effects.  


Radon progeny can plate out on skin and give rise to exposure of the superficial epidermis from alpha emitters Po-218 (7.7 MeV, range approximately 66 microm) and Po-214 (6 MeV, range approximately 44 microm). Dose rates from beta/gamma emitters Pb-214 and Bi-214 are low and only predominate at depths in excess of the alpha range. This paper reviews the evidence for a causal link between exposure from radon and its progeny, and deterministic and stochastic biological effects in human skin. Radiation induced skin effects such as ulceration and dermal atrophy, which require irradiation of the dermis, are ruled out for alpha irradiation from radon progeny because the target cells are considerably deeper than the range of alpha particles. They have not been observed in man or animals. Effects such as erythema and acute epidermal necrosis have been observed in a few cases of very high dose alpha particle exposures in man and after acute high dose exposure in animals from low energy beta radiations with similar depth doses to radon progeny. The required skin surface absorbed doses are in excess of 100 Gy. Such effects would require extremely high levels of radon progeny. They would involve quite exceptional circumstances, way outside the normal range of radon exposures in man. There is no definitive identification of the target cells for skin cancer induction in animals or man. The stem cells in the basal layer which maintain the epidermis are the most plausible contenders for target cells. The majority of these cells are near the end of the range of radon progeny alpha particles, even on the thinnest body sites. The nominal depth of these cells, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is 70 microm. There is evidence however that some irradiation of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is also necessary for skin cancer induction. Alpha irradiation of rodent skin that is restricted to the epidermis does not produce skin cancer. Accelerator generated high energy helium and heavy ions can produce skin cancer in rodents at high doses, but only if they penetrate deep into the dermis. The risk figures for radiation induced skin cancer in man recommended by the ICRP in 1990 are based largely on x and beta irradiated cohorts, but few data exist below absorbed doses of about 1 Gy. The only plausible finding of alpha-radiation induced skin cancer in man is restricted to one study in Czech uranium miners. There is no evidence in other uranium miners and the Czech study has a number of shortcomings. This review concludes that the overall balance of evidence is against causality of radon progeny exposure and skin cancer induction. Of particular relevance is the finding in animal studies that radiation exposure of cells which are deeper than the inter-follicular epidermis is necessary to elicit skin cancer. In spite of this conclusion, a follow-on paper evaluates the attributable risk of radon to skin cancer in the UK on the basis that target cells for skin cancer induction are the cells in the basal layer of the inter-follicular epidermis-since this is the conservative assumption made by international bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general radiological protection purposes. PMID:17768326

Charles, M W



Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC.

Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal



Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.



Improved skin friction interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate

R. V. Westphal; W. D. Bachalo; M. H. Houser



[Basophils in skin inflammation].  


Basophils represent less than 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes. Under physiological conditions, basophils principally circulate in peripheral blood, while mast cells reside in peripheral tissues. Like mast cells, they express the high-affinity IgE receptor on their cell surface and release chemical mediators. Because of morphological and functional similarities, basophils have long been considered to be redundant "circulating mast cells" and minor (probably negligible) players in inflammation. Mouse and human basophils cannot be stained in routinely processed histological specimens, and thus, our understanding of tissue basophils in allergic inflammation had been limited. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that basopihls play non-redundant roles from mast cells. Basophils function as a source of IL-4, IL-13, and CCL22, thereby contributing Th2 immunity. They are also capable of presenting antigens. Basophils are essential for the development of IgE-mediated chronic allergic skin inflammation in mice. Recent immunohistochemical studies with an basophil-specific antibody revealed that, in humans, varying numbers of basophils infiltrate skin lesions of inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria, prurigo, and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Basophils may play important roles in a variety of inflammatory skin diseases than previously thought. PMID:21628847

Satoh, Takahiro



Characteristics of the Aging Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic.

Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.



Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

Gonzalez, Javier [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, Ashok J. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Conrad, Charles A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Levin, Victor A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail:



Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.  

PubMed Central

The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Majno, G.; Joris, I.



Human TH9 cells are skin-tropic and have autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory capacity.  


T helper type 9 (TH9) cells can mediate tumor immunity and participate in autoimmune and allergic inflammation in mice, but little is known about the TH9 cells that develop in vivo in humans. We isolated T cells from human blood and tissues and found that most memory TH9 cells were skin-tropic or skin-resident. Human TH9 cells coexpressed tumor necrosis factor-? and granzyme B and lacked coproduction of TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines, and many were specific for Candida albicans. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) production was transient and preceded the up-regulation of other inflammatory cytokines. Blocking studies demonstrated that IL-9 was required for maximal production of interferon-?, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 by skin-tropic T cells. IL-9-producing T cells were increased in the skin lesions of psoriasis, suggesting that these cells may contribute to human inflammatory skin disease. Our results indicate that human TH9 cells are a discrete T cell subset, many are tropic for the skin, and although they may function normally to protect against extracellular pathogens, aberrant activation of these cells may contribute to inflammatory diseases of the skin. PMID:24431112

Schlapbach, Christoph; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Watanabe, Rei; Guenova, Emmanuella; Teague, Jessica E; Campbell, Laura; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Kupper, Thomas S; Clark, Rachael A



Chemical regulation of signaling pathways to programmed necrosis.  


Necroptosis is an active and well-orchestrated necrosis, distinctive from apoptosis in microscopic structure, and biochemical and molecular features. Unlike apoptosis-undergoing cells, which are removed by macrophage or neighboring cells, necrotic cell death releases danger signals and provokes inflammation, and further a severe damage to neighbor tissue. A regulated necrosis, termed as necroptosis or programmed necrosis, is emerging as a new paradigm of cell death that can be activated when apoptotic machinery is genetically or pathogenically defective. It plays biological significances in pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory diseases as well as in a beneficial innate immune defense mechanism. This review highlights the identification of hits against necroptosis, and comprehensive approaches to discovery of small molecules that regulate necroptotic cell death. Also, the signaling molecular mechanism of necroptosis and future clinical uses of necroptosis inhibitor will be described in brief. PMID:24715577

Bae, Ji Hyun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Young Sik



[Reoperation for the reconstruction organ necrosis after esophagectomy].  


Although the surgical technique and perioperative management have been improving, the mortality and morbidity rates for transthoracic esophagectomy followed by reconstruction are still comparatively high among the surgery for gastrointestinal cancers. Necrosis of reconstructed organ is a rare but fatal complication associated with high mortality rate. It is quite important to promptly and accurately diagnose the disturbance of blood circulation of reconstructed organs and appropriately treat those diseases. Otherwise, the patients could easily fall into endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and multiple organ failure( MOF). Here, we will summarize the way of diagnosis and treatment for the necrosis of reconstructed organs and present 2 cases of reconstruction organ necrosis (gastric tube and ascending colon) after esophagectomy in our institute. PMID:23917202

Egashira, Akinori; Toh, Yasushi



Compensation for occupational skin diseases.  


The Korean list of occupational skin diseases was amended in July 2013. The past list was constructed according to the causative agent and the target organ, and the items of that list had not been reviewed for a long period. The revised list was reconstructed to include diseases classified by the International Classification of Diseases (10th version). Therefore, the items of compensable occupational skin diseases in the amended list in Korea comprise contact dermatitis; chemical burns; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; tar-related skin diseases; infectious skin diseases; skin injury-induced cellulitis; and skin conditions resulting from physical factors such as heat, cold, sun exposure, and ionized radiation. This list will be more practical and convenient for physicians and workers because it follows a disease-based approach. The revised list is in accordance with the International Labor Organization list and is refined according to Korean worker's compensation and the actual occurrence of occupational skin diseases. However, this revised list does not perfectly reflect the actual status of skin diseases because of the few cases of occupational skin diseases, incomplete statistics of skin diseases, and insufficient scientific evidence. Thus, the list of occupational diseases should be modified periodically on the basis of recent evidence and statistics. PMID:25006325

Song, Han-Soo; Ryou, Hyun-Chul



Painful skin ulcers in a hemodialysis patient.  


Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2-4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

Sprague, Stuart M



[Recommendations for the prevention and management of tuberculosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors: a consensus of lithuanian pulmonologists and rheumatologists].  


Patients receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis) are at high risk of developing tuberculosis during treatment. This article gives the recommendations for the prevention and management of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatic diseases before initiating therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. They are adapted considering the high prevalence of tuberculosis, high drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and extensive bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis in Lithuania. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis, the screening should be done before starting antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. This includes complete medical history and posterior-anterior, lateral chest radiography. Tuberculin skin test using the Mantoux method with 5 tuberculin units and interferon-gamma release assay should be performed in patients without posttuberculous radiological lesions. If Ghon's complex or untreated posttuberculous lesions are present, or if the results the Mantoux test or interferon-gamma release assay are positive, the patient should be treated for latent tuberculosis. For the treatment of latent tuberculosis, isoniazid and rifampicin are given for 3 months, and the introduction of antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy is delayed at least for one month. In cases of suspected active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, tuberculosis should be confirmed microbiologically or morphologically, and adequate antituberculosis treatment should be initiated. PMID:21822042

Malakauskas, K?stutis; Zablockis, Rolandas; Venalis, Algirdas; Butrimien?, Irena; Baranauskait?, Asta; Narg?la, Remigijus Voldemaras; Sakalauskas, Raimundas



Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu



Surgical management of pancreatic necrosis: towards lesser and later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/purpose  Our aim was to determine the overall success rate and survival rate with respect to the timing of intervention in the management\\u000a of pancreatic necrosis. The use of minimally invasive pancreatic necrosectomy was also examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The subjects were all patients who suffered from\\u000a acute pancreatic necrosis with emergency

Moon-Tong Cheung; Wing-Hong Li; Philip Chong-Hei Kwok; Jeffrey Kam-Fai Hong



Femoral head avascular necrosis associated with metaphyseal aneurysmal bone cyst.  


A 12-year-old girl had an aneurysmal bone cyst in the proximal femoral metaphysis simultaneously with an avascular necrosis of the femoral head, as seen on radiological examination. No extension of the lesion across the growth plate into the femoral epiphysis was observed. The expansive behavior of this lesion (ABC) could have compromised the posterosuperior vascular supply of the femoral epiphysis, since no radiographic signs of fractures could be found. Vascular anomalies within the lesion that increase venous pressure could be another factor responsible for the decrease in the blood supply of the femoral epiphysis and could cause necrosis, hence compromising the morphology of the hip joint at maturity. PMID:7719826

Albiñana, J; González-Morán, G; Morcuende, J A



Ultrasound and MRI findings in appendicular and truncal fat necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective was to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in clinical appendicular and truncal fat necrosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Thirty-three patients (14 men, 19 women, median age 55, range 29–95) were retrospectively evaluated. Histologically, three\\u000a groups were seen: Group 1 (n?=?18) consisted of patients with subcutaneous masses with septal and extrinsic oedema; in Group 2 (n?=?11) necrosis occurred within lipomatous tumours and

Philip Robinson; Joanna M. Farrant; Grainne Bourke; William Merchant; Scott McKie; Kieran J. Horgan



The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger



Climate change and skin.  


Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C



Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.



Low temperature skin treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.


Simulated human skin scales  

PubMed Central

Human skin scales which have been shed naturally bear a flora of microorganisms which is unknown until tested. To replace these scales in a study of the micro-environment of both the human body and of models a method has been devised of making synthetic scales which behave both physically and aerodynamically in a similar way to the natural material. The synthetic materials carry no natural flora and it is possible to include in them test markers of several kinds to assist in identification after dispersion. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

Lees, Julienne; Brighton, W. D.



Skin cancer after transplantation.  


Advances in transplantation technique and posttransplantation immunosuppression have resulted in continual improvements in survival and quality of life of transplant recipients. The improved quality of life afforded in the posttransplantation period allows patients to lead more active lifestyles, which often includes increased exposure to solar radiation. This growing population of active, immunosuppressed individuals is at marked risk, up to 65 times that of the general population, for the development of cutaneous neoplasms with associated morbidity and mortality. Prevention, prompt recognition, and effective treatment of skin cancer in this immunosuppressed population are vital. PMID:19345080

Kovach, Bradley T; Stasko, Thomas



Improved Skin Friction Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.



Clinical evaluation of axial pattern skin flaps in dogs and cats: 19 cases (1981-1990).  


Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (+/- SD) was 96% (+/- 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin. PMID:1517139

Trevor, P B; Smith, M M; Waldron, D R; Hedlund, C S



Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research.



Molecular tumorigenesis of the skin.  


Skin tumors are supposed to develop through accumulations of genetic and/or epigenetic events in normal cells of the skin. Among them, we focus on common skin tumors, including benign, seborrheic keratosis, and malignant, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Many important molecules have been detected on the molecular tumorigenesis of each of them to date, and some drugs targeted for their molecules have been already developed. We review updates on the molecular tumorigenesis of these tumors with our current works. PMID:24705742

Kubo, Yoshiaki; Matsudate, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Nozomi; Nakasuka, Ayaka; Sogawa, Maiko; Oshima, Mika; Mizutani, Tomoya; Otsu, Masanobu; Murao, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Ichiro



Arsenic Carcinogenesis in the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chronic arsenic poisoning is a world public health issue. Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers in lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin in a dose–response relationship. Oxidative stress, chromosomal abnormality and altered growth factors are possible modes of action in arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenic tends to accumulate in the skin. Skin

Hsin-Su Yu; Wei-Ting Liao; Chee-Yin Chai



Itchy lesions in pigmented skin.  


A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature. PMID:24114602

Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali



The future of skin metagenomics.  


Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal



Nutrition and nonmelanoma skin cancers.  


The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer is increasing every year. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the two major types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Among other factors, understanding the potential role of nutrients in the development, progression, and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer is critical. This contribution provides a review of the nutrients that have been more extensively investigated in the literature with regard to nonmelanoma skin cancer, including dietary fats, retinol, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, copper, iron, zinc, green tea, and black tea. PMID:21034989

Payette, Michael J; Whalen, James; Grant-Kels, Jane M



Chronology of healing events in pulsed CO2 laser skin resurfacing in fuzzy rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative and quantitative histopathologic procedures were used to study the chronology of healing and mechanism(s) of wrinkle removal using pulsed CO2 laser irradiation. Lesions placed on 'Fuzzy' rat skin were examined pathologically at 0, 2 and 10 days and 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Re-epithelialization began before 2 days and was complete by 10 days. Lethal thermal damage of the epidermis and superficial dermis led to necrosis and slough of the necrotic tissue. Fibrous dermal scar formation was well established at 10 days and, over the next 10 weeks the scar matured and contracted. The proposed mechanisms of wrinkle removal are (1) lethal thermal damage to the upper layers of the skin, (2) slough of the necrotic tissue and (3) re-epithelialization and (4) fibrous scar formation producing a smooth skin surface.

Thomsen, Sharon L.; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.; Nolan, Kathy



Necrosis of the incus by the chorda tympani nerve.  


Ossicular necrosis is often associated with chronic adhesive otitis media. An unusual abnormality discovered in an incus removed during tympanoplasty is reported. The long process appears to have been grooved by pressure from the chorda tympani. An alternative theory to explain the vulnerability of the long process of the incus is suggested. PMID:1564385

Watson, C



Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

Marion Man-Ying Chan



Necrosis targeted combinational theragnostic approach to treat cancer  

PubMed Central

Residual cancer cells and subsequent tumor relapse is an obstacle for curative cancer treatment. Tumor necrosis therapy (TNT) has recently been developed to cause residual tumor regression or destruction. Here, we exploited the avidity of the sennidin A (SA) tracer and radioiodinated SA (131I-SA) to necrotic tumors in order to further empower TNT. We showed high uptake and prolonged retention of SA in necrotic tumors and a quick clearance in other non-targeted tissues including the liver. On SPECT-CT images, tumor mass appeared persistently as a hotspot. Based on the prominent targetability of 131I-SA to the tumor necrosis, we designed a combinational theragnostic modality. The vascular disrupting agent (VDA) combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) was used to cause massive tumor necrosis, which formed the target of 131I-SA that subsequently killed the residual tumor cells by cross-fire irradiation of beta particles. Consequently, 131I-SA combined with CA4P significantly inhibited tumor growth, extended tumor doubling time and prolonged mean animal survival. In conclusion, 131I-SA in combination with necrosis inducing drugs/therapies may generate synergetic tumoricidal effects on solid malignancies by means of primary debulking and secondary cleansing process.

Ji, Yun; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Wei; Gao, Meng; Li, Yue; Wang, Junhu; Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Ziping; Jiang, Xiao; Yao, Nan; Wang, Xiaoning; Fang, Zhijun; Yin, Zhiqi; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian



Matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor and multiple sclerosis: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least 14 zinc-dependent enzymes which are known to degrade the protein components of extracellular matrix. In adddition, MMPs and related enzymes can also process a number of cell surface cytokines, receptors, and other soluble proteins. In particular we have shown that the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-?, from

S Chandler; K. M Miller; J. M Clements; J Lury; D Corkill; D. C. C Anthony; S. E Adams; A. J. H Gearing



Characterization of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initially came to prominence because of its anti-tumor activity, most attention is now focused on its proinflammatory actions. TNF appears to play a critical role in both early and late events involved in inflammation, from localizing the noxious agent and amplifying the cellular and mediator responses at the local site and systemically, to editing (e.g.,

Michael W. Marino; Ashley Dunn; Dianne Grail; Melissa Inglese; Yuji Noguchi; Elizabeth Richards; Achim Jungbluth; Hisashi Wada; Malcolm Moore; Barbara Williamson; Sunanda Basu; Lloyd J. Old



Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor and its relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immunity and inflammation, and in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. TNF? is also the founding member of a still growing family of cytokines with diverse bioregulatory functions. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate TNF?-induced cellular

Véronique Baud; Michael Karin



Corticosteroid-induced avascular necrosis of the talus.  


An unusual case of avascular necrosis of the talus secondary to chronic steroid usage is presented, along with a review of the literature. Etiologic factors as well as radiographic and clinical features will be discussed. Possible treatment alternatives will be reviewed. With greater knowledge of this pathologic process, prompt diagnosis may prevent its potentially harmful sequelae. PMID:2002189

Adleberg, J S; Smith, G H



Long survival of primary cerebral lymphoma with progressive radiation necrosis  

SciTech Connect

A 56-year-old man lived 8 years after excision and irradiation of a primary cerebral lymphoma. Delayed radiation necrosis caused progressive neurologic deterioration and probably his steroid-responsive episodes of obtundation. Vasogenic edema induced by radiation may account for the latter. An incidental extraneural lymphoma was found postmortem without evidence of CNS lymphoma.

Merchut, M.P.; Haberland, C.; Naheedy, M.H.; Rubino, F.A.



Tumor necrosis factor-? induces apoptosis in rat brown adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that adipose tissue is a major site of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) gene expression, which is markedly high in obese animals and may contribute to obesity-linked insulin resistance. We now report that recombinant murine TNF-? triggers the apoptotic degeneration of brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Moreover, noradrenaline, which has been described as having trophic effects on brown

Enzo Nisoli; Luca Briscini; Cristina Tonello; Carlo De Giuli-Morghen; Michele O Carruba



Skin Microflora and Bacterial Infections of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is a milieu for controlled bacterial growth. Skin supports the growth of commensal bacteria, which protect the host from pathogenic bacteria. Environmental and local factors, host immunity, and organism adherence and virulence are intricately related to cutaneous infection. Resident gram- positive bacteria include Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Corynebacterium sp. Staphylococcus aureus and Strepto coccus pyogenes are notoriously pathogenic in

Katarina Chiller; Bryan A. Selkin; George J. Murakawa



Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin



Hyaluronic acid skin fillers: Adverse reactions and skin testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been proposed as alternatives to other temporary skin fillers, such as bovine collagen, for treating facial skin lines and for providing lip augmentation. Several types of commercial HA fillers are now available in many countries. They include Restylane, which is produced by microbiologic engineering techniques, and Hylaform, which is HA extract derived from rooster

Nicholas J. Lowe; C. Anne Maxwell; Philippa Lowe; Michael G. Duick; Kishor Shah



Trophic Skin Ulceration of Leprosy: Skin and Serum Zinc Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Skin and serum zinc measurements have been made in patients with leprosy with and without trophic skin ulceration and in several other groups. Serum zinc concentrations were decreased in leprosy irrespective of the presence or absence of skin ulceration. Serum zinc concentrations in leprosy were also unrelated to smears positive for Mycobacterium leprae and to the clinical type of leprosy. Since a decrease of the serum zinc was also found in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and pulmonary tuberculosis it seems likely that the decreased serum zinc in leprosy is a nonspecific metabolic consequence of chronic skin and internal disease. The mean skin zinc concentration in leprosy did not differ significantly from the corresponding value in control subjects, the lack of agreement between serum and skin concentrations being possibly related to the presence of nonexchangeable keratin-bound zinc in skin. Though the clinical significance of lowered serum zinc concentrations in leprosy is uncertain therapeutic trials of zinc treatment in leprosy with trophic skin ulceration seem justifiable.

Oon, Beng Bee; Khong, Kit Yew; Greaves, Malcolm W.; Plummer, Valerie M.



Exploring Theranostic Potentials of Radioiodinated Hypericin in Rodent Necrosis Models  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present animal experiments were conducted to evaluate radioiodinated Hypericin (Hyp) for its regional distribution as well as theranostic potentials. Materials and Methods: Rat models of reperfused liver infarction (RLI) and hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) were surgically induced. R1 models received Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) intravenously at 10 mg/kg 24 h prior to radioiodinated Hyp. Three groups of 6 rats each containing 3 RLI and 3 R1 models received iv injections of 123I-Hyp at 37, 74, and 185 MBq/kg respectively and followed by 0.1 ml of 1% Evans blue solution were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 48 hour post injection immediately after in vivo examination of MRI and planar gamma scintigraphy. Besides, two groups of 6 R1 models that received either 300 MBq/kg of 131I-Hyp or vehicle intravenously were examined using MRI to compare tumor growth for 12 days. Autoradiography, gamma counting, and histopathology were performed for postmortem verifications and quantification. Results: Necrosis as seen in vivo on contrast-enhanced MRI corresponded well with the hot spots on planar scintigraphy. Autoradiography and gamma counting revealed intense accumulation of 123I-Hyp in necrotic liver (3.94 ± 1.60, 5.38 ± 1.04, and 6.03 ± 2.09 %ID/g ± SD) and necrotic tumor (4.27 ± 0.76, 5.57 ± 0.76, and 5.68 ± 1.33 %ID/g ± SD) relative to normal liver (1.76 ± 0.54, 0.41 ± 0.18, and 0.16 ± 0.07 %ID/g ± SD), with a high necrosis-to-liver ratio of 2.3, 14.0, and 37.0 at 4, 24 and 48 h respectively. Tumor volumes in R1 models that received 131I-Hyp and vehicle changed from 0.45 ± 0.09, and 0.47 ± 0.12 cm3 (p > 0.05) on day 0 to1.32 ± 0.76 and 3.63 ± 0.72 cm3 (p < 0.001) on day 12, with the corresponding necrosis ratios from 73 ± 12 %, and 76 ± 17 % to 47 ± 18% and 17 ± 13 % (p < 0.01), and with the tumor DT of 7.3 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Radioiodinated Hyp as a necrosis avid tracer appears promising for non-invasive imaging diagnosis of necrosis-related pathologies. Its prominent targetability to necrosis allows targeted radiotherapy for malignancies on top of a prior necrosis-inducing treatment.

Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Yu, Jie; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng



Fernblock, a Nutriceutical with Photoprotective Properties and Potential Preventive Agent for Skin Photoaging and Photoinduced Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-?B, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin.

Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles



[Bovine udder skin (BUS): testing of skin compatibility and skin protection].  


New concepts of the horny layer as a metabolically active part of the epidermal permeability barrier elicited a re-evaluation of conventional mechanisms of occupational skin protection. Both skin protection products and noxae must penetrate the horny layer of the skin to be effective. The isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS) model reflects the natural penetration pattern; hence skin irritation, penetration and absorption can be investigated simultaneously. Using whole skin biopsies the degree of irritation in untreated (control), treated and pre-treated skin is measured by assessing the irritancy (PGE2-concentration) and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) after the exposure period of 0.5 h, 1.0 h and 5.0 h. Two types of skin protection studies were reported. One was a laboratory study using the water-soluble sodiumlaurylsulphate (10%, 15%) as noxa. The other study was initiated by a severely skin irritating water-soluble coolant (approx. 5%). This well documented case occurred in a metal working plant. In both studies different degrees of protective potential against the model noxae SLS and the coolant could be observed. PMID:16688383

Pittermann, Wolfgang F; Kietzmann, Manfred



Measurement of skin condition by sonic velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Sonic velocity measurements through skin were made as a means of evaluating skin condition. These velocities were shown to be a measure of skin elasticity and can be used to assess product-induced changes in skin condition. A commercially available instrument was modified for these studies to measure transmission velocity through forearm and dorsal hand skin. Tape stripping experiments indicated



Genetic skin diseases.  


Recent advances in molecular genetics have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of two heterogeneous groups of inherited skin diseases, epidermolysis bullosa and the ichthyoses. Mutations in keratins K5 or K14 are found in epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The gravis (Herlitz) variety of junctional epidermolysis bullosa is characterized by defects in the anchoring filament protein kalinin. Both dominant and recessive forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa appear to be due to mutations in the type VII collagen gene. Biochemical studies in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris reveal that the proteins profilaggrin and filaggrin are reduced or absent. Recessive X-linked ichthyosis is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme steroid sulfatase. A type of lamellar ichthyosis may be explained on the basis of abnormal cornified cell envelope formation, and bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis) is caused by mutations in keratins K1 or K10. PMID:7951667

Francis, J S



Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin



Initiation of Liver Growth by Tumor Necrosis Factor: Deficient Liver Regeneration in Mice Lacking Type I Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that initiate liver regeneration after resection of liver tissue are not known. To determine whether cytokines are involved in the initiation of liver growth, we studied the regeneration of the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I). DNA synthesis after PH was severely impaired in these animals, and the expected

Yasuhiro Yamada; Irina Kirillova; Jacques J. Peschon; Nelson Fausto



SKIN: designing aesthetic interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose SKIN as an interdisciplinary design approach for sophisticated interactive surfaces, with an emphasis on their meanings and aesthetic qualities. SKIN: Surface Kinetics INterface, aims at integrating concept-driven design process and exploratory critical engagement with forms and materials into current user-centered design approaches in HCI research. The procedures of developing three design concepts and prototyping one

Heekyoung Jung; Youngsuk L. Altieri; Jeffrey Bardzell



Rheological behaviour of reconstructed skin.  


Reconstructed skins have been developed to replace skin when the integrity of tissue has been compromised following severe injury, and to provide alternative methods validating the innocuousness and effectiveness of dermatological and cosmetic products. However the functional properties of tissue substitutes have not been well characterised, mainly since mechanical measurement devices have not been designed to test cell culture materials in vitro. From the mechanical standpoint, reconstructed skin is a heterogeneous multi-layer viscoelastic material. To characterise the time-dependent behaviour of reconstructed skin, spherical indentation load-relaxation tests were performed with a specific original device adapted to measure small soft tissue samples. Load-relaxation indentation tests were performed on a standard reconstructed skin model and on sub-components of the reconstructed skin (3D-scaffold alone and dermal equivalent). Generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models are proposed for analysing the mechanical behaviour of each biological tissue. The results indicated a modification of the rheological behaviour of the samples tested as a function of their biological structure. The 3D-scaffold was modelled using the one-branch Maxwell model, while the dermis equivalent and the reconstructed skin were modeled using a one-branch and a two-branch Kelvin-Voigt model, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that skin cells contribute to global mechanical behaviour through an increase of the instantaneous relaxation function, while the 3D-scaffold alone influences the mechanical response of long relaxation times. PMID:24956159

Pailler-Mattei, C; Laquièze, L; Debret, R; Tupin, S; Aimond, G; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H



Skin problems in stoma patients.  


Ostomy patients are dependent on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common and may interfere with the use of ostomy pouching systems. This is a specialist area not commonly seen by dermatologists. This article seeks to provide an overview of the topic for the general dermatologist. A systematic literature search was conducted. The articles found were reviewed and relevant articles were selected by two investigators. Loss of skin integrity may be related to chemical injury, mechanical destruction, infectious conditions, immunological reactions, disease-related conditions. Peristomal irritant dermatitis caused by skin contact with ostomy effluent is by far the most ordinary condition seen. Mechanical trauma, infection and aggravation of pre-existing skin diseases are also seen. Allergic contact dermatitis, which is often cited as the cause of peristomal skin problems, appears to be a rare condition with an estimated prevalence of only 0.6%. In spite of the importance of the integrity of peristomal skin, the topic is poorly described in the literature. The existing publications suggest that although peristomal skin disease can be diagnosed and treated, additional information on both patients and physicians is necessary to optimize patient care. PMID:20465716

Nybaek, H; Jemec, G B E



Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.



EPA Science Inventory

The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...


UV-induced skin damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290–320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation

M. Ichihashi; M. Ueda; A. Budiyanto; T. Bito; M. Oka; M. Fukunaga; K. Tsuru; T. Horikawa



Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action.



Automatic Skin Cancer Images Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. This paper presents two hybrid techniques for the classification of the skin images to predict it if exists. The proposed hybrid techniques consists of three stages, namely, feature extraction, dimensionality reduction, and classification. In the first stage, we have obtained the features related with images using discrete

Mahmoud Elgamal



Skin Effect in Conducting Fractals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin effect should be a neat tool for measuring fractal dimensionalities of arbitrarily rough and irregular conductors. By assuming the well known expression for the skin depth delta varies as or is proportional to 1/ sqrt omega ( omega identical to f...

C. Tsallis A. O. Caride C. G. Bollini J. J. Giambiagi J. S. Helman



Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types  

PubMed Central

The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin.

Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.



Skin Diseases in the Tropics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

Mahe, Antoine; And Others



Skin metastasis: a pathologist's perspective.  


Skin metastasis is defined as the spread of malignant cells from a primary malignancy to the skin. It is one manifestation of systemic spread of cancer. The tumor cells originate either from an internal malignancy or from a primary skin cancer. This study presents a literature review concerning these issues as well as this author's experience encountered throughout 19 years of surgical pathology and dermatopathology practice. Several conclusions are evident. Generally, skin metastases are encountered in 0.7-9% of all patients with cancer and as such the skin is an uncommon site of metastatic disease when compared to other organs. There is usually a long-time lag between the diagnosis of the primary malignancy and the recognition of the skin metastases. However, these metastases may be the first indication of the clinically silent visceral malignancies. The regional distribution of the skin metastasis, although not always predictable, is related to the location of the primary malignancy and the mechanism of metastatic spread. The relative frequency of skin metastasis correlates with the type of primary cancer, which occurs in each sex. For instance, lung and breast carcinomas are the most common primaries that send skin metastasis in men and women, respectively. The head and neck region and the anterior chest are the areas of greatest predilection in men. The anterior chest wall and the abdomen are the most commonly involved sites in women. Skin metastases usually appear as non-specific groups of discrete firm painless nodules that emerge rapidly without any explanation. They vary in size from so tiny as to be of 'miliary lesions' to as large as 'Hen's egg size'. Some skin metastasis may mimic specific dermatological conditions such as cutaneous cyst, dermatofibroma, pyogenic granuloma, hemangioma, papular eruptions, herpes zoster eruptions, rapidly infiltrating plaques, alopecic patches, cellulitis and erysipelas. Histologically, the skin metastases usually show features reminiscent of the primary malignancy, but with variable degrees of differentiation. Molecularly, skin metastasis is an organized, non-random and organ-selective process orchestrated by interaction among several heterogeneous molecules, which are largely unknown. Metastasis to the skin is often a pre-terminal event that heralds poor outcome. PMID:19922483

Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed



Skin cancer chemoprevention by ?-santalol.  


Alpha-santalol, a naturally occurring terpenoid, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on both 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin cancer development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice, and UVB-induced skin cancer developments in SKH-1 hairless mice in a concentration-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that ?-santalol could be effective against skin carcinogenesis through both induction of apoptosis via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential and cytochrome c release in A431 cells, and inhibition of cell growth via induction of G2/M phase arrest in both A431 cells and melanoma UACC-62 cells by altering multiple cell cycle regulatory proteins and complexes. This review summarizes the chemopreventive effects and molecular mechanisms of ?-santalol on skin cancer development in both animal models and skin cancer cell lines. PMID:21196411

Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar



[Differential therapeutic indications for the useof Xenoderm and SYSper-derm in burns and other skin defects. Commentary on the work of J. Maserova: a comparative study of several synthetic skin substitutes].  


The experimental studies by Moserová yield an objective judgement of different biological and synthetic wound dressings and underline the importance of evaporation in the progression of dermal necrosis in the postburn period. Basing on the results of these findings and own experimental and clinical results recommandations are given concerning the use of Xenoderm and SYSpur-derm, both temporary skin substitutes of the GDR-production. The different indications for the application of the two materials are described. PMID:7304001

Kiene, S



Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey



Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.  


This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I



Genetic analysis of lethal tip necrosis induced by Clover yellow vein virus infection in pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) elicits lethal tip necrosis in the pea line PI 118501. Pea line PI 118501 develops necrotic lesions and veinal necrosis\\u000a on inoculated leaves, followed by systemic necrosis, leading to plant death. To understand the genetic basis of this lethal\\u000a tip necrosis, we crossed lines PI 226564 and PI 250438, which develop mosaic symptoms in response

Gerald Ravelo; Uiko Kagaya; Tsuyoshi Inukai; Masanao Sato; Ichiro Uyeda



Pathomorphological study of the pancreas during phospholipase A2-induced experimental pancreatic necrosis.  


The pathomorphogenesis of experimental acute pancreatic necrosis induced by administration of phospholipase A2 into the pancreatic tissue is characterized by pathomorphological signs of hemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis (total necrosis and purulent fusion of some acini and massive hemorrhages in the interlobular and intralobular interstitial tissue) and fatty pancreatic necrosis (necrobiotic and necrotic changes in acinar cells that spread from the peripheral area and form the demarcation line). PMID:21240361

Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Viskunov, V G; Lushnikova, E L; Protsenko, S I



Euro Skin Bank: large scale skin-banking in Europe based on glycerol-preservation of donor skin.  


Although skin banking has been well developed through the years as a means of providing sufficient skin which is instantly accessible to the burn patient, the methods of preservation and the scale on which various institutions bank skin vary considerably. In 1984, the Dutch National Skin Bank started using glycerol as a preservant for skin allografts. Since then there has been a marked increase in both the volume of glycerol skin grafts applied and the area over which these have been distributed. The procedure and organizational aspects of the Euro Skin Bank, as our own institution is now called, and its current method of skin preservation are described. PMID:8198742

de Backere, A C



7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture...United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide...



7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture...United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide...



Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.



Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer  


... Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... might mean for you. What is skin cancer? Skin cancer is cancer that occurs in different kinds of ...


Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis  


... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...


Shed Snake Skin and Hairless Mouse Skin as Model Membranes for Human Skin During Permeation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in obtaining and using human skin have tempted many workers to employ animal membranes for percutaneous absorption studies. We have investigated the suitability of two species of snake (Elaphe obsoleta, Python molurus) for this purpose and compared our in vitro experimental results for human skin and for hairless mouse, a currently popular model. The effects of long-term hydration on

Pauline Carole Rigg; Brian William Barry



Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110 km\\/h. On its skin, a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream exist. Thus, in the present study, the possibility of reducing the skin friction using its shape is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer. We perform a parametric study by varying the height and width of the

Woong Sagong; Chulkyu Kim; Sangho Choi; Woo-Pyung Jeon; Haecheon Choi



Preliminary experiences on diode laser welding of skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye enhanced laser welding has been recently proposed for skin closures to exploit the advantages of laser procedure (possible reduction of scar formation, no inflammatory reaction). In this preliminary study we used the diode laser-assisted technique to perform welding of rats' skin. In the pilot phase of the study we investigated the effect of the interaction between diode laser radiation and 20 full thickness skin wounds, performed on the shaved backs of 10 Wistar rats, using laser power in the range of 200 - 150 mW and, as the photoenhancing chromophore, Indocyanine Cardio-green (ICG) dye saturated solution in plasma. Ten wounds were sutured with 4.0 nylon thread, to provide a comparison with the traditional procedure. Wounds' samples were explanted on day 3 and 7 after the treatment, for histological evaluation. Clinical examination on the same days showed a high percentage of wounds dehiscence and presence of scales and crusts. Histologic examination demonstrated evidence of thermal injury and a heightened inflammation, superior to that of suture closures. In the second phase of the study, a lower laser power (150 - 80 mW), ICG-plasma-non saturated solution (ICG-sol) and ICG-plasma-saturated-sodium hyaluronate gel (ICG-gel), were used. Six wounds were filled with ICG-sol and six with ICG-gel, then irradiated at 150, 120 and 80 mW. Postoperative explants were performed on day 3 and 7. Clinical and histological results from this group were satisfactory: we recorded only one case of dehiscence, well healed wounds, no epidermal necrosis and a mild inflammatory reaction, reduced respect to that of traditional closure. We characterized the optimum range of parameters of diode laser-assisted technique to achieve an effective skin welding and the corresponding clinical and histologic pattern was described.

Reali, Umberto M.; Borgognoni, L.; Martini, L.; Chiarugi, C.; Gori, F.; Pini, Roberto; Toncelli, F.; Vanni, U.



Monte Carlo simulations for optimal light delivery in photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of light source is important for the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of non-melanoma skin cancer. We simulated the photodynamic dose (PDD) delivered to a tumour during PDT using theoretical radiation transfer simulations performed via our 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer (MCRT) model for a range of light sources with light doses up to 75 J cm-2. The PDD delivered following superficial irradiation from (A) non-laser light sources, (B) monochromatic light, (C) alternate beam diameters and (D) re-positioning of the tumour within the tissue was computed. (A) The final PDD deposited to the tumour at a depth of 2 mm by the Paterson light source was 2.75, 2.50 and 1.04 times greater than the Waldmann 1200, Photocure and Aktilite, respectively. (B) Tumour necrosis occurred at a depth of 2.23 mm and increased to 3.81 mm for wavelengths 405 and 630 nm, respectively. (C) Increasing the beam diameter from 10 to 50 mm had very little effect on depth of necrosis. (D) As expected, necrosis depths were reduced when the tumour was re-positioned deeper into the tissue. These MCRT simulations show clearly the importance of choosing the correct light source to ensure optimal light delivery to achieve tumour necrosis.

Valentine, R. M.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Ibbotson, S. H.; Moseley, H.



Monte Carlo simulations for optimal light delivery in photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer.  


The choice of light source is important for the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of non-melanoma skin cancer. We simulated the photodynamic dose (PDD) delivered to a tumour during PDT using theoretical radiation transfer simulations performed via our 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer (MCRT) model for a range of light sources with light doses up to 75 J cm(-2). The PDD delivered following superficial irradiation from (A) non-laser light sources, (B) monochromatic light, (C) alternate beam diameters and (D) re-positioning of the tumour within the tissue was computed. (A) The final PDD deposited to the tumour at a depth of 2 mm by the Paterson light source was 2.75, 2.50 and 1.04 times greater than the Waldmann 1200, Photocure and Aktilite, respectively. (B) Tumour necrosis occurred at a depth of 2.23 mm and increased to 3.81 mm for wavelengths 405 and 630 nm, respectively. (C) Increasing the beam diameter from 10 to 50 mm had very little effect on depth of necrosis. (D) As expected, necrosis depths were reduced when the tumour was re-positioned deeper into the tissue. These MCRT simulations show clearly the importance of choosing the correct light source to ensure optimal light delivery to achieve tumour necrosis. PMID:22990348

Valentine, R M; Wood, K; Brown, C T A; Ibbotson, S H; Moseley, H



Prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury by soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Considerable indirect evidence suggests that cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? contributes to the hepatocellular damage caused by toxic liver injury. The effects of tumor necrosis factor ? neutralization on liver cell injury were determined in an in vivo model of toxic liver injury. Methods: The in vivo effects of tumor necrosis factor ? were examined in carbon tetrachloride liver

Mark J. Czaja; Jun Xu; Elaine Alt



Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tumour necrosis factor has about 30% homology in its amino acid sequence with lymphotoxin, a lymphokine that has similar biological properties. Recombinant tumour necrosis factor can be obtained by expression of its complementary DNA in Escherichia coli and induces the haemorrhagic necrosis of transplanted methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in syngeneic mice.

Diane Pennica; Glenn E. Nedwin; Joel S. Hayflick; Peter H. Seeburg; Rik Derynck; Michael A. Palladino; William J. Kohr; Bharat B. Aggarwal; David V. Goeddel



Tadalafil significantly reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in skin island flaps  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Numerous pharmacological agents have been used to enhance the viability of flaps. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unwanted, sometimes devastating complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Tadalafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 is mainly used for erectile dysfunction, and acts on vascular smooth muscles, platelets and leukocytes. Herein, the protective and therapeutical effect of tadalafil in I/R injury in rat skin flap model is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sixty epigastric island flaps were used to create I/R model in 60 Wistar rats (non-ischemic group, ischemic group, medication group). Biochemical markers including total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed. Necrosis rates were calculated and histopathologic evaluation was carried out. Results: MDA, MPO and total nitrite values were found elevated in the ischemic group, however there was an evident drop in the medication group. Histological results revealed that early inflammatory findings (oedema, neutrophil infiltration, necrosis rate) were observed lower with tadalafil administration. Moreover, statistical significance (P < 0.05) was recorded. Conclusions: We conclude that tadalafil has beneficial effects on epigastric island flaps against I/R injury.

Kayiran, Oguz; Cuzdan, Suat S.; Uysal, Afsin; Kocer, Ugur



Large Necrosis: A Rare Complication of Medial Thighplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can have bariatric\\u000a surgery. Weight loss causes excess skin on the body, including the thighs. This leads to difficulty walking and psychological\\u000a disorders such as devalued self-image. Medial thighplasty is an intervention to reduce excess skin and fat in the thighs.\\u000a The main

N. Bertheuil; S. Aillet; J. L. Heusse; E. Flecher; E. Watier


Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes  

PubMed Central

The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.



Absence of endothelial cells, central necrosis, and fibrosis are associated with aggressive inflammatory breast cancer.  


We recently established a new human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) xenograft (WIBC-9) originating from a patient with IBC. The graft was transplantable in BALB/c nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. WIBC-9 was frequently accompanied by lung metastasis and exhibited erythema of the overlying skin, reflecting its human counterpart. Histological study of the original tumor and WIBC-9 revealed invasive ductal carcinoma with a hypervascular structure of solid nests and marked lymphatic permeation in the overlying dermis. In the central part of the solid nests, absence of endothelial cells, central necrosis, and fibrosis were observed. In vitro, WIBC-9 formed tube-like structures and loops, reflecting its in vivo feature and its human counterpart. WIBC-9 exhibited aneuploidy, ErbB-2 gene amplification, and an absence of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, which is consistent with IBC. Comparative studies of WIBC-9, three established non-IBC xenografts, and a human breast cancer cell line (SK-BR3) by reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry indicated that certain human genes (interleukin 8, vascular epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, angiopoietin 13, Flt-1, Tie-2, and Tie-1) and certain murine genes (integrin alpha(v)beta3, flt-1, tie-2, vascular epidermal growth factor, and CD31) were overexpressed in exposure to tumor cells. The molecular basis and these unique histological features may be associated with aggressive IBC on angiogenic and nonangiogenic pathways. PMID:11212228

Shirakawa, K; Tsuda, H; Heike, Y; Kato, K; Asada, R; Inomata, M; Sasaki, H; Kasumi, F; Yoshimoto, M; Iwanaga, T; Konishi, F; Terada, M; Wakasugi, H



A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus.  


Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis. PMID:16581912

Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio



A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus  

PubMed Central

Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis.

Alejo, Ali; Ruiz-Arguello, M. Begona; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P.; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio



Variation in the Lymphotoxin-?/Tumor Necrosis Factor Locus Modifies Risk of Erythema Nodosum in Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disease with organ involvement that varies by race and sex. Family studies indicate that genes play a role in the etiology and extent of organ involvement in sarcoidosis. In this study, we evaluated whether 25 variants distributed in 19 genes with a known role in inflammation were associated with erythema nodosum status in 659 sarcoidosis patients and 658 controls from A Case–Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS). We found no association with affectation status; however, a variant in the promoter of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) at position ?308 was found to be associated with erythema nodosum in Caucasian sarcoidosis patients (study-wide P = 0.027). When separated by sex, a variant in intron 1 of lymphotoxin-? (LTA), a gene adjacent to TNF, was associated with erythema nodosum in female Caucasian sarcoidosis patients (study-wide P = 0.027). These DNA variants frequently occur together in Caucasians, and each variant has individually been associated with erythema nodosum in sarcoidosis patients. These results confirm that variation in the LTA/TNF gene cluster modifies a major skin manifestation of sarcoidosis and may explain the higher rate of erythema nodosum in females with sarcoidosis.

McDougal, Kathryn E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Moller, David R.; Song, Zhimin; Cutler, David J.; Steiner, Lori L.; Cutting, Garry R.



A new surgical procedure for phallic reconstruction in partial penis necrosis: penile elongation in combination with glanuloplasty.  


The radial forearm flap transfer has proved to be the standard technique in penile reconstruction. However, this operation still leads to a residual scar on the forearm. In the reconstruction of partial penis necrosis, achieving a desirable appearance and functional recovery while minimizing donor-site damage remains an unsolved problem. In this study, we report our experience using penile elongation combined with glanuloplasty to rebuild the partially necrotic penis.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 33 patients with partial penis necrosis after microwave thermotherapy (not from our hospital) from December 2008 to May 2012 was conducted at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital. These patients, with an age range from 20 to 36 years, first underwent a scrotal skin flap transfer to cover residual cavernosum. The penis was simultaneously elongated at the proximal end. Six months later, all patients received glanuloplasty using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene that was implanted at the distal end of transferred scrotal skin flap to create the neoglans.Anthropometric measurements of preoperative and postoperative penile length were performed with an average follow-up period of 28 months. The mean extended penile length average was 2.57 cm, ranging from 3.16 to 5.73 cm. Patients' satisfaction rate was 88%. In addition, preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed for objective and subjective assessment of outcome parameters such as appearance of neophallus, urination, and erogenous sensation. Most importantly, the rebuilt penis postoperatively showed almost normal shape and restoration of basic physiologic function in most of the patients, with an acceptable complication rate. These preliminary results may provide a useful strategy for the reconstruction of a partially necrotic penis using a novel, simple, and effective approach. PMID:24835865

Xiao, Kaiyan; Cheng, Kaixiang; Song, Nan



Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.  


Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:24433180

Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D



Harnessing of Programmed Necrosis for Fighting against Cancers  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy has long been considered as one of useful strategies for cancer treatment. It is primarily based on the apoptosis that can selectively kill cancer cells. However, cancer cells can progressively develop an acquired resistance to apoptotic cell death, rendering refractory to chemo- and radiotherapies. Although the mechanism by which cells attained resistance to drug remains to be clarified, it might be caused by either pumping out of them or interfering with apoptotic signal cascades in response to cancer drugs. In case that cancer cells are defective in some part of apoptotic machinery by repeated exposure to anticancer drugs, alternative cell death mechanistically distinct from apoptosis could be adopted to remove cancer cells refractory to apoptosis-inducing agents. This review will mainly deal with harnessing of necrotic cell death, specifically, programmed necrosis and practical uses. Here, we begin with various defects of apoptotic death machinery in cancer cells, and then provide new perspective on programmed necrosis as an alternative anticancer approach.

Cho, Young Sik; Park, Seung Yeon



Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis  

PubMed Central

This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sebastien



Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit.

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L



Inhibition of gentamicin-induced renal tubular cell necrosis  

PubMed Central

Gentamicin nephrotoxicity limit its usage against gram negative bacteria. Most researches showed that antioxidant agents improved gentamicin nephrotoxicity. According to these investigations oxidative stress play a central role in the mechanism of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Recently Rafieian-Kopaei and colleagues showed that erythropoietin significantly ameliorated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and tubal necrosis in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rat. One of the advantages of this study is treatment of rats for 10 days by erythropoietin after inducing gentamicin nephrotoxicity and besides co- treatment of gentamicin and erythropoietin at 10 days simultaneously. They showed that erythropoietin improved significantly serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in gentamicin injected rats simultaneously and even after gentamicin nephrotoxicity induction. This study also showed that erythropoietin ameliorates histopathological injuries especially tubular cell necrosis that induced by gentamicin. Although the detailed renoprotective mechanisms of erythropoietin cannot be fully explained by this study but histological and biochemical results are satisfactory.

Tavafi, Majid



Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: a case presentation.  


Subcutaneous fat necrosis is normally a self-limiting condition. A complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis is hypercalcemia. If the infant is discharged from the hospital before the lesions are healed, the family should be instructed to monitor the infant for the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia. The parents need to understand the importance of keeping follow-up appointments to monitor the calcium levels. It is important to reassure the family that the lesions will disappear with time. They need to be instructed to leave the lesions alone. The lesions should not be punctured, nor should the family apply hot or cold compresses to the sites. The family should be cautioned against exposing the baby to sunlight to lower endogenous vitamin D production. PMID:8732565

Caple, J I; Reyes, S



Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences.




Skin ageing and its treatment.  


The effects of chronic sun exposure on skin are readily apparent when skin not typically exposed to the sun and skin regularly exposed to the sun are compared. While the sun is not the only aetiological factor in the dynamic process of skin ageing, it is the primary exogenous cause among several internal and environmental elements. Thus, photo-ageing, the main focus of this article, is a subset of extrinsic skin ageing. The influence of the sun in extrinsic skin ageing, as well as its role in potentially altering the normal course of intrinsic (also known as natural or cellular) ageing, is discussed. Telomeres, the specialized structures found at the ends of chromosomes, are believed to be integral to cellular ageing as well as in the development of cancer. The ageing process, both intrinsic and extrinsic, is also believed to be influenced by the formation of free radicals, also known as reactive oxygen species. The loss of collagen is considered the characteristic histological finding in aged skin. Wrinkling and pigmentary changes are directly associated with photo-ageing and are considered its most salient cutaneous manifestations. Such photodamage represents the cutaneous signs of premature ageing. In addition, deleterious consequences of chronic sun exposure, specifically various forms of photo-induced skin cancer, are also linked to acute and chronic sun exposure. The only known strategies aimed at preventing photo-ageing include sun avoidance, using sunscreens to block or reduce skin exposure to UV radiation, using retinoids to inhibit collagenase synthesis and to promote collagen production, and using anti-oxidants, particularly in combination, to reduce and neutralize free radicals. PMID:17200942

Baumann, L



Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.  


Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A



Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell


Apoptosis versus oncotic necrosis in hepatic ischemia\\/reperfusion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm and cold hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to necrotic cell death (oncosis), which often occurs within minutes of reperfusion. Recent studies also suggest a large component of apoptosis after ischemia\\/reperfusion. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying adenosine triphosphate depletion—dependent oncotic necrosis and caspase-dependent apoptosis, with emphasis on shared features and pathways. Although apoptosis causes internucleosomal DNA degradation that

Hartmut Jaeschke; John J Lemasters



Chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with avascular necrosis of femur head.  


We report the case of a 15 years girl in whom avascular necrosis (AVN) of right femur head was the presenting feature of chronic stable phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To date, only three case of CML with AVN have been reported. So, in view of rarity of this condition, a similar case of CML presenting as AVN of femur head is being reported. PMID:12725271

Gupta, D; Gaiha, M; Siddaraju, N; Daga, M K; Anuradha, S



Tumour necrosis factor-a and thefailing heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune activation plays a signi?cant role in the development and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Indeed, pro-in?ammatory cytokines, especially tumour necrosis factor-a (TNFa) are activated in this condition and exert direct detrimental actions on the myocardium. Physiological dampeners of TNFa production, such as interleukin-10, catecholamines, cortisol, and others fail in the course of the disease. However, the outcomes of

Stephan von Haehling; Ewa A. Jankowska; Stefan D. Anker



Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Coisy, Solene; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan



Tissue Necrosis due to Chloroform: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

For many years, gutta-percha has been the root canal filling material of choice. Chloroform is one of the most efficient solvents widely used for gutta-percha removal in retreatment cases, despite being toxic and carcinogenic. The present case report discusses a chloroform extrusion through an existing perforation to the surrounding periodontal ligament space and subsequent necrosis in supporting bone and tissues, during an endodontic retreatment visit for an addicted patient. Subsequently, the management and preventive options are reviewed.

Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Baradaran Mohajeri, Ladan; Fazlyab, Mahta



Phase I study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rH-TNF) was conducted in a single dose schedule in 33 patients with advanced cancer. rH-TNF was given by i.v. infusion over 30 min with a starting dose of 1x105 units\\/m2. The dose was escalated up to 16x105 units\\/m2 according to the modified Fibonacci scheme. Toxic effects were

Kiyoji Kimura; Tetsuo Taguchi; Ichiro Urushizaki; Ryuzo Ohno; Osahiko Abe; Hisashi Furue; Takao Hattori; Hidehito Ichihashi; Kiyoshi Inoguchi; Hisashi Majima; Hisanobu Niitani; Kazuo Ota; Tatsuo Saito; Shoji Suga; Yozo Suzuoki; Akira Wakui; Kazumasa Yamada



Diagnosis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy  

SciTech Connect

A 27-year-old man developed delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy to an arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging with technetium 99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and positron emission tomographic scanning with fludeoxyglucose F 18 aided in his evaluation. Significant improvement of his neurologic deficits resulted from corticosteroid therapy. Clinical resolution was corroborated by serial computed tomographic scans demonstrating regression of the abnormality (a mass lesion). Various facets of radiation injury are discussed, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy.

Kaufman, M.; Swartz, B.E.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Gee, M.; Blahd, W.H. (Wadsworth Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Induction of human airway hyperresponsiveness by tumour necrosis factor-?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF?) is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma; however, little is known of its direct effect on smooth muscle reactivity. We investigated the effect of TNF? on the responsiveness of human bronchial tissue to electrical field stimulation in vitro. Incubation of non-sensitized tissue with 1 nM, 3 nM and 10 nM TNF? significantly increased responsiveness to electrical

Sinthia Z. Anticevich; J. Margaret Hughes; Judith L. Black; Carol L. Armour



Tumor necrosis factor-?, microglia and astrocytes in AIDS dementia complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of HIV-associated cognitive changes is poorly understood. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)\\u000a have been postulated to contribute to the mechanism of the neurological complications of HIV infection. One of the effects\\u000a of TNF-? is to induce astrocyte proliferation in vitro. The purpose of this study was to look for a correlation between the\\u000a expression of TNF-?,

Danielle Seilhean; Kasutji Kobayashi; Yi He; Toshiki Uchihara; Ouriel Rosenblum; Christine Katlama; François Bricaire; Charles Duyckaerts; Jean-Jacques Hauw



Response of rat skin to boron neutron capture therapy with p-boronophenylalanine or borocaptate sodium.  


The effects of boron neutron capture irradiation employing either BPA or BSH as neutron capture agents has been assessed using the dorsal skin of Fischer 344 rats. Pharmacokinetic studies, using prompt gamma spectrometry, revealed comparable levels of boron-10 (10B) in blood and skin after the intravenous infusion of BSH (100 mg/kg body wt.). The 10B content of blood (12.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) was slightly higher than that of skin (10.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) after oral dosing with BPA. Biphasic skin reactions were observed after irradiation with the thermal neutron beam alone or in combination with BPA or BSH. The time of onset of the first phase of the skin reaction, moist desquamation, was approximately 2 weeks. The time at which the second-wave skin reaction, dermal necrosis, became evident was dose-related and occurred after a latent interval of > or = 24 weeks, well after the acute epithelial reaction had healed. The incidence of both phases of skin damage was also dose-related. The radiation doses required to produce skin damage in 50% of skin sites (ED50 values) were calculated from dose-effect curves and these values were used to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factors for both moist desquamation and dermal necrosis. It was concluded on the basis of these calculations that the microdistribution of the two neutron capture agents had a critical bearing on the overall biological effect after thermal neutron activation. BSH, which was possibly excluded from the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, had a low CBE factor value (0.56 +/- 0.06) while BPA, which may be selectively accumulated in epidermal cells had a very high CBE factor (3.74 +/- 0.7). For the dermal reaction, where vascular endothelial cells represent the likely target cell population, the CBE factor values were comparable, at 0.73 +/- 0.42 and 0.86 +/- 0.08 for BPA ad BSH, respectively. PMID:7972908

Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Rezvani, M



How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer  


... Bend your elbows. Look carefully at your fingernails, palms, forearms (including the undersides), and upper arms . Check ... new flesh-colored firm bump Write down the dates of your skin self-exams and make notes ...


Microlymphatics of human skin.  


Microlymphatics of human skin form two superposed networks. The superficial one located at the level of dermal papillae may be visualized by fluorescence microlymphography. Microlymphatics fill from a subepidermal depot of minute amounts of FITC-dextran 150,000. In primary lymphedema with late onset the depicted network with vessels of normal size is significantly larger than in healthy controls, whereas in congenital lymphedema (Milroy's disease) microlymphatics are aplastic or ectatic (diameter > 90 microns). Lymphatic microangiopathy with obliterations of microvessels develops in chronic venous insufficiency, in lipedema (preliminary results) and after recurrent erysipelata. In healthy controls microlymphatics are permeable to FITC-dextran 40,000 and impermeable to the larger molecule 150,000. Preserved fragments of the network in chronic venous insufficiency exhibit increased permeability to FITC-dextran 150,000. After visualization of the vessels by the fluorescent dye microlymphatic pressure may be measured by the servo-nulling technique. First results indicate that microlymphatic hypertension contributes to edema formation in patients with primary lymphedema. PMID:8473066

Bollinger, A



Tumours of the skin*  

PubMed Central

Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. ImagesFig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 49Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48

Weiss, E.; Frese, K.



Preclinical evaluation of skin substitutes.  


The important requirements of a skin substitute such as water vapour permeability, adherence to the excised wound surface, oxygen permeability, mechanical properties, impermeability to micro-organisms and exudate soaking capacity have been highlighted. Two commercial synthetic skin substitutes, Bioclusive and Geliperm, have been used to establish the preclinical assessment procedures for skin substitutes. Two in vitro techniques, the 'Water Cup' and the 'Inverted Cup,' and two in vivo methods involving a 'Ventilated Hygrometer Chamber' system and an Evaporimeter have been employed to assess and compare the water vapour permeability of the skin substitutes under controlled conditions. An Evaporimeter, which is very simple to operate, provides more accurate results. A simple test has been designed to evaluate the early adherence of the skin substitutes to the excised wound surface of rats. The pulling force and the peeling force required to remove the membrane from the wound surface have been measured and these forces have been found to depend upon the composition of the membrane. An oxygen permeability cell has been fabricated which measures the dissolved oxygen permeability of the skin substitutes. The detection of oxygen is based on the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at the surface of a noble metal. The tensile properties of the skin substitutes have been measured by an International Standard procedure and both the skin prostheses are associated with some drawbacks. An in vitro method of testing the microbial permeability of the skin substitutes has been designed which simulates an oozing colonized wound that a skin substitute faces in cases of septicaemia. Both the test materials were impermeable to both bacteria and fungi and will provide an effective barrier. The effectiveness of the skin substitutes to absorb wound exudate from the wound surface has been evaluated by soaking the pieces of the membranes in water, plasma and serum and observing their weight gain. The soaking capacity depends upon the composition and nature of the material. The procedures developed have been employed to evaluate a hydrogel type synthetic skin substitute recently formulated in our laboratory. PMID:2275766

Nangia, A; Hung, C T



Bone marrow necrosis preceding infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.  


We report a case of bone marrow necrosis preceding infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Bone marrow necrosis is a rare antemortem event and has been known to be present in many conditions, notably in haematological malignancies like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This case was a 6-month-old Chinese boy who was referred to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for further investigation of pancytopaenia, high-grade fever, bloody diarrhoea and petechial rashes for one week. His first bone marrow aspirate revealed bone marrow necrosis. His clinical condition improved after ten days. However, his full blood picture then revealed the presence of 5% blast cells. His subsequent marrow 2 weeks later revealed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (FAB-L1) and immunophenotyping showed precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-null type. He was started on United Kingdom Acute Lymphoblastic leukaemia (UK ALL) Infantile Leukaemia protocol, however, he defaulted treatment after 3 days. Mode of presentation, mechanism of disease and laboratory investigations and outline of treatment will be discussed. PMID:19108404

Eusni, Rahayu Mohd Tohit; Hamidah Hussin, Noor; Zarina, Abd Latiff; Rahman, Jamal



[Bilateral avascular necrosis after resurfacing hip arthroplasty. A case report].  


Resurfacing hip arthroplasty is an alternative to conventional arthroplasty and it is indicated in young and active patients. Good results and the prevention of complications stem from a meticulous surgical technique and proper patient selection. We present herein the case of a 43 year-old patient who, after undergoing bilateral hip replacement with resurfacing prostheses, sustained a non-simultaneous fracture of both femoral necks due to avascular necrosis. He was treated by placing a metaphyseal anchoring stem. Postoperative X-rays showed proper implant placement without femoral notching, with a discrete 7 degrees valgus alignment of the femoral component. Both passive and active mobility was painful. X-rays showed cervical fracture of the right femur. The femoral head was attached to the implant, with no metallosis nor loosening of the femoral or acetabular components, but the bone had a fragmented and friable appearance that histopathologically was defined as avascular necrosis. Femoral neck fracture is the main complication after resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The effect of other factors like bone necrosis due to cement is unknown. PMID:22512114

Sanz-Ruiz, P; Chana-Rodríguez, F; Villanueva-Martínez, M; Vaquero-Martín, J



Periostin in skin tissue and skin-related diseases.  


Extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only involved in the maintenance of normal physiological tissue but also in interactions with other ECM components, tissue remodeling, and modulating immune responses. The skin provides a distinctive environment characterized by rich fibroblasts producing various ECM proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and immune responses induced by external stimuli. Recently, periostin-a matricellular protein-has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD), attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24759560

Yamaguchi, Yukie



The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

Huiying Li


Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases.  


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 microm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied, as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several technical solutions are being pursued to further improve the quality of the images and the data provided, and OCT is being integrated in multimodal imaging devices that would potentially be able to provide a quantum leap to the imaging of skin in vivo. PMID:19782944

Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, L; Joergensen, T M; Andersen, P E; Jemec, G B E



Skin temperature during sunbathing - relevance for skin cancer.  


It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies. PMID:24930491

Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian



CT features in uterine necrosis of unknown cause: a case report.  


Uterine necrosis is a rare life-threatening condition known to be related to cesarean section, endometritis or uterine artery embolization. We present a case of uterine necrosis not preceded by common causative factors, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) in a 64-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome. A gas-filled, nonenhancing uterus was noted, diagnostic of uterine necrosis. At laparotomy, a nonvital uterus was removed. Imaging findings of uterine necrosis have sparsely been reported and mostly focus on magnetic resonance imaging technique. In this report, we describe the CT findings of uterine necrosis. PMID:24735683

Melenhorst, Marleen; Hehenkamp, Wouter; de Heer, Koen; Berger, Ferco



Immunodiagnosis of groundnut and watermelon bud necrosis viruses using polyclonal antiserum to recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Groundnut bud necrosis virus.  


In vitro gene expression strategy was used for the production of polyclonal antiserum to the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). The GBNV NP gene from cowpea isolate was cloned into 6x His-tagged UA cloning vector and expressed in Escherichia coli [M15] cells. The fusion protein was detected in insoluble fraction and was purified by using Ni-NTA agarose resin. The purified 6x His-fusion protein ( approximately 32 kDa) was used for immunisation to produce a high titre polyclonal antiserum. The antiserum to the NP of GBNV at 1:4000 dilution detected successfully natural infection of GBNV and Watermelon bud necrosis virus in a wide range of cucurbitaceous, leguminous and solanaceous hosts from different locations. PMID:16095728

Jain, R K; Pandey, Amar N; Krishnareddy, M; Mandal, Bikash



Sunlight Protection in Normal Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protective effect of a sunscreen filter chemically induced in normal skin was tested by using direct sunlight exposure to assure effectiveness. The topical preparation was applied immediately after mixing. Washing with soap and water did not remove th...

R. M. Fusaro W. J. Runge F. W. Lynch C. J. Watson



[Adnexal skin tumors, gigantic dimensions].  


Adnexal skin tumors are rare and mostly not common. Their appearance are atypical and only histologically to save. 2 cases were demonstrated with impressing extension demanding a complex surgical approach. PMID:23129411

Halbach, E; La Forza, F; Schepler, H



Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer  


... also receive other treatments like chemotherapy. Before treatment begins, ask your doctor about possible side eff ects ... cancer, and it is very curable. These cancers begin in the outer layer of skin (epidermis ). Radiation ...


Biomass production from banana skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana (Musa sapientum) skins were fermented with Saccharomyces uvarum. Ammonium-sulphate-containing medium maximised cell mass, cell protein and cell crude protein yielding 4.98, 0.89 and 2.90 g\\/l, respectively.

Chijioke Enwefa



[Postmortem changes in skin color].  


By the employment of the colorimetric method statistically significant objective data on postmortem changes in the colour of different parts of the skin have first been obtained. Histological and spectrophotometric studies were carried out in order to elucidate the causes of these changes. The colour of the cadavar skin as well as the colour of the human skin in life depends on primary pigments: hemoglobin, melanin, carotene and melanoid. A certain role is likely to be played by the main structural proteins of the derma and epidermis: collagen and keratin. The cadavar skin colour differs in variations of the dominant wave length and reflectance which are associated with postmortem redistribution of the blood under the effect of the gravity and qualitative transformation of oxyhaemoglobin into reduced haemoglobin. The distribution of melanin, carotene, and melanoid does not differ from that in life. The most specific index of the amount of melanin is the purity of colour and not reflectance. PMID:603422

Zherebtsov, L D; Vasilevski?, V K; Bremzen, S A



Risks of Skin Cancer Screening  


... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...


The skin-blanching assay.  


The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness. PMID:22303935

Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B



Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.


Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials


[Vitamin D and the skin].  


Vitamin D is well known for its beneficial effects on phosphocalcic homeostasis. The discovery of the role of vitamin D in cancers, infections, cardiovascular or autoimmune pathologies have promoted interest for this molecule. Skin and vitamin D are closely related. The skin is not only the site of vitamin D synthesis, but also a target organ as calcitriol plays an important hormonal and regulatory role, acting on cell proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulation. Furthermore, vitamin D influences the incidence and therapeutic response of certain dermatoses. In addition, many medical situations, mainly dermatological, require strict photoprotection and may therefore indirectly be responsible for a vitamin D deficiency in patients. The current role of vitamin D in skin cancers, inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases is summarized. PMID:24180201

Libon, F; Cavalier, E; Nikkels, A F



Travel-associated skin disease.  


Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology. PMID:22963777

Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen



Uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization for post-partum hemorrhage: review of the literature.  


Uterine necrosis is one of the rarest complications following pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). With the increasing incidence of cesarean section and abnormal placental localization (placenta previa) or placental invasion (placenta accreta/increta/percreta), more and more cases of uterine necrosis after embolization are being diagnosed and reported. Pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy, and surgical management includes hysterectomy. We performed a Medline database query following the first description of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization (between January 1985 and January 2013). Medical subheading search words were the following: "uterine necrosis"; "embolization"; "postpartum hemorrhage". Seventeen citations reporting at least one case of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization for PPH were included, with a total of 19 cases. This literature review discusses the etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization, and guidelines are detailed. The mean time interval between pelvic embolization and diagnosis of uterine necrosis was 21 days (range 9-730). The main symptoms of uterine necrosis were fever, abdominal pain, menorrhagia and leukorrhea. Surgical management included total hysterectomy (n=15, 78%) or subtotal hysterectomy (n=2, 10%) and partial cystectomy with excision of the necrotic portion in three cases of associated bladder necrosis (15%). Uterine necrosis was partial in four cases (21%). Regarding the pathophysiology, four factors may be involved in uterine necrosis: the size and nature of the embolizing agent, the presence of the anastomotic vascular system and the embolization technique itself with the use of free flow embolization. PMID:23932304

Poujade, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Pierre François; Davitian, Carine; Amate, Pascale; Chatel, Paul; Khater, Carine; Aflak, Nizar; Vilgrain, Valérie; Luton, Dominique



Scaly-skinned Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.



Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Even though surgery represents the gold standard for the treatment of many types of non-melanoma skin cancer, medical treatment\\u000a options have been developed for superficial tumors and actinic keratoses. Drug treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer encompasses\\u000a topical use of 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac, retinoids, and imiquimod. For patients who are not candidates for surgical excision\\u000a or who are not amenable to surgery,

Severin Läuchli; Jürg Hafner; Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Antonio Cozzio; Mirjana Urosevic-Maiwald


Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions Involving Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside\\u000a immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions\\u000a appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely\\u000a skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may

Oliver Hausmann; Benno Schnyder; Werner J. Pichler


Bioreactor maintained living skin matrix.  


Numerous reconstructive procedures result in wounds that require skin grafting. Often, the amount of tissue available from donor sites is limited. In vivo tissue expanders have been used clinically to generate larger sections of skin, and other methods exist to cover large wounds, but all have significant limitations. We investigated whether these difficulties could be overcome by increasing the surface area of skin in vitro while maintaining tissue viability. Human foreskin was incrementally expanded in a computer-controlled bioreactor system over 6 days to increase its surface dimensions under culture conditions. Morphological, ultrastructural, and mechanical properties of the foreskin were evaluated before and after expansion using histology, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and tensile testing. The surface area of the tissue was 110.7% +/- 12.2% greater, with maintenance of cell viability and proliferative potential. Histomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that dermal structural integrity was preserved. The pore diameter of the expanded skin was 64.49% +/- 32.8% greater. The mechanical properties were not adversely affected. These findings show that expansion of living skin matrices can be achieved using a computer-controlled bioreactor system. This technique provides an opportunity to generate large amounts of skin for reconstructive procedures. PMID:18821843

Ladd, Mitchell R; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J



Skin disorders and thyroid diseases.  


Thyroid disorders have a high prevalence in medical practice; they are associated with a wide range of diseases with which they may or may not share etiological factors. One of the organs which best show this wide range of clinical signs is the skin. This review is an attempt to approach most of the dermopathies reflecting several degrees of harmfulness, coming directly or indirectly from thyroid abnormalities, as well as to update current knowledge on the relationship between the thyroid and skin. We have proposed a primary classification of skin disorders, regarding thyroid involvement, into two main groups: 1) dermopathies associated with thyroid abnormalities, mainly with autoimmune thyroid diseases, like melasma, vitiligo, Sjogren's syndrome, alopecia, idiopathic hirsutism, pre-menstrual acne, bullous diseases, connective tissue diseases, hamartoma syndrome, atopy, leprosy and DiGeorge anomaly; and 2) dermopathies depending on the nature of the thyroid disorder, in which the evolution and outcome of the skin disorder depend on the thyroidal treatment in most cases, such as trophism and skin blood flow, myxedema, alopecia, onychodystrophy, hypo- and hyperhidrosis, xanthomas, intraepidermal bullae, carotenodermia, pruritus, flushing, pyodermitis, palmoplantar keratoderma, ecchymosis, etc. In some other cases, the skin disease which developed as a consequence of the thyroid abnormality can remain unaltered despite functional treatment of the thyroid problem, such as pretibial myxedema, thyroid acropachy and some cutaneous manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. PMID:11686547

Niepomniszcze, H; Amad, R H



Skin disease in military personnel.  


Skin disease, disease of the musculoskeletal system, and respiratory infections are the most frequent reasons for military personnel to seek medical care. The Oslo Military Clinic serves all of the military personnel in Oslo and the surrounding region, including officers and civilian employees. From September 1996 to May 1997, 1,360 patients were diagnosed and treated by the author, and the data are included in the following study. Upper respiratory disease was the primary reason for seeking medical attention in 26% of the patients, 21% visited the clinic because of disease or pain in the musculoskeletal system, and 16% suffered from a skin disease. Apart from the low number of female patients, the patient population and the disease spectrum observed in the military clinic are very similar to those in a general medical practice. Among the 222 patients suffering from a cutaneous disease, eczema (42 patients), allergy (excluding dermatitis) (34 patients), acne vulgaris (23 patients), and sexually transmitted diseases (28 patients) were the most prevalent processes. Other less prevalent skin diseases were fungal infections, herpes simplex infection, nevi, common warts, and superficial bacterial skin infections. Skin diseases seen in one patient only included erysipelas, herpes zoster, dermatitis herpetiformis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Good clinical skills in dermatology are of paramount importance in military medicine, and if possible, the military should appoint a dermatologist to its medical team to rapidly diagnose and treat the large number of patients with skin disorders. PMID:10741081

Selvaag, E



Protective Skins for Composite Airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg



A single intradermal injection of IFN-? induces an inflammatory state in both non-lesional psoriatic and healthy skin.  


Psoriasis is a chronic, debilitating, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. As IFN-? is involved in many cellular processes, including activation of dendritic cells (DCs), antigen processing and presentation, cell adhesion and trafficking, and cytokine and chemokine production, IFN-?-producing Th1 cells were proposed to be integral to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Recently, IFN-? was shown to enhance IL-23 and IL-1 production by DCs and subsequently induce Th17 cells, which are important contributors to the inflammatory cascade in psoriatic lesions. To determine whether IFN-? indeed induces the pathways expressed in psoriatic lesions, a single intradermal injection of IFN-? was administered to an area of clinically normal, non-lesional (NL) skin of psoriasis patients and biopsies were collected 24 hours later. Although there were no visible changes in the skin, IFN-? induced many molecular and histological features characteristic of psoriatic lesions. IFN-? increased a number of differentially expressed genes in the skin, including many chemokines concomitant with an influx of T cells and inflammatory DCs. Furthermore, inflammatory DC products tumor necrosis factor (TNF), inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-23, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand were present in IFN-?-treated skin. Thus, IFN-?, which is significantly elevated in NL skin compared with healthy skin, appears to be a key pathogenic cytokine that can induce many features of the inflammatory cascade of psoriasis. PMID:22277938

Johnson-Huang, Leanne M; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Pierson, Katherine C; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Cueto, Inna; Lentini, Tim; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Krueger, James G; Haider, Asifa S; Lowes, Michelle A



Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenic proanthocyanidin oligomers from peanut skin.  


Peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea L., Fabaceae) is an abundant source for polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidin oligomers. To determine whether proanthocyanidin has beneficial effects on skin, we tested for inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidins isolated from peanut skin on inflammatory cytokine production and melanin synthesis in cultured cell lines. Administration of peanut skin extract (PSE, 200 µg/mL) decreased melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma HMV-II co-stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. It also decreased production of inflammatory cytokines (PSE at 100 µg/mL), tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, in cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide. We isolated ten known proanthocyanidins and one new proanthocyanidin trimer from the PSE. The structure of the new compound (5) was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry analyses, and was determined as epicatechin-(2??O?7,4??6)-epicatechin-(4??6)-epicatechin. The other known proanthocyanidins were identified as proanthocyanidin monomers (1), dimers (6-9), trimers (3-5) and tetramers (2, 10, 11). They showed suppressive activities against melanogenesis and cytokine production at concentrations ranging from 0.1-10 µg/mL. Among the tested compounds, suppressive activities of proanthocyanidin dimers or trimers in two assay systems were stronger than those obtained with monomer or tetramers. These data indicate that proanthocyanidin oligomers from peanut skin have the potential to reduce dermatological conditions such as inflammation and melanogenesis. PMID:22687483

Tatsuno, Takanori; Jinno, Megumi; Arima, Yukiko; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yahagi, Nobuo; Takano, Fumihide; Ohta, Tomihisa



Evaluation of topically applied copper(II) oxide nanoparticle cytotoxicity in human skin organ culture.  


The increasing use of nano-sized materials in our environment, and in many consumer products, dictates new safety concerns. In particular, adequate experimental models are needed to evaluate skin toxicity of metal oxide ions, commonly found in cosmetic and dermatologic preparations. We have addressed the biological effects of topically applied copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in human skin organ cultures, using light and electron microscopy, and biochemical tests. Nanoparticles were more toxic than micro-sized particles, and their effects were stronger when supplied in growth medium than in topical application. Still topically applied CuO nanoparticles induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and necrosis, especially in epidermis deprived of its protective cornea. Since nanoparticle penetration was not seen, we propose that they may adhere to skin surface, react with the local acidic environment, and generate soluble ions that make their way to inner sites. This work illustrates the abilities of skin organ culture to evaluate the biological effects of topically-applied materials on skin in vitro. PMID:22954531

Cohen, Dror; Soroka, Yoram; Ma'or, Zeev; Oron, Miriam; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Brégégère, François Menahem; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hai, Noam; Milner, Yoram



Immune-mediated inflammatory reactions and tumors as skin side effects of inflammatory bowel disease therapy.  


Abstract All drugs currently used for treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD - including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) have the potential to induce skin lesions ranging from mild eruptions to more serious and widespread clinical presentations. The number of cutaneous adverse reactions due to IBD therapies is progressively increasing and the most frequently involved drugs are thiopurines and biologics like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? antagonists. The main drug-induced cutaneous manifestations are non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), notably basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, and viral skin infections for thiopurines and psoriasiform, eczematoid and lichenoid eruptions as well as skin infections and cutaneous lupus erythematosus for biologics. Cutaneous manifestations should be promptly recognized and correctly diagnosed in order to quickly establish an adequate therapy. The main treatment for NMSC is surgical excision whereas the management of immune-mediated inflammatory skin reactions varies from topical therapy for mild presentations to the shift to another drug alone or in combination with corticosteroids for extensive eruptions. PMID:24437626

Marzano, Angelo V; Borghi, Alessandro; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Crosti, Carlo; Cugno, Massimo



A Mobile Automated Skin Lesion Classification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoma skin cancer accounts for less than 5% of skin cancer cases but causes the most deaths due to skin cancer. Convenient automated diagnosis of skin lesions and melanoma recognition can greatly improve early detection of melanomas. This paper presents a prototype of an image-based automated melanoma recognition system on Android smart phones. The system consists of three major components:

Kiran Ramlakhan; Yi Shang



Expression of Cathepsins in Human Skin Photoaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsins are involved in regulatory mechanisms in human skin, but their role in photoaged skin remains unknown. This study investigates the role of cathepsin B, D, K, and G in skin photoaging in vivo and in vitro. Cathepsin-induced changes in skin as a result of chronic UV irradiation were detected by immunohistochemistry methods. Protein cathepsin expressions in UVA-induced premature senescence

Y. Zheng; W. Lai; M. Wan; H. I. Maibach



Skin cancer and solar UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

F. R. de Gruijl




Microsoft Academic Search

The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after complete inhibition of sweating. Skin temperature changes ranging from 25°-39° C were obtained in 17 subjects. Increase of skin temperature by 7°-8° C doubled the rate of TEWL in normal skin. The relationship between TEWL and skin temperature varied exponentially and the equations have been fitted for the 17 subjects. In order

Katherine Grice; H. Sattar; M. Sharratt; H. Baker



Traditional electrosurgery and a low thermal injury dissection device yield different outcomes following bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although a skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomy technique offers distinct cosmetic and reconstructive advantages over traditional methods, partial skin flap and nipple necrosis remain a significant source of post-operative morbidity. Prior work has suggested that collateral thermal damage resulting from electrocautery use during skin flap development is a potential source of this complication. This report describes the case of a smoker with recurrent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who experienced significant unilateral skin necrosis following bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy while participating in a clinical trial examining mastectomy outcomes with two different surgical devices. This unexpected complication has implications for the choice of dissection devices in procedures requiring skin flap preservation. Case presentation The patient was a 61-year-old Caucasian woman who was a smoker with recurrent DCIS of her right breast. As part of the clinical trial, each breast was randomized to either the standard of care treatment group (a scalpel and a traditional electrosurgical device) or treatment with a novel, low thermal injury dissection device, allowing for a direct, internally controlled comparison of surgical outcomes. Post-operative follow-up at six days was unremarkable for both operative sites. At 16 days post-surgery, the patient presented with a significant wound necrosis in the mastectomy site randomized to the control study group. Following debridement and closure, this site progressively healed over 10 weeks. The contralateral mastectomy, randomized to the alternative device, healed normally. Conclusion We hypothesize that thermal damage to the subcutaneous microvasculature during flap dissection may have contributed to this complication and that the use of a low thermal injury dissection device may be advantageous in select patients undergoing skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomy.



Induction of NKG2D ligands by gamma radiation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may participate in the tissue damage during acute graft-versus-host disease.  


Immunopathology of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) involves secretion of proinflammatory cytokines with subsequent expression of danger signals by injured host tissues. This explanation, however, does not explain the cluster of aGVHD target organs (skin, gut, and liver). NKG2D ligands (MICA/B and ULBP1-3 proteins) are stress-induced molecules that act as danger signals to alert NK and alphabeta or gammadelta CD8 T cells through engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor. We observed a strong and reversible induction of MICA/B expression in skin and liver sections during aGVHD. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma-radiation up-regulated expression of MICA/B and ULBP proteins in vitro on skin and intestine epithelial cell lines and ex vivo in normal skin explants. This NKG2D-ligand induction was regulated by a complex interplay between NFkB and JNK activation pathways. Our data suggest that NKG2D ligand induction might participate in the amplification loop that leads to tissue damage during aGVHD. PMID:18360276

Gannagé, Monique; Buzyn, Agnès; Bogiatzi, Sofia I; Lambert, Marion; Soumelis, Vassili; Dal Cortivo, Liliane; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Brousse, Nicole; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie



Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.



Photodynamic treatment for viral infections of the skin.  


Photodynamic therapy (ALA/MAL-PDT) is indicated for the treatment of actinic keratoses, for superficial, nodular basal cell carcinoma and for Bowen's disease; there is evidence that PDT can be active also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. The new indications for PDT include many types of viral skin infections human papilloma virus (HPV)-related as verrucae of feet and hands, Condylomata acuminata, periungueal warts, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, but also viral skin lesions non HPV related as molluscum contagiosum and herpes simplex can be successfully treated. The use of PDT in HPV infections is due to its anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative skills: in the lesions treated there is a release of cytotoxic radicals which damage keratinocytes infected by HPV, inducing their selective apoptosis and necrosis. The PDT application in this field of lesions is safe and successful; in comparison with the other techniques it has less side-effects and less recurrences, but the most important property is that it is not-invasive: it means a reduced risk of infections and excellent cosmetic results. PMID:19218913

Rossi, R; Bruscino, N; Ricceri, F; Grazzini, M; Dindelli, M; Lotti, T



Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  


Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo



Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.  


In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E



Supplementation of Flaxseed Oil Diminishes Skin Sensitivity and Improves Skin Barrier Function and Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skin sensitivity is a common problem in the Western population correlated with changes of skin properties like skin barrier function, hydration and skin physiology. Skin properties can be modulated by dietary fatty acids (FA), especially poly-unsaturated FA. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily supplementation with flaxseed oil and safflowerseed oil on healthy volunteers with

K. Neukam; S. De Spirt; W. Stahl; M. Bejot; J.-M. Maurette; H. Tronnier; U. Heinrich



Impact of Atopic Skin Diathesis on Occupational Skin Disease Incidence in a Working Population1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present evidence convincingly indicates that workers with occupational skin disease are more frequently affected by atopic skin diathesis than the general working population. Population-based studies estimating the impact of atopic skin diathesis on occupational skin disease in various occupations have not been reported to date. We analyzed data of all initial reports of occupational skin diseases recorded in the register

Heinrich Dickel; Thomas M Bruckner; Anne Schmidt; Thomas L Diepgen



Skin disinfection in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

Greater care and a more thorough approach to intravenous catheter site disinfection may be important for the prevention of catheter related sepsis, especially with coagulase negative staphylocci in preterm infants. The efficacy of skin disinfection was evaluated in preterm infants using a skin swabbing technique after disinfectant exposure. In the first part of the study, 25 peripheral intravascular catheter sites were quantitatively sampled immediately after routine cannula insertion. Bacterial counts greater than 100 colony forming units/cm2 were observed from 10 (40%) sites. In the second part, sampling for bacterial colony counts was done after skin cleansing with various durations of exposure of chlorhexidine/alcohol swabs or povidone iodine. The overall mean reduction in bacterial colony counts after skin cleansing ranged from 90-99%. Skin sterilisation was achieved in 33-92% of cases. The use of two consecutive 10 second exposures resulted in a significantly improved reduction in colony counts compared with a single 10 second wipe. A longer 30 second exposure also resulted in a greater reduction of bacterial numbers compared with a shorter duration of 5 or 10 seconds. Repopulation of disinfected sites occurred within 48 hours. This effect was delayed by occluding the cleansed site with a semipermeable dressing. There were no significant differences between povidone iodine and the chlorhexidine swabs in reducing bacterial numbers. This study has demonstrated that a brief exposure with a premoistened disinfectant swab is not sufficient for complete elimination of resident skin flora of newborn infants. The use of two consecutive cleanings, or a longer duration of cleansing is recommended for more effective skin sterilisation. Images

Malathi, I; Millar, M R; Leeming, J P; Hedges, A; Marlow, N



Developing Topical Prodrugs for Skin Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin plays multiple roles in protection from environmental insults yet skin damage, particularly that derived from sunlight,\\u000a constitutes a major public health problem. End stage skin damage in the form of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most\\u000a frequent malignancies in the United States with more than 1,000,000 cases diagnosed annually (Karagas et al. 1999). Melanoma\\u000a skin cancer is

Elaine L. Jacobson; Hyuntae Kim; Moonsun Kim; Georg T. Wondrak; Myron K. Jacobson


Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. (Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA))



[Skin and plumage changes in domestic birds. I. Skin changes].  


This study presents modifications of the common integument and specific integumental structures developed during the domestication process of different poultry species. These modifications include dewlaps, variations of the comb, ear lobes, and wattles, size and form variations of the beak, exuberances of the cere and orbital skin, spur defects, loss of the uropygial gland, and crop dilatations. Most skin modifications were genetically manifested by exhibition poultry, and perpetuated by deliberate selective breeding. Several of the skin modifications described severely impair the normal, species-typical way of life of the animals concerned. The range of negative influences exerted by some of the fancy breed characteristics includes physical disabilities as well as disorders in food intake, reproduction, and social behaviour. Additionally, genetic defects and pathogenic predispositions can be found. PMID:1796468

Bartels, T; Meyer, W; Neurand, K



Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin  

PubMed Central

The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be used. This article reflects on the following topics: topical retinoids, peels, botulinum neurotoxin, soft tissue fillers, lasers, topical and systemic endocrinological therapies, and phytohormones. A thorough knowledge of the properties (benefits, limitations, and complications) of the expanding array of possibilities for rejuvenation of the skin is essential for any physician treating patients with cosmetic complaints.

Sator, Paul G



Current state of tumour necrosis factor ? blockade in Wegener's granulomatosis  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis. This paper reviews published clinical trials of the anti-TNF? agents etanercept and infliximab with regard to their efficacy and safety in the treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis. On the basis of the high rate of adverse events, particularly an increased incidence of cancers, the use of etanercept in the management of Wegener's granulomatosis is not justified. However, the potential role for infliximab or the as yet untested adalimumab cannot be discounted. The development of novel approaches focusing on blockade of specific molecules including TNF? in the treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis is awaited.

Mukhtyar, C; Luqmani, R



Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy in Susac's syndrome.  


Susac's syndrome is the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions and sensorineural hearing loss (Susac 1994) [1]. It occurs predominantly in young females and is believed to be an immune-mediated endotheliopathy of small vessels of the brain, retina and cochlea (Neumayer et al. 2009) [2]. Early, aggressive, and sustained immunosuppressive therapy has been recommended for Susac's syndrome and anecdotal evidence has suggested a therapeutic role for monoclonal antibodies (Rennebohm et al. 2008, Lee and Amezcua 2009) [3,4]. We report a case of Susac's syndrome in which the patient improved immediately after tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition with the monoclonal antibody, infliximab. PMID:21167503

Hardy, T A; Garsia, R J; Halmagyi, G M; Lewis, S J G; Harrisberg, B; Fulham, M J; Barnett, M H



Conjunctival necrosis after administration of topical fortified aminoglycosides.  


We treated 11 episodes of bulbar conjunctival necrosis that occurred in ten patients after therapy for suppurative keratitis with topical fortified aminoglycosides. Chemosis and mucous discharge preceded the development of an area of conjunctival pallor, which stained with fluorescein and was 5 to 10 mm from the corneoscleral limbus. Typical lesions developed in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva after a mean of 4.8 days and 112 mg of gentamicin sulfate (109 drops). The fortified aminoglycoside was the only agent common to all cases. The conjunctival defects healed completely between five and 13 days after treatment was modified to reduce or eliminate aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:2039036

Davison, C R; Tuft, S J; Dart, J K



Cortical laminar necrosis related to prolonged focal status epilepticus.  


Cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is radiologically defined as high intensity cortical lesions on T1 weighted MRI images following a gyral distribution. Histopathologically, CLN is characterised by pannecrosis of the cortex involving neurones, glial cells, and blood vessels. It has been reported to be associated with hypoxia, metabolic disturbances, drugs, and infections. We present two patients who developed CLN and permanent neurological deficits after prolonged and repeated focal status epilepticus. The possible mechanisms leading to CLN in these patients are discussed, together with the implications of prompt and aggressive treatment in similar cases. PMID:16361606

Donaire, A; Carreno, M; Gómez, B; Fossas, P; Bargalló, N; Agudo, R; Falip, M; Setoaín, X; Boget, T; Raspall, T; Obach, V; Rumiá, J



Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Presenting as Cortical Laminar Necrosis: Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

Choi, Jong Mun; Roh, Sook Young



Ischemia Modified Albumin Can Predict Necrosis at Incarcerated Hernias  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the predictive effect of IMA in incarcerated hernias. Methods. Three groups (n = 7) of rats were operated. Group I aimed to mimic incarceration, group II aimed the strangulation, and group III was the sham group. IMA and LDH measurements were made. Results. IMA levels were significantly higher in strangulation mimicking group and IMA levels were normal at postoperative 6th hour in incarceration mimicking group. LDH levels were significantly higher in both incarceration and strangulation mimicking groups. Conclusion. IMA seems to be an effective marker in incarcerated hernias to predict necrosis. But we need further studies to generalise this hypothesis.

Kadioglu, Huseyin; Bozkurt, Suleyman; Ferlengez, Ekrem; Memm?, Naim; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; C?pe, Gokhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut



Emerging concepts in the management of acute retinal necrosis.  


Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), also known as Kirisawa-type uveitis, is an uncommon condition caused by infection of the retina by one of the herpes family of viruses, most typically varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus and less commonly cytomegalovirus. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging and is often aided by PCR-based analysis of ocular fluids. Treatment typically involves extended use of one or more antiviral agents. Long term retinal detachment risk is high. We review the literature on ARN and present an approach to the diagnosis and management of this serious condition. PMID:23861500

Wong, Robert William; Jumper, J Michael; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Fu, Arthur; Lujan, Brandon J; Cunningham, Emmett T



Emerging concepts in the management of acute retinal necrosis.  


Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), also known as Kirisawa-type uveitis, is an uncommon condition caused by infection of the retina by one of the herpes family of viruses, most typically varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus and less commonly cytomegalovirus. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging and is often aided by PCR-based analysis of ocular fluids. Treatment typically involves extended use of one or more antiviral agents. Long term retinal detachment risk is high. We review the literature on ARN and present an approach to the diagnosis and management of this serious condition. PMID:23235944

Wong, Robert William; Jumper, J Michael; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Fu, Arthur; Lujan, Brandon J; Cunningham, Emmett T



Modulation of inflammation by Cicaderma ointment accelerates skin wound healing.  


Skin wound healing is a natural and intricate process that takes place after injury, involving different sequential phases such as hemostasis, inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodeling that are associated with complex biochemical events. The interruption or failure of wound healing leads to chronic nonhealing wounds or fibrosis-associated diseases constituting a major health problem where, unfortunately, medicines are not very effective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of Cicaderma ointment (Boiron, Lyon, France) to accelerate ulcer closure without fibrosis and investigate wound healing dynamic processes. We used a necrotic ulcer model in mice induced by intradermal doxorubicin injection, and after 11 days, when the ulcer area was maximal, we applied Vaseline petroleum jelly or Cicaderma every 2 days. Topical application of Cicaderma allowed a rapid recovery of mature epidermal structure, a more compact and organized dermis and collagen bundles compared with the Vaseline group. Furthermore, the expression of numerous cytokines/molecules in the ulcer was increased 11 days after doxorubicin injection compared with healthy skin. Cicaderma rapidly reduced the level of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and others of the TNF pathway, which can be correlated to a decrease of polymorphonuclear recruitment. It is noteworthy that the modulation of inflammation through TNF-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4, and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor was maintained 9 days after the first ointment application, facilitating the wound closure without affecting angiogenesis. These cytokines seem to be potential targets for therapeutic approaches in chronic wounds. Our results confirm the use of Cicaderma for accelerating skin wound healing and open new avenues for sequential treatments to improve healing. PMID:22767532

Morin, Christophe; Roumegous, Audrey; Carpentier, Gilles; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Caredda, Stéphane; Courty, José




PubMed Central

Experiments have been carried out on guinea pigs of two isogenic strains to elucidate the role of afferent lymphatic vessels in the rejection of orthotopic skin homografts. Graft beds were prepared in partially isolated skin flaps with an intact sustaining vascular "umbilical cord" in which a lymphatic connection with the host could be retained or abolished at will. In the absence of demonstrable lymphatic connections between flap and host, intra-flap homografts long outlived similar grafts transplanted to conventional sites in intact skin and, rather than being specifically rejected, died as a consequence of ischemic necrosis of the flap. When lymphatic drainage was retained, intra-flap homografts were rejected in the usual manner. Hosts of long-term intra-flap homografts did not develop sensitivity, as evidenced by the "first set" type rejection of subsequent test grafts, or by the long-term survival of a second skin graft transplanted to a new flap raised on the opposite side of the host's body. Intra-flap skin homografts were rejected if (a) the hosts had been presensitized, (b) they were grafted concomitantly with a skin homograft placed in a conventional site, or inoculated with a suspension of donor lymphoid cells, or (c) if the lymphatic drainage was restored by reimplantation of the hitherto partially isolated flap to an appropriate vascular bed. These findings and others indicate that an intact lymphatic drainage in its bed is essential for an orthotopic skin homograft to sensitize its host. Various experiments were carried out in which intra-flap homografts were used as "indicators" for the acquisition of specific active or adoptive immunity by their hosts. By transplanting skin homografts to conventional beds concomitantly with intra-flap grafts and then excising the former at various intervals, it has been found that a graft must be in residence for a minimum period of 4 days to evoke the development of a detectable level of sensitivity in the host. Furthermore, by replacing either freshly prepared or long-term skin flaps bearing skin homografts in vascular beds on the trunk and determining the subsequent survival times of the homografts, evidence has been obtained suggesting that reestablishment of a functional lymphatic system in a free skin graft may take as long as 9 days. Using intra-flap homografts as indicators of adoptive immunization of the host, we found that as few as 50 x 106 isologous peripheral blood leukocytes from a specifically sensitized animal will transfer an effective level of sensitivity. We also found that hyperimmune serum, in relatively large amount, exerts a weak but definite adverse effect upon either freshly or recently transplanted intra-flap grafts.

Barker, Clyde F.; Billingham, R. E.



The role of afferent lymphatics in the rejection of skin homografts.  


Experiments have been carried out on guinea pigs of two isogenic strains to elucidate the role of afferent lymphatic vessels in the rejection of orthotopic skin homografts. Graft beds were prepared in partially isolated skin flaps with an intact sustaining vascular "umbilical cord" in which a lymphatic connection with the host could be retained or abolished at will. In the absence of demonstrable lymphatic connections between flap and host, intra-flap homografts long outlived similar grafts transplanted to conventional sites in intact skin and, rather than being specifically rejected, died as a consequence of ischemic necrosis of the flap. When lymphatic drainage was retained, intra-flap homografts were rejected in the usual manner. Hosts of long-term intra-flap homografts did not develop sensitivity, as evidenced by the "first set" type rejection of subsequent test grafts, or by the long-term survival of a second skin graft transplanted to a new flap raised on the opposite side of the host's body. Intra-flap skin homografts were rejected if (a) the hosts had been presensitized, (b) they were grafted concomitantly with a skin homograft placed in a conventional site, or inoculated with a suspension of donor lymphoid cells, or (c) if the lymphatic drainage was restored by reimplantation of the hitherto partially isolated flap to an appropriate vascular bed. These findings and others indicate that an intact lymphatic drainage in its bed is essential for an orthotopic skin homograft to sensitize its host. Various experiments were carried out in which intra-flap homografts were used as "indicators" for the acquisition of specific active or adoptive immunity by their hosts. By transplanting skin homografts to conventional beds concomitantly with intra-flap grafts and then excising the former at various intervals, it has been found that a graft must be in residence for a minimum period of 4 days to evoke the development of a detectable level of sensitivity in the host. Furthermore, by replacing either freshly prepared or long-term skin flaps bearing skin homografts in vascular beds on the trunk and determining the subsequent survival times of the homografts, evidence has been obtained suggesting that reestablishment of a functional lymphatic system in a free skin graft may take as long as 9 days. Using intra-flap homografts as indicators of adoptive immunization of the host, we found that as few as 50 x 10(6) isologous peripheral blood leukocytes from a specifically sensitized animal will transfer an effective level of sensitivity. We also found that hyperimmune serum, in relatively large amount, exerts a weak but definite adverse effect upon either freshly or recently transplanted intra-flap grafts. PMID:4873840

Barker, C F; Billingham, R E



Fuzzy description of skin lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan



Tribological evaluation of porcine skin.  


This research studies the effects of external parameters on the friction of porcine skin. A tribometer was used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the same. The effects of DI water and body oil on porcine skin against steel and glass balls were evaluated in terms of coefficient of friction (COF). The COF dropped rapidly when DI water/body oil was introduced into the sliding system and remained stable when the volume of the liquid exceeded a certain value. The COF increased with increasing sliding speed under dry conditions and decreased in wet. Under an increasing normal force, the COF decreased regardless of the presence of liquid. The ratio of the real contact area to the nominal contact area of the skin with the steel/glass ball was found to increase with a power law as the applied force was increased. These results reveal basic tribological properties of the skin in contact with a hard slider. These properties could be used as reference for the design and development of artificial skin in prosthetic applications. PMID:24373917

Xiao, Huaping; Ariyasinghe, Nethika; He, Xingliang; Liang, Hong



Knockout of endothelial cell-derived endothelin-1 attenuates skin fibrosis but accelerates cutaneous wound healing.  


Endothelin (ET)-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-?, CTGF and TGF-? was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach. PMID:24853267

Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Aoi, Jun; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ihn, Hironobu