Sample records for warfarin-induced skin necrosis

  1. Penile ischemia and loss due to warfarin-induced skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Melissa; Wood, Hadley

    2011-02-01

    A 30-year-old man with a history of bilateral deep vein thromboses and recurrent penile ischemic episodes presented for distal penile amputation and skin graft. Despite suspicion, serologies indicated no hypercoagulable disorder. After surgery, the patient was bridged from enoxaparin to warfarin. Nine days after initiation of warfarin therapy, he developed necrotic arm ulcers, which were subsequently proved to be secondary to warfarin-induced skin necrosis. PMID:20451980

  2. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis diagnosed on clinical grounds and treated with maggot debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Biscoe, Anna Louise; Bedlow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a history of deep vein thrombosis presented with painful bruising and blistering on his left leg 7-10 days after warfarin treatment. A complicated 2-month treatment followed, where vasculitis was originally diagnosed from histological findings before the final diagnosis of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) was made on clinical grounds. Warfarin was stopped, reversed and low molecular weight heparin started but, the lesions had progressed to full thickness necrosis. This was originally treated with conventional surgical debridement before introducing maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in an effort to try to salvage the limb. PMID:23362073

  3. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis diagnosed on clinical grounds and treated with maggot debridement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, Anna Louise; Bedlow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a history of deep vein thrombosis presented with painful bruising and blistering on his left leg 7–10?days after warfarin treatment. A complicated 2-month treatment followed, where vasculitis was originally diagnosed from histological findings before the final diagnosis of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) was made on clinical grounds. Warfarin was stopped, reversed and low molecular weight heparin started but, the lesions had progressed to full thickness necrosis. This was originally treated with conventional surgical debridement before introducing maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in an effort to try to salvage the limb. PMID:23362073

  4. Warfarin-induced penile necrosis in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Chang, In Ho; Ha, Moon Soo; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kown, Yong Wook; Lee, Sang-Jae

    2010-09-01

    A 56-yr-old man with lung adenocarcinoma presented with subsegmental pulmonary thrombosis. Platelet count on presentation was 531 x 10(9)/L. The patient was anticoagulated with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Next day, oral anticoagulation was initiated with 5 mg of warfarin once daily with LMWH and LMWH was discontinued at third hospital day. On the third day of oral anticoagulation therapy, he complained of left leg swelling and prolonged painful penile erection of 24 hr-duration. His platelet count reached a nadir 164 x 10(9)/L at that time, and the patient had a deficiency of protein C and S, with an activity level of 16% and 20% of normal value. Warfarin was stopped and he underwent penile aspiration. The next day, left leg edema and penile erection was disappeared, but penile and glans penis necrosis was started. This case illustrates that processes underlying heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) may also underlie warfarin-induced skin necrosis. PMID:20808689

  5. Warfarin-Induced Penile Necrosis in a Patient with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, In Ho; Ha, Moon Soo; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kown, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    A 56-yr-old man with lung adenocarcinoma presented with subsegmental pulmonary thrombosis. Platelet count on presentation was 531×109/L. The patient was anticoagulated with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Next day, oral anticoagulation was initiated with 5 mg of warfarin once daily with LMWH and LMWH was discontinued at third hospital day. On the third day of oral anticoagulation therapy, he complained of left leg swelling and prolonged painful penile erection of 24 hr-duration. His platelet count reached a nadir 164×109/L at that time, and the patient had a deficiency of protein C and S, with an activity level of 16% and 20% of normal value. Warfarin was stopped and he underwent penile aspiration. The next day, left leg edema and penile erection was disappeared, but penile and glans penis necrosis was started. This case illustrates that processes underlying heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) may also underlie warfarin-induced skin necrosis. PMID:20808689

  6. [Skin necrosis: report of eleven cases].

    PubMed

    Molgó, Montserrat N; Arriagada, Camila E; Salomone, Claudia B; Vera, Cristián K; Giesen, Laura F; Solar, Antonieta G; González, Sergio B

    2014-01-01

    Skin necrosis must be considered as a syndrome, because it is a clinical manifestation of different diseases. An early diagnosis is very important to choose the appropriate treatment. Therefore, its causes should be suspected and confirmed quickly. We report eleven patients with skin necrosis seen at our Department, caused by different etiologies: Warfarin-induced skin necrosis, loxoscelism, diabetic microangiopathy, ecthyma gangrenosum, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotizing vasculitis, paraneoplastic extensive necrotizing vasculitis, livedoid vasculopathy, necrotizing fasciitis, necrosis secondary to the use of vasoactive drugs and necrosis secondary to the use of cocaine. We also report the results of our literature review on the subject. PMID:24861125

  7. Epinephrine Injection Associated Scrotal Skin Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Murat; Kaynar, Mehmet; Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, Ilhan; Goktas, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Male circumcision is among the most frequent surgical interventions throughout history. Although considered as a minor intervention, it may have complications ranging from insignificant to catastrophic. These complications can be attributed to the surgical procedure and anesthesia. In this report we present two cases of scrotal skin necrosis after lidocaine with epinephrine injection using subcutaneous ring block technique prior to circumcision. PMID:26185706

  8. Penile skin necrosis - complication following selfcircumcision.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Jayesh; Sagar, Bethani; Shah, Dharmendra K

    2005-07-01

    Circumcision is one of the commonest operations performed throughout the world for ritual, traditional or medical reasons. Self-circumcision may lead to disastrous complications. There have been reports of the complications following use of the constricting devices for improved sexual performance and for auto-erotic intentions, but cases of self-circumcision leading to complications such as necrosis of the penile skin and strangulation of the penis are very rarely reported. This case represents penile skin necrosis in a 55-year-old white English man following an attempt at self-circumcision with a medically unapproved plastic device available in the market. He recovered after surgical debridement and treatment with antibiotics. PMID:16884600

  9. Severe Skin Necrosis Associated with Heparin in Hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Leblanc; Louise F. Roy; Louis Legault; Louis R. Dufresne; Claude Morin; Claude Thuot

    1994-01-01

    Skin necrosis is a well-recognized although rare complication of continuous heparin therapy. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic woman with end-stage renal failure who received intermittent intravenous heparin during hemodialysis. She developed severe necrotic cutaneous ulcers over both legs, with typical histological findings. Thrombocytopenia never occurred but platelet studies demonstrated enhanced aggregation when heparin was added in vitro.

  10. Foot Skin Ischemic Necrosis following Heel Prick in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Ariguloglu, Erdal Avni; Koklu, Selmin

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports on side effects after heel prick in neonates although heel prick has been performed all over the world for many years. The medicine staff had obtained only a drop of blood by pricking the baby's heel using a lancet without compressing the heel or foot to measure his blood glucose level 3 hours after birth. However he developed a severe and hemorrhagic skin reaction on his entire left foot, beginning 30 minutes after obtaining the drop of blood by pricking the baby's heel using a lancet. The lesion, which was treated with topical mupirocin and povidone-iodine solution daily, slowly decreased in size and had almost fully resolved within 3 weeks. He was healthy and 9 months old at the time of writing this paper. We herein report a case of foot skin ischemic necrosis following heel prick in a newborn. To our knowledge this patient is the first case of foot skin ischemic necrosis due to heel prick in newborns. PMID:24288643

  11. Coumadin-induced skin necrosis in a 64 year-old female despite LMWH bridging therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mehandar; Abrina, Vanessa Mae; Chittimireddy, Sasikala

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Coumadin is the standard oral anticoagulant used in a variety of clinical conditions. Coumadin inhibits the vitamin-K dependent gamma-carboxylation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X and the anticoagulant proteins C and S. Rarely, skin necrosis occurs when the resultant initial procoagulant state in the first few days of starting coumadin leads to thrombosis and formation of blood clots tin the dermal capillaries. This in turn causes skin necrosis due to interruption in blood supply to the skin. Case Report: We are presenting the case of a 64 year-old female admitted for acute respiratory distress secondary to newly-diagnosed pulmonary embolism. The patient was started on therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and coumadin. After 5 days of treatment, the patient started complaining of pain and numbness in both upper extremities. Overnight, this rapidly progressed to manifest hemorrhagic bullae with necrotic areas. This was immediately recognized as coumadin-induced skin necrosis. Coumadin was stopped immediately. Vitamin K was administered and local wound care was provided. Therapeutic LMWH was continued. The skin lesions began to show improvement after 3 days. Conclusions: In coumadin-induced skin necrosis, the patient initially presents with pain and erythema, followed by petechial lesions which progress to become purpuric. Hemorrhagic bullae with necrosis and eschar formation may soon develop. Once it is suspected, coumadin should be stopped and the patient should be given Vitamin K and FFP to reverse the effects of coumadin. PMID:23569516

  12. Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification Is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification Is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D Paul A. Price, Samuel A. Faus, Matthew K. Williamson Abstract--The present studies demonstrate that growth and vitamin D. The second set of experiments examined the possible synergy between vitamin D and Warfarin in artery

  13. Chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated central-line dressings and necrosis in complicated skin disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jennifer B; Divito, Sherrie J; Talbot, Simon G

    2014-12-01

    Although chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) disks have been shown to help reduce the incidence of central line-associated blood stream infections, their use can result in local skin necrosis. The effects of CHG disks on patients with complex skin pathology have not been studied. We report 6 cases of dermal necrosis associated with Biopatch (Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ) CHG disks in adults with complex skin pathology including those with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, burns, and anasarca. All patients had a CHG disk placed at a central venous catheter insertion site. Age range was from 21 to 84 years. Discovery of the reaction ranged from 4 to 14 days after disk placement. Resultant skin erosions required 2 to 10 weeks to reepithelialize. Complicated skin disorder patients represent a rare subset of the critically ill who appear prone to CHG disk necrosis. Continuous contact of CHG under occlusive dressings is speculated to predispose Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, and burn patients to local chemical injury secondary to loss of the epithelial tissue barrier, decreased cohesion of the epidermal-dermal junction, and increased tissue permeability. In these patients, the risk of placing the CHG disk may present more risk than using alternative antimicrobial dressings. PMID:25035049

  14. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  15. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manzoor A.; Roppolo, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis. PMID:24533203

  16. Effects of heparin fractions on the prevention of skin necrosis resulting from adriamycin extravasation: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Askar, Ibrahim; Erbas, M Kemal; Gurlek, Ali

    2002-09-01

    Extravasation of a chemotherapeutic agent is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients. Full-thickness skin necrosis often occurs after extravasation. Alternative approaches to treatment are local wound care, elevation, and hypothermia. It was shown that heparin prevents skin necrosis. In this experimental study, the effects of heparin fractions on the prevention of skin necrosis were compared by applying an extravasation model of Adriamycin in rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250 to 300 g were used. A total of 0.3 ml doxorubicin hydrochloride was administered subcutaneously to all rats. Ten minutes later, in the control group (group I), 1 ml normal saline was administered subcutaneously. In the first experimental group (group II), 100 U per day heparin sodium was administered in a volume of 1 ml subcutaneously. In the second experimental group (group III), nadroparin calcium (5 anti-Xa U per kilogram per day) was administered. In the third and last experimental group (group IV), dalteparin sodium (5 anti-Xa U per kilogram per day) was administered. All drugs were administered for 2 weeks. Necrotic areas were measured 4 weeks later. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test. Heparin fractions caused a decreased ulcer rate and size than controls ( < 0.05). There was no superiority among heparin fractions. The authors think that low-molecular weight heparins are preferred, considering the higher risk of bleeding with unfractionated heparin. PMID:12351979

  17. Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  18. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  19. Low-level laser irradiation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and necrosis of random skin flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    Esteves Junior, Ivaldo; Masson, Igor B; Oshima, Celina T F; Paiotti, Ana Paula R; Liebano, Richard E; Plapler, Helio

    2012-05-01

    Skin flaps are still a matter of concern among surgeons, as failures can occur leading to flap necrosis. However, low-level laser irradiation has been reported as an effective tool to improve the viability of ischemic flaps, yet its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We investigated the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the viability of random skin flaps in rats and determined COX-2 expression in the flap pedicle. The study animals comprised 24 EPM-1 Wistar rats which were randomly allocated into three equal groups. A cranially based dorsal random skin flap measuring 10?×?4 cm was created in all the animals. In one group, laser irradiation was simulated (sham group), and in the other two groups the animals were irradiated at 12 points with 0.29 J at 20 mW (energy density 10.36 J/cm(2), irradiance 0.71 W/cm(2)), or with 7.3 J at 100 mW (energy density 260.7 J/cm(2), irradiance 3.57 W/cm(2)). These procedures were applied to the cranial half of the flap immediately after surgery and were repeated on days 2 and 5 after surgery. The percentage necrotic area was determined on day 7 after surgery by the paper template method. The immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in the samples was given scores from 0 to 3. The necrotic area was smaller in group irradiated at 7.3 J compared to sham-treated group and to the group irradiated at 0.29 J (P?skin flap necrosis in rats using a laser energy of 7.30 J per point. Laser irradiation also decreased the expression of COX-2 in the flap pedicle. PMID:22016040

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  1. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2?weeks. PMID:23887994

  2. Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Washington Y.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington H.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo human skin has been used extensively for cosmeceutical and drug delivery studies, transplantable skin allografts, or skin flaps. However, it has a half-life of a few days due to ischemic necrosis. Traditional methods of assessing viability can be time-consuming and provide limited metabolic information. Using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) we assess ischemic necrosis of ex vivo skin by NAD(P)H autofluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime. Ex vivo skin is stored in the presence and absence of nutrient media (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium) at -20, 4, and 37 °C and room temperature over a 7-day time course to establish different rates of metabolic deterioration. At higher temperatures we observe a decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, higher image noise, and a significant increase in the average fluorescence lifetime (?m) from ~1000 to 2000 ps. Additionally, significant distortions in NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime histograms correspond to the reduction in autofluorescence. Skin kept at 4 °C, with or without media, showed the least change. Our findings suggest that MPT-FLIM enables useful noninvasive optical biopsies to monitor the metabolic state and deterioration of human skin for research and clinical purposes.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-17 differently affects Langerhans cell distribution and activation in an innovative three-dimensional model of normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Prignano, Francesca; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Cornaghi, Laura; Landoni, Federica; Tripo, Lara; Preis, Franz William Baruffaldi; Donetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Among the several cytokines involved in the psoriasis pathogenesis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-17 play a central role. Many biomolecular steps remain unknown due to difficulty to obtain psoriatic models. To investigate the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-17 on the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, and number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), human skin explants (n=7) were cultured air-liquid interface in a Transwell system. Four different conditions were used: medium alone (control), medium added with 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 50 ng/ml IL-17 or a combination of both cytokines. Samples were harvested 24 and 48 h after cytokine addition and were frozen. Samples harvested at 24h were also processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By immunofluorescence analysis with anti-human Langerin antibody (three experiments/sample) we calculated the percentage of LCs/mm(2) of living epidermis after 24 and 48 h of incubation (considering control as 100%). At 24h LC number was significantly higher in samples treated with both cytokines (216.71+15.10%; p<0.001) and in TNF-alpha (125.74+26.24%; p<0.05). No differences were observed in IL-17-treated samples (100.14+38.42%). After 48 h, the number of epidermal Langerin-positive cells in IL-17- and TNF-alpha treated samples slightly decreased (94.99+36.79% and 101.37+23% vs. their controls, respectively). With the combination of both cytokines epidermal LCs strongly decreased (120+13.36%). By TEM, upon TNF-alpha stimulus LCs appeared with few organelles, mostly mitochondria, lysosomes, and scattered peripherical BGs. Upon IL-17 stimulus, LCs showed a cytoplasm with many mitochondria and numerous BGs close to the perinuclear space and Golgi apparatus, but also at the periphery, at the beginning of the dendrites. The addition of both cytokines did not affect LC ultrastructure. Our study showed that IL-17 induced significant changes in LC ultrastructure, while the combination of both cytokines seems to have a strong chemo-attractant effect on epidermal LCs, supporting the relevance of investigating the interplay between LCs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ongoing of the disease. PMID:25596626

  4. Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population. PMID:22532633

  5. Avascular Necrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  6. [Renal ultrasound in fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Tizki, S; Lasry, F; Elftoiki, F Z; Hadj Khalifa, H; Itri, M; Khadir, K; Benchikhi, H

    2013-07-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is an uncommon disease that may be complicated with potentially fatal hypercalcemia or with nephrocalcinosis. We report on the case of a patient with a history of significant perinatal asphyxia, hospitalized for a urinary tract infection. Lesions of subcutaneous fat necrosis were noted, with asymptomatic hypercalcemia at 3.9mmol/L. A renal ultrasound was performed and showed echogenic medullary pyramids bilaterally, consistent with nephrocalcinosis and left nephrolithiasis. The treatment of hypercalcemia included hyperhydration, a diuretic and corticosteroids. Progression was characterized by the total regression of skin lesions and normalization of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis. It develops within days to weeks after the appearance of skin lesions. Nephrocalcinosis appears after several weeks or months. Hypercalcemia must be treated in due time to avoid the impact on the kidney. PMID:23726682

  7. Tumor necrosis factor and interferon-gamma induce distinct patterns of endothelial activation and associated leukocyte accumulation in skin of Papio anubis.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, J. M.; Pober, J. S.; Cotran, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interferon (IFN)-gamma (2 X 10(4) or 2 X 10(5) U), tumor necrosis factor (TNF, 10(4) or 10(5) U), or both were injected intracutaneously into baboons (Papio anubis), and biopsies were examined at various intervals for evidence of altered endothelial cell antigen expression, endothelial morphology, and leukocyte infiltration. IFN-gamma induced increased binding of anti-HLA-DP mAb by 24 hours and a mild-to-moderate accumulation of mononuclear cells. TNF induced increased binding of anti-endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM)-1 mAb by 2 hours that was associated with polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation, and increased binding of anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mAb by 9 hours that was associated with the onset of progressive mononuclear leukocyte accumulation. TNF also caused endothelial cell hypertrophy and increased vascular permeability. The combination of IFN-gamma and TNF induced a set of changes that qualitatively resemble those of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to simian agent 8 envelope antigen. These findings are consistent with the concept that cytokine-activated endothelium plays an important role in the adhesion and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes during immune inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2505619

  8. Necrosis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Avni; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To use Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanisms for initiation and execution of necrosis, the experimentalist should be familiar with the established models of necrosis in C. elegans and the genetic and molecular tools available. We present a summary of two contrasting models for studying necrosis in C. elegans and outline the methods for scoring necrosis in each. These methods are useful for the study of necrosis under other conditions in C. elegans and for comparative studies both between established and new necrosis models. We also present a list of the genetic and drug tools available for perturbing pathways known to be important for initiation or execution of necrosis and describe their use in C. elegans. Specifically, we outline methods to inhibit autophagy, to perturb calcium homeostasis, and to disrupt lysosomal function in the C. elegans system. PMID:23733577

  9. An unusual complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Alaoui, Kaltoum; Abourazzak, Sana; Oulmaati, Abdellah; Hida, Moustapha; Bouharrou, Abdelhak

    2011-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a well-described cause of subcutaneous calcification occurring in a young infant. Calcification of areas of fat necrosis in the neonate is a rare condition. In this case, the radiographic demonstration of soft-tissue calcification revealed the skin calcification in the absence of clinical signs of SCFN and without hypercalcaemia in the first 48 h of life. PMID:22696743

  10. Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, KC; Basavaraj, HB; Swaroop, MR; Agrawal, DP; Sathyanarayana, BD; Umashankar, NP

    2009-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists. PMID:20808597

  11. Giant cell arteritis presenting as scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Daniel E; Muńoz, Silvia; Acebes, Xčnia; Llatjós, Roger; Jucglŕ, Anna; Alvarez, Alba

    2011-01-01

    The differential of scalp ulceration in older patients should include several causes, such as herpes zoster, irritant contact dermatitis, ulcerated skin tumors, postirradiation ulcers, microbial infections, pyoderma gangrenosum, and giant cell arteritis. Scalp necrosis associated with giant cell arteritis was first described in the 1940s. The presence of this dermatological sign within giant cell arteritis represents a severity marker of this disease, with a higher mean age at diagnosis, an elevated risk of vision loss and tongue gangrene, as well as overall higher mortality rates, in comparison to patients not presenting this manifestation. Even though scalp necrosis due to giant cell arteritis is exceptional, a high level of suspicion must be held for this clinical finding, in order to initiate prompt and proper treatment and avoid blindness. PMID:21789466

  12. Biomarkers of Myocardial Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Christenson; Hassan M. E. Azzazy

    \\u000a Biochemical markers play a crucial role in accurate diagnosis of myocardial necrosis and, more importantly, for assessing\\u000a risk and directing appropriate therapy that improves clinical outcome. Development and utilization of biomarkers has evolved\\u000a substantially over the past three decades. The earliest biomarkers, such as alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase,\\u000a have fallen out of use with the development of moer sensitive

  13. Bullous Lesions, Sweat Gland Necrosis and Rhabdomyolysis in Alcoholic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Neelakandhan; Binesh, Vayappurath Gangadharan; Andrews, Andrews Mekkattukunnel; Jayalakshmi, Pattomthadathil Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF). Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF. PMID:25484420

  14. Design of a thermal diffusion sensor for noninvasive assessment of skin surface perfusion and endothelial dysfunction

    E-print Network

    Li, Vivian V. (Vivian Victoria)

    2008-01-01

    The skin microcirculation performs a range of vital functions, such as maintaining nutritional perfusion to the tissues and overall thermoregulation. Not only does impairment to the skin blood supply lead to tissue necrosis ...

  15. Polyarteritis Nodosa with Bilateral Asynchronous Testicular Necrosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Nicholas J.; Lountzis, Nektarios I.; Ugoeke, Joseph C.; Ferringer, Tammie C.

    2011-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic vasculitis which may result in thrombosis or aneurysm formation in any organ of the body. We report a case polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) resulting in bilateral asynchronous testicular necrosis. A 55-year-old male developed acute onset of left testicular pain resulting in a left orchiectomy and right orchidopexy for an ischemic left testicle without evidence of torsion. Three weeks later, the patient developed acute right-sided scrotal pain, and surgical exploration revealed a right necrotic testicle resulting in a right orchiectomy. Pathologic evaluations demonstrated benign testes with acute interstitial hemorrhage and focal atrophy. The patient also experienced abdominal skin necrosis, penile pain and swelling, and temporary loss of vision. This is a unique case of PAN and the only case of asynchronous testicular necrosis in the medical literature. PMID:22606613

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin Cancer: What is Skin Cancer? In This Topic What is Skin Cancer? Causes and Risk Factors ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Life After Cancer Other Cancer Topics The information ...

  17. Skin graft

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing ... surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  18. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

  20. Biliary Complications of Pancreatic Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Adarsh; Sachdev, Ajay; Negi, Sanjay

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis has the potential to cause avariety of locoregional complications (1). This isbecause of the propensity of the necrotic tissue tospread far beyond the confines of the pancreas. Theproximity of the biliary tract to the pancreas makesit particularly vulnerable to damage by the inflammatory process, and though likely, there are only isolated case reports of involvement of the biliarytract through the necrotic process (2-5). This papershares our experience in managing six patients withbiliary complications of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:12754382

  1. Skin lumps

    MedlinePLUS

    Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , a closed sac in or under the skin that is lined with skin tissue and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths ...

  2. Enoxaparin-induced skin necrosis: a fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Verma, Meenakshi; Bahekar, Amol; Agrawal, Preeti; Duggal, Jasleen; Iliescu, Maria; Khosla, Pam; Muzaffar, Shirin

    2007-01-01

    Enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin used to treat and prevent deep venous thrombosis, has been evaluated in several clinical trials. Thrombosis induced by enoxaparin with no evidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is seldom described. We report a rare case in which an 89-year-old African-American female developed large, multiple, painful lesions induced by enoxaparin administration. Laboratory investigations for HIT, disseminated intravascular coagulation, protein C, protein S, factor V, factor VIII, antithrombin III, and homocysteine deficiency were negative. Unfortunately, despite aggressive management for 2 weeks, the patient developed severe sepsis and died. PMID:17667218

  3. Skin Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  4. Skin Size

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

  5. Skin flicks

    E-print Network

    Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

    1993-01-01

    The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

  6. Skin Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Marie Faber; Erin L. Colvin

    \\u000a The skin has been established as one of the largest organs of the human body as the skin provides a multitude of protective\\u000a functions. Because the skin is easily accessible, assessing the integumentary system can provide a wealth of information.\\u000a Illness and internal organ dysfunction are apparent by assessing the appearance of the skin. Critically ill children with\\u000a cardiac disease

  7. Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Jollow; S. S. Thorgeirsson; W. Z. Potter; M. Hashimoto; J. R. Mitchell

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between the metabolic disposition of acetaminophen and the susceptibility of hamsters, mice and rats to acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis has been examined. The fraction of low doses of acetaminophen converted to the mercapturic acid metabolite was highest in the most susceptible species (hamsters, mice), and lowest in the more resistant species (rat). Pretreatment regimens known to potentiate the hepatotoxicity

  8. Exploring the prevalence of skin tears and skin properties related to skin tears in elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Minematsu, Takeo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nao; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Tabata, Keiko; Abe, Masatoshi; Murayama, Ryoko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-03-28

    The identification of appropriate skin tear prevention guidelines for the elderly requires clinicians to focus on local risk factors such as structural alterations of the epidermis and dermis related to skin tears. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore the prevalence of skin tears and to explore skin properties related to skin tears in elderly Japanese patients at a long-term medical facility. After doing the prevalence study, 18 participants with skin tears and 18 without were recruited and an evaluation of their skin properties using 20-MHz ultrasonography, skin blotting and also Corneometer CM-825, Skin-pH-meterPH905, VapoMeter, Moisture Meter-D and CutometerMPA580 was undertaken. A total of 410 patients were examined, the median age was 87?years and 73·2% were women. The prevalence of skin tears was 3·9%, and 50% of skin tears occurred on the dorsal forearm. The changes in skin properties associated with skin tears included increased low-echogenic pixels (LEP) by 20-MHz ultrasonography, decreased type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and increased tumour necrosis factor-? by skin blotting. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased dermal LEP, including solar elastosis, may represent a risk factor for skin tears; this indicates that skin tear risk factors might not only represent chronological ageing but also photoageing. PMID:24674027

  9. Viability of adult rat skin following 13 Mev proton irradiation 

    E-print Network

    Caraway, Bobby Lamar

    1966-01-01

    most affected by 10 Mev protons, epithelial hyperplasia being most prevalent. Harris observed skin effects starting at 200 rad with tumor formation. Scar- ring from ulceration and necrosis of the dermis was seen at 1000 rad. Involvement of epidermis..., nose, and feet appeared normal. Only one lesion, a tumor, was present in the skin 39 which otherwise retained its loose elastic nature. The tumor was located in the inner fold of the flank. Microscopically (Figure 6B), the skin appeared...

  10. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, W?odzimierz; S?odkowski, Maciej; Krasnod?bski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  11. The biochemistry of neuronal necrosis: rogue biology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Popi Syntichaki; Nektarios Tavernarakis

    2003-01-01

    When stressed beyond their tolerance, cells undergo necrosis, an acute, non-apoptotic form of cell death. Necrosis is crucial to the damage that injury and disease inflict on the nervous system. Recent discoveries have shed light onto the molecular requirements for necrosis, and provide new evidence that, as is the case for apoptosis, the mechanisms of necrotic cell death are conserved

  12. Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: Pilonidal Cyst Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Abscess Cellulitis Paronychia Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea Ringworm ...

  13. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging. PMID:23659624

  14. Reversal of Warfarin-Induced Hemorrhage in the Emergency Department

    E-print Network

    Zareh, Meena; Davis, Andrew J; Henderson, Sean O

    2011-01-01

    an Concentrates. Blood Transfusion. 2009;7:325–334. Westernadverse event of blood transfusion. Vox Sanguinis. 2005;89:blood or plasmapheresis, FFP must be ABO matched to the patient before transfusion

  15. Dry Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils as completely as hot water. • Use gentle bars ( ... some cooking oils such as safflower oil, Canola® oil and Crisco®). • “Drag” moisture into your skin by using products that contain chemicals such as ...

  16. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  17. Severe ischemic bowel necrosis caused by terlipressin during treatment of hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Rim; Lee, Young Sun; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Joo; Ryu, Ja Young; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Eileen L; Lee, Sun Jae; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Koo, Ja Seol; Choung, Rok Sun; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jai Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue that is widely used in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome or variceal bleeding. Because it acts mainly on splanchnic vessels, terlipressin has a lower incidence of severe ischemic complications than does vasopressin. However, it can still lead to serious complications such as myocardial infarction, skin necrosis, or bowel ischemia. Herein we report a case of severe ischemic bowel necrosis in a 46-year-old cirrhotic patient treated with terlipressin. Although the patient received bowel resection, death occurred due to ongoing hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Attention should be paid to patients complaining of abdominal pain during treatment with terlipressin. PMID:24459647

  18. Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  19. Genital necrosis secondary to warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Deterding, J

    1988-01-01

    Several adverse dermatologic effects have been reported with the use of warfarin. Among these is the rare complication of drug-induced necrosis. Approximately 150 cases had been reported by 1976, and a review of the literature since 1943 revealed only 4 reported cases of penile necrosis. We present the fifth case of genital necrosis reported with coumarin anticoagulants and the third such case associated with warfarin. PMID:3065746

  20. Conservatively treated extended tracheal necrosis complicating pharyngolaryngectomy.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Julien; Fournier, Clement; Surmei, Ecaterina; Bellier, Jocelyn; Porte, Henri Lucien

    2015-05-01

    Tracheal necrosis is a rare life-threatening phenomenon that most often occurs after thyroid operations or prolonged intubation. Conservative treatment can be one choice in extensive tracheal necrosis. We report the case of a 59-year-old man, with tracheal necrosis that developed after pharyngolaryngectomy, that we treated conservatively using hyperbaric oxygen therapy and antibiotic therapy. The follow-up was assured by tracheobronchoscopy. A year after his discharge, the trachea was totally healed. PMID:25952216

  1. Upregulated RIP3 Expression Potentiates MLKL Phosphorylation-Mediated Programmed Necrosis in Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, Woo-Jung; Yoon, Jung-Ho; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Morgan, Michael J; Cho, Hyeseong; Kim, You Chan; Kim, You-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe adverse drug reaction involving extensive keratinocyte death in the epidermis. Histologically, the skin from TEN patients exhibits separation at the dermo-epidermal junction and accompanying necrosis of epidermal keratinocytes. Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes "programmed", or "regulated", necrosis and has a key role in spontaneous cell death and inflammation in keratinocytes under certain conditions. Here we show that RIP3 expression is highly upregulated in skin sections from TEN patients and may therefore contribute to the pathological damage in TEN through activation of programmed necrotic cell death. The expression level of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key downstream component of RIP3, was not significantly different in skin lesions of TEN. However, elevated MLKL phosphorylation was observed in the skin from TEN patients, indicating the presence of RIP3-dependent programmed necrosis. Importantly, in an in vitro model of TEN, dabrafenib, an inhibitor of RIP3, prevented RIP3-mediated MLKL phosphorylation and decreased cell death. Results from this study suggest that the high expression of RIP3 in keratinocytes from TEN patients potentiates MLKL phosphorylation/activation and necrotic cell death. Thus, RIP3 represents a potential target for treatment of TEN. PMID:25748555

  2. Skin turgor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health care workers to assess fluid loss or dehydration . Fluid loss can occur from common conditions, such ... Decreased skin turgor is a late sign in dehydration. It occurs with moderate to severe dehydration. Fluid ...

  3. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  4. Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé

    In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

  5. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  6. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Acinar pancreatic tumor with metastatic fat necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin E. Good; Bertram Schnitzer; Hidenori Kawanishi; Kyriakos C. Demetropoulos; Robert Rapp

    1976-01-01

    Summary This report deals with a pancreatic tumor associated with metastatic fat necrosis. Our patient displayed the full gamut of nodular panniculitis, polyarthritis, fever, eosinophilia, hyperlipasemia, lytic bones lesions, and marrow fat necrosis. The rheumatologic features are reviewed. Elevated serum lipase is a most helpful laboratory confirmation. The tumor in our patient presented a difficult problem in classification. Although the

  9. Time-lapse imaging of necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wĺllberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Meier, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The processes of dying are as tightly regulated as those of growth and proliferation. Recent work into the molecular pathways that regulate and execute cell death have uncovered a plethora of signalling cascades that lead to distinct modes of cell death, including "apoptosis," "necrosis," "autophagic cell death," and "mitotic catastrophe." Given that cells can readily switch from one form of death to another, it is vital to carefully monitor the form of death under investigation. Particularly, end-point techniques are intrinsically unsuitable for assessing apoptosis versus necrosis, as they cannot reconstruct the sequence of events that have led to cell death. Since apoptotic cells frequently undergo secondary necrosis under in vitro culture conditions, novel methods relying on high-throughput time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy have been developed. Here we describe the use of this technique to reliably distinguish necrosis from apoptosis and secondary necrosis. PMID:23733566

  10. Skin to skin care:heat balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Karlsson

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

  11. Interleukin 1? and the stimulation of Langerhans cell migration: comparisons with tumour necrosis factor ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cumberbatch; R. J. Dearman; I. Kimber

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and the cells into which they mature are believed to play a pivotal role in cutaneous immune\\u000a function. The induction phase of contact sensitization is associated with the migration of LC from the skin and their accumulation\\u000a as dendritic cells (DC) in lymph nodes draining the site of exposure. We have demonstrated previously that tumour necrosis

  12. Bioartificial skin.

    PubMed

    Machens, H G; Berger, A C; Mailaender, P

    2000-01-01

    The loss of skin has been one of the oldest, yet most frequent and costly problems in our health care system. To restore functional and esthetic integrity in patients with unstable or hypertrophic scars, in burn patients and after skin loss for hereditary, traumatic or oncological reasons, an armamentarium of reconstructive surgical procedures including autogenous, allogenous and xenogenous tissue transfer as well as implantation of alloplastic materials has been favored. For several decades there has been increasing interest focused on 'tissue engineering' of dermal, epidermal and full thickness skin substitutes by both biological and synthetic matrices. At our institution (Hannover Medical School), a collagen/glycosaminoglycan dermal regeneration matrix has been used for immediate dermal coverage after escharectomy in burn injuries as well as for dermal replacement in chronically unstable scars. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art in bioartificial skin as well as our personal experience with the collagen/glycosaminoglycan matrix for dermal replacement in different clinical situations. PMID:10971033

  13. Skin Deep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-13

    In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.

  14. Arterial injuries at the elbow carry a high risk of muscle necrosis and warrant urgent revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, AG; Berry, MG; Kirkpatrick, JJR; Lees, VC; McGrouther, DA

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Revascularisation following axial arterial system injury is effective in upper limb salvage but necrosis of muscle, the tissue most sensitive to ischaemia, may still occur. We examined the frequency of necrosis, its related factors and its functional significance. METHODS The clinical findings and operative management of 13 patients with injuries at the elbow referred to 2 plastic surgical hand surgery units over a 30-month period were reviewed. Good outcome was defined as minimal impairment with return to previous occupation, intermediate outcome as moderate impairment with change in occupation and poor outcome as major functional loss preventing work. RESULTS Seven patients injured the brachial and six injured both the radial and ulnar arteries. Concomitant injuries were severe with nerve injuries in 11 and muscle damage in 12 patients. Functional outcome was good in four cases, intermediate in four and poor in five. Muscle necrosis developed in four brachial artery injuries. In all four cases, initial successful revascularisation failed post-operatively. Case review revealed delayed recognition in three cases where pain heralded ischaemia but distal skin circulation and pulses were adequate. Of patients with necrosis, three had a poor outcome and one had an intermediate outcome. CONCLUSIONS The risk of muscle necrosis must be considered when managing these injuries, particularly if initial revascularisation is unsuccessful. Every effort should be made to optimise repair technique and post-operative monitoring. Limb salvage is no longer enough. Fully viable muscle is necessary to restore function and livelihoods. PMID:22391384

  15. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

  16. Skin Tag (Acrochordon)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Skin Tag (Acrochordon) Information for adults A A A Skin tags are common benign (non-cancerous) skin polyps. Overview A skin tag (acrochordon) is a common, possibly inherited condition that ...

  17. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depends on the location and severity of fistulas. SKIN TAGS Skin tags are fairly common in people with Crohn’s disease. ... into small flaps. Fecal matter may attach to skin tags, irritating the skin. Practicing good hygiene will help ...

  18. Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    to help you remove it. Acne Most teenagers get a skin disease called acne (AK- nee). The blackheads everyone gets them at some point. Acne isn't usually serious, but severe cases can cause scars that will last for years. Acne is caused by bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, often shortened to P. acnes

  19. Cell degeneration and necrosis in experimental gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, P. L.; Pilkington, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cell degeneration and necrosis in ethylnitrosourea-induced gliomas of rats were examined using light and electron microscopy. Two types of cell loss were observed: massive necrosis and individual cell death. Massive necrosis was influenced by the size, malignancy and histological type of the gliomas: it occurred most frequently in large, malignant pleomorphic gliomas and epindymomas. Proliferation of endothelial cells, narrowing of vascular lumina and degenerative changes affecting vessel walls were thought to be the major factors causing necrosis. Individual cell death occurred throughout the neoplasms irrespective of their size. Progressive degenerative changes, involving both the nucleus and cytoplasm, preceded cell death. Macrophages (both microglial and monocytic in origin). reacting astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, neoplastic glial cells engulfed and digested the necrotic cells and their remnants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:638034

  20. The Science Inside Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )

    2009-01-01

    The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

  1. Tribometrology of Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

  2. NECROSIS IN TREATMENT OF INTRAORAL CANCER BY RADIATION THERAPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MacComb

    1962-01-01

    Discussion is given on the treatment of necrosis developing from ; radiotherapy of intraoral cancer. The best treatment of radiation necrosis is ; prophylactic. The time of appearance of radiation necrosis is also discussed. ; The incidence of radiation necrosis in treatment of patients with cancer of the ; intraoral cavity at M. D. Anderson Hospital during the past nine

  3. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yanina, Irina Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Navolokin, Nikita A; Matveeva, Olga V; Bucharskaya, Alla B; Maslyakova, Galina N; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite. PMID:22612149

  4. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  5. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2?cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1?cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis of fat necrosis is MRI.Histological confirmation of fat necrosis is important.Appropriate management of localised fat necrosis is surgical excision, with avoidance of further insulin injections into the affected area. PMID:25298886

  6. SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2010-05-26

    Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

  7. Skin manifestations in acromegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Ben-Shlomo; Shlomo Melmed

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous changes in acromegaly result from excess GH and IGF-1 action on skin cells and adnexae. Skin puffiness due to dermal glycosaminoglycan accumulation and edema are most prominent in the face, hands and feet. Oily skin with large pores, hypertrichosis, and excessive sweating are common features. Pigmented skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and psoriasis are also encountered. Alteration in skin capillaries

  8. [Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].

    PubMed

    Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

  9. Asceptic Necrosis of Bone in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C. E.; Crowe, S.; Farrow, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Necrosis of intramedullary bone and bone marrow elements is reported in the long bones of a dog. Radiographically lesions were evident as an irregular increase in intramedullary density. On gross postmortem examination necrotic tissue appeared as yellow-white deposits on the endosteal surface and in the medullary cavity. Microscopically, necrotic bone had empty lacunae and was often covered by basophilic, woven bone. The cause and pathogenesisof aseptic necrosis of bone are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17422625

  10. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth. PMID:701534

  11. Tumour necrosis factor ? RECEPTOR activated T cells of patients with systemic sclerosis are deficient in IL10 expression but promote myofibroblast differentiation via IL6 and TGF-?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hügle; Anja Krippner-Heidenreich; Rachel Simpson; Marina Kraaij; Steven OReilly; Venetia Bigley; Matthew Collin; Line Iversen; Jacob M van Laar

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectivesSystemic sclerosis (SSc) is an auto-inflammatory multisystem disease leading to fibrosis of the skin and inner organs. T lymphocytes are key effector cells in the affected tissue. The role of lymphocytes in the transition from inflammation to fibrosis is unclear. Previous data suggested a possible pro-fibrotic effect of tumour necrosis factor–receptor (TNF-R) 2.Materials and methodsSkin punch biopsies from

  12. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots And Skin Tags Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, ... sunscreen or sunblock may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  14. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called " ... Also, a sunscreen may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  15. Dry Skin Relief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Avoiding allergic reaction from acne products Bug bites ... treat sunburn Proper wound care: Minimize a scar Skin care on a budget Skin care products Sun protection ...

  16. Laparoscopic infracolic necrosectomy for infected pancreatic necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Adamson; A. Cuschieri

    2003-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis carries a high morbidity and mortality from sepsis and multisystem organ failure. Following confirmation of the infection by CT-guided fine needle aspiration, treatment consists of broad spectrum antibiotics (imipenim-cilastin) followed by emergency open (laparotomy) digital necrosectomy and insertion of drains for postoperative lavage with hyperosmolar dialysate as advocated by Beger et al. This video shows an alternative

  17. MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN)

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN): A Viral Infection of the Atlantic Cod and Other-FRIED, BRUCE L. NICHOLSON, and STUART SHERBURNE Several infections of erythrocytes of poikilothermic. The cytoplasmic inclusions observed in infected erythrocytes of cod, Gadus morhua, were 0.3-1.5 pm in diameter

  18. Renal cortical necrosis in pregnancy-related acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Tripathi, K; Pandey, L K; Gadela, S R; Usha

    1996-06-01

    Of 63 patients of obstetrical acute renal failure, 15 cases (23.8%) had biopsy proven bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Remaining 48 patients (76.2%) had acute tubular necrosis. Eight of 39 cases in early pregnancy had cortical necrosis (postabortum) and 7 of 24 patients in late pregnancy revealed cortical necrosis. Diffuse and patchy cortical necroses were seen in 12 and 3 patients respectively. The incidence of cortical necrosis was almost equal in both early as well as late pregnancies. The high incidence (20.5%) of cortical necrosis following septic abortion remains the interesting feature of the present study in contrast to very low incidence (1.5%) of cortical necrosis in postabortum group in developed countries. The death occurred in most patients (14 ie, 93.3%) of cortical necrosis because of uraemic complications and sepsis. PMID:8979680

  19. Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) in a juvenile blackbar triggerfish,

    E-print Network

    Grutter, Alexandra "Lexa"

    Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) in a juvenile blackbar triggerfish, Rhinecanthus Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) was detected in blood films from an immature blackbar erythrocytes affected by the VEN-like condition, but accompanying erythroblasts appeared free from infection

  20. Even after UVA-exposure will nitric oxide protect cells from reactive oxygen intermediate-mediated apoptosis and necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C V Suschek; K Briviba; D Bruch-Gerharz; H Sies; K D Kröncke; V Kolb-Bachofen

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in UVA-induced cell damage. As expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a normal response of human skin to UV radiation we examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a protective agent during or even after UVA1- or ROS-exposure against apoptosis or necrosis of rat endothelial cells. When added

  1. Comparison of the effects of troxerutin and heparinoid on flap necrosis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Alper; Ersoy, Omer F; Ozkan, Namik; Kayaoglu, Huseyin A; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Cakir, Ebru A; Lordlar, Nese; Omeroglu, Suna

    2010-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of local troxerutin and heparinoid (HEP) treatments in a model of flap necrosis. Three groups of Wistar albino rats, each comprising 10 animals were used. A cranially based 6x3-cm full-thickness random-pattern skin flap was raised and sutured to the same area in each model. The control group was treated daily with normal saline, the second with topical HEP and the third with topical troxerutin. The amount of flap necrosis was measured in all groups by the end of the seventh day. Flap tissues were excised for histological analysis and evaluation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Assessment of the blood levels of nitric oxide was also performed in each animal by cardiac puncture. The mean area of flap necrosis was 110.6mm(2) in the control, 39.44 mm(2) in the troxerutin and 47.11 mm(2) in the heparinoid-treated rats. The treatment arms exhibited significant reduction in areas of flap necrosis, compared with the control group (p<0.001), but it was similar among treatment groups (p=0.60). The rates of fibroblast proliferation were decreased in control group as compared to HEP and troxerutin arms (p<0.001). The mean level of collagen density, collagen organisation, granulation tissue and demarcation were similar in all rats. Measurement of VEGF expression did not show any significant difference between the groups (p=0.30). Nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in control rats, as compared to treatment groups (p<0.0001), but were similar in treatment arms (p=0.45). Our results suggest that troxerutin and HEP effectively reduce the flap necrosis and improve flap survival. The observed effects might be due to their anti-oedematogenic, radical-scavenging, antioxidant effects and supportive activities on capillary permeability and transudation. PMID:19346174

  2. The ability of intra-operative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography to predict mastectomy flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Munabi, Naikhoba C O; Olorunnipa, Olushola B; Goltsman, David; Rohde, Christine H; Ascherman, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    Mastectomy skin flap ischaemia leading to necrosis is a common occurrence. Laser-assisted indocyanine green (ICG) angiography can assist to locate these poorly perfused areas intra-operatively. Our study aims to identify specific perfusion values produced by ICG angiography that accurately predict mastectomy flap necrosis. A total of 42 patients undergoing autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction had mastectomy flaps imaged using laser-assisted ICG angiography at the completion of reconstruction. Intra-operative perfusion values were correlated with postoperative skin flap outcomes. Risk factors for abnormal perfusion were recorded and analysed. A total of 62 breast reconstructions were imaged, including 48 tissue expander reconstructions, six transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps, six deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps and two direct-to-implant reconstructions. Eight cases (13%) of full-thickness skin necrosis were identified postoperatively. A SPY Elite(®) value of ? 7 accurately predicted the development of flap necrosis at 88% sensitivity and 83% specificity. False-positive cases (those with perfusion values ? 7 which did not develop necrosis) were more likely to have a smoking history and/or to have had an epinephrine-containing tumescent solution used during mastectomy. Excluding patients with smoking or epinephrine use, a SPY value of ? 7 predicted flap necrosis with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 97%. Thus, these data suggest that laser-assisted ICG angiography predicts postoperative outcomes with high accuracy. In our series, a SPY value of ? 7 correlated well with mastectomy flap necrosis. Furthermore, smoking and intra-operative injections containing epinephrine should be considered when evaluating low perfusion values as they can lead to false-positive test results. PMID:24507962

  3. Subcutaneous fat necrosis causing neonatal hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Tuddenham, Emma; Kumar, Arun; Tarn, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia in neonates is rare and often asymptomatic, but can have significant morbidity. If severe, it can cause symptoms including irritability, vomiting and seizures. We present the case of a baby girl, born at term after a traumatic delivery, who developed severe hypercalcaemia with nephrocalcinosis. She had several large areas of subcutaneous fat necrosis following delivery, with prolonged low-level elevation of C reactive protein. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is a rare and underdiagnosed condition, often accompanied by high plasma calcium. Although self-limiting, it is important to recognise and treat this condition to minimise kidney damage, and to avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment with long courses of antibiotics. The infant recovered well, although a degree of nephrocalcinosis remains. PMID:26177996

  4. Intestinal necrosis due to norovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Okita, Yoshiki; Imaoka, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Koji; Shigemori, Tsunehiko; Kato, Toshio; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-02-01

    Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. We report a rare case of intestinal necrosis due to norovirus gastroenteritis in a healthy adult. A 47-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal fullness. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and diffuse tenderness. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed intestinal distention, pneumatosis, and portal venous gas, findings suggestive of intestinal necrosis. Norovirus genome was detected in his stools using the RT-PCR method. Upon laparotomy, a segment of necrotic bowel 170 cm from the ileocecal valve was identified, and the lesion was resected with an end ileostomy. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he was transferred to another hospital on the 7th post-operative day. Ileostomy closure was performed one month after the first surgery at the transfer hospital. He had no recurrent episodes. PMID:25471340

  5. Uterine Necrosis Associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Widelock, T.; Elkattah, R.; Gibbs, S.; Mashak, Z.; Mohling, S.; DePasquale, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum is infrequently implicated as a pathogenic organism. When pathogenic, the typical clinical presentation is that of pharyngitis, cervical adenopathy, and unilateral thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. Infections caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum within the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have been infrequently reported. We describe a 19-year-old woman who underwent a cesarean delivery complicated by sepsis and purulent uterine necrosis secondary to Fusobacterium necrophorum infection. PMID:26000185

  6. The vascular calcification-cutaneous necrosis syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick R Dahl; R. K Winkelmann; Suzanne M Connolly

    1995-01-01

    Background: Although medial calcification of larger elastic arteries in chronic kidney failure and with advancing age is relatively common, calcification of the cutaneous vascular system is rare.Objective: Our purpose was to describe three patients with the vascular calcification-cutaneous necrosis syndrome and review the cause, clinical and pathologic features, and treatment of this syndrome.Methods: We describe three patients with ischemic necrotic

  7. A Case of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors-induced Pustular Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? agents promise better disease control for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis resistant to classical disease-modifying treatments. Etanercept, a recombinant human TNF receptor fusion protein, is used to treat a variety of TNF-?-mediated diseases by inhibiting the biological activity of TNF-?. We experienced a case of pustular psoriasis in a 32-year-old man during anti-TNF-? therapy with etanercept. He had a history of ankylosing spondylitis for 2 years. Two years after treatment of etanercept, erythematous pustules developed on his palms and soles. He had no previous history of pustular psoriasis. The skin lesion improved as the etanercept therapy was stopped, but pustular skin eruption recurred as adalimumab, a different TNF-? inhibitor, was administered to manage his ankylosing spondylitis. Several TNF-? inhibitors have different molecular structures, but these inhibitors might have a similar potency to induce pustular psoriasis from this case. PMID:20548918

  8. Comparing Quantitative Values of Two Generations of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography Systems: Can We Predict Necrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Mitchell S.; Rivara, Andrew; Dagum, Alexander B.; Huston, Tara L.; Ganz, Jason C.; Bui, Duc T.; Khan, Sami U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Several devices exist today to assist the intraoperative determination of skin flap perfusion. Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography (LAICGA) has been shown to accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis using quantitative perfusion values. The laser properties of the latest LAICGA device (SPY Elite) differ significantly from its predecessor system (SPY 2001), preventing direct translation of previous published data. The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical relationship of perfusion values between these 2 devices. Methods: Breast reconstruction patients were prospectively enrolled into a clinical trial where skin flap evaluation and excision was based on quantitative SPY Q values previously established in the literature. Initial study patients underwent mastectomy skin flap evaluation using both SPY systems simultaneously. Absolute perfusion unit (APU) values at identical locations on the breast were then compared graphically. Results: 210 data points were identified on the same patients (n = 4) using both SPY systems. A linear relationship (y = 2.9883x + 12.726) was identified with a high level or correlation (R2 = 0.744). Previously published values using SPY 2001 (APU 3.7) provided a value of 23.8 APU on the SPY Elite. In addition, postoperative necrosis in these patients correlated to regions of skin identified with the SPY Elite with APU less than 23.8. Conclusion: Intraoperative comparison of LAICGA systems has provided direct correlation of perfusion values predictive of necrosis that were previously established in the literature. An APU value of 3.7 from the SPY 2001 correlates to a SPY Elite APU value of 23.8. PMID:25525483

  9. Growth on demand: Reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Holland, Maria A.; Honda, Kord S.; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. redHere we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. redThis allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part.redTo demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

  10. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

  11. Polymer photonic sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

  12. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  13. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors – state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawi?ska, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

  14. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  15. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or itchy, try a moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin D when it is exposed to sunshine. Vitamin D helps keep your bones and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your ...

  16. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing. PMID:20963977

  17. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  18. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you, see your doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866- ... Shingles Can We Prevent Aging? Also of Interest Skin Care and Aging - NIHSeniorHealth Skin Cancer - NIHSeniorHealth Sun Safety - ...

  19. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  20. Infected Peri-Pancreatic Necrosis Causing Gallbladder Necrosis by Direct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Assalia, Ahmad; Schmulevski, Pavel; Meislin, Vladimir; Hashmonai, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis may develop in patients suffering from necrotizing pancreatitis. Conversely, acute pancreatitis may complicate acute gallbladder disease. We present a case that lends support to the existence of another possibility: gallbladder necrosis caused by direct extension of the necrotizing pancreatitic process. PMID:8260438

  1. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR? SIGNALING CASCADES IN APOPTOSIS, NECROSIS, NECROPTOSIS AND CELL PROLIFERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Classen Enns; Luiz Auguto; Vieira Cordeiro; Aicha Marceline Sarr; Juliana Luz; Jung Kim; Valéria Ferreira-Silva; Philip Wolff; José Ernesto Belizário

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? ) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in host defense, inammation, apoptosis, autoimmunity, organogenesis and lymphoid microarchitecture. Many of these activities may be explained by the ability of this cytokine to induce distinct signal transduction pathways that recruit regulatory proteins involved in differentiation, cell death or cell proliferation. In this review, we discuss the contribution of caspases

  2. Tc-99m PYP localization in calf muscle necrosis.

    PubMed

    Virupannavar, S; Shirazi, P H; Khedkar, N V; Kaplan, E

    1984-05-01

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) can localize in an acute myocardial infarct and other extraosseous lesions, including soft tissue necrosis and severe cellular injury A case of Tc-99m PYP uptake in calf muscle necrosis following transfemoral cardiac catheterization is presented. This was incidentally detected on Tc-99m PYP imaging performed for an acute myocardial infarction. Repeat Tc-99m PYP imaging one month later was normal, implying resolution of the ischemic muscle necrosis. PMID:6086203

  3. Bilateral putaminal necrosis and bronopol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Trivisano, Marina; Carapelle, Elena; Martino, Tommaso; Specchio, Luigi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Among alcohols, methanol intoxication is the most frequently associated with cerebral toxicity, causing retinal damage and putaminal necrosis. This consequence is believed to be due to the transformation of methanol into formic acid. We describe the case of a patient who presented with acute impairment of consciousness and tetraparesis after she had been drinking several bottles of a topical antiseptic solution (Lysoform Medical) containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propandiol (bronopol) among excipients, in order to lose weight during previous months. Moreover, she had been on a strict slimming diet. Soon after admission, a severe respiratory and metabolic impairment became rapidly evident, requiring an intensive care unit admission. Cerebral MRI showed the presence of bilateral putaminal necrosis. She recovered in 10 days, surprisingly, without any evident clinical neurological signs. Methanol, also bronopol, when diluted in aqueous solution, at warm temperature and/or higher pH, may release formaldehyde, which is converted into formic acid, a basal ganglia toxic compound. PMID:25697297

  4. Minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Brian; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review these minimally invasive approaches to infected pancreatic necrosis. METHODS: We used the MEDLINE database to investigate studies between 1996 and 2010 with greater than 10 patients that examined these techniques. Using a combination of Boolean operators, reports were retrieved addressing percutaneous therapy (341 studies), endoscopic necrosectomy (574 studies), laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach (148 studies), and retroperitoneal necrosectomy (194 studies). Only cohorts with at least 10 or more patients were included. Non-English papers, letters, animal studies, duplicate series and reviews without original data were excluded, leaving a total of 27 studies for analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with 947 patients total were examined (eight studies on percutaneous approach; ten studies on endoscopic necrosectomy; two studies on laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach; five studies on retroperitoneal necrosectomy; and two studies on a combined percutaneous-retroperitoneal approach). Success rate, complications, mortality, and number of procedures were outcomes that were included in the review. We found that most published reports were retrospective in nature, and thus, susceptible to selection and publication bias. Few reports examined these techniques in a comparative, prospective manner. CONCLUSION: Each minimally invasive approach though was found to be safe and feasible in multiple reports. With these new techniques, treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis remains a challenge. We advocate a multidisciplinary approach to this complex problem with treatment individualized to each patient. PMID:23239921

  5. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  6. The Skin Deep Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS; )

    2010-05-26

    From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâ??from the sunâ??s ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

  7. Fat necrosis of the breast: a cytological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Aqel, N M; Howard, A; Collier, D S

    2001-08-01

    Fat necrosis of the breast is a sterile condition that usually results from trauma to the breast. It may present with a breast lump that, on clinical and mammographic examination, can mimic malignancy. The literature suggests that fat necrosis of the breast can only be diagnosed accurately by histological examinations of breast biopsies. In this paper, we review the findings of a series of 35 patients in whom fat necrosis was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Repeated fine needle aspiration cytology with close follow-up have proven to be a reliable method of establishing the diagnosis of fat necrosis of the breast, thereby reducing the necessity for open biopsy. PMID:14965606

  8. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  9. Ischemia of Postmastectomy Skin After Infiltration of Local Anesthetic with Epinephrine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tristan L. HartzellNaveen; Naveen F. Sangji; Mary C. Hertl

    2010-01-01

    Background  The goals of this study were to review the literature regarding the use of local anesthetic with epinephrine and to report\\u000a an observation of prolonged ischemia and necrosis in postmastectomy skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PubMed literature review was performed and the patient’s medical record was reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Prior skin necrosis with epinephrine use in acral areas was often due to physician or manufacturing

  10. Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis V. Correlation of Hepatic Necrosis, Covalent Binding and Glutathione Depletion in Hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Z. Potter; S. S. Thorgeirsson; D. J. Jollow; J. R. Mitchell

    1974-01-01

    We previously postulated that acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis in mice results from the formation of a reactive metabolite that arylates vital cellular macro-molecules. While studying species differences in susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis, hamsters were found to be particularly vulnerable. We now report the relationships between hepatic glutathione depletion, arylation of hepatic macromolecules in vivo and in vitro and hepatic necrosis

  11. Tolerance of prefabricated skin flaps to ischaemia and reperfusion: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Serel, Sava?; Çavu?o?lu, Tar?k; Uluç, Ars?n; Ayva, ?ebnem; Saray, Ayd?n; Özbek, Mustafa R?za

    2011-03-01

    Custom prefabrication of tissues allows the surgeon to build what is required for the reconstruction and has enabled the surgeon to reinforce new blood supply into selected blocks of tissue without vessel anastomosis. However, prefabricated flaps have several drawbacks and characteristics that differentiate them from conventional flaps. The objective of this study was to test the tolerance of prefabricated flaps to ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In the first stage, the unilateral-inferior-epigastric pedicle was ligated and divided, and then a skin flap was fabricated by implantation of distally ligated femoral arteriovenous pedicle beneath the abdominal skin. The femoral vessels were implanted either in skeletonised or in muscle-cuffed fashion beneath the abdominal skin, a portion of which was raised as an island flap, based on these vessels. Prefabricated flaps (3×6 cm) were raised 6 weeks after, and were subjected to 10 h ischaemia and followed by 12 h reperfusion. Flap survival and histological changes at the pedicle-skin junction were evaluated at 7 days. Flap necrosis in the sham group was 0%, whereas the control group (conventional) had 47.27±13.50% necrosis. Flaps prefabricated with skeletonised femoral pedicle demonstrated an insignificant pattern with 63.74±10.62% necrosis when compared with prefabricated flaps with muscle-cuffed pedicle with the percentage of necrosis of 64.51±11.24. The area of necrosis was significantly increased when both the prefabricated flaps were compared with the control group or with the sham-prefabricated group (p<0.05). Skin flaps prefabricated with either pedicle-alone or pedicles with muscle cuff are more susceptible to ischaemia and following reperfusion in comparison with the normal flaps. PMID:20542482

  12. Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis

    1972-01-01

    Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-? in nasal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ganbo, T.; Nakazawa, T.; Nakajima, T.; Ko, J.; Goto, R.; Murakami, Y.; Misui, K.

    1995-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by radio-immunoassay to evaluate TNF-? in nasal allergy. There was no significant difference either between the mean concentrations of TNF-? in nasal secretions from the patients with perennial nasal allergy and those of normal subjects, or between the TNF-? and ECP concentrations. However, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed a specific increase of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in allergic nasal mucosa after allergen challenge in vitro. These findings suggest a possibility that T cell-derived IFN-? up-regulates macrophages to elaborate TNF-?, which may play a role in amplifying allergic inflammation in the nose through the cytokine network. PMID:18475667

  14. Fat necrosis of the breast: a cytological and clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Aqel; A. Howard; D. St J. Collier

    2001-01-01

    Fat necrosis of the breast is a sterile condition that usually results from trauma to the breast. It may present with a breast lump that, on clinical and mammographic examination, can mimic malignancy. The literature suggests that fat necrosis of the breast can only be diagnosed accurately by histological examinations of breast biopsies. In this paper, we review the findings

  15. Aquareovirus interference mediated resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). This heterologous antiviral protection was observed up to 4Aquareovirus interference mediated resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus SE La be involved. fish virus / antiviral cytokine / viral interference / IHNV / CSV Résumé― Résistance au

  16. Radiation-induced alterations in cytokine production by skin cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kerstin; Meineke, Viktor

    2007-04-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure of skin results in a cutaneous radiation reaction comprising all pathophysiological reactions and clinical symptoms in irradiated skin. Biological responses of skin occur in a characteristic temporal pattern and mainly depend on radiation quality, dose rate, total dose, and cellular conditions. Immediately after irradiation, production of cytokines by skin cells is initiated and continues as a cascade during all stages of the cutaneous radiation syndrome leading to progressive late symptoms, the predominant of which is fibrosis. Cytokines are important signaling molecules mediating communicative interactions both locally between different cell types within dermal tissues and distantly between organs. Although during recent years much progress has been made in dissecting the complex cytokine network, the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of the cutaneous radiation reaction is only beginning to be elucidated. Previous studies indicate that the major cytokines in the response of skin cells to ionizing radiation include IL (interleukin)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and the chemokines IL-8 and eotaxin. In this paper, existing data on the radiation-induced modulation of cytokine expression by skin cells are reviewed. PMID:17379094

  17. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

  18. The skin microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA amplified from lesional skin of seropositive dogs.

    PubMed

    Berzina, Inese; Krudewig, Christiane; Silaghi, Cornelia; Matise, Ilze; Ranka, Renate; Müller, Norbert; Welle, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is caused by the rickettsial microorganism Anaplasma phagocytophilum. CGA is typically characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia, lethargy, anorexia, arthropy, and other nonspecific clinical signs. Skin lesions have been described in naturally infected lambs and humans. The pathophysiology of CGA is not entirely clear, and the persistence of the organism after the resolution of clinical signs has been described. The aim of the study was to investigate if A. phagocytophilum can be detected in canine lesional skin biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs with etiologically unclear skin lesions that improved after the treatment with doxycycline. Paraffin-embedded lesional skin biopsies were allocated into separate groups: biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs responsive to treatment with doxycycline (n=12), biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seronegative dogs (n=2), and biopsies in which skin lesions histopathologically resembled a tick bite (n=10). The serological status of the latter group was unknown. Histology of the seropositive and seronegative dog skin lesions did not indicate an etiology. DNA was extracted, and a conventional PCR for partial 16S rRNA gene was performed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified from 4/12 seropositive dogs' skin biopsies. All sequences were 100% identical to the prototype A. phagocytophilum human strain (GenBank accession number U02521). Anaplasma phagocytophilum was not amplified from the 2 seronegative and 10 suspected tick bite dogs. Serum antibody titers of the PCR-positive dogs ranged from 1:200 to 1:2048. Histopathologically, a mild-to-moderate perivascular to interstitial dermatitis composed of a mixed cellular infiltrate and mild-to-moderate edema was seen in all seropositive dogs. In 8/12 seropositive dogs, vascular changes as vasculopathy, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel walls, and leukocytoclastic changes were observed. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in the skin may be causative for otherwise unexplained skin lesions in seropositive dogs. PMID:24637068

  20. Bone marrow necrosis – initial presentation in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Maria; Ali, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Sickle cell anemia Symptoms: Bone marrow necrosis • bone pain • fever • hepatomegaly • icterus • splenomegaly • weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In sickle cell disease, bone involvement is the commonest clinical presentation in the acute as well as chronic setting presenting as painful vaso-occlusive crisis and avascular necrosis, respectively. Other complications include bone marrow necrosis and infarction. Case Report: We report a case of a 20-year-old male who was referred for bone marrow evaluation due to symptoms of fever, weakness, and repeated episodes of bone pains. Bone trephine biopsy revealed multiple areas of central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts. Conclusions: Recognition of necrosis through bone trephine biopsy is important for early initiation of therapy. PMID:24167641

  1. Maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis. a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Auluck, Ajit

    2007-09-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections such as osteomyelitis, viral infections such as herpes zoster or fungal infections such as mucormycosis, aspergillosis etc. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, which mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The infection begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses due to inhalation of fungal spores. The infection can spread to orbital and intracranial structures either by direct invasion or through the blood vessels. The fungus invades the arteries leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. We report a case of maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient to emphasize early diagnosis of this potentially fatal fungal infection. We briefly discuss different diseases which can lead to maxillary necrosis and review the current concepts in management of mucormycosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection. PMID:17767099

  2. Molecular mechanisms of liver injury: apoptosis or necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic apoptosis is thought of as a prevalent mechanism in most forms of liver injury. However, the role of hepatic apoptosis is often intermixed with the cellular necrosis. It remains unknown how apoptosis is relevant to the progression of the liver injury. This review summarizes the characteristics of both hepatic apoptosis and necrosis in pathogenesis of liver diseases. Apoptosis and necrosis represent alternative outcomes of different etiology during liver injury. Apoptosis is a main mode of cell death in chronic viral hepatitis, but is intermingled with necrosis in cholestatic livers. Necrosis is the principal type of liver cell killing in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Anti-apoptosis as a strategy is beneficial to liver repair response. Therapeutic options of liver disease depend on the understanding toward pathogenic mechanisms of different etiology. PMID:24867271

  3. Skin Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten

    The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

  4. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Bach, A D; Weyand, B; Stark, G B

    2003-10-01

    The coverage of extensive wounds with viable autologous keratinocytes remains the only option of treatment if autologous donor skin is not obtainable. There is evidence that proliferating keratinocytes, as suspended cells or as a single layer, are adequate for wound closure. Understanding keratinocyte-matrix interactions not only allows us to influence keratinocyte outgrowth, adhesion, and migration, but may also guide us to modify matrix molecules for enhancing keratinocyte take. Further approaches may include the generation of genetically manipulated keratinocytes, which allow the use of an off-the-shelf epidermal replacement. As surgeons, our goal is to help burn patients with the best quality of skin in the shortest time possible. As tissue engineers, we have not achieved the goal of a universal skin product. By continually reviewing the options and using them, we can at least use the proper material in the adequate situation. Because of the limited resources, the need for comparisons of clinical effectiveness and cost are ever more important. As anatomy and physiology of engineered skin substitutes improve, they will become more similar to native skin autografts. Improvement of skin substitutes will result from inclusion of additional cell types (eg, melanocytes) and from modifications of culture media and scaffolds. Skin-substitute materials may be able to stimulate regeneration rather than repair, and tissue-engineered skin may match the quality of split-skin autografts, our present gold standard. PMID:14621305

  5. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2010-03-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:20309669

  6. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:19130027

  7. Skin as an Organ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-03-14

    This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

  8. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis of nose, ears, and extremities: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiron, Jose L.; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Folbe, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory and antihelminthic drug, previously removed from the United States market, and now estimated to be present in the vast majority of cocaine distributed in the United States. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine (LAC) exposure can result in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis with a predilection for subsites of the face. The objective of this review is to increase awareness among otolaryngologists of the manifestations of LAC exposure. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use, consulted for purpuric, necrotic lesions of the nose, cheeks, and ears, with accompanying leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The effects of levamisole are immune mediated, with antibodies directed against neutrophils causing neutropenia, and vasculitis caused by antibody deposition or secondary to induction of antiphospholipid antibodies causing thrombosis. LAC exposure can be differentiated from other similar appearing pathologies by evaluating serology for specific ANCA. The most important treatment is cessation of cocaine use, which most often results in complete resolution of symptoms. Awareness of the presentation, complications, and treatment of LAC exposure may be especially important for otolaryngologists, who may be one of the firsts to evaluate an affected patient. PMID:25565048

  9. Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

  10. Ethnic skin disorders overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebat M. Halder; Pavan K. Nootheti

    2003-01-01

    With the changing demographics of the US population, there is a need to understand the variety of dermatologic disorders that manifest in ethnic groups of non-Caucasian skin types. This article provides a review of presentations and current treatments of several common dermatologic diagnoses in black, Hispanic, and Asian racial groups and compares them with the presentations in Caucasian skin. The

  11. Measuring skin reflectance parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Dickens; William A. P. Smith; Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of determining skin reflectance parameters, and studies their stability and discriminating power for different individuals. Our study uses radiance data captured by a Cyberware 3030 range scanner. We analyse the data using a layered reflectance model based on the Beckmann-Kirchhoff wave scattering model. The parameters of this model are the thickness of the skin layers,

  12. Screening for skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    2001-01-01

    Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

  13. Measuring and Protecting Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

  14. Mastocytosis and the skin.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    2000-06-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in individuals with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous lesions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythematous cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The major histologic feature is an increase in the number of mast cells in the dermis. Treatment depends on the type of skin lesions. PMID:10909039

  15. [Ischemic testicular necrosis following vasectomy: rare and typical complications of an outpatient procedure].

    PubMed

    Rolfes, N; Lümmen, G

    2011-10-01

    Taking the clinical case of a patient who developed unilateral testicular necrosis following vasectomy as a starting point, the early and late complications of this procedure are described based on a literature review.In the USA 7% of all men undergo vasectomy, as compared to 2% in Germany. Early postoperative complications include bleeding/hematoma (0.5-18%), infection (0.3-32.9%), epididymitis (0.4-6.1%), granuloma (0.07-90%), and rare complications such as vas deferens abscess, vesicular gland abscess, vasovenous fistula, testicular necrosis, arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary embolism, endocarditis, scrotal skin necrosis and Fournier's disease which mostly have been reported in the form of case reports. Late complications are chronic pain (0.5-18%), pain during sex (2.9%), hydrocele (0-4%) as well as spermatocele (1.6%). There is a failure rate of 4.3-16% as concluded from the number of patients with nonmotile sperm in the post-vasectomy semen analysis. The postoperative paternity rate is 0-4%.Bilateral vasectomy is a secure way of contraception; perioperative and late complications are on an average rare, however, with a range up to 90%. In individual cases severe complications occur, which should be detected at an early stage. Therefore a close follow-up should be maintained after this outpatient procedure. One should ask for risk factors of endocarditis or thrombosis preoperatively. The patient should be informed of the possible loss of a testicle because of the severity of this complication. Postoperative semen analysis is obligatory. PMID:21845426

  16. You and Your Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (AAAS; )

    2006-04-30

    The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

  17. Lymphoedema: a paradoxical effect of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors – case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tily, Hajra Ismail; Perl, Andras

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development of lymphoedema in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who was treated with tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) inhibitors. The patient was a 62-year-old woman with a long-standing history of RA that had been uncontrolled with steroids and methotrexate. Eight months after initiation of treatment with TNF? inhibitors she developed progressive symmetrical ascending non-pitting oedema of both legs with extensive keratinisation. A diagnosis of lymphoedema was made based on the clinical presentation and exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Skin biopsy showed dermatosclerosis consistent with lymphoedema. The temporal relationship suggested a link between the initiation of TNF? inhibitors and the development of lymphoedema. TNF? inhibitors are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases including lymphoedema. Paradoxically, there are reports suggesting the appearance of psoriasis, vasculitis and other inflammatory cutaneous conditions after the use of TNF? inhibitors. A review of literature is also presented. PMID:21686765

  18. Challenges in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Keystone, Edward C; Papp, Kim A; Wobeser, Wendy

    2011-07-01

    Reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF-?) therapy. The strengths and weaknesses of current techniques for detecting LTBI in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis have not been fully examined. T cell hyporesponsiveness due to immunosuppression caused by illness or drugs, referred to as anergy, may produce false-negative tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-? release assay (IGRA) results. The literature suggests that anergy may influence screening performance of TST and IGRA tests in candidates for anti-TNF-? therapy. Conversely, the potential for false-positive TST and IGRA results must be considered, as treatment for LTBI may be associated with significant morbidity. This review examines the reliability issues related to LTBI diagnostic testing and provides practical direction to help prevent LTBI reactivation and facilitate successful anti-TNF-? treatment. PMID:21459944

  19. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  20. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, ... the-counter cortisone creams or lotions if your skin is inflamed. Look for moisturizers that contain ceramides.

  1. [Acute oesophageal necrosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Edling, Poul; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-11-25

    Acute oesophageal necrosis is a rarely seen phenomenon, occurring in situations with ischaemic insult in combination with gastric outlet obstruction or gastro-oesophageal reflux. The hallmark is circumferential necrosis of the oesophageal mucosa and it is associated with a high mortality. Two patients presented with haematemesis. They were admitted to hospital in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis. Endoscopy revealed acute oesophageal necrosis. They were stabilized and treated with high-dose proton pump inhibitors. Both patients recovered and were discharged without sequelae. PMID:25353192

  2. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  3. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  4. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcet’s disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy.

  5. Radiation necrosis of the mandible: a 10 year study. Part I. Factors influencing the onset of necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.G.; Herson, J.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.

    1980-05-01

    Of 404 patients who were irradiated for cancer in the oral region between 1971 and 1975, 19.1% developed radiation necrosis of the mandible. Three main effects, anatomic tumor site, tumor dose, and dental status, were found to have a statistically significant effect on incidence of necrosis. Necrosis was also found to occur more frequently in association with an implant than with treatment administered by an external radiation source alone. The T-stage of the tumor did not appear to affect the incidence of necrosis. Necrosis incidence was also studied over the two time periods: 1966 to 1969 (study I) and 1971 to 1975 (study II). Differences between the two periods were found in the primary etiological groupings. Necrosis attributed to spontaneous or unknown cause increased in the second study, while that associated with dental extractions before irradiation decreased. Fewer teeth were extracted before radiation therapy in study II than in study I. Less necrosis followed mandibular surgery for recurrent disease in study II than study I.

  6. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    --22000000 46 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma

  7. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  8. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H

    2013-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

  9. The Ontogeny of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

  10. Fat necrosis of the breast--a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, P H; Lai, L M; Carrington, E V; Opaluwa, A S; Ravikumar, K H; Chetty, N; Kaplan, V; Kelley, C J; Babu, E D

    2006-06-01

    Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign condition that most frequently affects peri-menopausal women. It can mimic breast cancer clinically or radiologically. In other cases it can obscure malignant lesions. The core of this review is derived from a MEDLINE database literature search from 1966-2004. Further references were from lateral search. In this paper, we review the pathogenesis and pathology clinical and radiological features of fat necrosis of the breast. The implication of fat necrosis in the management of patients with breast lump is also discussed. Fat necrosis of breast is a complex process. Therefore, a systematic review of this condition will enable surgeons, radiologists and oncologists working in the field of breast disease to understand it better and improve its management. PMID:16198567

  11. Femoral head necrosis treated with vascularized iliac crest graft.

    PubMed

    Pavlovcic, V; Dolinar, D; Arnez, Z

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed 24 hips with avascular necrosis of the femoral head in 24 patients treated with vascularized iliac bone grafts 12 years after operation. In 7 patients the necrosis was classified as Ficat Stage II and in 17 patients as Stage III. Eight patients showed poor results. In 6 hips with fair results, moderate progression of the necrosis was noted at 3 to 8 years postoperatively. In 5 hips showing good results, slow progression with incipient signs of arthrosis were noted 8 years after surgery. In the remaining 5 patients with excellent results, no evidence of progression was noted 9 to 14 years postoperatively. The method described is recommended for treatment in the Ficat Stage II and early Stage III, when necrosis does not yet involve the complete femoral head. PMID:10486026

  12. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. PMID:24267423

  13. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  14. Avascular necrosis of the hallux metatarsal head.

    PubMed

    Easley, M E; Kelly, I P

    2000-09-01

    Avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head is rare. Although idiopathic cases have been reported, AVN of the first metatarsal head is usually iatrogenic following surgical correction of hallux valgus using a distal metatarsal osteotomy with or without lateral soft tissue release. A thorough understanding of the delicate vascular anatomy of the first metatarsal head is essential when surgery is considered. Careful operative technique permits a safe combination of distal osteotomy and lateral soft tissue release. Because the intraosseous blood supply is completely disrupted with distal metatarsal osteotomy, excessive capsular release and saw blade penetration into the lateral capsular vessels must be avoided. Among the thousands of reported distal metatarsal osteotomies performed using a variety of technique modifications of the original procedure described by Austin, the prevalence of AVN is low. Undoubtedly, the first metatarsal head has an excellent capacity to accommodate to changes in its blood supply. Although radiographic changes are frequently observed in the metatarsal head following a distal metatarsal osteotomy with or without lateral release, rarely do these changes progress to symptomatic AVN. These transient radiographic findings probably represent an adjustment period as the metatarsal head recovers from vascular compromise. Not only is AVN of the first metatarsal rare, but it is rare for it to be symptomatic. Many more cases that are never identified may exist. Management of symptomatic AVN of the first metatarsal head has not been standardized because of the infrequency of this condition. Anecdotal experience suggests that simple activity and shoe modifications may suffice; however, joint debridement and metatarsal head decompression may prove beneficial as they have in the management of other joints more commonly afflicted with AVN. Finally, severe head collapse may be salvaged with MTP joint arthrodesis. In the event that a substantial amount of avascular bone must be removed, consideration can be given to bone block distraction arthrodesis to avoid transfer metatarsalgia. PMID:11232399

  15. Internal Heat Necrosis of Potato—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Craig Yencho; Per H. McCord; Kathleen G. Haynes; S. B. Rikki Sterrett

    2008-01-01

    Non-pathogenic necroses of potato tubers have been described in the literature since the early 20th century using different\\u000a names including internal rust spot, internal browning, physiological internal necrosis, internal brown fleck, chocolate spot,\\u000a internal brown spot and internal heat necrosis. These reports very likely describe either the same, or a collection of similar\\u000a disorders, falling under the general umbrella of

  16. Blood brain barrier permeability in acute liver necrosis of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sa Lu; Hong-Li Song; Jing-Yan Wang; Pei Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in a mouse model of acute liver necrosis. METHODS: Male Balb\\/c mice were divided into 4 groups. In one group, mice were intraperitoneal of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ?g\\/kg) with D-galactosamine (GalN, 800 mg\\/kg) to induce acute liver necrosis. Other groups were controls. Serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were

  17. Virus-induced tip necrosis of passionfruit Passiflora edulis Sims )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Pares; A. B. Martin; R. D. Fitzell

    1985-01-01

    Conclusion  Our evidence suggests that the tip necrosis disease in passionfruit on the New South Wales North Coast results from infection\\u000a of the commercial plants with CMV. These plants already contain a mild strain of PWV through the accreditation scheme. it\\u000a is probable that the tip necrosis disease seen in the field and that produced experimentally resulted from a dual infection

  18. Aldosterone: A Mediator of Myocardial Necrosis and Renal Arteriopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICARDO ROCHA; CHARLES T. STIER; IMRE KIFOR; MARGARITA R. OCHOA-MAYA; HELMUT G. RENNKE; GORDON H. WILLIAMS; GAIL K. ADLER

    2000-01-01

    To determine the role of aldosterone in mediating cardiovascular damage, we performed ablation\\/replacement experiments with aldo- sterone in a rat model of cardiac injury. Administration of angiotensin II and Nv-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; nitric oxide syn- thesis inhibitor) to male rats drinking 1% saline caused hypertension, severe biventricular myocardial necrosis, proteinuria, and fibrinoid necrosis of renal and cardiac vessels. Removal

  19. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  20. Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal

    2002-01-01

    Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

  1. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim K. Lee; Lioudmila Tchvialeva; Haishan Zeng; David I. McLean; Harvey Lui

    2009-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool

  2. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of ... of sweat glands. The eccrine glands are found everywhere, although they're mostly in the forehead, palms, ...

  3. Laser Skin Renewal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... away. Fractional ablative laser resurfacing – Pinpoint laser beams peel away many small areas of skin. Fractional non- ... renewal exist. Topical cosmeceuticals, microdermabrasion, and lunchtime chemical peels provide very mild improvement. Botulinum toxin (Botox®) can ...

  4. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Interest (Quiz) Itching (Video) Hives (News) Doctors Say Head Lice Should Not Bar Kids From School (News) Poison ... of severe dry skin? Eczema Ichthyosis Fungal infection Pediculosis Am I Correct? More Videos Health Day News ...

  5. Histoplasma skin test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. The injection site is checked at 24 hours and at 48 hours for signs of a reaction. Occasionally, the reaction may not appear until the ...

  6. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parts: The outer part (epidermis) contains skin cells, pigment, and proteins. The middle part (dermis) contains blood ... with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced ...

  7. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  8. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  9. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  10. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  11. The skin in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    1991-03-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority of affected individuals have no familial association. Most patients with systemic mastocytosis have skin lesions; however, an occasional patient will have systemic disease with no other skin features than flushing. In lesional cutaneous sites and in non-lesional skin, there is an increase in the number of mast cells. Electron microscopy shows quantitative differences between lesional skin mast cells from patients with and without systemic disease. The mast cells from adult patients with systemic disease have a larger mean cytoplasmic area, nuclear size, and granule diameter. The granules contain predominantly grating/lattice structures. The cutaneous mast cells contain tryptase and chymase. They retain their functional reactivities to relevant secretory stimuli, such as C3a, morphine sulfate, and calcium ionophore A23187. Lesional skin contains histamine, leukotriene B4, prostaglandin D2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, platelet-activating factor, and heparin. Treatment of the cutaneous manifestations includes the use of H1 and H2 antihistamines, oral disodium cromoglycate, psoralens plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy, and potent topical corticosteroid preparations. PMID:16799606

  12. The skin in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Soter, N A

    1991-03-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority of affected individuals have no familial association. Most patients with systemic mastocytosis have skin lesions; however, an occasional patient will have systemic disease with no other skin features than flushing. In lesional cutaneous sites and in non-lesional skin, there is an increase in the number of mast cells. Electron microscopy shows quantitative differences between lesional skin mast cells from patients with and without systemic disease. The mast cells from adult patients with systemic disease have a larger mean cytoplasmic area, nuclear size, and granule diameter. The granules contain predominantly grating/lattice structures. The cutaneous mast cells contain tryptase and chymase. They retain their functional reactivities to relevant secretory stimuli, such as C3a, morphine sulfate, and calcium ionophore A23187. Lesional skin contains histamine, leukotriene B4, prostaglandin D2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, platelet-activating factor, and heparin. Treatment of the cutaneous manifestations includes the use of H1 and H2 antihistamines, oral disodium cromoglycate, psoralens plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy, and potent topical corticosteroid preparations. PMID:1672136

  13. Follow-Up During Early Infancy of Newborns Diagnosed with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ak?n, Leyla; Sar?c?, Dilek; Y?lmaz, ?brahim; Balkanl?, Süleyman; Kurto?lu, Selim

    2011-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (ScFN) is an uncommon condition caused by generalized and/or local tissue hypoperfusion. The skin lesions of ScFN tend to improve spontaneously. However, ScFN may also lead to complications which cause serious problems. The severity of the etiologic factors contributing to the development of the disease determines the severity of complications. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for complications, especially for hypercalcemia which may be life-threatening. The severity and duration of hypercalcemia are associated with the extensity of skin lesions. We present a newborn who developed ScFN as a result of systemic hypotension. The ScFN resolved after the first few weeks of life, but the patient developed mild hypercalcemia during the 4-month follow-up period. The infant was breast-fed during follow-up, and vitamin D prophylaxis was not initiated. The hypercalcemia resolved within four months without any complications. We would like to draw attention to the need to monitor serum calcium levels in these infants and to refrain from initiating vitamin D prophylaxis in the first months of life. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22155466

  14. Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Saifan, Chadi; Saad, Marc; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a challenging complication of end-stage renal disease, with an unknown underlying mechanism. Several risk factors have been identified, such as hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, low serum albumin levels, and history of warfarin therapy. This article presents a case of calciphylaxis provoked by reintroduction of warfarin therapy, introducing the possibility of direct induction. PMID:23966800

  15. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  16. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  17. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  18. Priming and induction of eosinophil trafficking in guinea-pig cutaneous inflammation by tumour necrosis factor ?

    PubMed Central

    Macari, David M T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Ansari, Tareq; Jeffery, Peter K; Hellewell, Paul G

    1998-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is a hallmark of allergic and parasitic diseases. Priming mechanisms may play an important role in mediating the process of eosinophil accumulation in these conditions. We have previously shown that blockade of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) inhibited the capacity of lipopolysaccharide to prime skin sites for chemoattractant-induced eosinophil recruitment. The present study was carried out to investigate the capacity of TNF? to prime an inflammatory site for enhanced eosinophil accumulation.Initial experiments investigated the capacity of TNF? itself to induce eosinophil accumulation. Intradermal injection of murine TNF? (10–300?ng per site) in the guinea-pig induced significant accumulation of 111In-eosinophils. Kinetic studies showed the response to be delayed in onset and inhibited by cycloheximide, consistent with a dependency on protein synthesis. Trafficking of 111In-eosinophils to sites treated for 2?h with TNF? (10–100?ng per site) was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against ?2 or ?4 integrins.Intradermal injection of a low dose (3?ng) of TNF? (which by itself had no significant effect on eosinophil trafficking) prior to chemoattractants or antigen in sensitized skin sites, induced significant priming of eosinophil accumulation. Recruitment of both 111In-eosinophils and endogenous eosinophils was enhanced. Trafficking to TNF?-primed responses was dependent on protein synthesis and ?2 integrins. In contrast, the ?4 integrin mAb failed to inhibit the TNF? primed response.Thus, TNF? can induce and also prime eosinophil recruitment in guinea-pig skin. Our results provide further evidence that this cytokine may be an important mediator of allergic- or parasite-induced eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:9863651

  19. Urticaria and angiedema-like skin reactions in a patient treated with adalimumab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Nikas; P. V. Voulgari; A. A. Drosos

    2007-01-01

    Specific inhibition of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha has resulted in significant clinical and laboratory improvement\\u000a of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of Th1 phenotype. Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein of two p75 soluble\\u000a receptors, while infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody. Both have been considered to be immunogenic and cause various\\u000a immune-mediated skin reactions. On the other

  20. TNF-alpha antagonist therapy modify the tuberculin skin test response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeki Kilicaslan; Penbe Cagatay; Munevver Mertsoylu; Ziya Gulbaran; Reyhan Yildiz; Leyla Pur; Sevil Kamali; Ahmet Gul

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) antagonist drugs have been associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). Tuberculin\\u000a skin test (TST) is the most frequently used tool for identification of latent TB infection. We herein aimed to analyse the\\u000a effect of TNF-? antagonists on the TST responses in a prospective study. The study group consisted of 182 patients (99 female,\\u000a 83 male)

  1. Surfactants and the skin.

    PubMed

    Dykes, P

    1998-02-01

    The skin surface is the interface between us, the organism, and the outside world. When we clean the skin we remove not only the bacteria, dirt and grease which have accumulated, but also part of our natural barrier - the stratum corneum. Corneocytes, both singly and in clumps, are released from the skin surface by the action of detergents and mechanical stimulation. So too are the lipids and proteins which make up the intercorneocyte region of the stratum corneum. The analysis of the types and amounts of materials released by a standard scrub procedure may prove useful in the selection of surfactants with particular properties. Changes in the physical properties of the skin occur after washing. For example, changes in skin surface pH and transepidermal water loss (a sensitive index of barrier function) are easily demonstrable. Excessive exposure to surfactants results in repeated damage to the stratum corneum which can in turn lead to an irritant dermatitis. Individual susceptibility to irritant dermatitis varies and this may be demonstrated using a simple patch test technique. This test is a way of potentially increasing the sensitivity of human based assays such as the soap chamber test by preselection of subjects. Alternatively it may be possible to use measurements of function such as transepidermal water loss or laser Doppler blood flow as an index of damage rather than conventional cutaneous irritancy. These approaches may help in the search for the ideal of a non-irritant cleanser. PMID:18505489

  2. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  3. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, Ashok J. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Conrad, Charles A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Levin, Victor A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  4. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  5. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  6. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  7. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  8. Complement in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, V

    2011-01-01

    Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

  9. Smoking and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S F; Sřrensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

  10. Histopathological Analysis of UVB and IR Interaction in Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vinícius C; Beheregaray, Ana C M; Peres, Bárbara M; Sallis, Eliza S V; Varela Junior, Antônio S; Trindade, Gilma S

    2015-07-01

    To determine the chronic skin effects caused by the interaction of infrared and ultraviolet B radiations, male Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) (2 months old) were exposed for 15 days to infrared radiation (600-1500 nm, with a peak at 1000 nm, n = 12) for 30 min (1080 J cm(-2) ) (IRo); to ultraviolet B radiation (peak emission at 313 nm, n = 9) for 90 min (55.08 J cm(-2) ) (UVB); to infrared radiation followed after 90 min by ultraviolet B (n = 6) (IRUVB) and to ultraviolet B followed after 90 min by infrared radiation (n = 9) (UVBIR). Skin samples were collected and histopathological analysis showed the presence of acanthosis, parakeratotic and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal pustules, keratin pearls, detachment of epidermis, collagen necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate, vasodilation, basal cell vacuolization and superficial dermis degeneration both in UVB and UVBIR treatments. IRUVB animals showed the same characteristics as above except for parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, keratin pearls and superficial dermis degeneration. To conclude, infrared radiation exposure after ultraviolet B irradiation increases skin damage without protecting the tissue, while infrared radiation exposure before ultraviolet B irradiation showed a protective effect against ultraviolet skin damage. PMID:25682891

  11. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  12. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca(2+) is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca(2+). We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  13. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca2+. Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca2+. We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis. PMID:19704450

  14. Dental pulp necrosis as a rare complication of reduction malarplasty.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Eui Sik; Kim, Kwang Seog

    2007-07-01

    Reduction malarplasty through the intraoral or the combined approach using intraoral and preauricular incisions is widely performed as an aesthetic surgical procedure in northeast Asia. The authors recently examined a patient who underwent this type of surgery and presented with discoloration of both upper canine teeth that was diagnosed as pulp necrosis. This case suggests the possibility that pulp necrosis occurs as a result of vibration and heat energy transmitted from a rotating bur to the anterior superior alveolar nerve branch located in the more lateral and superficial portion than in the normal position. Although pulp necrosis is extremely rare, it is hoped that this case will heighten the awareness of surgeons to this potential complication. PMID:17667692

  15. Inch of Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    What are the different nerve receptors located in the skin and where are they? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students mark off a square-inch section of skin and gently poke the area, stimulating different nerve receptors. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  16. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jennifer Y; Fisher, David E

    2007-02-22

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition and even human evolution. Skin is the most common site of cancer in humans. Continued understanding of melanocyte contributions to skin biology will hopefully provide new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. PMID:17314970

  17. Acute Pancreatitis: Extrapancreatic Necrosis Volume as Early Predictor of Severity.

    PubMed

    Meyrignac, Olivier; Lagarde, Séverine; Bournet, Barbara; Mokrane, Fatima Zohra; Buscail, Louis; Rousseau, Hervé; Otal, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Purpose To determine the volume of extrapancreatic necrosis that predicts severe acute pancreatitis and to assess the reliability of this threshold in predicting severe acute pancreatitis compared with current scoring systems and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included patients with acute pancreatitis who were examined with computed tomography (CT) 2-6 days after disease onset. Extrapancreatic necrosis volume, Balthazar score, and CT severity index (CTSI) were calculated. CRP levels 48 hours after the onset of symptoms were reviewed. Outcome parameters included organ failure, infection, need for surgery or percutaneous intervention, duration of hospitalization, and/or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the optimal threshold for predicting clinical outcomes. Pairwise comparisons of areas under ROC curves (AUCs) from the different grading systems were performed. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the grading of extrapancreatic necrosis was assessed by using ? statistics. Results In 264 patients, significant relationships were found between extrapancreatic necrosis volume and organ failure, infection, duration of hospitalization, need for intervention, and death (P < .001 for all). The optimal threshold for predicting severe acute pancreatitis was 100 mL. Sensitivity and specificity were 95% (19 of 20) and 83% (142 of 172), respectively, for predicting organ failure (vs 100% [20 of 20] and 46% [79 of 172] for the Balthazar score and 25% [five of 20] and 95% [163 of 172] for the CTSI). The extrapancreatic necrosis AUC was the highest for all systems. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement based on the 100-mL threshold was considered to be excellent. Conclusion A simple grading system based on an objective criterion such as a threshold of 100 mL of extrapancreatic necrosis provides more reliable information for predicting acute pancreatitis outcomes than do the current scoring systems. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25642743

  18. Hunting for necrosis in the shadows of intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sheet, Debdoot; Karamalis, Athanasios; Eslami, Abouzar; Noël, Peter; Virmani, Renu; Nakano, Masataka; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K; Laine, Andrew F; Carlier, Stephane G; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2014-03-01

    Coronary artery disease leads to failure of coronary circulation secondary to accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques. In adjunction to primary imaging of such vascular plaques using coronary angiography or alternatively magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is used predominantly for diagnosis and reporting of their vulnerability. In addition to plaque burden estimation, necrosis detection is an important aspect in reporting of IVUS. Since necrotic regions generally appear as hypoechic, with speckle appearance in these regions resembling true shadows or severe signal dropout regions, it contributes to variability in diagnosis. This dilemma in clinical assessment of necrosis imaged with IVUS is addressed in this work. In our approach, fidelity of the backscattered ultrasonic signal received by the imaging transducer is initially estimated. This is followed by identification of true necrosis using statistical physics of ultrasonic backscattering. A random forest machine learning framework is used for the purpose of learning the parameter space defining ultrasonic backscattering distributions related to necrotic regions and discriminating it from non-necrotic shadows. Evidence of hunting down true necrosis in shadows of intravascular ultrasound is presented with ex vivo experiments along with cross-validation using ground truth obtained from histology. Nevertheless, in some rare cases necrosis is marginally over-estimated, primarily on account of non-reliable statistics estimation. This limitation is due to sparse spatial sampling between neighboring scan-lines at location far from the transducer. We suggest considering the geometrical location of detected necrosis together with estimated signal confidence during clinical decision making in view of such limitation. PMID:24035737

  19. Endoscopic necrosectomy of pancreatic necrosis: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Haghshenasskashani; Jerome M. Laurence; Vu Kwan; Emma Johnston; Michael J. Hollands; Arthur J. Richardson; Henry C. C. Pleass; Vincent W. T. Lam

    Aim  To review the current status of the novel technique of endoscopic necrosectomy in the management of pancreatic necrosis after\\u000a acute pancreatitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Studies were identified by searching Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009\\u000a using the keywords “acute pancreatitis”, “pancreatic necrosis” and “endoscopy”. Additional papers were identified by a manual\\u000a search of the references from

  20. The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger

    1999-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

  1. Skin Pores Detection for Image-Based Skin Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Zhang; Taeg Keun Whangbo

    2008-01-01

    Skin analysis has potential uses in many fields, including computer assisted diagnosis for dermatology, topical drug efficacy\\u000a testing for the pharmaceutical industry, and quantitative product comparison for cosmetics. In medicine, skin pores are the\\u000a openings of hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands. There are many skin problems associated with skin pores, such as\\u000a blackheads which are not dirt and

  2. Mechanistic relationship among mutagenicity, skin sensitization, and skin carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Callander, R D; Kimber, I

    1993-01-01

    Twenty organic Salmonella mutagens, seven of which (including benzo[a]pyrene) are established skin carcinogens, and one of which (2-chloroethanol) is a well-defined noncarcinogen to skin, have been evaluated for skin-sensitizing activity using the local lymph node assay. The relative mutagenicity of the agents to Salmonella was also established. Fourteen of the chemicals were positive in the local lymph node assay, including the seven skin carcinogens. 2-Chloroethanol was inactive as a sensitizing agent. We suggest that a variety of factors contributes to the lack of sensitizing activity of the remaining six bacterial mutagens: extremes of intrinsic chemical reactivity, high water solubility reducing dermal translocation, and inappropriate dermal metabolism. Two reference skin-sensitizing agents (an oxazolinone and fluorescein isothiocyanate) were established as in vitro clastogens after their recognition as nonmutagens to Salmonella. These data imply that mutagenicity, rather than simply activity in the Salmonella assay, is a primary stimulus for electrophilic sensitization and carcinogenic initiation in the skin. We conclude that genotoxicity data for an agent can provide indications of the agent's potential to induce skin sensitization and that genotoxins which are skin-sensitizing agents have an enhanced potential to initiate skin carcinogenesis. We suggest that common, albeit individually distinct, structure-activity relationships underpin genotoxicity, skin sensitization, and the initiation of skin carcinogenesis. These relationships should simplify the hazard evaluation of chemicals and contribute to a reduction in animal usage. Several predictions of skin carcinogenicity are made based on the data presented. PMID:8513766

  3. Performing diagnostic skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Godsell, G

    1998-03-01

    The Scope of Professional Practice states that nurses may respond to the needs of patients by expanding their practice. Performing skin biopsies for cancer diagnosis is one such area. The provision of appropriate education, training and updating is essential. Clear guidelines for practice are required for all such procedures. PMID:9534558

  4. Shark skin laceration.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature. PMID:17083886

  5. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  6. Cephalopod behaviour: Skin flicks.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Cephalopods, such as octopus and squid, can change their coloration in an instant, and even produce moving patterns on their skin. A new study describes these wavelike patterns in a colourful tropical cuttlefish, providing insights into the neural mechanisms that generate them. PMID:25093557

  7. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  8. Immunity and skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

  9. Screening for Skin Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Helfand; Susan M. Mahon; Karen B. Eden; Paul S. Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

    We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality

  10. Measuring and Protecting Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.ccitonline.org/ceo/content.cfm?content_id=96.

  11. The Skin in Mastocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Soter

    1991-01-01

    The most frequent site of organ involvement in patients with any form of mastocytosis is the skin. Cutaneous expressions include urticaria pigmentosa, mastocytoma, diffuse and erythrodermic cutaneous mastocytosis, and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. The cutaneous lesions tend to appear early in life. Although urticaria pigmentosa has been reported in 12 pairs of twins and one set of triplets, the majority

  12. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than 3 inches or 7.5 cm) or deep (deep partial-thickness or full thickness) (see 'Burn type' ... are good examples of superficial partial-thickness burns. Deep partial-thickness skin burns — Deep partial-thickness skin ...

  13. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  14. Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract)

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, John M.

    Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract) Ho-Lun Cheng , Tamal K. Dey , Herbert Edelsbrunner small and large angles. Skin Surfaces. The approach to deforming surfaces taken in this paper is based on the technical notion of skin surfaces, as introduced in [3]. The main reason for this choice is the existence

  15. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

  16. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  17. AT NORTHWESTERN SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    research. We are the Chicago area's leading site for the care of patients with skin cancers (includingTHE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring

  18. Tongue swelling and necrosis after brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Nimjee, Shahid M; Wright, David R; Agrawal, Abhishek; McDonagh, David L; Husain, Aatif M; Britz, Gavin W

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of tongue necrosis due to intraoperative pressure injury. A laryngeal mask airway with adhesive electrodes was inserted into the oropharynx, over an endotracheal tube, to facilitate glossopharyngeal nerve monitoring during craniotomy for a cerebellopontine angle tumor. The case, mechanisms of injury, and modifications to our current practice are discussed. PMID:23559991

  19. MONITORING RENAL CRYOSURGERY: PREDICTORS OF TISSUE NECROSIS IN SWINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN G. CHOSY; STEPHEN Y. NAKADA; FRED T. LEE; THOMAS F. WARNER

    1998-01-01

    PurposeTo examine parameters for monitoring renal cryosurgery and correlate with histopathologic necrosis in a porcine model. Parameters include: 1) tissue temperature, 2) distance of tissue from the cryosurgical probe insertion site, and 3) inclusion of tissue by the visible iceball.

  20. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  1. Retroperitoneal Approach and Endoscopic Management of Peripancreatic Necrosis Collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc P. Gambiez; Franck A. Denimal; Henri L. Porte; Alain Saudemont; Jean-Pierre M. Chambon; Pierre A. Quandalle

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To review the results of the different mo- dalities of treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis that have been used by a single team during a 6-year period to assess the technique and indications of an endo- scopic method of retroperitoneal drainage that is rou- tinely performed for the management of peripancreatic necrosis. Design and Setting: Retrospective study of 53

  2. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phentypic data indicated that the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Lat...

  3. Characterization of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Marino; Ashley Dunn; Dianne Grail; Melissa Inglese; Yuji Noguchi; Elizabeth Richards; Achim Jungbluth; Hisashi Wada; Malcolm Moore; Barbara Williamson; Sunanda Basu; Lloyd J. Old

    1997-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initially came to prominence because of its anti-tumor activity, most attention is now focused on its proinflammatory actions. TNF appears to play a critical role in both early and late events involved in inflammation, from localizing the noxious agent and amplifying the cellular and mediator responses at the local site and systemically, to editing (e.g.,

  4. Apoptosis and necrosis of blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    milk somatic cell counts (SCC) are used as an indicator for bovine mastitis. Dur- ing mastitisShort note Apoptosis and necrosis of blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes in early, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) become the predominant cell type. Shortly after parturition, the severity

  5. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Man-Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

  6. Radiation Recall Reaction to Idarubicin Resulting in Vaginal Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Gabel; Patricia J. Eifel; Carmen Tornos; Thomas W. Burke

    1995-01-01

    Radiation recall reactions are uncommon delayed tissue reactions seen in previously irradiated sites following treatment with cytotoxic agents. We evaluated a 64-year-old who developed two episodes of acute vulvitis and vaginal necrosis after receiving idarubicin therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. Three years earlier she had undergone successful radiotherapeutic treatment of a stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Her

  7. Collapse of skin antioxidant status during the subacute period of cutaneous radiation syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benderitter, Marc; Isoir, Muriel; Buard, Valérie; Durand, Valérie; Linard, Christine; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie Catherine; Steffanazi, Jean; Carsin, Hervé; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a patient suffering from accidental cutaneous radiation syndrome. Clinical symptoms were characterized by the presence of moist epidermal denudation over approximately 8% of the body surface without signs of necrosis 88 days after radiation exposure. The skin transcriptional profile was obtained and provides a comprehensive overview of the changes in gene expression associated with skin wound healing after irradiation. In particular, our data show a specific set of genes, i.e. SOD1, GPX1, TDX1, TDX2 and HSP60, implicated in the redox control of normal skin repair after radiation exposure, whereas HOX1 and HOX2 were involved in the pathological skin repair. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the irradiated tissue concomitant with a progressive establishment of an uncontrolled inflammatory response was noted. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that ROS modulation is a key element of the healing response after cutaneous exposure to radiation and that the collapse of skin antioxidant status interferes directly with wound healing in skin after radiation exposure. Thus a better understanding of the molecular events through which oxidative stress modulates the healing response could result in a more rational therapeutic approach to the pathological process induced after exposure of skin to radiation. PMID:17214513

  8. Characterization of innate lymphoid cells in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Villanova, Federica; Flutter, Barry; Tosi, Isabella; Grys, Katarzyna; Sreeneebus, Hemawtee; Perera, Gayathri K; Chapman, Anna; Smith, Catherine H; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterize the ILCs in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in the skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3-negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in the blood of psoriasis patients compared with healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients. More than 50% of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, indicating their potential for skin homing. Analysis of skin tissue revealed a significantly increased frequency of total ILCs in the skin compared with blood. Moreover, the frequency of NKp44+ ILC3 was significantly increased in non-lesional psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. A detailed time course of a psoriasis patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor showed a close association between therapeutic response, decrease in inflammatory skin lesions, and decrease of circulating NKp44+ ILC3. Overall, data from this initial observational study suggest a potential role for NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:24352038

  9. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  10. Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    _cancer.jpg #12;Skin Cancer or Benign Mole? Benign! Skin tags are common skin lesions Some may have hundreds of them Easily removed http://feathertouchelectrolysis.ca/skin_tags_polyps_91.jpg #12;Skin CancerPreventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction? Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf July 21, 2011

  11. Soil as Living Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pulse of the Planet

    2006-06-26

    In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  12. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC. PMID:22557848

  13. Skin, Scales and Skulls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

  14. The genetics of skin fragility.

    PubMed

    Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Genetic skin fragility manifests with diminished resistance of the skin and mucous membranes to external mechanical forces and with skin blistering, erosions, and painful wounds as clinical features. Skin fragility disorders, collectively called epidermolysis bullosa, are caused by mutations in 18 distinct genes that encode proteins involved in epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal adhesion. The genetic spectrum, along with environmental and genetic modifiers, creates a large number of clinical phenotypes, spanning from minor localized lesions to severe generalized blistering, secondary skin cancer, or early demise resulting from extensive loss of the epidermis. Laboratory investigations of skin fragility have greatly augmented our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in epidermolysis bullosa and have also advanced skin biology in general. Current translational research concentrates on the development of biologically valid treatments with therapeutic genes, cells, proteins, or small-molecule compounds in preclinical settings or human pilot trials. PMID:24898041

  15. Painful Skin Ulcers in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2–4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

  16. Painful skin ulcers in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2-4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

  17. Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

  18. Non-occlusive small bowel necrosis during gastric tube feeding: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Frey; J. Takala; L. Krähenbühl

    2001-01-01

    Small bowel necrosis is known as a rare, but serious complication of jejunal tube feeding. We report a case of non-occlusive small bowel necrosis with gastric tube feeding. The patient had a moderate multiple trauma with head injury. Abdominal distension developed after several days of uneventful nasogastric tube feeding. At laparotomy patchy necrosis of the small bowel was found without

  19. Efficacy of short novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infection

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of two novel short antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides (RR and RRIKA) was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infection. RR (2%) and RRIKA (2%) significantly reduced the bacterial counts and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-6, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA 300-0114 skin lesions. Furthermore, the combined therapy of RRIKA (1%) and lysostaphin (0.5%) had significantly higher antistaphylococcal and anti-inflammatory activity compared to monotherapy. This study supports the potential use of these peptides for topical treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. PMID:25378910

  20. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  1. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-?B, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25004886

  2. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-04-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  3. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  4. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  5. Regulation of IL-33 expression by IFN-? and tumor necrosis factor-? in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Meephansan, Jitlada; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Komine, Mayumi; Tominaga, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2012-11-01

    IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family, is implicated in type 2 T helper cell immune reactions and acts as an "alarmin" to induce activation of dendritic cells in response to external stimuli. We investigated the effect of inflammatory cytokines on IL-33 expression in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. IFN-? dose- and time-dependently induced IL-33 expression in protein and mRNA; this was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, EGFR, and JAK phosphorylation. Combined IFN-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? treatment induced expression of a 20-kDa band corresponding to mature IL-33, which was abolished by the addition of a calpain inhibitor. The addition of the inhibitor to IFN-? and TNF-?-stimulated cells also induced strong expression of a 25-kDa band. Small interference (si) RNA for IL-33 abolished expression of the smaller bands and the 30-kDa IL-33 band, suggesting that these IL-33 forms were IL-33 transcription products. Recombinant IL-33 added in the medium induced IL-8 production, and RNA knockdown by siRNA enhanced IL-8 expression, suggesting its dual role as a cytokine and a nuclear factor. These results indicate that IL-33 has a role in inflammatory skin diseases, in which IFN-? and TNF-? are present in high levels. PMID:22673732

  6. 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF)-induced apoptosis and programmed necrosis.

    PubMed

    Asare, Nana; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Holme, Jřrn A

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are environmental pollutants formed during incomplete combustion of organic material. Many possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, but their effects on cell death are less known. We have found that rather similar PAHs cause death by quite different mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis and various mixtures of the two. In this addendum to our recent publication, Toxicology 2009; 255:140-50, we report that 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) induces apoptosis as well as regulated necrosis with necroptotic features. The typical necroptotic cell exhibited partial nuclear chromatin condensation combined with damaged plasma membrane. The cells were characterized by increased size as well as number of lysosomes and myelinosomes/autophagic vesicles, and also in expression of the autophagic marker, LC3B. However, the induced autophagy appears to be a parallel event rather than the cause of cell death. PMID:19448393

  7. Inhibition of gentamicin–induced renal tubular cell necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavafi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin nephrotoxicity limit its usage against gram negative bacteria. Most researches showed that antioxidant agents improved gentamicin nephrotoxicity. According to these investigations oxidative stress play a central role in the mechanism of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Recently Rafieian-Kopaei and colleagues showed that erythropoietin significantly ameliorated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and tubal necrosis in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rat. One of the advantages of this study is treatment of rats for 10 days by erythropoietin after inducing gentamicin nephrotoxicity and besides co- treatment of gentamicin and erythropoietin at 10 days simultaneously. They showed that erythropoietin improved significantly serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in gentamicin injected rats simultaneously and even after gentamicin nephrotoxicity induction. This study also showed that erythropoietin ameliorates histopathological injuries especially tubular cell necrosis that induced by gentamicin. Although the detailed renoprotective mechanisms of erythropoietin cannot be fully explained by this study but histological and biochemical results are satisfactory. PMID:24475394

  8. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Dirk; Blaser, Heiko; Mak, Tak W

    2015-05-26

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has important roles in mammalian immunity and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of TNF receptor (TNFR) signalling is associated with many inflammatory disorders, including various types of arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, and targeting TNF has been an effective therapeutic strategy in these diseases. This Review focuses on the recent advances that have been made in understanding TNFR signalling and the consequences of its deregulation for cellular survival, apoptosis and regulated necrosis. We discuss how TNF-induced survival signals are distinguished from those that lead to cell death. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the role of TNF in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and we discuss up-to-date and future treatment strategies for these disorders. PMID:26008591

  9. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  10. Radiological assessment of necrosis in glioblastoma: variability and prognostic value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pierallini; M. Bonamini; P. Pantano; F. Palmeggiani; M. Raguso; M. F. Osti; G. Anaveri; L. Bozzao

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that the extent of necrosis was the only radiological feature which correlated significantly\\u000a with survival in patients with glioblastoma. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the variability and prognostic value of\\u000a the extent of the necrotic area as seen on contrast-enhanced MRI and CT in a larger series. We studied 72 patients

  11. Pseudolaminar necrosis in cyanide intoxication: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Riudavets, Miguel Angel; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Troncoso, Juan C

    2005-06-01

    We describe the gross and microscopic neuropathological changes in the brain of a 17-year-old male who died 4 days after being poisoned with cyanide. Previous reports indicate that following cyanide intoxication, the brain develops diffuse hypoxic/ischemic changes, predominantly of the basal ganglia. The case we describe here had similar features but in addition showed striking laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex. This finding in cyanide poisoning has been previously demonstrated by neuroimaging, but not pathologically. PMID:15894858

  12. Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

    Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

  13. Cardiac lipoprotein lipase: effects of lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem C. Hiilsmann; Marie-Louise Dubelaar; L. Elly A. De Wit; Niek L. M. Persoon

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the active principle of certain endotoxins, protein-free perfused in rat hearts leads in 3 h to\\u000a a considerable loss of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. In the presence of albumin LPS has virtually no effect. Tumor necrosis\\u000a factor (TNF) added instead of LPS had no effects on LPL activity during 3 hin vitro perfusion.\\u000a \\u000a LPS injected into rats intravenously

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Promoter Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients With Spondyloarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón; Julio Casasola-Vargas; José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez; Gabriela Huerta-Sil; Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández; John Londońo; Cesar Pacheco-Tena; Mario H. Cardiel; Julio Granados; Rubén Burgos-Vargas

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the role of tumor necrosis factor–? (TNF-?) gene as susceptibility marker for spondyloarthritis (SpA), two polymorphisms (?238 and ?308 positions) were analyzed in 229 patients with SpA (113 with ankylosing spondylitis [AS], 92 with undifferentiated SpA [U-SpA], 24 with reactive arthritis), and 169 ethnically matched healthy control subjects. The HLA-B alleles were detected by PCR-SSP technique and the

  15. Diagnosis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, M.; Swartz, B.E.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Gee, M.; Blahd, W.H. (Wadsworth Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    A 27-year-old man developed delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy to an arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging with technetium 99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and positron emission tomographic scanning with fludeoxyglucose F 18 aided in his evaluation. Significant improvement of his neurologic deficits resulted from corticosteroid therapy. Clinical resolution was corroborated by serial computed tomographic scans demonstrating regression of the abnormality (a mass lesion). Various facets of radiation injury are discussed, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy.

  16. Augmented Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Obese Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Yamakawa; Shun-Ichi Tanaka; Yuko Yamakawa; Yoshihiro Kiuchi; Fumiko Isoda; Susumu Kawamoto; Kenji Okuda; Hisahiko Sekihara

    1995-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops in obesity. The insulin resistance of this disease may be mediated by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In particular, the TNF-? derived from adipose tissues might be involved in the induction of peripheral insulin resistance in rodent models of obesity. In general, monocytes\\/macrophages have been considered as the major source of TNF-?. This study was designed to

  17. Ras signaling in tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan C. Trent

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis is important in immunologic cytotoxicity, autoimmunity, sepsis, normal embryonic development, and wound healing. TNF exerts cytotoxicity on many types of tumor cells but not on normal cells. The molecular events leading to cell death triggered by TNF are still poorly understood. We found that enforced expression of an activated H-ras oncogene converted the non-tumorigenic TNF-resistant

  18. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. McCord; B. R. Sosinski; K. G. Haynes; M. E. Clough; G. C. Yencho

    2011-01-01

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato\\u000a using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phenotypic data indicated that\\u000a the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Late foliage maturity was slightly but significantly correlated with\\u000a increased IHN symptoms. The

  19. Nasopharyngeal necrosis after chronic opioid (oxycodone/acetaminophen) insufflation.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Boyle, Katherine L; Boyer, Edward W

    2012-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal necrosis resulting from narcotic insufflation is a recognized phenomenon, but cocaine use is more commonly associated with this pathology than opioid abuse. Physical exam findings associated with severe tissue destruction are not routinely seen on physical examination or available in the medical literature. We present a case of chronic oxycodone/acetaminophen insufflation and images of a defect in the soft palate. PMID:22415885

  20. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Coisy, Solčne; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

  1. Identification of dirty necrosis in colorectal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianhuang; Jiang, Weizhong; Yang, Yinghong; Chen, Zhifen; Feng, Changyin; Li, Hongsheng; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-06-01

    Dirty necrosis within glandular lumina is often considered as a characteristic of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that is a diagnostically useful feature of CRCs with DNA microsatellite instability (MSI). Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is based on the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence signals, was used to identify dirty necrosis. Our results demonstrated that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of dirty necrosis and the signal intensity as well as an emission spectrum that can help to differentiate dirty necrosis from cancer cells. These findings indicate that MPM may be helpful in distinguishing MSI colorectal carcinoma via the identification of dirty necrosis.

  2. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  3. Detection of cytomegalovirus in an immunocompetent adult presenting with acute retinal necrosis due to varicella-zoster virus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoko; Daikoku, Tohru; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Background To report a case of simultaneous detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in acute retinal necrosis (ARN) due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in an immunocompetent adult. Methods A 65-year-old healthy woman presented with necrotizing retinitis. Vitreous, tears, saliva, and swabs of the auricular and forehead skin areas were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction analysis at various time points during the treatment period. Results VZV and CMV DNA were detected in the vitreous, tears, saliva, and skin. CMV was present in fewer copies than VZV in the vitreous. The retinal lesion clinically improved rapidly only by acyclovir. According to the clinical findings and the clinical responses to acyclovir, CMV seems not to cause ARN in this case. Conclusion VZV and CMV DNA were detected in the vitreous of a patient with VZV ARN. CMV reactivation appeared to be asymptomatic. PMID:25999692

  4. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered.

  5. Interferon-?-Induced Necrosis: An Antitumor Biotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-?—like the well-known antitumor biotherapeutic IFN-?—is a powerful antiproliferative and immune modulatory cytokine, but mixed results from clinical trials, together with issues of systemic toxicity, have dampened enthusiasm for its use in the treatment of cancer. We suggest that at least 2 factors reduce the antitumor efficacy of IFN-?: (1) poorly understood survival mechanisms that protect most tumor cells from IFN-?-induced direct cytotoxicity, and (2) the short half-life of IFN-? in serum. In this review, we outline avenues to overcome both these limitations. First, we have identified the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as a protective mechanism against IFN-?-induced necrosis, and disabling NF-?B allows IFN-? to trigger RIP1 kinase-dependent programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) in otherwise resistant cells. Second, we propose that fusing IFN-? to tumor-specific antibodies will stabilize IFN-? in serum and target this cytokine to tumor cells. We expect that such IFN-?–antibody chimeras (called immunocytokines), when combined with agents that neutralize tumor-intrinsic survival signals such as NF-?B, will exert potent tumoricidal activity with minimized systemic side effects. Although this review will focus on exploiting IFN-?-induced necrosis for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, these approaches are also directly applicable to several human cancers in which IFNs have shown therapeutic potential. PMID:23570383

  6. Acriflavine-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Ezzatollah; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Attar, Farnoosh

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic, fungicide, and effective agent against parasitic infections, inducing petite mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and kinetoplast loss in Trypanosomidae. Here we showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis in the yeast Candida utilis. Cells were cultured in minimal medium, with 1.5% ethanol as substrate, in the presence of 30-180 micromol/L acriflavine. Fluorescence measurements showed a linear concentration-dependence flux of the drug into the cells. Acriflavine induced a decrease in cell number, an increase in trypan blue-positive cells, and a decrease in cell viability. Cells cultured in the presence of acriflavine showed an alteration in their respiratory control ratio and a decrease in their cytochrome content. Fluorescence microscopy, after acridine orange staining, revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in cultures conducted in the presence of acriflavine. Electron microscopy of cells grown in the presence of acriflavine showed apoptotic cells exhibiting chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic lysis, but reasonably well-preserved mitochondria, whereas necrotic cells showed no distinctive intracellular organelles. Data showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, acriflavine induced oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling. Generally, apoptosis is considered to be mediated either by a change in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release or by plasma membrane death receptor activation. The outer mitochondrial membrane permeability to cytochrome c, with efflux of protons to the cytosol and cytoplasmic acidification, produced a collapse in the electrochemical proton gradient, a decrease in ATP synthesis, and subsequent cytolysis leading to apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:19723067

  7. Autophagy protects C. elegans against necrosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Dai, Li-Li; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a conserved pathway that delivers intracellular materials into lysosomes for degradation, is involved in development, aging, and a variety of diseases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays a protective role against infectious diseases by diminishing intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is involved in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. P. aeruginosa infection induces autophagy via a conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Intriguingly, impairment of autophagy does not influence the intestinal accumulation of P. aeruginosa, but instead induces intestinal necrosis. Inhibition of necrosis results in the survival of autophagy-deficient worms after P. aeruginosa infection. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role for autophagy in protection against necrosis triggered by pathogenic bacteria in C. elegans and implicate that such a function of autophagy may be conserved through the inflammatory response in diverse organisms. PMID:25114220

  8. Cannabis and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Anaďs

    2011-01-01

    From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients. PMID:21282088

  9. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ř. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  10. Tumours of the skin.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E; Frese, K

    1974-01-01

    Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. PMID:4547652

  11. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  12. Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries. PMID:23162239

  13. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  14. Skin ultrastructure in relation to prolactin and MSH function in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) exposed to environmental acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. M. Balm; Y. Iger; P. Prunet; T. G. Pottinger; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga

    1995-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of 14 days exposure to acidified (pH 4.0) soft water in the absence of aluminium, on the ultrastructure of the skin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Compared to control fish, there was a moderate increase in the incidence of necrosis in the filament cells of the fish exposed to pH 4.0, but since the

  15. Fas Ligand Downregulation with Antisense Oligonucleotides in Cells and in Cultured Tissues of Normal Skin Epidermis and Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingmin Ji; Marion Wernli; Stanislaw Buechner; Peter Erb

    2003-01-01

    Fas ligand (FasL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, induces apoptosis upon interaction with Fas-receptor-expressing cells. FasL normally plays an important immune regulatory role, but it can also cause severe skin diseases if overexpressed and it may serve some tumors for immune evasion. Thus, in situ QJ;inhibition of FasL expression with antisense oligonucleotides in patients may be a

  16. Skin care for the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Sarkar; Srikanta Basu; R. K. Agrawal; Piyush Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Skin of the newborn differs from that of an adult in several ways. It is more susceptible to trauma and infection and requires\\u000a special care. Certain principles of skin care have to be emphasized to the mother or caregiver such as gentle cleansing, adequate\\u000a hydration and moisturization of the skin, preventing friction and maceration in body folds, and protection from

  17. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  18. [Skin symptoms in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Burg, G; Burg, D

    1995-04-01

    The considerable variety of diseases involving both the skin and the peripheral or central nervous system is due to the developmental relationship between skin and nervous system. Diseases of the nervous system resulting in skin changes comprise disorders of nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands as well as neuropathic ulcers in various manifestations. Neurocutaneous syndromes (phacomatoses) are nevoid systemic diseases comprising neurofibromatoses, tuberose sclerosis, ataxia telangiectasia, nevoid angiomatoses and other neurocutaneous disorders. Polytopic disorders of the skin and nervous system may be due to infectious diseases, diseases of the connective tissue, fat, inflammatory vascular and granulomatous disorders. PMID:7754467

  19. The future of skin metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

  20. Variations in Human Skin Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-09-09

    In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

  1. Allergic and immunologic skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Leung, D Y; Diaz, L A; DeLeo, V; Soter, N A

    1997-12-10

    The skin represents a unique immunologic organ poised to protect the host from invading organisms and environmental antigens. The skin is also an important target for a variety of allergic and autoimmune responses. Mast cells are key to the pathogenesis of urticaria, angioedema, and mastocytosis. Atopic dermatitis is the consequence of an immunoregulatory abnormality resulting in a skin-directed T helper type 2 response. Allergic contact dermatitis is an example of classic delayed type hypersensitivity. Circulating autoantibodies against the epidermis are a key mechanism by which bullous skin diseases occur. PMID:9396653

  2. Measuring skin while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

    1995-12-31

    A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

  3. Effects of magnesium deficiency--more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Weir, Christopher; Alfraji, Sumaya; Grice, Jeff; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2014-10-01

    Dead Sea and magnesium salt therapy are two of the oldest forms of treatment for skin disease and several other disorders, supported by a body of largely anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review possible pathways for penetration of magnesium ions through the epidermis to reach the circulation, in turn replenishing cellular magnesium levels. We also discuss mechanisms for intercellular movement of magnesium ions and possible mechanisms for the interaction between magnesium ions and inflammatory mediators. Upon addition of magnesium ions in vitro, the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and nuclear factor ?? (NF??) is down regulated. Dysregulation of these and other inflammatory mediators has been linked to several inflammatory disorders, including asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuroinflammation. PMID:24928863

  4. Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

  5. Hyaluronic acid skin fillers: Adverse reactions and skin testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Lowe; C. Anne Maxwell; Philippa Lowe; Michael G. Duick; Kishor Shah

    2001-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been proposed as alternatives to other temporary skin fillers, such as bovine collagen, for treating facial skin lines and for providing lip augmentation. Several types of commercial HA fillers are now available in many countries. They include Restylane, which is produced by microbiologic engineering techniques, and Hylaform, which is HA extract derived from rooster

  6. A model skin surface for testing adhesion to skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN C. CHARKOUDIAN

    tapes for the medical industry involve complex issues in adhesion-to-skin and related testing procedures. Although human test panels provide in vivo data, the procedures are costly and difficult, and are characterized by large variability. Indeed, even the same test site on the same human being will change with time. In vitro methods using excised human skin and animal models are

  7. Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

  8. Effects of vinpocetine on random skin flap survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xiao, Tao; Sen-Min, Wu; Ding-Sheng, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The effect of vinpocetine on flap survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in this study. The McFarlane flap model was established in 20 rats and evaluated within two groups. Postoperative celiac injection was given for 7 days in the two groups: vinpocetine was applied in Group 1, and the same volume of saline was applied in Group 2. Flap necrosis was measured on day 7 by cellophane in all groups. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemical methods on tissue samples taken after 7 days of injections. SOD and MDA contents were examined according to the Kit (reagent instructions). Vinpocetine significantly reduced necrosis area in Group 1 (p < 0.05). VEGF expression and SOD contents were significantly increased in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p < 0.01), whereas MDA level was reduced (p < 0.05). This experimental study demonstrates that vinpocetine improves survival of random skin flaps, promotes neovascularization, and increases VEGF expression. Meanwhile, vinpocetine has a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving SOD vitality and decreasing MDA value. PMID:23588551

  9. Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus

    2006-01-01

    Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

  10. Characteristics and Pathomechanisms of Endogenously Aged Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenia Makrantonaki; Christos C. Zouboulis

    2007-01-01

    The skin, being in direct contact with several environmental factors (e.g. UV irradiation), does not only undergo endogenous aging, which has to do with the ‘biological clock’ of the skin cells per se, but also exogenous aging. While exogenous skin aging has been extensively studied, the pathomechanisms of endogenous skin aging remain far less clear. Endogenous skin aging reflects reduction

  11. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja J Karpanen; Barbara R Conway; Tony Worthington; Anthony C Hilton; Tom SJ Elliott; Peter A Lambert

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. METHOD: Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and

  12. Sensitive skin: a complex and multifactorial syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Pons-Guiraud

    2004-01-01

    Summary Many people complain of discomfort after application of commonly used skin care pro- ducts, particularly to the face. This hyperreactivity of the skin is a non-immunologically mediated skin inflammation. It seems to be the result of an intolerance of the skin to various stimuli that are normally well tolerated. It is difficult to assess the prevalence of 'sensitive skin'

  13. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  14. Use of the Delphi Panel Method to Assess Expert Perception of the Accuracy of Screening Test Systems for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Nathalie Bruneau; Margaret A. Thorburn; Roselynn M. W. Stevenson

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen people, considered to be experts on fish virology, participated in a Delphi panel exercise to solicit opinion concerning the importance of factors that influence the ability of cell culture to detect infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in asymptomatic infected salmonids. Panelists rated many factors as having a strong impact on the sensitivity of

  15. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary malignancies, which must be searched for especially in the borderline areas between clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic skin. PMID:24337304

  16. Retinoid Therapy: Compatible Skin Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohini Appa

    1999-01-01

    Topically applied tretinoin (a retinoid) has been used for over 25 years to treat acne and disorders of keratinization. Now, tretinoin emollient cream, 0.05% (Renova®), may be prescribed for the treatment of photodamaged and chronologically aged skin, in conjunction with appropriate skin care and sun protection routines. Mild to moderate cutaneous side effects to topical tretinoin, such as xerosis, peeling,

  17. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape skins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Souquet; Véronique Cheynier; Franck Brossaud; Michel Moutounet

    1996-01-01

    LC-mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products released by thioacidolysis of a grape (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot) skin extract showed that catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major constitutive units of grape skin tannins. Gallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate were also detected. Epicatechin represented 60% of the extension units, whereas 67% of the terminal units consisted of catechin. Six

  18. UV-induced skin damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ichihashi; M. Ueda; A. Budiyanto; T. Bito; M. Oka; M. Fukunaga; K. Tsuru; T. Horikawa

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290–320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation

  19. Skin Rashes and Other Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... armpits or groin? Yes This may be a SKIN TAG. These are harmless, but if one gets irritated, you can have it removed. No 43. Do you have a yellow area under your skin, perhaps near your eyelids? Yes This may be ...

  20. Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Struměa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

    2001-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

  1. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  2. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  3. Skin care management: educational aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Joachim Schwanitz; Ulrike Riehl; Tanja Schlesinger; Meike Bock; Christoph Skudlik; Britta Wulfhorst

    2003-01-01

    Health education is effective in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational skin disorders, as clearly demonstrated by interventional studies carried out at the University of Osnabrueck. Health education may intervene with (a) habituated behaviour of affected employees and (b) the condition of working environments. In conclusion, prevention of occupational skin diseases and maintenance of health can be achieved by

  4. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin. PMID:24946740

  5. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  6. Keratins and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression. PMID:25620412

  7. Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

  8. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults. PMID:19723070

  9. The Effect of Enoxaparin and Clopidogrel on Survival of Random Skin Flap in Rat Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; S Forootan, Kamal; S Jalali, Seyed Ziaaddin; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Pedram, Mir Sepehr

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Necrosis of skin flaps is considered as an important complication in reconstructive surgery. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular weight heparin, clopidogrel and their combination to improve the flap survival. METHODS Forty male, adult Sprague-Dawlay rats were divided randomly into 4 groups. Standard rectangular, distally based dorsal random pattern skin flap was elevated. To prevent the graft effect, a sterile sheet was put under the flap. No pharmacological agent was administered for the control group. In group 2, single subcutaneous dose of enoxaparin (3.2 mg/kg) was immediately administrated after surgery. In group 3, clopidogrel (25 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days. In group 4, both enoxaparin and clopidogrel were administrated. The rats were evaluated on post-operative day 7 for viable and necrotic portions of flaps. RESULTS The mean and SD of necrosis was 17.79+2.5 cm in the control group, 16.20±3.1 cm in low-molecular weight heparin, 15.25+3.8 cm in combined therapy group and 13.69+2.7 cm in clopidogrel group. Clopidogrel was the only pharmaceutical agent that produced a significant increase in the flap survival area. CONCLUSION Clopidogrel may be an effective pharmaceutical agent that significantly increases viability of random skin flaps in rats, but low-molecular weight heparin and their combination did not have any significant beneficial effects. PMID:25734046

  10. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A F; Van Haren, M A; Verhagen, C; Hoekzema, R; Kijlstra, A

    1995-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is released in the circulation and aqueous humor during endotoxin-induced uveitis, and induces acute uveitis when injected intraocularly in rats. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis we analysed the effect of neutralizing anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies and of pentoxifylline, a drug that inhibits tumor necrosis factor synthesis. Lewis rats were treated with: (a) a single intracardial injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-murine tumor necrosis factor antiserum prior to foot pad injection of 200 micrograms lipopolysaccharide; (b) an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg pentoxifylline 1 hr before, at the time of, and 3 hr after foot pad injection of lipopolysaccharide; or (c) an intravitreal injection of 20 to 500 micrograms pentoxifylline together with 1 microgram lipopolysaccharide. The ocular inflammation was examined by slit-lamp and evaluated for the presence of hyperemia, flare, miosis, infiltrating cells or hypopyon. Levels of tumor necrosis factor in serum and aqueous samples were determined using a bioassay. Systemic treatment with either anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies or pentoxifylline resulted in a significant inhibition, 90 and 70% respectively, of serum tumor necrosis factor activity at 3 to 4 hr after lipopolysaccharide injection. Systemic pentoxifylline treatment had no influence on the severity of uveitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment, in contrast, caused an exacerbation of endotoxin-induced uveitis at t = 20 hr; mean uveitis score 3.9 vs. 1.4 in controls; P < 0.01. Intraocular administration of pentoxifylline together with lipopolysaccharide also had an aggravating effect on uveitis, that was associated with increased levels of intraocular tumor necrosis factor. The results show that inhibition of serum tumor necrosis factor activity does not block the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis. In fact, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates the intraocular inflammation. These findings suggest that tumor necrosis factor may have other than proinflammatory properties in this uveitis model. PMID:8846838

  11. Introduction to skin cancer nursing.

    PubMed

    Godsell, Gillian

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase annually and it is the most common cancer in the UK with over 100,000 cases each year. The treatment of skin cancer can involve many different disciplines including dermatology, plastic surgery, oncology, radiotherapy, ENT and maxillofacial and involves both adult and paediatric services in primary and secondary care. This article considers the many duties of a skin cancer clinical nurse specialist, and the increasing pressure such nurses are under. The skin cancer nurse specialist must liaise and work with the many different departments, and will be involved in the care of the patient with skin cancer from diagnosis throughout the pathway to discharge or death. PMID:19462586

  12. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  13. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  14. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  15. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  16. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or...

  17. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100?M)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  18. Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

  19. Confocal probing of skin during it clearing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Meglinski; S. J. Matcher; A. N. Bashkatov; E. A. Genina; V. V. Tuchin

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temporal skin tissues clearing produced by diffusion of the osmotically active chemical agents into the skin are studied with confocal probing. Skin tissue optical properties and their changes are presented

  20. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken. Enlarge Anatomy ...

  1. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  2. Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses

    E-print Network

    Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)

    2012-01-01

    Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

  3. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  4. Matching the skin barrier to the skin type.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia

    Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations. PMID:22096806

  5. Latissimus dorsi muscle and its short perforator-based skin compound free flap.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Eui Sik; Kim, Kwang Seog; Kim, Dae Young; Lee, Sam Yong

    2007-04-01

    Some authors have described the latissimus dorsi muscle and its short perforator-based skin compound flap based on the same thoracodorsal vessels. This flap procedure involves separating the skin island from the underlying latissimus dorsi muscle and rotating the skin island over the musculocutaneous perforator emerging from the latissimus dorsi muscle. As with all surgical procedures, there are various advantages and disadvantages. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no reports on the use of the flap in a consecutive series. Between 1997 and 2005, the flap was used to reconstruct below-knee structures in 26 patients (23 males and 3 females) by the 2 senior authors at the Chonnam National University Medical School. The clinical outcomes of this procedure were evaluated. Satisfactory results were obtained in most patients. However, there were 2 marginal necroses in the excessively large skin flaps, 1 partial necrosis over the distal edge of a skin flap, and 1 total flap failure caused by infection. The marginally and partially necrotized skin flaps were treated successfully with split-thickness skin grafts. However, another flap procedure was required to cover the defect in the case of flap failure. The donor sites were closed primarily in all patients, and the skin flaps were rotated between 40 degrees and 180 degrees. This flap allows the surface of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap to be expanded without additional donor morbidity. In addition, the flap procedure is safe and easy to perform. Moreover, the flap provides sufficient flexibility, even though it has less independent flap mobility than the chimeric flap. Therefore, the flap may be a convenient and reliable alternative for the reconstruction of large and irregular-shaped wounds. PMID:17413879

  6. Avascular necrosis in a patient with hip pain.

    PubMed

    Sabadis, Sebastian; Gattie, Eric; Cleland, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old man who was referred to a physical therapist 3 weeks following a right L3 hemilaminectomy and an L3-4 facetectomy. At the time of the initial evaluation, the patient was ambulating with a rolling walker due to low back and anterolateral right hip pain, as well as a giving-way sensation of the right hip with weight bearing. The patient was referred to his surgeon, where radiographs revealed collapse/dissolution of the femoral head that was consistent with avascular necrosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(6):497. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.0406. PMID:26027745

  7. Tumor necrosis factor stimulates expression of CXCL12 in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Blaževski, Jana; Petkovi?, Filip; Mom?ilovi?, Miljana; Jevti?, Bojan; Mostarica Stojkovi?, Marija; Miljkovi?, Djordje

    2015-07-01

    It has been increasingly appreciated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) performs various protective and anti-inflammatory functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, CXCL12 has been identified as a key inhibitor of leukocyte entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and as a regulator of inflammation resulting from the invasion. Here, a positive correlation between expression of TNF and CXCL12 in the CNS samples of EAE rats is presented. Also, it is shown that TNF potentiates CXCL12 expression in astrocytes. These results contribute to a view that TNF produced within the CNS plays a protective role in neuroinflammation. PMID:25662914

  8. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  9. Shed Snake Skin and Hairless Mouse Skin as Model Membranes for Human Skin During Permeation Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Carole Rigg; Brian William Barry

    1990-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining and using human skin have tempted many workers to employ animal membranes for percutaneous absorption studies. We have investigated the suitability of two species of snake (Elaphe obsoleta, Python molurus) for this purpose and compared our in vitro experimental results for human skin and for hairless mouse, a currently popular model. The effects of long-term hydration on

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor/Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Members in Antiviral CD8 T-Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CD8 memory T cells can play a critical role in protection against repeated exposure to infectious agents such as viruses, yet can also contribute to the immunopathology associated with these pathogens. Understanding the mechanisms that control effective memory responses has important ramifications for vaccine design and in the management of adverse immune reactions. Recent studies have implicated several members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family as key stimulatory and inhibitory molecules involved in the regulation of CD8 T cells. In this review, we discuss their control of the generation, persistence, and reactivation of CD8 T cells during virus infection. PMID:20377415

  11. Increased blood cortisol in alcoholic patients with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rico; F. Gomez-Castresana; J. A. Cabranes; I. Almoguera; L. Lopez Duran; J. A. Matute

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Although aseptic necrosis of the femoral head secondary to alcoholism is a very frequent entity, its etiology remains unknown.\\u000a The same pathogenic mechanism is thought to be shared both by aseptic necrosis secondary to alcoholism and steroid therapy.\\u000a Since alcohol stimulates adrenal steroid secretion, we have studied serum cortisol and urinary free-cortisol levels in 8 patients\\u000a with aseptic necrosis of

  12. Acrolein-induced cell death: a caspase-influenced decision between apoptosis and oncosis\\/necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie C Kern; James P Kehrer

    2002-01-01

    Due to the dominating roles that caspases play in the apoptotic cascade, their activities appear to be a primary factor in the death pathway (apoptosis versus oncosis\\/necrosis) decision. In murine FL5.12 proB lymphocytes, the cellular consequences of acrolein treatment included a lack of typical apoptotic features in preference to oncosis\\/necrosis. Oncosis\\/necrosis was apparent by detection of a reduction in intracellular

  13. [Avascular necrosis of the jaw bone after bisphosphonate therapy].

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Binyamin; Levy, Yaacov; Kleinman, Shlomi; Better, Hadar; Kahn, Adi; Shtabsky, Alexander; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2005-08-01

    Bisphosphonates have an antiosteolytic effect by the inhibition of osteoclastic action. Although the exact mode of action is not completely understood, major progress on both the cellular and molecular levels has been made in recent years. Bisphosphonates alleviate pain and reduce complications, such as pathologic fractures, or hypercalcemia. Dental and periodontal research has shown great interest in clinical applications of bisphosphonates' antiosteolytic and antiosteoclastic traits, since they can be applied to counteract bone loss in chronic periodontitis. Investigations have associated avascular necrosis events in the jawbones with bisphosphonate therapy. Maxillary and mandibular osteonecrotic foci accompanied by pain, inconvenience and purulent exudates were incidentally found in patients who were taking pamidronate (Aredia), zolendronate (Zometa) and even alendronate (Fosalan). Our institutional database search over the past year yielded ten patients who were admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, due to an osteonecrotic bone lesion coupled with a prior history of bisphosphonate therapy. All these patients also had a recent dental extraction. They were all treated according to the osteomyelitis protocol, and their response to therapy varied from several weeks to many months, with some cases requiring repeat surgical intervention (curettage or sequestrectomy). This article strives to alert on the possible linkage between drug therapy using bisphosphonates and the serious event of avascular jawbone necrosis. The important role of the oral surgeon in following up on this group of patients should not be underestimated. PMID:16146148

  14. Carbendazim impends hepatic necrosis when combined with imazalil or cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Diki?, Domagoj; Landeka, Irena; Kneževi?, Fabijan; Mojsovi?-?ui?, Ana; Benkovi?, Vesna; Horvat-Kneževi?, Anica; Lon?ar, Goran; Tepari?, Renata; Rogi?, Dunja

    2012-05-01

    Imazalil, cypermethrin and carbendazim are detected in plants for human nutrition. To explore whether their combinations, applied orally in low doses, would induce changes in metabolic patterns and hepatotoxicity, a subchronic in vivo experiment was conducted. Doses of 10mg/kg of imazalil (im) and cypermethrin (cy) and 20 mg/kg of carbendazim (car) and their combinations (im, 10 mg/kg+cy, 10mg/kg; im, 10mg/kg+car, 20mg/kg; car, 20 mg/kg + im, 10 mg/kg) were given to Swiss mice daily over 28 days. After 24 hr from the last dose, the relationships of cytotoxicity biomarkers were analysed: serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transferase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine and total proteins. Individual pesticides showed different toxic potential (cy>im car) generally characterized by increase in enzyme activities. Histological analysis showed that cypermethrin, but not imazalil or carbendazim, alone can cause mild necrosis. Combinations generally caused decrease in the activity of enzymes, indicating liver damage. Low doses of carbendazim in combination with low doses of imazalil or cypermethrin caused very pronounced hepatic necrosis, more than any of the three individually applied pesticides or combination of imazalil and cypermethrin. In fruits and vegetables for human consumption, residues of these three pesticides and prolonged combined intake of low doses, which by themselves acutely would not cause any effect, may have similar hepatotoxic effects. PMID:22077925

  15. Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-09-27

    Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. "Gas-bloat" syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

  16. Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. “Gas-bloat” syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

  17. Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic necrosis: is it ecstasy or agony?

    PubMed

    Mueller, P R

    1998-04-01

    The above comments are meant to help the reader further analyze the fine study of Freeny et al. [1]. To my knowledge, this is the first series to specifically define its patients correctly as having pure pancreatic necrosis. This work represents a thorough analysis of a difficult problem and points out how to treat these patients if one wants to be successful. This template is important to radiologists who wish to get involved with this type of patient. What Freeny et al. truly describe is the agony and ecstasy involved with this difficult undertaking. Radiologists can obtain a lot of satisfaction in taking care of this type of patient, but they and the referring physicians must be committed. The patient, the referring physician, and the radiologist must also face the agony in dealing with the illness. They must be ready to handle the number of catheters, the number of catheter changes, the number of CT scans, and the duration of drainage. In some cases percutaneous drainage will work; in some cases it is the only alternative for a patient with this disease. In other cases a catheter or two can be placed, but they might not be as beneficial to the patient as surgery. Clearly, percutaneous drainage of pancreatic necrosis can be done, and radiologists must work with their clinical colleagues to decide whether it is in the patient's best interest. PMID:9530047

  18. Porphyrin-laser photodynamic induction of focal brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroop, W.G.; Battles, E.J.; Townsend, J.J.; Schaefer, D.C.; Baringer, J.R.; Straight, R.C. (VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A noninvasive photodynamic method has been developed to produce focal brain necrosis using porphyrin activated in vivo with laser light. After peripheral injection of the photosensitive porphyrin derivative, Photofrin I, mice were irradiated on the posterior lateral aspect of the head through the intact depilated scalp with 632 nm argon-dye laser light. Animals were studied at one, two and seven days after irradiation. Blood-brain barrier damage was detected by the intravenous injection of Evans blue, horseradish peroxidase and heterologous immunoglobulins. At one and two days after irradiation, the lesions were characterized by extravasation of immunoglobulin and Evans blue, and by edema, ischemia and infiltration by monocytes. On the seventh day after irradiation, the lesion was smaller than it had been two days after irradiation, and had reactive changes at its edges and coagulative necrosis at its center. Extravasation of Evans blue and immunoglobulin was markedly reduced by the seventh day after irradiation, but uptake of horseradish peroxidase by macrophages located at the periphery of the lesion was evident.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Gossypol Induces Necrosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Enbing; Tang, Haiping; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic aldehyde extracted from plants and is known to be an antitumor agent to induce cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, multiple myeloma cells were treated with gossypol, which resulted in an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell necrosis. Quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins between untreated and gossypol-treated cells. Proteomic analysis identified 4330 proteins, in which 202 proteins are upregulated and 383 proteins are downregulated in gossypol-treated cells as compared to the untreated cells. Importantly, proteomic and western blot analysis showed that apoptosis regulators BAK and Bax were upregulated in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that Bcl-2 associated death pathway was activated. Similarly, gossypol also induced upregulations of DNA mismatch repair proteins and DNA replication licensing factor, suggesting that gossypol caused significant DNA damage. Furthermore, upregulations of HLA class I and class II histocompatibility antigens and beta-2-microglobulin were observed in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that gossypol has a novel function to activate cellular immune responses. Our data demonstrate that the execution of necrosis is a complex process involving ROS, DNA damage, and Bcl-2 family proteins. Gossypol-activated immune responses are a potential new approach for multiple myeloma chemotherapy. PMID:25197664

  20. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bend your elbows. Look carefully at your fingernails, palms, forearms (including the undersides), and upper arms . Check ... new flesh-colored firm bump Write down the dates of your skin self-exams and make notes ...

  1. Revertant mosaicism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, J E; McGrath, J A

    2013-02-01

    Revertant mosaicism is a naturally occurring phenomenon involving the spontaneous correction of a pathogenic mutation in a somatic cell. Revertant mosaicism is not a rare event and has been described in several inherited skin conditions, including various subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa. The recognition of revertant mosaicism paves the way for revertant therapy which represents a potentially exciting "natural gene therapy" option for genetic disorders. The skin provides a useful model for studying revertant mosaicism because it is readily accessible and easy to examine. In this paper, we provide an overview of revertant mosaicism and its relevance in genetic skin disorders. PMID:23407079

  2. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  3. Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) care, respiratory control, and thermoregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Bohnhorst; Tim Heyne; Corinna S. Peter; Christian F. Poets

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and\\/or hypoxemia. Methods: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, 725-1890 g]) had three 2-hour recordings of breathing movements, nasal

  4. The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiying Li

    \\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

  5. Sudden death of an alcoholic elderly man with acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus).

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2011-10-10

    We report a fatal case of acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in an elderly male with alcohol abuse who was found dead with coffee-ground vomiting. A postmortem examination revealed severe anemia and marked black coloring of the esophagus from the upper to the bottom end. This was accompanied by histologic evidence of extensive mucosal necrosis. Alcohol abuse and esophagitis-related vomiting were both considered to be factors that led to the acute fatal esophageal necrosis. The cause of death was undetermined. We discuss the possible role of acute esophageal necrosis in the cause of sudden death. PMID:21684699

  6. Optimal induction of tumor necrosis factor production in human monocytes requires complete S-form lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Männel, D N; Falk, W

    1989-01-01

    Optimal activation of human monocytes in vitro for the biosynthesis of tumor necrosis factor was achieved only with complete S-form lipopolysaccharide. Endotoxin preparations with shorter carbohydrate chains or the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide were not able to induce release of comparable amounts of tumor necrosis factor by monocytes under the conditions described. The same differences in the level of tumor necrosis factor mRNA were observed. Moreover, addition of these agents to appropriate monocyte-activating substances inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor. The regulatory implications of this phenomenon are discussed. Images PMID:2731978

  7. Could 99m Tc-glucarate be used to evaluate tumour necrosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Perek; Odile Sabido; Nathalie Le Jeune; Nathalie Prevot; Jean-Michel Vergnon; Anthony Clotagatide; Francis Dubois

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to determine whether 99mTc-glucarate (99mTc-GLA) is a powerful and discriminant tumour necrosis marker.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The induction of apoptosis and secondary necrosis (by a chemotherapeutic agent) and necrosis (by intense hyperthermia) was\\u000a studied on an in vitro and in vivo leukaemic cell line model (U937). The percentage of apoptosis\\/necrosis in vitro was determined\\u000a by

  8. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  9. Microlymphatics of human skin.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, A

    1993-02-01

    Microlymphatics of human skin form two superposed networks. The superficial one located at the level of dermal papillae may be visualized by fluorescence microlymphography. Microlymphatics fill from a subepidermal depot of minute amounts of FITC-dextran 150,000. In primary lymphedema with late onset the depicted network with vessels of normal size is significantly larger than in healthy controls, whereas in congenital lymphedema (Milroy's disease) microlymphatics are aplastic or ectatic (diameter > 90 microns). Lymphatic microangiopathy with obliterations of microvessels develops in chronic venous insufficiency, in lipedema (preliminary results) and after recurrent erysipelata. In healthy controls microlymphatics are permeable to FITC-dextran 40,000 and impermeable to the larger molecule 150,000. Preserved fragments of the network in chronic venous insufficiency exhibit increased permeability to FITC-dextran 150,000. After visualization of the vessels by the fluorescent dye microlymphatic pressure may be measured by the servo-nulling technique. First results indicate that microlymphatic hypertension contributes to edema formation in patients with primary lymphedema. PMID:8473066

  10. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Villamarín, Antonio; Bermúdez, Roberto; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of cellular and organismal responses. Its main function, as a potent pro-inflammatory mediator, has been demonstrated in numerous teleost species and there are many reports on the modulation of TNF? gene expression under pathological conditions. Nevertheless, there is still scarce knowledge about the tissue distribution and type of cells that express this cytokine in fish species, which would help to further investigate its biological activities. These studies are hampered by the lack of molecular markers for teleost that hinder the development of morphological techniques, like immunohistochemistry. The aim of this work was to develop an immunohistochemical technique for the detection of TNF? in paraffin-embedded organs from healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), an economically-important marine fish species. A commercial anti-human TNF? antibody, whose specificity was confirmed by western blot analysis, was used. Immunoreactive cells were observed in higher numbers in the lymphohematopoietic organs, kidney, spleen and thymus, although TNF?-positive cells were also present in the digestive tract, liver, heart, gills and skin. Similarly to non-fish species, monocytes/macrophages appeared to be the main producers of this cytokine; nevertheless, the presence of immunoreactive rodlet cells in different tissues was also reported. The nature and distribution of the labeled cells appeared to be related with a strategic localization for defense response to antigenic challenge. The relative abundance of TNF?-positive cells in the lymphohematopoietic organs also suggests that this cytokine may have a broader role in the normal physiology of those organs. The immunohistochemical technique allowed the in-situ characterization of TNF? expression, representing a valid tool to investigate the immune response of turbot. PMID:25957885

  11. Total hip arthroplasty in secondary systemic lupus erythematosus femoral head avascular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Orban, H; Cîrstoiu, C; Adam, R

    2007-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disease with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations and a variable course. Lupus is marked by both humoral and cellular immunologic abnormalities, including multiple auto-antibodies especially anti DNA antibodies. Epidemiology - female predominance, occurring usually between second and fourth decade of life, more frequently in hispanic and black patients. Family predominance has been noticed. Provocative agents - ultraviolet light, viral infections, drugs and situational stresses. Pathogenesis - pathological features can affect a large spectrum of internal organs and systems - osteoarticulary injuries, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, digestive system lesions. Musculo skeletal abnormalities include migratory arthritis, effusion and stiffness in small and large joints. Articular erosions are uncommon. Skeletal abnormalities include osteopenia and osteonecrosis, due to two pathological mechanisms: vasculitis and long term corticotherapy. Fifteen to twenty percent of SLE patients are affected by femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAN). Diagnosis rests on clinical signs - hip pain, limited range of motion, walking with a limp.; radiological findings - best grouped in Arlet-Ficat standing system; MRI - high sensitivity, especially in infraradiological stages. Treatment - in incipient stages core decompression represents the best therapeutical option. In advanced, arthritis stages, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the standart treatment. Three implant types are available: bipolar, uncemented and cemented. An increased number of cotyloidites occurred after bipolar implants. Emphasised osteopenia and excessive bleeding represent contraindications for uncemented implants. Considering all of this, cemented implants are considered, the right choice, methacrylate cement providing strong and durable fixation of THA implants to bone. No meaningful differences were observed in postoperative functional recovery between LSE patients and other etiology FHAN patients. PMID:17966453

  12. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... for Basal Cell Carcinoma Drugs Approved for Melanoma Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Adrucil (Fluorouracil) Aldara ( ...

  14. Skin penetration of silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Boonen, J; Baert, B; Lambert, J; De Spiegeleer, B

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge about skin penetration of nano- and microparticles is essential for the development of particle-core drug delivery systems and toxicology. A large number of studies have been devoted to metallic particle penetration. However, little work has been published about the importance of chemical material properties of the particles and the skin penetration effect of the applied formulation. Here, we investigated the penetration of 3 microm silica particles in water and in a 65% ethanolic plant extract on ex vivo human skin using scanning electron microscopy. Contrary to most other microsphere skin studies, we observed for the first time that 3 microm silica particles can penetrate the living epidermis. Moreover, when formulated in the ethanolic medium, particles even reach the dermis. The deviating chemical properties of silica compared to previously investigated microparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide) and confounding effect of the formulation in which the silica microparticles are presented, is thus demonstrated. PMID:21699089

  15. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  16. Excisional biopsy of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Becker, Daniel G; Long, William B; Masterson, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently encountered neoplasm in the US is skin cancer. More than 600,000 new cases of malignant skin tumors are diagnosed in the US each year. One standard method of treatment of skin tumors is excisional biopsy. There are seven technical considerations involved in the excisional biopsy of skin tumors: (1) aseptic technique, (2) examination and demarcation of skin lesion, (3) skin biomechanical properties, (4) anesthesia, (5) excisional biopsy, (6) wound closure, and (7) postoperative care. The physician must use aseptic techniques and wear a cap, mask, and powder-free gloves. Hair is a source of wound contamination, and removal of hair prevents it from becoming entangled in suture and the wound during closure. Because surgical electric clippers cut hair close to the skin surface without nicking the skin, we now use only electric clippers to remove hair. The physician's visualization of the wound can be enhanced by magnification (2.5x) loupes. The physician's plan for excisional biopsy is dictated by the suspected pathology of the skin lesion. The ultimate appearance and function of a scar after closure of excisional biopsy can be predicted by the static and dynamic skin tensions on the surrounding skin. Infiltration anesthesia is preferred over regional nerve block because it does not interfere with the muscle movement that causes dynamic tensions, which elongate the configuration of the defect. Most skin lesions are amenable to a circular excision. In these instances, it is worthwhile to use circular-shaped excisions. The reusable metal trephines have been replaced by disposable trephines that have ribbed plastic handles attached to 316 stainless steel circular cutting blades. Wound closure is accomplished in the same direction as the long axis of the elliptical defect by first approximating the midportion of the defect with a 4-0 synthetic CAPROSYN* monofila-ment absorbable suture attached to the swage of the laser-drilled, compound-curved reverse cutting edge needle. Additional interrupted dermal (subcuticular) sutures are placed in each wound quadrant to approximate further the divided edges of the dermis. Compound-curved reverse cutting edge needles have been specifically designed for dermal closure. Reinforced Steri-Strips are then applied transversly across the incision to facilitate further skin edge approximation. Rigorous follow-up examination is essential for any patient with a history of a skin cancer to detect recurrence and prevent further actinic damage. The use of wide diameter trephine biopsy instruments are still not widely used by physicians because most physicians do not have the technical skills to approximate the defect with dermal sutures. Consequently, this need for a rapid dermal skin closure technique that can be used by a primary care physician must be devised before the trephine excisional biopsy technique is widely used by the primary care physician. This goal can be achieved by developing a disposable stapler for subcuticular closure of the skin. PMID:15301664

  17. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  18. Shear instability in skin tissue

    E-print Network

    Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L

    2013-01-01

    We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.

  19. Recombinant Allergens for Skin Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier; Reto Crameri

    2001-01-01

    Skin testing is a basic diagnostic procedure widely used to explore immediate-type reactions to allergen preparations in vivo. Despite their reliability, if standardized extracts are used, skin tests suffer from limited reproducibility due to difficulties in preparing consistently standardized extracts from natural raw material. Starting from allergen-encoding cDNAs, large amounts of highly pure allergens with a high batch-to-batch consistency satisfying

  20. Skin temperature response to cryotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Chesterton; Nadine E. Foster; Lesley Ross

    2002-01-01

    Chesterton LS, Foster NE, Ross L. Skin temperature response to cryotherapy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:543-9. Objectives: To compare the localized skin-cooling effects of 2 cryotherapy modalities and to review the clinical relevance of the results. Design: Randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. Setting: Laboratory experiment. Participants: Convenience sample of 20 volunteers (13 women, 7 men), ages 21.3 to 44

  1. Modeling of skin reflectance spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor V. Meglinsky; Stephen J. Matcher

    2001-01-01

    We use the optical\\/near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to non-invasively measure the hemoglobin saturation in living human skin. The difficulties in clinical application of this technique for skin tissue oxygenation monitoring are due to the complexity of extracting the information of chromophores distribution and their concentrations from the reflectance spectra in case of multiple scattering of light. We have developed a

  2. Skin: Behavior and Health Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science; )

    2006-09-07

    In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.

  3. Parkinson's disease and the skin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Ralph; Miller, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The concept that the skin is a mirror of Parkinson's disease dates to the start of the last century. Despite dermatological disorders being recognised as a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, they are often overlooked. This article reviews the various skin disorders seen in Parkinson's disease and addresses the other dermatological questions that are frequently raised by those attending Parkinson's disease clinics. PMID:25862733

  4. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 may play important roles in symptom development and may be crucial for virulence, necrosis-inducing activity, or cell death during infection by P. capsici. PMID:24886309

  5. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  6. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  7. Skin cancer and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Neutel, Dulce; Mestre, Tiago; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina

    2010-01-30

    The report of an increased frequency of melanoma during the clinical development of rasagiline prompted a renewed interest in a possible association between skin cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD). The evaluation of this risk ended in a recommendation to perform a periodic dermatological examination as a follow-up measure of their treatment. The recognition of this safety concern lead to the need to clarify if the risk of skin cancer is indeed associated with PD and if levodopa or other anti-parkinsonian drugs might contribute to increase such risk. To answer these questions, we critically reviewed all clinical studies available concerning the association between skin cancer and PD. We found 26 studies on cancer occurrence in PD. The best data available suggest the risk of cancer is reduced in PD patients. However, specific cancers like thyroid and the female breast were reported at higher-than-expected rates. Additionally, it was suggested that PD patients have a higher frequency of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers than the general population. The data on non-melanoma skin cancer are less robust than the data on melanoma. Causal factors remain unknown. Due to the weak association between skin cancer and PD, no robust recommendation can be made regarding the need for periodic dermatological screening. PMID:20063399

  8. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  9. Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum

    E-print Network

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum Computing diffusion through human skin is usually diffusion through human skin using two and three dimensional models. First computations for this problem were made a decade ago, yielding new insight into permeation pathways through human skin, which were

  10. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. de Gruijl

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

  11. Airborne Particle Exposure and Extrinsic Skin Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Vierkötter; Tamara Schikowski; Ulrich Ranft; Dorothea Sugiri; Mary Matsui; Ursula Krämer; Jean Krutmann

    2010-01-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70–80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a

  12. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper B. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence

  13. Skin temperature response during cycle ergometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Malkinson

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic exercise has among other things an effect on core body temperature, skin bloodflow and skin temperature. The skin through vasodilatation is used to transfer metabolic heat from the core to the external environment preventing a rise in body temperature that would be harmful to body organs. The purpose of the study was to characterize the regional skin temperature response

  14. [MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    by dermatologists for diagnostic purposes. The Visiderm Skin Scanner enhances visibility of skin texture, markings[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis The Visiderm Skin Scanner is a registered medical device which uses a "black" or ultraviolet light with a UVA lamp. This type of light is routinely used

  15. Skin Diseases and Tumors of the Penis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Haneke

    1982-01-01

    Nearly all skin diseases may also be located at the penis. Due to the different structure of the penis skin and mucosa, many dermatoses may look different not only as compared with other skin areas but also at the penis shaft and glans. A brief survey of infections, inflammatory and allergic skin diseases as well as of benign, pseudocarcinomatous, precancerous

  16. Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction

    E-print Network

    Motta, Philip J.

    Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction Shark Skin Drag Reduction Amy Lang1 , Maria Laura Riblets; Shark denticles; Shark skin separation control Definition The scales, or denticles, on fast-swimming sharks have evolved two mechanisms for controlling the boundary layer flow over the skin surface leading

  17. Biology of the skin and dermatological disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G Quinn

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of skin diseases can be daunting because the complexity of the cellular composition of the skin means that the permutations of clinical presentations and the range of diseases that can arise are wide. An understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of normal and diseased skin helps in the diagnosis of skin diseases by providing a framework to relate

  18. SKIN TEMPERATURE AND TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Grice; H. Sattar; M. Sharratt; H. Baker

    1971-01-01

    The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after complete inhibition of sweating. Skin temperature changes ranging from 25°-39° C were obtained in 17 subjects. Increase of skin temperature by 7°-8° C doubled the rate of TEWL in normal skin. The relationship between TEWL and skin temperature varied exponentially and the equations have been fitted for the 17 subjects. In order

  19. Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

  20. T-helper 22 cells as a new player in chronic inflammatory skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Simhag, Anita; El Rouby, Nadia M M; Azizi, Gholamreza

    2015-08-01

    T-helper 22 (Th22) cell is a new subset of CD4(+) T cells that secrets interleukin (IL)-22 but not IL-17 or interferon-?. Th22 is distinct from Th17 and other known CD4(+) T-cell subsets with distinguished gene expression and function. Th22 subsets have chemokine receptors CCR6(+) CCR4(+) CCR10(+) phenotype and aryl hydrocarbon receptor as the key transcription factor. This T-helper subset, by producing cytokines such as IL-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-?, is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorder. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26183243

  1. Electron microscopic study on black pig skin irradiated with pulsed dye laser (504 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yukio; Tan, Oon T.; Kurban, Amal K.; Tsukada, Sadao

    1991-06-01

    Selective damage of epidermal pigment cells induced by 504 nm pulsed dye laser at different pulse durations and fluence on black pig skin was examined electron microscopically. Epidermal melanosomes were satisfactorily disrupted at shorter pulse duration (100 ns). Epidermal blister formation and necrosis were seen at 2 days postirradiation, and reepithelization was evident at 7 days postirradiation in all specimens. Repigmentation was evident 21 to 56 days after irradiation. Histological pigmentary incontinence was evident at 2 days and persisted until 56 days postirradiation. This phenomenon was observed more frequently in skin exposed to longer pulse duration and at low fluences. Optimal parameters required to induce epidermal melanosome disruption using the 504 nm pulsed dye laser will be discussed.

  2. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Long, Millie D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Pipkin, Clare A.

    2010-01-01

    At least 1 million new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are diagnosed in the United States each year, and the incidence is increasing. A higher incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression has been documented for some time, and recent studies indicate that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those treated with immunosuppressive medications, might also be at higher risk for this condition. In this review, we summarize recent data evaluating the associations between immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF) biologic agents and NMSC in patients with IBD and other autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also offer recommendations for prevention of NMSC in these populations. PMID:21053358

  3. Recognising the signs of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Godsell, Gill

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with about 100,000 cases reported each year (UK Skin Cancer Working Party, 2001). There are three main types of skin cancer, which can be divided into two categories: non-melanoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) and melanoma skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and accounts for about 80 per cent of all skin cancers. Malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, accounting for about five per cent of all skin cancers. However, it has a high mortality rate because of its aggressive nature (Krige et al, 1991). PMID:13677122

  4. The Endogenous Balance of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors and Tumor Necrosis Factor Modulates Cachexia and Mortality in Mice Acutely Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARINE TRUYENS; FAUSTINO TORRICO; RUDOLF LUCAS; PATRICK DE BAETSELIER; WIM A. BUURMAN; YVES CARLIER

    1999-01-01

    To better understand the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in BALB\\/c mice, we have investigated the kinetics of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF), soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNR1), and sTNFR2 levels, as well as the interactions between such factors, in relation to parasitemia, cachexia, and mortality of acutely infected animals. Our data show that the

  5. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-?: regulation of renal function and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine that becomes elevated in chronic inflammatory states such as hypertension and diabetes and has been found to mediate both increases and decreases in blood pressure. High levels of TNF-? decrease blood pressure, whereas moderate increases in TNF-? have been associated with increased NaCl retention and hypertension. The explanation for these disparate effects is not clear but could simply be due to different concentrations of TNF-? within the kidney, the physiological status of the subject, or the type of stimulus initiating the inflammatory response. TNF-? alters renal hemodynamics and nephron transport, affecting both activity and expression of transporters. It also mediates organ damage by stimulating immune cell infiltration and cell death. Here we will summarize the available findings and attempt to provide plausible explanations for such discrepancies. PMID:23515717

  7. Penile strangulation and necrosis due to condom catheter.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Heval S; ?rkoren, Saime; Sivrio?lu, Nazan

    2015-06-01

    Condom catheters are often used in the management of male urinary incontinence, and are considered to be safe. As condom catheters are placed on the male genitalia, sometimes adequate care is not taken after placement owing to poor medical care of debilitated patients and feelings of embarrassment and shame. Similarly, sometimes the correct size of penile sheath is not used. Strangulation of penis due to condom catheter is a rare condition; only few such cases have been reported in the literature. Proper application and routine care of condom catheters are important in preventing this devastating complication especially in a neurologically debilitated population. We present a case of penile necrosis due to condom catheter. We will also discuss proper catheter care and treatment of possible complications. PMID:23758994

  8. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    PubMed Central

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse.

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  10. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kr?cicka, A; Boraty?ska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. PMID:25846017

  11. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, K; Inoue, M; Ishida, S; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, S; Katsura, H

    2001-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome (PORN) is a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and the majority of the described cases were related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a patient who is HIV negative with nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone use for 4 months who showed clinical features of PORN. Low CD4 counts and lymphocytopenia suggested immunosuppression. In the left eye, tractional retinal detachment at the posterior pole followed by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment developed. In addition to intravenous administration of acyclovir, vitreous surgeries including stripping of the posterior hyaloid and silicone-oil tamponade were successfully performed to repair the retinal detachment in the left eye and to prevent it in the right eye. PMID:11195746

  12. Radiological Dose Assessment - Nonuniform Skin Dose, Radioactive Skin Contamination, and Multiple Dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive skin contamination with β- and γ-emitting radionuclides may result in biologically significant absorbed doses to the skin. A specific exposure scenario of interest is a nonuniform skin dose delivered by β- and γ-emissions from radioactive skin contamination. The United States Department of Energy requires a formal evaluation and reporting of nonuniform skin doses. The United States Department of Energy

  13. Impact of Atopic Skin Diathesis on Occupational Skin Disease Incidence in a Working Population1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinrich Dickel; Thomas M Bruckner; Anne Schmidt; Thomas L Diepgen

    2003-01-01

    Present evidence convincingly indicates that workers with occupational skin disease are more frequently affected by atopic skin diathesis than the general working population. Population-based studies estimating the impact of atopic skin diathesis on occupational skin disease in various occupations have not been reported to date. We analyzed data of all initial reports of occupational skin diseases recorded in the register

  14. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color. PMID:26030885

  15. Other uses of homologous skin grafts and skin bank bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Fimiani, Michele; Pianigiani, Elisa; Di Simplicio, Francesca Cherubini; Sbano, Paolo; Cuccia, Aldo; Pompella, Gerarda; De Aloe, Giovambattista; Petraglia, Felice

    2005-01-01

    The main use of homologous skin grafts or grafts of related bioproducts is in the treatment of severe burns. However, various new clinical and experimental sectors, in which this type of skin substitute can be useful, have recently emerged. The main new clinical indications for skin allografts include: skin loss, surgical wounds and bullous diseases. In these fields donor skin can be used for different purposes: as a physiological biological dressing to control pain and protect deep structures such as tendons, bones, cartilage and nerves, and to promote reepithelization with a significant reduction in healing time, and as skin substitute with dermal tissue to guide repair and make it as physiological as possible. In particular, skin bank bioproducts are currently used in the treatment of several conditions such venous and arterial leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pyoderma gangrenosum, post traumatic lesions, Mohs surgery, reconstructive surgery, wound cover in critical areas, aesthetic surgery, congenital epidermolysis bullosa and Lyell's syndrome. Skin bank bioproducts have also been used for experimental indications, to study in vitro toxicology and in vitro skin biology. Recently the demonstration that de-epidermized dermis (DED) has all the characteristics of an excellent dermal substitute into which various types of cells can be introduced and made to develop, opens exciting new possibilities of research in the field of wound healing and tissue engineering. Our preliminary observations seems to indicate that CD 34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood can survive in DED and in a few weeks populate collagen bundles. The observation of tubular structures without lumina close to collagen bundles as well as clusters of epithelioid or fibroblast-shaped cells may represent aspects of differentiation of CD 34+ stem cells. More detailed and sophisticated studies are clearly needed to answer all the questions that these initial observations pose. Anyway the 3-dimensional model proposed seems to be suitable for the study of the behaviour of peripheral CD 34+ and perhaps also other types of stem cells in 3-dimensional dermal matrix. PMID:16023935

  16. Removing bonded skin from a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

  17. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  18. Spectrum of renal cortical necrosis in acute renal failure in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Tripathi, K; Pandey, L K; Sahai, S; Usha; Srivastava, P K

    1995-04-01

    Renal cortical necrosis is an uncommon cause of acute renal failure. We report 23 cases of biopsy-proven renal cortical necrosis which constituted 6.3% (23/363) of all cases of acute renal failure studied over a period of seven years (1985-92). The patients were divided into two groups: obstetric and non-obstetric. Obstetric complications were responsible for renal cortical necrosis in 15 (65.2%) patients while non-obstetric conditions accounted for the remaining eight (34.8%) cases. The overall incidence of cortical necrosis in obstetric acute renal failure was 15/63 (23.8%) patients, the incidence being nearly equal in early (20.5%) and late (29%) pregnancy. Post-abortum renal failure was the sole cause of cortical necrosis in early pregnancy in the obstetric group. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (three patients) and septicaemia (two patients) were the main cause of necrosis in the non-obstetric group. The cortical necrosis was diffuse and patchy in 17 and six patients, respectively. The disease had a fatal prognosis in 20 (87%) patients; mortality was due to uraemic complications and infections in the majority of patients. The high frequency of post-abortum renal cortical necrosis in our patients is similar to the experience of other Indian workers. PMID:7784278

  19. Successful treatment of radiation-induced brain necrosis by hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyotaka Kohshi; Hajime Imada; Satoshi Nomoto; Raizoh Yamaguchi; Haruhiko Abe; Haruaki Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 68-year-old man who underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to manage radiation necrosis of the brain, which developed after two treatments with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the same lesion. The necrosis was subsequently treated with steroids alone for 2 months; however, he progressed clinically and radiographically. Improvement again was noted with the reinstitution of HBO therapy. This case

  20. nature genetics volume 26 november 2000 379 Hypoglycaemia, liver necrosis and perinatal death in mice

    E-print Network

    Pollard, Daniel

    letter nature genetics · volume 26 · november 2000 379 Hypoglycaemia, liver necrosis and perinatal of Veterinary Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Correspondence should be addressed to L.C.C. (e necrosis and calcifi- cation of cardiac tissue. In liver and muscle, loss of the major regulatory isoform

  1. Idiopathic and diabetic skeletal muscle necrosis: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taj M. Kattapuram; Rajeev Suri; Michael S. Rosol; Andrew E. Rosenberg; Susan V. Kattapuram

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Idiopathic and diabetic-associated muscle necrosis are similar, uncommon clinical enti- ties requiring conservative manage- ment and minimal intervention to avoid complications and prolonged hospitalization. An early noninvasive diagnosis is therefore essential. We evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of muscle necrosis in 14 patients, in eight of whom the diagnoses were confirmed histologically. Design and patients: Two experienced

  2. [Mechanisms of inhibiting production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by the synthetic hexapeptide--immunophane].

    PubMed

    Pisarev, V M; Tutel'ian, A V; Danilina, A V; Kremlev, S G; Tkacheva, T D; Lebedeve, V V; Pevnitski?, L A

    1995-01-01

    The authors examined the human blood mononuclear-induced tumor necrosis factor production using the new drug--the synthetic hexapeptide Immunophan. The levels of tumor necrosis factor in the supernatant liquid were measured by the enzyme immunoassay and the cytotoxic test using L-929 fibroblastoid cells. Following 2-8 hours of short-term incubation of mononuclear cells with Immunophan, there was a reduction in spontaneous or lipopolysaccharide - or ionophore A23187-induced production of tumor necrosis factor. As high as 5-20% of plastic-nonadherent cells treated with Immunophan in a concentration of 0.25 mu/ml were found to produce the same effect. Two-four hours after Immunophan activation, the cells produced into the supernatant liquid soluble factors with a molecular weight of 70-85 kD that suppressed the production and activity of tumor necrosis factor. Thus, the modulating effect of Immunophan against tumor necrosis factor production is associated with the induction of regulatory cells producing the soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor. It is suggested that extrabody pharmacological induction of the cells that regulate the production of tumor necrosis factor, followed by their subsequent administration into the autologic organism might be used while developing new variants of extracorporeal treatments of the diseases which are characterized by the pathogenetically significant hyperproduction of the inflammatory cytokins,--tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6. PMID:7793086

  3. Conjunctival necrosis following a subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide in a child.

    PubMed

    Ying-Jiun, Chong; Chee-Kuen, Wong; Shatriah, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Conjunctival necrosis is a rare complication following periocular/intraocular triamcinolone acetonide injection and has been reported extensively in adults. We describe a child who developed conjunctival necrosis following subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide for severe chronic anterior uveitis. Prompt diagnosis and management of this uncommon condition is vital. PMID:25624689

  4. Induction of apoptosis\\/necrosis in various human cell lineages by Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catharina Wising; Jozef Azem; Madeleine Zetterberg; Liselott A. Svensson; Karin Ahlman; Teresa Lagergĺrd

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the impact of highly purified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) on the apoptosis and necrosis of various human cells; including myeloid cells, epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and primary fibroblasts. The levels of apoptosis and necrosis induced in these cells were compared to those induced by HdCDT in human T cells and in the Jurkat T cell line. Levels

  5. Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Buttini; K. Appel; A. Sauter; P.-J. Gebicke-Haerter; H. W. G. M. Boddeke

    1996-01-01

    Induction of tumor necrosis factor ? was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor ? messenger RNA were detected within 30 min in the brain regions known to be necrotic within one to two

  6. Glutamate-induced neuronal death: A succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ankarcrona; Jeannette M. Dypbukt; Emanuela Bonfoco; Boris Zhivotovsky; Sten Orrenius; Stuart A. Lipton; Pierluigi Nicotera

    1995-01-01

    During ischemic brain injury, glutamate accumulation leads to overstimulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors with intracellular Ca2+ overload and neuronal cell death. Here we show that glutamate can induce either early necrosis or delayed apoptosis in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. During and shortly after exposure to glutamate, a subpopulation of neurons died by necrosis. In these cells, mitochondrial membrane potential

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Enhances Shedding of Type I Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor from Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Hino; Hidenori Nakamura; Shuichi Abe; Hiroshi Saito; Minoru Inage; Kyoko Terashita; Shuichi Kato; Hitonobu Tomoike

    1999-01-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) are among the important mediators in the pathogenesis of lung dis- eases in which tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a pivotal role. However, the effects of ROIs on the TNF- TNF receptor system remain unclear. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) were investigated in a pulmonary epithelial cell

  8. Relationship of root necrosis potential of soil to asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ) decline in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gordon-Lennox; D. Gindrat

    1987-01-01

    The possible relationship between asparagus decline and the root necrosis potential (RNP) of soil was investigated for 11 asparagus and 4 nonasparagus soils. Asparagus seedlings were grown in each soil in climate chambers. A root necrosis index was used to determine RNP. RNP was correlated with the decline observed in the field for seven white asparagus crops, but not for

  9. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  10. Mast Cells Control Neutrophil Recruitment during T Cell–Mediated Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reactions through Tumor Necrosis Factor and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Tilo; Kneilling, Manfred; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Maier, Konrad; Sander, Christian A.; Kollias, George; Kunkel, Steven L.; Hültner, Lothar; Röcken, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) characterize the pathology of T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) in the skin, joints, and gut, but are absent in T cell–mediated autoimmune diseases of the brain or pancreas. All of these reactions are mediated by interferon ?–producing type 1 T cells and produce a similar pattern of cytokines. Thus, the cells and mediators responsible for the PMN recruitment into skin, joints, or gut during DTHRs remain unknown. Analyzing hapten-induced DTHRs of the skin, we found that mast cells determine the T cell–dependent PMN recruitment through two mediators, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the CXC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), the functional analogue of human interleukin 8. Extractable MIP-2 protein was abundant during DTHRs in and around mast cells of wild-type (WT) mice but absent in mast cell–deficient WBB6F1-KitW/KitW-v (KitW/KitW-v) mice. T cell–dependent PMN recruitment was reduced >60% by anti–MIP-2 antibodies and >80% in mast cell–deficient KitW/KitW-v mice. Mast cells from WT mice efficiently restored DTHRs and MIP-2–dependent PMN recruitment in KitW/KitW-v mice, whereas mast cells from TNF?/? mice did not. Thus, mast cell–derived TNF and MIP-2 ultimately determine the pattern of infiltrating cells during T cell–mediated DTHRs. PMID:11085746

  11. Mast cells control neutrophil recruitment during T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions through tumor necrosis factor and macrophage inflammatory protein 2.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, T; Kneilling, M; Mailhammer, R; Maier, K; Sander, C A; Kollias, G; Kunkel, S L; Hültner, L; Röcken, M

    2000-11-20

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) characterize the pathology of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs) in the skin, joints, and gut, but are absent in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases of the brain or pancreas. All of these reactions are mediated by interferon gamma-producing type 1 T cells and produce a similar pattern of cytokines. Thus, the cells and mediators responsible for the PMN recruitment into skin, joints, or gut during DTHRs remain unknown. Analyzing hapten-induced DTHRs of the skin, we found that mast cells determine the T cell-dependent PMN recruitment through two mediators, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the CXC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), the functional analogue of human interleukin 8. Extractable MIP-2 protein was abundant during DTHRs in and around mast cells of wild-type (WT) mice but absent in mast cell-deficient WBB6F(1)-Kit(W)/Kit(W-)(v) (Kit(W)/Kit(W)(-v)) mice. T cell-dependent PMN recruitment was reduced >60% by anti-MIP-2 antibodies and >80% in mast cell-deficient Kit(W)/Kit(W)(-v) mice. Mast cells from WT mice efficiently restored DTHRs and MIP-2-dependent PMN recruitment in Kit(W)/Kit(W)-(v) mice, whereas mast cells from TNF(-/)- mice did not. Thus, mast cell-derived TNF and MIP-2 ultimately determine the pattern of infiltrating cells during T cell-mediated DTHRs. PMID:11085746

  12. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) versus immunoglobulins (IgG., IgM., and IgE.) in Egyptian scabietic children.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Alfy, M S; Arafa, M A; Salama, M M; Habib, K S

    1995-12-01

    The tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha or Cachectin) is a protein produced mainly by macrophages, with a wide range of biological activities and in inflammatory process. On the other hand, scabies is a skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which is typified by severe itching (particularly at night), red papules and often secondary infection. The female mite tunnels in the skin to lay her eggs and the newly hatched mites pass easily from person to person by contact. Commonly the infested areas are the groin, penis, nipples and the skin between the fingers. In this paper, the serum levels of TNF-alpha versus IgG., IgM., and IgE. were estimated in parasitologically proven scabietic male children (8-13 years) with no secondary infection or other parasitic infection. The results showed high significant elevation of serum TNF-alpha in 94.1% (P = 7.763E-04) and IgE in 100% (P = 1.530E-07) in the scabietic patients than in the control group, and non significant increase in IgG in 47% (P = 0.0605) and in IgM in 5.9% (P = 0.9404). It was concluded that TNF-alpha plays a role in the pathogenesis of human scabies. Extensive study is ongoing to clarify the outcome of TNF-alpha in human scabies. PMID:8586872

  13. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  14. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  15. Histologic evaluation of the width of soft tissue necrosis adjacent to carbon dioxide laser incisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pogrel, M.A.; McCracken, K.J.; Daniels, T.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This study evaluated the width of tissue necrosis lateral to carbon dioxide laser incisions on human intraoral excisional biopsy specimens. Measurements were made on specimens including epithelium, muscle, dense and loose connective tissue, and salivary gland. Results showed a mean width of tissue necrosis of 86 microns in epithelium, 85 microns in muscle, 51 microns in loose connective tissue, 96 microns in dense connective tissue, and 41 microns in salivary gland. The range of thermal necrosis in different tissue types is probably based on the water content within each type. A cellular partially homogenized zone of reversible thermal damage up to 500 microns in width was visible adjacent to the zone of thermal necrosis. The relatively narrow width of tissue necrosis with this technique may account for the claimed superior properties of laser-induced wounds compared with those created by electrosurgery.

  16. [Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis. PMID:24837841

  17. Fermented Maesil (Prunus mume) with probiotics inhibits development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Cho, Sun-Ju; Koh, Hong-Bum; Han, Dong-Un; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-04-01

    Maesil (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.), a potential source of free radical scavengers and inhibitor of pro-inflammatory mediators, is used in traditional Korean medical preparations as a remedy for skin disorders as have probiotics. The action of a probiotic fermented Maesil preparation on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions was determined in a NC/Nga mouse model as an initial step towards the development of a therapeutic feed supplement for use in dogs. Continuous ingestion of the experimental feed markedly inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions, as evidenced by a marked decrease in skin signs and reduced inflammation within the skin lesions. Efficacy was confirmed by significant decreases in eosinophil ratio and serum IgE concentration, and a reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from the ear. Relative mRNA expression levels of IL-4, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the spleens of the experimental animals were also decreased and there was an increased serum concentration of IL-10 with a concurrent decreased IL-4 concentration in comparison to a control group. Taken together, the results indicate that some component(s) of fermented Maesil have the ability to suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions, possibly by stimulation of IL-10. Beneficial effects of fermented Maesil may thus be expected in dogs with AD, although this and the nature of the active pathway remain to be explored. PMID:20141605

  18. Photonic skin-depth engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-07-01

    Recently we proposed a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy showing how relaxed total internal reflection and photonic skin-depth engineering can lead to sub-diffraction waveguides without metal (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we show that such extreme-skin-depth (e-skid) waveguides can counter-intuitively confine light better than the best-case all-dielectric design of high index silicon waveguides surrounded by vacuum. We also analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding, a quantity surprisingly overlooked in dielectric photonics. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. We also propose an approach to verify the reduced photonic skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-Hanschen phase shift. Finally, we provide a generalization of our work using concepts of transformation optics where the photonic-skin depth engineering can be interpreted as a transformation on the momentum of evanescent waves.

  19. [Skin and collagen vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2007-12-01

    Dermatology and rheumatology have in common that many rheumatologic diseases manifest with distinct clinical presentations on the skin. Since the skin is easily accessible both to physical examination and biopsy, rheumatologists appreciate to consult with dermatologists with experience in the clinical and pathological aspects of the rheumatic diseases with skin manifestations. Though the medical subspecialities show a tendency to an organ-particular focus, dermatologists traditionally have a multidisciplinary approach to patients and tend to communicate in a cross-disciplinary way. The grouping of the chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases to the so called collagen vascular diseases and their further classification has lead to a synoptic understanding of these diseases. They have in common: inflammatory tissue damage, tendency to chronicity with acute exacerbations, response to high doses of systemic corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive agents. They comprise: lupus erythematosus, dermatoniyositis, scleroderma, their combinations (mixed connective tissue disease) and the vasculitides. Their heterogeneity translates into a wide range of clinical presentations. The Skin has an important marker function, both for the diagnosis and prognosis, since there are specific correlations between clinical presentation, especially on the skin, autoantibody profiles, disease course, and prognosis. As for the limited forms of cutaneous autoimmune disease, it is important to recoqnize these distinct subsets with their typically favourable prognosis with respective to lesser aggressive therapeutic protocols. PMID:18183842

  20. Malassezia skin diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfě, F; Galeone, M

    2013-12-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

  1. &p.1:Abstract We reviewed 24 hips with avascular necrosis of the femoral head in 24 patients treated with vascular-

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    treated with vascular- ized iliac bone grafts 12 years after operation. In 7 pa- tients the necrosis was to evaluate the treatment of femoral head necrosis using a vascularized iliac crest bone graft. Materials

  2. Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

    2014-07-01

    The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases. PMID:24931861

  3. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  4. Targeting autophagy in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Teng; Zuber, Joshua; Li, Jinchao

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process by which cytoplasmic materials are sequestered in double-membraned vesicles and degraded upon fusion with lysosomes. Under normal circumstances, basal autophagy is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis by scavenging dysfunctional or damaged organelles or proteins. In addition to its vital homeostatic role, this degradation pathway has been implicated in many different cellular processes such as cell apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, and antigen presentation and thereby has been linked to a variety of human disorders, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and infectious diseases. The skin, the largest organ of the body, serves as the first line of defense against many different environmental insults; however, only a few studies have examined the effect of autophagy on the pathogenesis of skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of autophagy and highlights recent findings relevant to the role of autophagy in skin diseases and strategies for therapeutic modulation. PMID:25404245

  5. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  6. Ultra-conservative skin-sparing 'keyhole' mastectomy and immediate breast and areola reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Peyser, P. M.; Abel, J. A.; Straker, V. F.; Hall, V. L.; Rainsbury, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    The popularity of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) which preserves the breast skin envelope is increasing, but the risks and benefits of this approach are only beginning to emerge. A technique involving ultra-conservative SSM and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) has been evaluated to establish the surgical and oncological sequelae of skin conservation. Between 1994-1998, 67 consecutive patients underwent 71 SSM and expander-assisted immediate latissimus dorsi (LD) breast reconstructions (follow up, 24.1 months; range, 2-52 months). Breast resection, axillary dissection and reconstruction were performed through a 5-6 cm circular peri-areolar 'keyhole' incision. Patients were discharged 6.5 days (range, 5-15 days) after the 3.9 h (range, 3.0-5.5 h) procedure, and expansion was completed by 4.0 months (range, 0-10 months). Local recurrence occurred in 3% of breasts at risk, skin envelope necrosis occurred in 10%, and contralateral surgery was required to achieve symmetry in 14%. SSM and IBR is an oncologically safe, minimal-scar procedure which can be performed by surgeons trained in 'oncoplastic' techniques. It results in low rates of local recurrence and complication, and reduces the need for contralateral surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10932655

  7. BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563

  8. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N.; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Murrell, Dedee F.; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer. PMID:25575023

  9. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. PMID:25808006

  10. [Characteristics of genetically pigmented skins].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J; Lightburn, E

    2003-01-01

    The analysis shows that apart from the relative hyperpigmentation of the "black" skin (genetically determined and variable according to ethnic group, age, sex and solar exposure), which determines the secondary dyschromic reactions to the majority of the dermatosis, and, except the differences of frequency of diseases related especially to geographical or epidemiologic determinisms, there is no true specificity although some entities are little or not described on "white" skin (dermatosis papulosa nigra, acral punctuated hyperkeratosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis of the trunk, acne keloidalis, pseudofolliculitis barbae, aďnhum...). PMID:15015846

  11. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  12. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  13. Cryofibrinogenaemia: not just skin deep

    PubMed Central

    Sandouk, Zahrae; Alirhayim, Zaid; Hassan, Syed; Qureshi, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    A Caucasian woman in her 60s with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented to our institution complaining of skin ulceration. Her initial course was complicated by superinfection and sepsis until a diagnosis of cryofibrinogenaemia was finally established. Cryofibrinogenaemia remains as an under-recognised entity in part, because it can mimic other causes of skin ulcerations. In addition, its diagnosis can be challenging because of the particular handling techniques required of lab specimens. This case exemplifies some of the diagnostic and treatment challenges encountered while managing the patient with cryofibrinogenaemia. PMID:23429017

  14. Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence?: Skin microbiota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Cogen; V. Nizet; R. L. Gallo

    2008-01-01

    Summary Microbes found on the skin are usually regarded as pathogens, potential patho- gens or innocuous symbiotic organisms. Advances in microbiology and immu- nology are revising our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of microbial virulence and the specific events involved in the host-microbe interaction. Cur- rent data contradict some historical classifications of cutaneous microbiota and suggest that these organisms may

  15. Pyroelectricity in human skin related to physiological skin properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Athenstaedt; H. Claussen; D. Schaper

    1981-01-01

    The skin of living humans reacts to rapid changes of temperature, light, external electrical fields, hydrostatic pressure, and of uniaxial mechanical stress with voltage responses, which are analogous to the pyroelectric or piezoelectric voltage responses of pyroelectric materials. The electrical field dependence and the hydrostatic pressure dependence show strong non-linearity. The pyroelectric and the piezoelectric coefficients and their temperature dependence

  16. Skin and skeletal system lesions of european pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Aleksi?-Kova?evi?, Sanja; Ozvegy, József; Krsti?, Nikola; Rusvai, Miklós; Jakab, Csaba; Stanimirovi?, Zoran; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals. PMID:24334084

  17. Structural and Immunological Effects of Skin Cryoablation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kasuya, Akira; Ohta, Isao; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Cryoablation is therapeutically applied for various disorders in several organs, and skin diseases are typical targets as this cryotherapy has been widely used for viral warts, benign tumors, and actinic keratosis. The main mechanisms of cryoablation consist of direct freezing effect on skin constituents, thrombosis formation in microcirculation, and subsequent immunological responses. Among them, however, the immunological mechanism remains unelucidated, and it is an issue how the direct freezing injury induces immunological consequences. We established a mouse cryoablation model with liquid nitrogen applied to the shaved back skin, and used this system to study the immunological excitement. After application of liquid nitrogen, the thermal decrease ratio was -25°C/sec or less and the lowest temperature was less than -100°C, which was sufficient to induce ulceration. Destruction of cornified layer and necrosis of epidermal cells were observed in transmission electron microscopy image, and increased transepidermal water loss and skin permeability were detected by the functional measurements. By flow cytometry, antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), including PDCA1+B220+CD19- plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD11c+ myeloid DCs, as well as neutrophils and macrophages were increased in subcutaneous tissue. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of interferon ?1 which are known as pDC-producing cytokines, was elevated. We also found marked degranulation of mast cells, providing a possibility that released histamine attracts pDCs. Finally, FITC migration assay revealed that pDCs and CD11c+ DCs emigrated from the cryoablated skin to the draining lymph nodes. Our study suggests that cryoablation induces destruction of the barrier/epidermis, accumulation of pDCs and CD11c+ DCs to the skin, and migration of DCs to regional lymph nodes. Viral elements or tumor cell lysates released from damaged keratinocytes may stimulate the DCs, thereby leading to antiviral or antitumor effect. PMID:25821968

  18. Bevacizumab as Therapy for Radiation Necrosis in Four Children With Pontine Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Arthur K., E-mail: arthur.liu@ucdenver.ed [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States); Macy, Margaret E.; Foreman, Nicholas K. [Children's Hospital, Denver, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Diffuse pontine gliomas are a pediatric brain tumor that is fatal in nearly all patients. Given the poor prognosis for patients with this tumor, their quality of life is very important. Radiation therapy provides some palliation, but can result in radiation necrosis and associated neurologic decline. The typical treatment for this necrosis is steroid therapy. Although the steroids are effective, they have numerous side effects that can often significantly compromise quality of life. Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been suggested as a treatment for radiation necrosis. We report on our initial experience with bevacizumab therapy for radiation necrosis in pediatric pontine gliomas. Materials and Methods: Four children with pontine gliomas treated at the Children's Hospital in Denver and the University of Colorado Denver developed evidence of radiation necrosis both clinically and on imaging. Those 4 children then received bevacizumab as a treatment for the radiation necrosis. We reviewed the clinical outcome and imaging findings. Results: After bevacizumab therapy, 3 children had significant clinical improvement and were able to discontinue steroid use. One child continued to decline, and, in retrospect, had disease progression, not radiation necrosis. In all cases, bevacizumab was well tolerated. Conclusions: In children with pontine gliomas, bevacizumab may provide both therapeutic benefit and diagnostic information. More formal evaluation of bevacizumab in these children is needed.

  19. A novel role for the apoptosis inhibitor ARC in suppressing TNF?-induced regulated necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kung, G; Dai, P; Deng, L; Kitsis, R N

    2014-01-01

    TNF? signaling can promote apoptosis or a regulated form of necrosis. ARC (apoptosis repressor with CARD (caspase recruitment domain)) is an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis that antagonizes both the extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial/ER) apoptosis pathways. We discovered that ARC blocks not only apoptosis but also necrosis. TNF?-induced necrosis was abrogated by overexpression of wild-type ARC but not by a CARD mutant that is also defective for inhibition of apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of ARC exacerbated TNF?-induced necrosis, an effect that was rescued by reconstitution with wild-type, but not CARD-defective, ARC. Similarly, depletion of ARC in vivo exacerbated necrosis caused by infection with vaccinia virus, which elicits severe tissue damage through this pathway, and sensitized mice to TNF?-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The mechanism underlying these effects is an interaction of ARC with TNF receptor 1 that interferes with recruitment of RIP1, a critical mediator of TNF?-induced regulated necrosis. These findings extend the role of ARC from an apoptosis inhibitor to a regulator of the TNF? pathway and an inhibitor of TNF?-mediated regulated necrosis. PMID:24440909

  20. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  1. The utility of tumour necrosis factor blockade in orphan diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keystone, E

    2004-01-01

    A variety of rheumatic disorders have been successfully treated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. However, TNF blockade may be useful in a number of rare diseases. Preliminary data suggest that several forms of vasculitis appear responsive to TNF antagonists—Behçet's disease, Churg–Strauss vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, and giant cell arteritis, among others. Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis have been shown to improve with infliximab but not with etanercept. These results lend further support for the concept of differential mechanism(s) of action of the two antagonists with infliximab being more effective for the treatment of granulomatous diseases. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis may also be responsive to TNF blockade. TNF likely plays little role in Sjögren's syndrome as evidenced by the lack of efficacy of both TNF antagonists. Etanercept has been shown to be useful in the treatment of hepatitis C both in reducing the viral load and improving liver function. A number of other more rare disorders also may be responsive to TNF blockade. Further studies with larger numbers of well characterised patients and treatment regimens are necessary to provide more definitive evidence of the utility of the TNF antagonists in these serious and often life threatening diseases. PMID:15479879

  2. Avascular necrosis of the carpal lunate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Irowa, G O

    1987-12-01

    A case is presented of avascular necrosis of the carpal lunate (Kienböck's disease). Orthopedic findings included marked decrease in ranges of motion in all directions and marked decrease in grip strength. Radiographic findings revealed increased density of the lunate, along with evidence of rotation. Conservative therapy of immobilization, ultrasonic and galvanic currents was later followed by orthopedic surgery. This case clearly demonstrates the importance of a team approach to the management of a problem of this sort and the importance of proper and timely diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent chronic disability of the wrist. Initial management of this case consisted of conservative treatment to alleviate pain and swelling. Surgery further alleviated pain and provided increased ranges of motion of flexion, extension and ulnar deviation and grip strength. Movement of radial deviation did not improve at this time. The goal of postsurgical conservative (rehabilitative) therapy, designed to provide satisfactory ranges of movement in all directions and grip strength, was expected to be reached. PMID:3437236

  3. Block copolymer nanotemplating of tobacco mosaic and tobacco necrosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Cresce, Arthur V; Culver, James N; Bentley, William E; Kofinas, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the interaction between a block copolymer and a virus. A poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer was loaded with nickel, and cast from a selective solvent mixture to form a cylindrical microstructure (PS/P4VP-Ni). The nickel ions were confined within the P4VP block of the copolymer. The binding of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and tobacco necrosis virus on microphase-separated PS/P4VP-Ni was examined. A staining technique was developed to simultaneously visualize virus and block copolymer structure by transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed virus particles associated with block copolymer microphase-separated domains, even after extensive washes with Tween. In contrast, virus associated with PS/P4VP block copolymers lacking Ni were readily removed by Tween. The cylinder long axis of the microstructure was oriented using a hot press and a cooled channel die for quenching, resulting in PS/P4VP cylinders that had a strong anisotropic directional preference. When exposed to flowing solutions of TMV, the PS/P4VP-Ni surface exhibited an ability to retain TMV in a partially aligned state, when the direction of flow coincided with the long axis of the PS/P4VP-Ni cylinders. These results suggest that Coulombic interactions provide a robust means for the binding of virus particles to block copolymer surfaces. PMID:19010745

  4. Safety of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Harish; Matteson, Eric L; Michet, Clement J; Smith, Justine R; Pulido, Jose S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are useful in the treatment of numerous inflammatory and immunologic disorders. Since many of these conditions occur in women of childbearing age, safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding is of considerable importance. Methods This paper is a review of the literature on the safety of TNF inhibitors during pregnancy and breastfeeding published between 2001 and 2011. Conclusions TNF inhibitors do not appear to be associated with a high risk of teratogenicity or intrauterine death. However, a small magnitude increase in risk cannot be ruled out given the paucity of data on the subject. Although TNF inhibitor use may be associated with a higher rate of preterm delivery, this may in fact be due to an active, underlying disease. Therefore, the decision to use these medications should be made on a case-by-case basis. If the disease cannot be managed with first line agents, TNF inhibitors may be helpful in reducing the number of disease exacerbations. Nevertheless, when using TNF inhibitors, it is prudent to discontinue treatment around the third trimester when transfer across the placenta is greatest and to restart postpartum. PMID:24049706

  5. Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovich, S. Joseph; Polverini, Peter J.; Shepard, H. Michael; Wiseman, David M.; Shively, Vera; Nuseir, Nureddin

    1987-10-01

    Macrophages are important in the induction of new blood vessel growth during wound repair, inflammation and tumour growth1-4. We show here that tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity5-9, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). In vivo, TNF-? induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses. In vitro, TNF-? stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures. The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-?, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-? and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity. In inflammation and wound repair, TNF-? could augment repair by stimulating new blood vessel growth; in tumours, TNF-? might both stimulate tumour development by promoting vessel growth and participate in tumour destruction by direct cytotoxicity10-12.

  6. Glucocorticoid-Induced Avascular Bone Necrosis: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Chan, KL; Mok, CC

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid use is one of the most important causes of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). The pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced AVN is not fully understood but postulated mechanisms include fat hypertrophy, fat emboli and intravascular coagulation that cause impedance of blood supply to the bones. Data regarding the relationship between AVN and dosage, route of administration and treatment duration of glucocorticoids are conflicting, with some studies demonstrating the cumulative dose of glucocorticoid being the most important determining factor. Early recognition of this complication is essential as the prognosis is affected by the stage of the disease. Currently, there is no consensus on whether universal screening of asymptomatic AVN should be performed for long-term glucocorticoid users. A high index of suspicion should be exhibited for bone and joint pain at typical sites. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than plain radiograph for diagnosing early-stage AVN. Conservative management of AVN includes rest and reduction of weight bearing. Minimization of glucocorticoid dose or a complete withdrawal of the drug should be considered if the underlying conditions allow. The efficacy of bisphosphonates in reducing the rate of collapse of femoral head in AVN is controversial. Surgical therapy of AVN includes core decompression, osteotomy, bone grafting and joint replacement. Recent advances in the treatment of AVN include the use of tantalum rod and the development of more wear resistant bearing surface in hip arthroplasty. PMID:23115605

  7. Laminar cortical necrosis in adrenal crisis: sequential changes on MRI.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Toshihide; Nagaishi, Jun-ichi; Inoue, Takehiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2008-01-01

    We describe the serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a six-year-old girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who presented with seizures and unconsciousness during a hypoadrenal crisis. Initial neuroimaging revealed the presence of brain edema with high signal changes in the fronto-parietal cortex on diffusion-weighted MRI. The brain edema worsened four days into admission, and by day 14 low-density areas were seen over the frontal lobes bilaterally using computed tomography (CT). Follow-up MRI at between one and two months of admission revealed extensive white matter lesions with high intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, which extended into deep cortical layers. Additionally, linear lesions with high signal change on T1-weighted imaging developed in the superficial cortical layers, with frontal predominance. This layer appeared isointense on T2WI and high intensity on FLAIR images, suggesting laminar cortical necrosis. Two months later, linear, cavitary lesions appeared in the middle cortical layers between the aforementioned superficial laminar abnormality and deep cortex/white matter lesions. The high-intensity signals in the deep cortical layers remained contiguous with the white matter lesions. This unique type of multi-layered cortical lesion may have resulted from a complex combination of hypoglycemia and hypoxia/ischemia in the setting of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:17590301

  8. Constitutive synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in the thymus.

    PubMed Central

    Giroir, B P; Brown, T; Beutler, B

    1992-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of endotoxic shock, the normal function of TNF that has preserved this protein throughout mammalian evolution remains unknown. If the protein serves a role in normal development or homeostasis, it must be produced under physiologic conditions. To determine whether TNF secretion occurs in normal animals, and to define the tissue sources of the protein, we prepared a reporter construct in which the TNF coding sequence and introns are replaced by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence. This construct was inserted into the murine genome, yielding 13 transgenic founders. Macrophages harvested from 4 of the transgenic lines expressed CAT activity after stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Each of these 4 transgenic lines also constitutively expressed CAT activity in the thymus but in no other tissue examined. Cultured thymocytes secrete TNF, as demonstrated both by cytotoxicity assays and by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled thymic culture medium. CAT activity was associated with the thymic lymphocyte population and not with thymic macrophages or dendritic cells. CAT activity was present in thymic lymphocytes irrespective of CD4 or CD8 expression; T cells from the spleen, however, had no detectable CAT activity. The biosynthesis of TNF in the thymus of normal animals implies a role for this protein in the development or regulation of the immune response. Images PMID:1594585

  9. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: clinical utility in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Snyder, Melissa R

    2015-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production is amplified in several autoimmune disorders. In the 1990s, it became a validated therapeutic target used for the treatment of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Biologic drugs targeting TNF include engineered monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Currently, there are 5 Food and Drug Administration-approved TNF inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab), representing close to $20 billion in sales. Clinical trials remain open to test their efficacy and safety compared with one another, as well as to measure clinical outcomes in different conditions and patient populations. The industry is also eager to develop biotherapeutics that are similar but cheaper than the currently existing biologics or are safer with higher efficacy; these are the so-called "biosimilars." Clinical utility of TNF inhibitors and indications of mono- or combined therapy with immunomodulators are reviewed here. Pharmacokinetics of the TNF inhibitors is affected by routes of administration, clearance mechanisms of immunoglobulins, and immunogenicity. Finally, strategies for management of treatment efficacy and increasing evidence for monitoring of serum concentration of TNF inhibitors are discussed, assessing for the presence of the antidrug antibodies and the different analytical methods available for laboratory testing. As clinical applications of the TNF inhibitors expand, and other classes join the revolution in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders, therapeutic drug monitoring of biologics will become increasingly important, with the potential to dramatically improve patient care and management. PMID:25305470

  10. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöll?si, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  11. Skinning on Progressive Decimated Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Xian; Seah Hock Soon; Tian Feng

    2008-01-01

    Skinning existing animation frames or examples is exploited actively to find the most suitable scheme that is capable of capturing deformations from given mesh sequences. It is necessary to approximate joint transformations by a fitting algorithm that usually involves solving a large scale linear system. In this paper, we reduce the dimensions of the linear system substantially by representing example

  12. Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise L. Randeberg; Ivar Baarstad; Trond Lřke; Peter Kaspersen; Lars O. Svaasand

    2006-01-01

    Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the

  13. Skin, Scale, Feather, and Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Sheldon

    The "skin, scale, feather, and fur" program was designed to provide children in the New York City public schools with knowledge about various animal species and their place in the animal world. Teacher and paraprofessional staff along with the Staten Island Zoo Personnel developed activities and instructed children at the zoo. They also conducted…

  14. Heat (Shock) and the Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara S. Polla

    1990-01-01

    Whereas hyperthermia has long been used in dermatology for the therapy of diseases as diverse as syphilis gonorrhea, psoriasis or melanoma, the understanding of the biological effects of heat shock on the skin attracts new interests to an old field. The proteins induced by heat (stress or heat shock proteins) appear to play a general role in protection from cellular

  15. The Optics of Human Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rox Anderson; John A. Parrish

    1981-01-01

    An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the

  16. Skin Manifestations of Internal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Donsky, Howard J.

    1978-01-01

    Although some of the skin manifestations of internal malignancy are relatively rare, their identification may often be made at a crucial time, when intervention may save a life. This article classifies such signs and describes those which may be seen in family practice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21301498

  17. Skin diseases affecting the vulva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alena Salim; Fenella Wojnarowska

    2002-01-01

    Skin diseases of the vulva are associated with considerable morbidity and often reluctance on the part of patients to seek medical attention. The most common conditions seen in a dermatology vulval clinic are the vulval dermatoses (inflammatory disorders), which comprise lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, vulval eczema and psoriasis. Other conditions such as vulval pain syndromes, vulval disorders associated with systemic

  18. Moon Technology for Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.

  19. Skin Substitutes and Wound Healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Auger; D. Lacroix; L. Germain

    2009-01-01

    Medical science has vastly improved on the means and methods available for the treatment of wounds in the clinic. The production and use of various types of skin substitutes has led to dramatic improvements in the odds of survival for severely burned patients, but they have also shown promise for many other applications, including cases involving chronic wounds that are

  20. Pygmy resonances and neutron skins

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    In a study motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich {sup 68}Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random-phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb. The emergence of low-energy 'pygmy' strength that exhausts about 5%-8% of the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of {sup 68}Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong, and an even larger sensitivity, between the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.

  1. Epidemiology of “fragile skin”: results from a survey of different skin types

    PubMed Central

    Haftek, Marek; Coutanceau, Christine; Taďeb, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of “fragile skin” in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived “fragile skin” across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US) were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218), Caucasian South skin (n=1,695), Asian skin (n=1,500), and Black skin (n=500). The main survey question was “In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?” Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual’s skin were also evaluated. Results A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question “In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?” in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, “fragile skin” was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001). Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of “fragile skin” was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001), regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting “fragile skin” were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of “fragile skin” was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type) in the previous 12 months. Conclusion Whilst these findings need to be confirmed through objective evaluation, the current survey demonstrated that “fragile skin” is perceived to occur in a substantial proportion of individuals from any given country, particularly in the age range of 15–34 years, regardless of skin type. PMID:24324345

  2. Why Skin Wrinkles More Around the Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    Why Skin Wrinkles More Around the Eyes Tissue from Japanese cadavers may provide new clues, researchers say To use ... cadavers may offer some insight into why some skin creases are more pronounced than others. Differences in ...

  3. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

  4. Skin Bleaching in Jamaica: A Colonial Legacy

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Petra Alaine

    2012-07-16

    and analyze data. The sample consisted of fifteen participants—twelve participants (six males and six females) with a history of skin bleaching; a retailer of skin lightening products; a local dermatologist who has written and published in local newspapers...

  5. Erectile Dysfunction Drugs and Serious Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... videos/news/Erectile_Dysfunction_062415.html Erectile Dysfunction Drugs and Serious Skin Cancer HealthDay News Video - June ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Erectile Dysfunction Drugs and Serious Skin Cancer For closed captioning, click ...

  6. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Microbes_040115-1.html Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay News ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin For closed ...

  7. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction

    E-print Network

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01

    capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

  8. Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... May 11, 2006. Read More Jane & Henry Bukaty Skin Care Fund Applications are now being accepted May 1, 2015 - FIRST members can apply for funding for skin care supplies, treatments, and/or cooling devices. Read More ...

  9. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bilaç, Cemal; ?ahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

  10. What’s On My Skin?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-21

    In this lesson, based on the Science Friday segment Life on Our Skin, students will formulate a hypothesis about which area of skin on their bodies may have the most or least amount or kinds of bacteria.

  11. Determinants of skin sensitisation potential.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur O

    2008-04-01

    Skin sensitisation is an important toxicological endpoint. The possibility that chemicals used in the workplace and in consumer products might cause skin sensitisation is a major concern for individuals, for employers and for marketing. In European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) legislation, the sensitising potential should therefore be assessed for chemicals below the 10 ton threshold. Development of methods for prediction of skin sensitisation potential without animal testing has been an active research area for some time, but has received further impetus with the advent of REACH and the EU Cosmetics Directive (EU 2003). This paper addresses the issue of non-animal based prediction of sensitisation by a mechanistic approach. It is known that the sequence of molecular, biomolecular and cellular events between exposure to a skin sensitiser and development of the sensitised state involves several stages, in particular penetration through the stratum corneum, covalent binding to carrier protein, migration of Langerhans cells, presentation of the antigen to naďve T-cells. In this paper each of these stages is considered with respect to the extent to which it is dependent on the chemical properties of the sensitiser. The evidence suggests that, although penetration of the stratum corneum, stimulation of migration and maturation of Langerhans cells, and antigen recognition are important events in the induction of sensitisation, except in certain specific circumstances they can be taken for granted. They are not important factors in determining whether a compound will be a sensitiser or not, nor are they important factors in determining how potent one sensitiser will be relative to another. The ability to bind covalently to carrier protein is the major structure-dependent determinant of skin sensitisation potential. A chemistry-based prediction strategy is proposed involving reaction mechanistic domain assignment, reactivity and hydrophobicity determination, and application of quantitative mechanistic modelling (QMM) or read-across. PMID:17703504

  12. Oxidation events and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer, A; Luiten, R M

    2015-05-01

    The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in intrinsic and extrinsic (photo-) aging are described. Since photoaging is recognized as an important extrinsic aging factor, we put special emphasize on the effects of UV exposure on aging, and its variable influence according to global location and skin type. We here summarise direct photochemical effects of UV on DNA, RNA, proteins and vitamin D, the factors contributing to UV-induced immunosuppression, which may delay aging, the nature and origin of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as indirect contributors for aging, and the consequences of oxidative events for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, such as that of collagen. We conclude that conflicting data on studies investigating the validity of the free radical damage theory of aging may reflect variations in the level of ROS induction which is difficult to quantify in vivo, and the lack of targeting of experimental ROS to the relevant cellular compartment. Also mitohormesis, an adaptive response, may arise in vivo to moderate ROS levels, further complicating interpretation of in vivo results. We here describes how skin aging is mediated both directly and indirectly by oxidative degeneration.This review indicates that skin aging events are initiated and often propagated by oxidation events, despite recently recognized adaptive responses to oxidative stress. PMID:25653189

  13. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  14. [Brain radiation necrosis after stereotactic radiotherapy of the resection cavity for intracranial metastases: analysis of the literature from four cases].

    PubMed

    Doré, M; Lefebvre, L; Delpon, G; Thillays, F

    2015-04-01

    Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy after resection of brain metastasis is an alternative to whole brain radiotherapy. A high dose per fraction is associated with a risk of radiation necrosis. We present four cases of confirmed histological radiation necrosis. Differentiating recurrent tumour from radiation necrosis in this scenario is challenging. An enhancing area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a "cut bell pepper" appearance may suggest radiation necrosis. Advanced imaging modalities such as perfusion MR imaging and positron emission tomography can be useful. Dosimetric predictors of the occurrence of radiation necrosis after stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy are poorly understood and require prospective studies on larger cohorts. PMID:25573799

  15. Adverse Events of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Therapy in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Qiang; Cai, Qing; de Mooij, Tristan; Xu, Xia; Dai, Shengming; Qu, Wenchun; Zhao, Dongbao

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence of short-term and long-term adverse events associated with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) blocker treatment in Chinese Han patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods The study included 402 Chinese Han AS patients treated with TNF-? blockers. Baseline data was collected. All patients were monitored for adverse events 2 hours following administration. Long-term treatment was evaluated at 8, 12, 52 and 104 weeks follow-up for 172 patients treated with TNF-? blockers. Results Short-term adverse events occurred in 20.15% (81/402), including rash (3.5%; 14/402), pruritus (1.2%; 5/402), nausea (2.2%; 9/402), headache (0.7%; 3/402), skin allergies (4.0%; 16/402), fever (0.5%; 2/402), palpitations (3.0%; 12/402), dyspnea (0.5%; 2/402), chest pain (0.2%; 2/402), abdominal pain (1.0%; 4/402), hypertension (2.2%; 9/402), papilledema (0.5%; 2/402), laryngeal edema (0.2%; 1/402) and premature ventricular contraction (0.2%; 1/402). Long-term adverse events occurred in 59 (34.3%; 59/172) patients, including pneumonia (7.6%; 13/172), urinary tract infections (9.9%; 17/172), otitis media (4.7%; 8/172), tuberculosis (3.5%; 17/172), abscess (1.2%; 2/172), oral candidiasis (0.6%; 1/172), elevation of transaminase (1.7%; 3/172), anemia (1.2%; 2/172), hematuresis (0.6%; 1/172), constipation (2.3%; 4/172), weight loss (0.6%; 1/172), exfoliative dermatitis (0.6%; 1/172). CRP, ESR and disease duration were found to be associated with an increased risk of immediate and long-term adverse events (P<0.05). Long-term treatment with Infliximab was associated with more adverse events than rhTNFR-Fc (P<0.01). Conclusion This study reports on the prevalence of adverse events in short-term and long-term treatment with TNF-? blocker monotherapy in Chinese Han AS patients. Duration of disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and c-reactive protein serum levels were found to be associated with increased adverse events with anti-TNF-? therapy. Long-term treatment with Infliximab was associated with more adverse events than rhTNFR-Fc. PMID:25764452

  16. Selective improvement of tumor necrosis factor capture in a cytokine hemoadsorption device using immobilized anti-tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Morgan V.; Fisher, James D.; Burton, Brianne M.; Federspiel, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a harmful hyper-inflammatory state characterized by overproduction of cytokines. Removal of these cytokines using an extracorporeal device is a potential therapy for sepsis. We are developing a cytokine adsorption device (CAD) filled with porous polymer beads which efficiently depletes middle-molecular weight cytokines from a circulating solution. However, removal of one of our targeted cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has been significantly lower than other smaller cytokines. We addressed this issue by incorporating anti-TNF antibodies on the outer surface of the beads. We demonstrated that covalent immobilization of anti-TNF increases overall TNF capture from 55% (using unmodified beads) to 69%. Passive adsorption increases TNF capture to over 99%. Beads containing adsorbed anti-TNF showed no significant loss in their ability to remove smaller cytokines, as tested using interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We also detail a novel method for quantifying surface-bound ligand on a solid substrate. This assay enabled us to rapidly test several methods of antibody immobilization and their appropriate controls using dramatically fewer resources. These new adsorbed anti-TNF beads provide an additional level of control over a device which previously was restricted to nonspecific cytokine adsorption. This combined approach will continue to be optimized as more information becomes available about which cytokines play the most important role in sepsis. PMID:21086427

  17. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning...provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever...means that not more than 5 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-tenth...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning...provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever...means that not more than 5 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-tenth...

  19. Purinergic Signaling in Healthy and Diseased Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Burnstock; Gillian E Knight; Aina V H Greig

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 5?-triphosphate and adenosine receptors have been identified in adult and fetal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, mast cells, Langerhans cells, and Meissner's corpuscles, as well as in hair follicles, sweat glands, and smooth muscle and endothelial cells of skin vessels. Purinergic signaling is involved in skin pathology, including inflammation, wound healing, pain, psoriasis, scleroderma, warts, and skin cancer.

  20. Dynamic Skin Triangulation Ho-Lun Cheng

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, John M.

    Dynamic Skin Triangulation Ho-Lun Cheng , Tamal K. Dey , Herbert Edelsbrunner§ and John Sullivan- tallizations. Skin Surfaces. The approach to deforming surfaces taken in this paper is based on the technical notion of skin surfaces, as introduced in [8]. The main reason for this choice is the existence of fast