These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation after cessation of warfarin and heparinization stopped expanding. Warfarin was reintroduced at 2 mg daily, initially together with low molecular weight heparin. Autolytic debridement of the necrotic tissue was followed by healing of the cutaneous deficit by secondary intention. Prompt diagnosis and discontinuation of warfarin are crucial for the prognosis. PMID:24648693

Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

2014-01-01

2

Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis successfully treated with sodium thiosulphate.  

PubMed

Calciphylaxis is a rare life-threatening form of skin necrosis. Although traditionally observed in patients with end-stage renal disease and/or hyperparathyroidism, calciphylaxis has also been reported to occur in 'non-traditional' patients with normal renal and parathyroid function. We report a case of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis treated successfully with sodium thiosulphate and discuss the role of Vitamin K2 as a potential therapeutic option in the management of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis. PMID:23581997

Hafiji, Juber; Deegan, Patrick; Brais, Rebecca; Norris, Paul

2013-05-01

3

Skin Necrosis Associated with Thromboprophylaxis after Total Knee Replacement  

PubMed Central

Thromboprophylaxis are routinely given to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients after total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (fractioned heparin) is effective in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The predicable effect of LMWH has popularized it for routine clinical use. Although LMWH has lesser complication rate, compared to unfractioned heparin (UFH), sporadic clinical complication has been reported. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to use of LMWH tinzaparin used for routine thromboprophylaxis after total knee replacement. PMID:24804131

Karuppiah, S. V.; Johnstone, A. J.

2014-01-01

4

Use of drug therapy to manage acute cutaneous necrosis of the skin.  

PubMed

Acute cutaneous necrosis is defined as a sudden onset of gangrenous skin changes in the skin, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The following diseases are included in this discussion: coumadin necrosis, heparin necrosis, brown recluse spider bite, necrotizing fasciitis, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, calciphylaxis, clotting abnormalities and embolic phenomena. The importance of early diagnosis, early distinction and early drug therapy or drug withdrawal must match the diagnosis for maximal preservation of the skin and underlying tissue. PMID:20514791

Wallace, Jill S; Hall, John C

2010-04-01

5

Thrombotic complications of heparin therapy: including six cases of heparin--induced skin necrosis.  

PubMed Central

Thrombotic complications of heparin administration were observed in eight patients during a two year period. At sites of subcutaneous heparin injection, six patients developed areas of the skin and subcutaneous necrosis. Systemic thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia were observed in two of these patients when they received intravenous heparin and in two other patients who did not have primary skin necrosis. The complications included peripheral ischemia in three patients (two requiring amputation), myocardial infarction in two, and a cerebral infarction in one. All patients were receiving heparin for at least six days before complications occurred. Seven patients received heparin of bovine origin. Heparin-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was present in all six of the eight patients tested. (It was marked in four of these patients). It is theorized that skin necrosis and the other thrombotic complications observed are the result of heparin-induced in vivo platelet aggregation followed by intravascular thrombosis. Heparin-induced skin necrosis is a rare but serious hazard encountered with prophylactic heparin regimens. If heparin-induced thrombosis is present, the further use of heparin is contraindicated in most instances. Images Fig. 1. PMID:507970

White, P W; Sadd, J R; Nensel, R E

1979-01-01

6

Chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated central-line dressings and necrosis in complicated skin disorder patients.  

PubMed

Although chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) disks have been shown to help reduce the incidence of central line-associated blood stream infections, their use can result in local skin necrosis. The effects of CHG disks on patients with complex skin pathology have not been studied. We report 6 cases of dermal necrosis associated with Biopatch (Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ) CHG disks in adults with complex skin pathology including those with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, burns, and anasarca. All patients had a CHG disk placed at a central venous catheter insertion site. Age range was from 21 to 84 years. Discovery of the reaction ranged from 4 to 14 days after disk placement. Resultant skin erosions required 2 to 10 weeks to reepithelialize. Complicated skin disorder patients represent a rare subset of the critically ill who appear prone to CHG disk necrosis. Continuous contact of CHG under occlusive dressings is speculated to predispose Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, and burn patients to local chemical injury secondary to loss of the epithelial tissue barrier, decreased cohesion of the epidermal-dermal junction, and increased tissue permeability. In these patients, the risk of placing the CHG disk may present more risk than using alternative antimicrobial dressings. PMID:25035049

Wall, Jennifer B; Divito, Sherrie J; Talbot, Simon G

2014-12-01

7

New advances in the mesenchymal stem cells therapy against skin flaps necrosis  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotential cells that reside within the bone marrow, can be induced to differentiate into various cells, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, vascular endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell types. MSCs are being widely studied as potential cell therapy agents due to their angiogenic properties, which have been well established by in vitro and in vivo researches. Within this context, MSCs therapy appears to hold substantial promise, particularly in the treatment of conditions involving skin grafts, pedicle flaps, as well as free flaps described in literatures. The purpose of this review is to report the new advances and mechanisms underlying MSCs therapy against skin flaps necrosis. PMID:25258671

Zhang, Fu-Gui; Tang, Xiu-Fa

2014-01-01

8

TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification. PMID:22034513

Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.

2011-01-01

9

Psoriasiform lesions induced by tumour necrosis factor antagonists: a skin-deep medical conundrum.  

PubMed

Rarely, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha antagonist therapy has been associated with de novo psoriasiform eruptions. This is unusual in that these same drugs are used to treat psoriasis. Most of these cases involve the palms and soles, yet palmoplantar pustular psoriasis represents only 1.7% of all cases of psoriasis. Keratoderma blenorrhagicum is a psoriasiform rash that occurs primarily on the palms and soles of some patients with reactive arthritis. It is grossly and histologically indistinguishable from pustular psoriasis. Chlamydia trachomatis is a common aetiological agent for reactive arthritis, and in vitro studies have shown that chlamydial replication is inversely proportional to TNFalpha levels. Three patients taking TNFalpha antagonists are presented who developed such lesions and who were found to be positive for C trachomatis DNA in the affected skin. It is proposed that these psoriasiform lesions may not be psoriasis, but rather keratoderma blenorrhagicum. PMID:18299302

Carter, J D; Gerard, H C; Hudson, A P

2008-08-01

10

Reactive Oxygen Species in Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Activated Primary Human Keratinocytes: Implications for Psoriasis and Inflammatory Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is known to play an important role in inflammatory and immunological responses in human skin. Although it has been documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in TNF-?-induced signaling pathways associated with certain inflammatory diseases, their role in TNF-? signaling cascades has not been examined in primary human keratinocytes used as a

Chen N Young; Jay I Koepke; Laura J Terlecky; Michael S Borkin; Savoy L Boyd; Stanley R Terlecky

2008-01-01

11

Reconstruction of cubital fossa skin necrosis with radial collateral artery perforator-based propeller flap (RCAP).  

PubMed

In recent years, perforator flaps have become an indispensable tool for the reconstruction process. Most recently, "propeller" perforator flaps allow each perforator vessels to become a flap donor site. Once the perforator of interest is identified by acoustic Doppler, the cutaneous or fascio-cutaneous island is designed and then customized according to the principle of "perforasome". So, the flap can be rotated such a propeller, up to 180°. Ideally the donor site is self-closing, otherwise it can be grafted at the same time. Through a skin necrosis secondary to a contrast medium extravasation of the cubital fossa in a 47-year-old man, we describe the use of propeller perforator flap based on a perforator of the radial collateral artery (RCAP). The perforator was identified preoperatively by acoustic Doppler then the flap was adapted bespoke to cover the loss of substance. Ultimately, the result was very satisfying. Well experienced for lower-extremity reconstruction, perforator-based propeller flap are still few reported for upper limb. It is likely that in the future, propeller flap supersede in many indication not only free flaps and locoregional flaps but also, leaving no room for uncertainties of the vascular network, the classic random flaps. PMID:23891106

Chaput, B; Gandolfi, S; Ho Quoc, C; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L

2014-02-01

12

Two cases of warfarin-induced tracheobronchial calcification after Fontan surgery.  

PubMed

This study identified tracheobronchial cartilage calcification in children with congenital heart disease. Calcification of the tracheobronchial airways has been found previously in adults receiving warfarin and in children receiving warfarin after mitral valve replacement. A 9-year-old girl who had received a Fontan repair 6 years previously underwent a cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate pulmonary artery size. The result was an incidental finding of extensive tracheobronchial cartilage calcification. A retrospective review of all pediatric Fontan patients who had undergone cardiac CT was conducted to search for calcification of the tracheobronchial cartilage. The study investigated ten pediatric Fontan patients who had undergone cardiac CT scanning. Two patients with extensive calcification of the tracheobronchial airways were identified. The index case had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and the patient had undergone a staged repair with the Fontan at the age of 3 years. A 16-year-old boy with tricuspid atresia had undergone staged repair and Fontan at the age of 3.5 years. These two patients had received continuous warfarin therapy for 6 and 13 years, respectively. Other common causes of airway calcification were excluded from the study. This report describes warfarin-induced tracheobronchial calcification in patients after the Fontan procedure. This finding has possible implications for airway growth and vascular calcification. PMID:24584210

Eckersley, Luke; Stirling, John; Occleshaw, Christopher; Wilson, Nigel

2014-08-01

13

Septic necrosis of the midline wound in postoperative peritonitis. Successful management by debridement, myocutaneous advancement, and primary skin closure.  

PubMed Central

Wound management following laparotomy for postoperative peritonitis and varying degrees of parietal necrosis remains a challenging and controversial problem. Because maintained peritoneal integrity and primary wound closure offer the best opportunity for survival, an original technique involving bilateral incisions to relax skin and rectus fascia is proposed. This technique permits medial myocutaneous advancement and primary tension-free skin closure of midline laparotomy incisions. Sixty-nine patients with severe postoperative peritonitis were treated according from 1980 through 1985. Nine of these patients died of advanced multiple organ failure soon after referral, and eight more died after prolonged treatment. Fourteen patients had one or more reoperations for complications. Only nine wound failures resulted, including five eviscerations and four wound infections followed by progressive dehiscence. The bilateral relaxing incisions healed secondarily without complication. Survivors developed midline wound hernia; ten of the 52 surviving patients have had these repaired. This method of primary closure is safe when performed in conjunction with rigorous surgical care of intraperitoneal infection and may enhance survival. We recommend the technique to surgeons who treat severe postoperative peritonitis and septic necrosis of midline laparotomy wounds. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Figs. 8A and B. Fig. 9. PMID:3281613

Lévy, E; Palmer, D L; Frileux, P; Hannoun, L; Nordlinger, B; Tiret, E; Honiger, J; Parc, R

1988-01-01

14

Psoriasiform lesions induced by tumour necrosis factor antagonists: a skin-deep medical conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rarely, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)? antagonist therapy has been associated with de novo psoriasiform eruptions. This is unusual in that these same drugs are used to treat psoriasis. Most of these cases involve the palms and soles, yet palmoplantar pustular psoriasis represents only 1.7% of all cases of psoriasis. Keratoderma blenorrhagicum is a psoriasiform rash that occurs primarily on the

J D Carter; H C Gerard; A P Hudson

2008-01-01

15

Autoimmune Bullous Skin Diseases Occurring under AntiTumor Necrosis Factor Therapy: Two Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are increasingly being used for a rapidly expanding number of rheumatic and systemic diseases. As a result of this use, and of the longer follow-up periods of treatment, there are a growing number of reports of the development of autoimmune processes related to anti-TNF agents. The use of anti-TNF agents has been associated with

L. Boussemart; S. Jacobelli; F. Batteux; C. Goulvestre; P. Grange; A. Carlotti; J. P. Morini; I. Gorin; J. M. Ziza; M. F. Avril; N. Dupin

2010-01-01

16

Correlations between skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor-? and selected cytokines in Crohn's disease patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation between the appearance of skin lesions and concentration of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23 and interferon-? (IFN-?) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients during anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) therapy METHODS: A prospective study included 30 adult patients with CD of Caucasian origin (19 men and 11 women; mean age ± SD 32.0 ± 8.6 years) during biological therapy with anti-TNF-? antibodies from January 2012 to March 2013. Eighteen patients were treated with infliximab, seven with adalimumab and five with certolizumab. Inclusion criteria were exacerbation of the underlying disease, Crohn’s Disease Activity Index over 300 and the ineffectiveness of previously used non-biological therapies. Patients with a history of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other autoimmune skin lesions were excluded from the study. The control group consisted of 12 healthy subjects. A diagnostic survey was carried out, blood tests and careful skin examination were performed, and the serum levels of IL-17, IL-23 and IFN-? were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays technique. Dermatoses that have developed in the course of biological therapy in patients who had no pre-existing skin lesions of similar character were qualified as skin lesions induced by anti-TNF-? therapy. RESULTS: Skin manifestations occurred in 18 of CD patients during the anti-TNF-? therapy (60%), in the average time of 10.16 ± 3.42 mo following the beginning of the 52-wk treatment cycle. Skin lesions observed in CD patients during biological therapy included psoriasiform lesions (44.4%), and eczema forms lesions (22.2%). In CD patients with drug induced skin lesions significantly higher levels of hemoglobin (13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL vs 10.8 ± 1.9 g/dL, P = 0.018) and hematocrit (39.9% ± 4.5% vs 34.3% ± 5.4%, P = 0.01), as well as a significantly lower level of platelets (268 ± 62 × 103/?L vs 408 ± 239 × 103/?L, P = 0.046) was observed compared with CD patients without skin manifestations. The concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23 in CD patients with skin lesions developed under anti-TNF-? therapy were significantly higher compared to those in patients without lesions (IL-17A: 39.01 ± 7.03 pg/mL vs 25.71 ± 4.90 pg/mL, P = 0.00004; IL-23: 408.78 ± 94.13 pg/mL vs 312.15 ± 76.24 pg/mL, P = 0.00556). CONCLUSION: Skin lesions in CD patients during biological therapy may result from significantly increased concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23, which are strongly associated with TNF-?/Th1 immune pathways. PMID:24944497

W?odarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Wójcik, Bartosz; Loga, Karolina; Fichna, Jakub; Wi?niewska-Jarosi?ska, Maria

2014-01-01

17

Histopathologic spectrum of psoriasiform skin reactions associated with tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor therapy. A study of 16 biopsies.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors (anti-TNF-? biologic drugs), currently used to treat different autoimmune conditions, may be associated with cutaneous drug reactions. New onset or worsening of psoriasis and psoriasis-like reactions have been reported in these patients. However, not much is known about the different histopathologic patterns of such skin lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic spectrum of clinically papulosquamous to pustular "psoriasiform" lesions in this setting. Sixteen biopsies from 9 patients on anti-TNF-? therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), Crohn disease (n = 1), and Behçet disease (n = 1) who developed a "psoriasiform" skin rash during treatment were included in this study. None of the patients had history of psoriasis. Five patients (10 biopsies) showed a psoriasis-like pattern that varied from that seen in guttate lesions (4 biopsies), to well-established plaques (3 biopsies) to pustular psoriasis (3 biopsies). Three patients (4 biopsies) showed an interface/lichenoid dermatitis mimicking lichen planus. Two patients (2 biopsies) showed features of pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils varied from none (2 biopsies) to scattered (7 biopsies) to numerous (7 biopsies). Plasma cells were present in most cases. All pustular lesions had negative cultures. In conclusion, anti-TNF drugs elicit a spectrum of cutaneous reactions that go beyond the classical eosinophilic-rich hypersensitivity reaction and may closely mimic primary dermatitis. In addition to psoriasis-like lesions, lichen planus-like dermatitis and sterile pustular folliculitis should be included in the list of anti-TNF-?-related drug reactions. Because the different histopathologic findings may be subtle, clinical correlation is crucial to make the diagnosis. PMID:20520526

Laga, Alvaro C; Vleugels, Ruth A; Qureshi, Abrar A; Velazquez, Elsa F

2010-08-01

18

Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer  

PubMed Central

A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

2012-01-01

19

Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.  

PubMed

Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases [1]. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies [5]. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention. PMID:25529269

Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

2015-05-01

20

Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: An extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and cartilage  

PubMed Central

Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a relatively new entity in people who use cocaine. We describe a 44-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use who presented with a complaint of a painful rash of 2-3 month’s duration on her extremities, cheeks, nose, and earlobes. She had not experienced fever, weight loss, alopecia, dry eyes, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, or arthralgia. Examination revealed tender purpuric eruptions with central necrosis on her nose, cheeks, earlobes, and extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed neutropenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of lupus anticoagulant, low complement component 3 (C3), and presence of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was positive for levamisole. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and small vessel thrombosis. Necrotic lesions of the nose led to its self-amputation. Large bullae on the lower extremities ruptured, leading to wound infection and extensive necrosis that required multiple surgical debridements. When necrosis progressed despite debridement, bilateral above-knee amputation of the legs was performed. Once new lesions stopped appearing, the patient was discharged home. Two months later, she had a recurrence related to cocaine use. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of levamisole-induced vasculitis that required above-knee amputation. PMID:23186390

2012-01-01

21

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.  

PubMed

Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

2009-07-15

22

Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

2013-01-01

23

Tumor necrosis factor-?-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-? on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-? (10 ng/ml) in the absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-? (p < 0.005) and accomplished by MMPs (p < 0.005). Levels of the collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13 were insignificant and neither MMP-2 nor MMP-14 were associated with increased collagen degradation. TNF-? increased secretion of MMP-1 (p < 0.01) but had no impact on MMP-1 quantities in the tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed similar tissue MMP-1 expression with or without TNF-? with epidermis being the major source of MMP-1. Increased tissue-derived collagenolytic activity with TNF-? exposure was blocked by neutralizing MMP-1 monoclonal antibody and was not due to down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. TNF-? increased production (p < 0.01), tissue levels (p < 0.005) and catalytic activity of the endogenous MMP-1 activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs = 0.68, p < 0.05) and was attenuated with selective MMP-3 inhibitor. Type I collagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-?. TNF-? had no significant effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-? augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin. PMID:25457675

Ågren, Magnus S.; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H.; Mirastschijski, Ursula

2015-01-01

24

Tumor necrosis factor-?-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-? on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-? (10ng/ml) in the absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-? (p<0.005) and accomplished by MMPs (p<0.005). Levels of the collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13 were insignificant and neither MMP-2 nor MMP-14 were associated with increased collagen degradation. TNF-? increased secretion of MMP-1 (p<0.01) but had no impact on MMP-1 quantities in the tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed similar tissue MMP-1 expression with or without TNF-? with epidermis being the major source of MMP-1. Increased tissue-derived collagenolytic activity with TNF-? exposure was blocked by neutralizing MMP-1 monoclonal antibody and was not due to down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. TNF-? increased production (p<0.01), tissue levels (p<0.005) and catalytic activity of the endogenous MMP-1 activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs=0.68, p<0.05) and was attenuated with selective MMP-3 inhibitor. Type I collagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-?. TNF-? had no significant effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-? augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin. PMID:25457675

Ågren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H; Mirastschijski, Ursula

2015-01-01

25

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-17 differently affects Langerhans cell distribution and activation in an innovative three-dimensional model of normal human skin.  

PubMed

Among the several cytokines involved in the psoriasis pathogenesis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-17 play a central role. Many biomolecular steps remain unknown due to difficulty to obtain psoriatic models. To investigate the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-17 on the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, and number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), human skin explants (n=7) were cultured air-liquid interface in a Transwell system. Four different conditions were used: medium alone (control), medium added with 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 50 ng/ml IL-17 or a combination of both cytokines. Samples were harvested 24 and 48 h after cytokine addition and were frozen. Samples harvested at 24h were also processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By immunofluorescence analysis with anti-human Langerin antibody (three experiments/sample) we calculated the percentage of LCs/mm(2) of living epidermis after 24 and 48 h of incubation (considering control as 100%). At 24h LC number was significantly higher in samples treated with both cytokines (216.71+15.10%; p<0.001) and in TNF-alpha (125.74+26.24%; p<0.05). No differences were observed in IL-17-treated samples (100.14+38.42%). After 48 h, the number of epidermal Langerin-positive cells in IL-17- and TNF-alpha treated samples slightly decreased (94.99+36.79% and 101.37+23% vs. their controls, respectively). With the combination of both cytokines epidermal LCs strongly decreased (120+13.36%). By TEM, upon TNF-alpha stimulus LCs appeared with few organelles, mostly mitochondria, lysosomes, and scattered peripherical BGs. Upon IL-17 stimulus, LCs showed a cytoplasm with many mitochondria and numerous BGs close to the perinuclear space and Golgi apparatus, but also at the periphery, at the beginning of the dendrites. The addition of both cytokines did not affect LC ultrastructure. Our study showed that IL-17 induced significant changes in LC ultrastructure, while the combination of both cytokines seems to have a strong chemo-attractant effect on epidermal LCs, supporting the relevance of investigating the interplay between LCs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ongoing of the disease. PMID:25596626

Prignano, Francesca; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Cornaghi, Laura; Landoni, Federica; Tripo, Lara; Preis, Franz William Baruffaldi; Donetti, Elena

2015-02-01

26

Avascular Necrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

27

Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-induced Proteolytic Activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Human Skin Is Controlled by Down-regulating Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 and Mediated by Tissue-associated Chymotrypsin-like Proteinase*  

PubMed Central

The proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by conversion of the 92-kDa precursor into an 82-kDa active form has been observed in chronic wounds, tumor metastasis, and many inflammation-associated diseases, yet the mechanistic pathway to control this process has not been identified. In this report, we show that the massive expression and activation of MMP-9 in skin tissue from patients with chronically unhealed wounds could be reconstituted in vitro with cultured normal human skin by stimulation with transforming growth factor-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. We dissected the mechanistic pathway for TNF-? induced activation of pro-MMP-9 in human skin. We found that proteolytic activation of pro-MMP-9 was mediated by a tissue-associated chymotrypsin-like proteinase, designated here as pro-MMP-9 activator (pM9A). This unidentified activator specifically converted pro-MMP-9 but not pro-MMP-2, another member of the gelatinase family. The tissue-bound pM9A was steadily expressed and not regulated by TNF-?, which indicated that the cytokine-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 might be regulated at the inhibitor level. Indeed, the skin constantly secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at the basal state. TNF-?, but not transforming growth factor-?, down-regulated this inhibitor. The TNF-?-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 was tightly associated with down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in a dose-dependent manner. To establish this linkage, we demonstrate that the recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 could block the activation of pro-MMP-9 by either the intact skin or skin fractions. Thus, these studies suggest a novel regulation for the proteolytic activation of MMP-9 in human tissue, which is mediated by tissue-bound activator and controlled by down-regulation of a specific inhibitor. PMID:12004062

Han, Yuan-Ping; Nien, Yih-Dar; Garner, Warren L.

2008-01-01

28

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis is associated with the skin and peripheral nerve pathology of leprosy reversal reactions.  

PubMed Central

Leprosy may be complicated by episodes of increased cell-mediated immunity towards Mycobacterium leprae (reversal reactions) which result in severe local immunopathology in skin lesions and peripheral nerves. Using in situ hybridization and MoAb techniques we have demonstrated TNF-alpha mRNA and TNF-alpha protein in macrophages infiltrating leprosy skin and peripheral nerve. Levels of TNF-alpha mRNA are significantly increased in reactional skin and nerve, particularly in borderline tuberculoid patients. TNF-alpha mRNA and TNF-alpha protein levels are higher in reactional nerves then reactional skin. In both reactional skin and nerve TNF-alpha mRNA is more abundant than TNF-alpha protein; this may reflect the rapid turnover of TNF-alpha protein in an immunologically dynamic situation, such as is seen in reversal reaction. Our findings emphasize the importance of documenting both mRNA and protein production when assessing the role of cytokines in pathology. The leprosy reversal reaction may be regarded as a useful model of tissue immunopathology in which TNF-alpha is generated as part of the host response to infection, but also produces local tissue damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7851011

Khanolkar-Young, S; Rayment, N; Brickell, P M; Katz, D R; Vinayakumar, S; Colston, M J; Lockwood, D N

1995-01-01

29

Mechanisms of JP-8 jet fuel cell toxicity. II. Induction of necrosis in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes and modulation of levels of Bcl-2 family members.  

PubMed

JP-8 induces apoptosis in rat lung epithelial cells, primary mouse T lymphocytes, Jurkat T lymphoma cells, and U937 monocytic cells (Stoica et al., 2001). Here, we have observed a different mechanism of cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes grown in culture as well as when grafted onto nude mice. At lower levels of JP-8 (80 microg/ml; 1 x 10(-4) dilution), sufficient to induce apoptosis in other cell types, including lung epithelial cells (Stoica et al., 2001), no apoptosis was observed. At higher levels (>200 microg/ml; 2.5 x 10(-4) dilution), JP-8 is cytotoxic to both primary and immortalized human keratinocytes, as evidenced by the metabolism of calcein, as well as by morphological changes such as cell rounding and cell detachment. There was no evidence of activation of caspases-3, -7, or -8 either by enzyme activity or immunoblot analysis, and the stable expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of apoptosis (FADD-DN) did not increase the survival of keratinocytes to JP-8. The pattern of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was also characteristic of necrosis. PARP has been also been implicated in necrosis via its ability to lower levels of ATP in damaged cells. However, fibroblasts derived from PARP-/- mice underwent necrotic cell death similar to those derived from PARP+/+ mice, indicating that the effects of JP-8 are independent of PARP. Immunoblot analysis further revealed that exposure of keratinocytes to the toxic higher levels of JP-8 markedly downregulates the expression of the prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), and upregulates the expression of antisurvival members of this family, including Bad and Bak. Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) have been shown to preserve mitochondrial integrity and suppress cell death. In contrast, Bak and Bad both promote cell death by alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, in part by heterodimerization with and inactivation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), and either inducing necrosis or activating a downstream caspase program. High intrinsic levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) may prevent apoptotic death of keratinocytes at lower levels of JP-8, while perturbation of the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members at higher levels may ultimately play a role in necrotic cell death in human keratinocytes. Finally, when human keratinocytes were grafted to form a human epidermis on nude mice, treatment of these grafts with JP-8 revealed cytotoxicity and altered histology in vivo. PMID:11222086

Rosenthal, D S; Simbulan-Rosenthal, C M; Liu, W F; Stoica, B A; Smulson, M E

2001-03-01

30

Warfarin-induced deep vein thrombosis  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a 72-year-old female who was admitted to hospital with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). She was known to have atrial fibrillation and was initiated on warfarin for stroke prophylaxis 3 days earlier. She was given warfarin therapy without low molecular weight heparin cover as per “slow-start regimen” protocol. The warfarin dose was increased after 3 days to achieve rapid anticoagulation, resulting in DVT in the left leg. We propose that the higher unopposed warfarin dose utilized in this case resulted in DVT. Warfarin loading doses may paradoxically result in a hypercoagulable state and potential clot formation because of significant reductions in protein C and protein S levels. PMID:25246809

Binymin, Khalid A; Nasher, Magda; Patel, Dipti

2014-01-01

31

Skin Cancer Skin Cancer  

E-print Network

Gardening and Your Health: Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer Sunburn & Skin Cancer therapy and surface chemotherapy, but most skin cancers are removed by surgical exci sion. Precancers can groups can get tans, freckles, and wrinkles. Although skin cancer is rare with this skin type

Liskiewicz, Maciej

32

Skin graft  

MedlinePLUS

Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

33

Neurotoxicity of isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is effective for advanced melanoma and sarcoma of the limbs. Ten patients undergoing HILP with TNF? were evaluated by neurological examinations, nerve conduction studies (NCS), sympathetic skin responses (SSR) and conventional and quantitative electromyography (EMG), performed before, 7 days and 6 weeks following HILP. Seven patients showed minimal clinical

Vivian E Drory; Dina Lev; Galina B Groozman; Mordechai Gutmann; Joseph M Klausner

1998-01-01

34

Sagging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... more"> 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or changes ... ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

35

Chin Necrosis as a Consequence of Prone Positioning in the Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Pressure necrosis of the skin is a rarely reported avoidable complication of prone positioning that can be minimised by active collaboration between care teams. We report a case of pressure necrosis of the chin after prone ventilation in the intensive care setting. Such injuries pose a risk of infection, possible need for surgical intervention, and increased costs to the health care system. Pressure necrosis injuries should be diligently guarded against by the careful selection of support devices, frequent turning, and rigorous skin care to minimise extended external compression, particularly on the face and bony prominences.

Bunker, Daniel Lee John; Thomson, Michael

2015-01-01

36

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin What you know about your skin Your skin is the organ that comes-hahy-DREY-shun), and keeps harmful microbes (MYE- krobs) out--without it, we would get infections. Your skin is full of nerve get badly hurt and not even know it! What you might not know about your skin Skin is actually your

Baker, Chris I.

37

Bullous Lesions, Sweat Gland Necrosis and Rhabdomyolysis in Alcoholic Coma  

PubMed Central

A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF). Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF. PMID:25484420

Asokan, Neelakandhan; Binesh, Vayappurath Gangadharan; Andrews, Andrews Mekkattukunnel; Jayalakshmi, Pattomthadathil Sankaran

2014-01-01

38

Localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene) in a spinal cord injury patient – a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men with spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have a greater incidence of bacterial colonisation of genital skin as compared to neurologically normal controls. We report a male patient with paraplegia who developed rapidly progressive infection of scrotal skin, which resulted in localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene). CASE PRESENTATION: This male patient developed paraplegia at T-8 level 21

Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul M Soni; Peter L Hughes; Paul Mansour; Gurpreet Singh; James Darroch; Tun Oo

2002-01-01

39

Dry skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

40

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...

41

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases and immune system problems can cause dermatitis, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such ... rely on information about you and your family. Hives —Red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. ...

42

Design of a thermal diffusion sensor for noninvasive assessment of skin surface perfusion and endothelial dysfunction  

E-print Network

The skin microcirculation performs a range of vital functions, such as maintaining nutritional perfusion to the tissues and overall thermoregulation. Not only does impairment to the skin blood supply lead to tissue necrosis ...

Li, Vivian V. (Vivian Victoria)

2008-01-01

43

through Tumor Necrosis  

E-print Network

RSKB, a 90-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase family (RSK) member with two complete catalytic domains connected by a linker, is activated through p38- and ERK-mitogen-activated protein kinases. The N-terminal kinases of RSKs phosphorylate substrates; activation requires phosphorylation of linker and C-terminal kinase sites. Unlike other RSKs, the activation loop phosphorylation sites of both catalytic domains of RSKB, Ser 196 and Thr 568, were required for activity. RSKB activation depended on phosphorylation of linker Ser 343 and Ser 360 and associated with phosphorylation of nonconserved Ser 347, but Ser 347-deficient RSKB retained partial activity. The known protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors, H89 and Ro31–8220, blocked RSKB activity. Treatment of HeLa cells with tumor necrosis

44

Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star

1989-01-01

45

An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

46

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

47

Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

48

[Necrosis of the glans penis: a complication of an injection of buprenorphin in a opioid abuser].  

PubMed

Necrosis of the penis glans is commonly described after circumcision or strangulation. We report the case of a patient, opioid abuser, who presented an isolated glans necrosis after an injection of buprenorphin. The buprenorphin (Subutex) is a sublingual partial mu-opioid agonist used for the treatment of heroin dependance. Its intravenous or subcutaneous abuse is associated with local infection. The patient require a surgical intervention. After the failure of a mucosal graft, a soft skin graft was done. PMID:19269730

Hornez, E; Laroche, J; Monchal, T; Bourgouin, S; Riviere, P; Fournier, R; Dantzer, E

2010-04-01

49

Tumor Necrosis Factor and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) is a potent, pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by macrophages, neutrophils,\\u000a fibroblasts, keratinocytes, NK, T-and B-cells and also by tumor cells. TNF binds to either of two receptors, TNF-R1 or TNF-R2,\\u000a expressed on virtually all mammalian cell types. TNF was named because of its ability, when administered in pharmacologic\\u000a doses, to cause necrosis of

Mark Witte; David J. Shealy; Marian T. Nakada; G. Mark Anderson

50

Cutaneous Necrosis As a Result of Isosulphane Blue Injection in Mammarian Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Skin-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and synchronous breast reconstruction are widely used in breast cancer surgery nowadays. Difficulties in feeling confident in this technique and postoperative surgical complications are the major obstacles against the widespread usage of this technique. Compared with the other surgical techniques, the complications are hard to treat. Cutaneous necrosis because of methylene blue used for sentinel lymph node mapping in patients who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy and SLNB is already reported in the literature. We present here two cases with cutaneous necrosis because of isosulphane blue injection after skin-sparing mastectomy and SLNB as a rare complication of dye injection. PMID:25187747

Bircan, Huseyin Y; Ozcelik, Umit; Koc, Bora; Kemik, Ozgur; Demirag, Alp

2014-01-01

51

Liver necrosis following corrosive ingestion.  

PubMed

We describe a rare sequel of corrosive ingestion. In this patient, ingestion of a corrosive led to ischemic necrosis of the entire left lobe of the liver (segments II, III, and IV) in addition to causing full-thickness necrosis of the esophagus/stomach, infarction of the spleen, and injury to the left hemidiaphragm. Solid organ involvement following corrosive ingestion is uncommon. Although involvement of the spleen and pancreas from extension of corrosive burns from the adjacent stomach is occasionally described, involvement of the liver following corrosive ingestion has not been reported in the literature till date. PMID:24105665

Javed, Amit; Yanger, Narola; Agarwal, A K

2014-01-01

52

Tumor necrosis factor-a antagonist-induced psoriasis: yet another paradox in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic use of tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) antagonists has added a highly effective treatment in the field of inflammatory\\u000a musculoskeletal, skin, and bowel diseases. Most of the side effects of these very potential agents, like infections or skin\\u000a reactions, were predictable; the development of psoriatic lesions was not, as they are very successfully used to treat psoriasis\\u000a and

Spyros Aslanidis; Athina Pyrpasopoulou; Stella Douma; Areti Triantafyllou

2008-01-01

53

Tissue necrosis following diode laser-assisted transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy.  

PubMed

Advantages of transcanalicular laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (TCDCR) over conventional, external, and endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) have been purported to include decreased operating time, reduced morbidity, enhanced cosmesis, avoidance of general anesthesia, and a shorter recovery time. However, 1 case of skin necrosis has recently been reported to have occurred following diode laser-assisted TCDCR, and the authors now report 3 additional cases that were evaluated by the Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery services at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina, and the University of California, San Francisco. Three patients developed full-thickness tissue necrosis over the medial canthus following TCDCR, and 2 of these patients experienced persistent tissue breakdown at the site following reconstructive repair. PMID:24807803

McClintic, Scott M; Yoon, Michael K; Bidar, Maziar; Dutton, Jonathan J; Vagefi, M Reza; Kersten, Robert C

2015-01-01

54

Laser Doppler Scanning Study of Axillary Skin before and after Liposuction Curettage in Patients with Focal Hyperhidrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Minimally invasive surgeries are frequently used in patients suffering from focal axillary hyperhidrosis (FAH). Sweat glands are removed surgically and the axillary skin is thinned out, with skin necrosis being a possible complication due to reduced microcirculation. Although of considerable interest, studies evaluating pre- and postoperative skin perfusion are unavailable. Objective: To evaluate the blood flow of axillary skin in

F. G. Bechara; M. Sand; M. Stücker; D. Georgas; K. Hoffmann; P. Altmeyer

2008-01-01

55

Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

1993-01-01

56

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

57

Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Eric Muller

1998-01-01

58

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

59

Skin Pigment  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Melasma Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Pigment Disorders 4 Overview ...

60

Skin immunity.  

PubMed

As the major barrier of the body to the outside, the skin is constantly confronted with microbial, chemical and physical insults. However, the skin does not only function as a mechanical barrier but also uses the immune system for protection. Therefore, the skin is endowed with the capacity to generate immune responses of the innate as well as of the adaptive type. PMID:14616336

Schwarz, T

2003-11-01

61

Reversal of Warfarin-Induced Hemorrhage in the Emergency Department  

E-print Network

an Concentrates. Blood Transfusion. 2009;7:325–334. Westernadverse event of blood transfusion. Vox Sanguinis. 2005;89:blood or plasmapheresis, FFP must be ABO matched to the patient before transfusion

Zareh, Meena; Davis, Andrew J; Henderson, Sean O

2011-01-01

62

Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis  

PubMed Central

Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

Cebulski, W?odzimierz; S?odkowski, Maciej; Krasnod?bski, Ireneusz W.

2014-01-01

63

Artificial skin.  

PubMed

Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H

2007-01-01

64

The incidence of fat necrosis in balloon-based breast brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for fat necrosis in high dose-rate (HDR) balloon-based breast brachytherapy (BBB). Material and methods Fifty-four patients were treated postoperatively with HDR-BBB between May 2007 and December 2010. Median age was 71 years (range: 50-88 years). Median tumor size was 1 cm (range: 0.1-2.7 cm). Forty-four had invasive histology; 43% were grade 1, 24% grade 2, and 15% grade 3. The median margin size was 0.7 cm (range: 0.1-1.5 cm). Results With a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range: 0.5-5.2 years), local control was 98% with one in-breast failure, and overall survival was 89%. Fifty percent of patients experienced fat necrosis. Seven patients were symptomatic, with the remainder detected by mammography alone. Two patients required surgical resection with pathology confirming fat necrosis; 1 required i.v. steroids. At 1, 3, and 5 years following treatment, estimated cumulative incidences of fat necrosis were 7.5%, 52.7%, and 60.6%. Breast laterality, location, tumor size, histology, margin size, balloon volume, skin distance, skin dose, and number of dwell positions were not significantly associated with fat necrosis on univariate analysis. Conclusions In this retrospective review of HDR-BBB, we found a 50% incidence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic fat necrosis. Only three patients, however, required intervention. None of the risk factors considered were significantly associated with fat necrosis. Further studies evaluating factors associated with fat necrosis for patients undergoing HDR-BBB are necessary to appropriately assess the risks associated with treatment. PMID:25829934

Vallow, Laura; Magalhaes, Wilza; Heckman, Michael G.; Kim, Siyong; Smith, Ashley; Diehl, Nancy N.; McLaughlin, Sarah

2015-01-01

65

Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There

W. James Knickerbocker; Noel F. Quenville

1982-01-01

66

Reconstruction of soft tissue necrosis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia.  

PubMed

Cryoglobulinaemia is an uncommon immunological disorder that can lead to extensive areas of skin and soft-tissue necrosis. The reconstructive surgeon may be faced with the wound complications of cryoglobulinaemia but there are few case reports in the literature to help guide the reconstructive approach. Moreover, the literature suggests that these wounds are refractory to conventional wound care principles and routine reconstructive practices, and can signify a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cryoglobulinaemia leading to severe bilateral lower limb ulceration with necrosis extending through subcutaneous tissues and muscle to the level of bone. Faced with the possibility of above knee amputation, these wounds with exposed bone denuded of periosteum were successfully reconstructed with the dermal regeneration template Pelnac® (Gunze Corp., Kyoto, Japan) and secondary split skin grafting. As far as we are aware, this is the first case reported in the literature where reconstruction was successful, disease remission was achieved, and significant morbidity or mortality did not ensue. We discuss caveats to the reconstruction of soft tissue loss secondary to cryoglobulinaemia, and highlight the multimodal approach to treatment. PMID:24755034

Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Maitz, Peter K M

2014-08-01

67

Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat’ precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days), 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days), and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day) was given for 4 months. Results At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN. PMID:24932179

Pikkel, Yoav Y.; Pikkel, Joseph

2014-01-01

68

Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

2014-01-01

69

Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

70

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

71

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

72

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits ... Skin cancer Prevention and care Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Media contacts Public service advertisements View PSAs ...

73

Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: ...

74

Senescent Skin  

PubMed Central

The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

Kushniruk, William

1974-01-01

75

Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks

2005-03-10

76

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

77

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

78

Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis in a Newborn after Brief Therapeutic Hypothermia: Ultrasonographic Examination.  

PubMed

A 7-day-old infant developed erythematous indurated plaques on the back, left shoulder, and arm a few days after therapeutic hypothermia. Ultrasonographic study along with Doppler blood flow analysis of lesional skin areas revealed flogistic fat involvement and calcifications. On the basis of clinical appearance, patient history, and ultrasonographic study, a diagnosis of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn was established. PMID:25491115

Tognetti, Linda; Filippou, Georgios; Bertrando, Sara; Picerno, Valentina; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Frediani, Bruno; Fimiani, Michele; Rubegni, Pietro

2014-12-10

79

Rash induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in an adolescent with Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A 17-year-old white male with Crohn's disease who was receiving maintenance infusions of the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent, infliximab, presented with a new-onset psoriasiform skin rash. The rash was not responsive to topical or oral corticosteroids and worsened after infliximab infusions and after subsequent administration of a second anti-TNF drug, adalimumab.Investigations. Full medical history and physical examination, including

Laurie S. Conklin; Bernard Cohen; Lindsay Wilson; Carmen Cuffari; Maria Oliva-Hemker

2010-01-01

80

Effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-? therapies on body mass index in patients with psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a lifelong, chronic and immune-mediated skin disease affecting ?1–3% of the Caucasian population. Pathogenesis of psoriasis is associated with an increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). TNF-? is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and important mediator of cachexia. Anti-TNF-? therapies are effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The primary end-point was to investigate retrospectively the effect of anti-TNF-therapies on

Rosita Saraceno; Caterina Schipani; Annamaria Mazzotta; Maria Esposito; Laura Di Renzo; Antonino De Lorenzo; Sergio Chimenti

2008-01-01

81

Skin Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains skin cancer and how it is treated. It reviews the anatomy of the skin, what to look for during self-examination, and gives tips for preventing skin cancer. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

82

Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.

2002-01-01

83

Skin to skin care:heat balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

H Karlsson

1996-01-01

84

Role of the Mitochondrion in Programmed Necrosis  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. PMID:21423395

Baines, Christopher P.

2010-01-01

85

Skin Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.

2012-12-13

86

Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin. Induction of hemorrhagic necrosis in normal tissue requires the fifth component of complement (C5).  

PubMed

TNF induces hemorrhagic necrosis (HN) when injected into skin exposed to bacterial agents but not when injected into normal skin. In this paper, we present several lines of evidence suggesting that TNF requires the fifth component of complement (C5) to induce HN in skin exposed to bacteria. First, mouse strains that do not have C5 did not develop HN after injection of TNF and bacteria into skin. Second, plasma from C5-sufficient mice could correct the defect in these C5-deficient mice. Third, heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min inactivated the capacity of plasma to reconstitute C5-deficient mice. Fourth, CVF, which is known to inactivate complement, abrogated the capability of C5-sufficient mice to respond. Fifth, depleting plasma of hemolytic activity while generating C5a did not affect the capacity of the activated plasma to reconstitute C5-deficient mice. Finally, only the plasma fraction containing molecules of the size range of C5a reconstituted C5-deficient mice. These findings indicate that C5a and not the membrane attack complex is required for HN. Although we do not know through which mechanism C5a participates in the development of HN, we propose that the described HN response is related to a local defense mechanism in which TNF and C5a lead to the disruption of capillaries in the direct vicinity of bacteria. By this mechanism the rapid spread of bacteria or their products into the circulation is prevented. Such a tissue response is consistent with the known higher susceptibility of C5-deficient mice to bacterial infections and provides a model with which to search for the multiple steps involved in this important local defense mechanism. PMID:3199066

Rothstein, J L; Lint, T F; Schreiber, H

1988-12-01

87

Skin Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Tests ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Skin exams are used to screen for skin cancer. ...

88

Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...

89

Skin Care and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

90

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections 4 ...

91

Cutaneous skin tag  

MedlinePLUS

Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

92

The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )

2009-01-01

93

Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

2012-12-20

94

Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections  

PubMed Central

Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2?cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1?cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis of fat necrosis is MRI.Histological confirmation of fat necrosis is important.Appropriate management of localised fat necrosis is surgical excision, with avoidance of further insulin injections into the affected area. PMID:25298886

Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

2014-01-01

95

Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo.  

PubMed

Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite. PMID:22612149

Yanina, Irina Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Navolokin, Nikita A; Matveeva, Olga V; Bucharskaya, Alla B; Maslyakova, Galina N; Altshuler, Gregory B

2012-05-01

96

Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

2012-05-01

97

Early inflammatory processes in the skin.  

PubMed

Skin is considered as the border defining the limits of the body from the external world and functions as a barrier between the two. In this capacity, it has evolved to be an integral part of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although many reviews have described skin inflammation and processes that lead to its clinical manifestations, we are not aware of any reviews that have focused on immunologic activity occurring in the absence of any visual inflammatory cues. In this review, we discuss the importance of subclinical inflammation in human skin and its relevance to innate immune surveillance under physiologic conditions. Reactive oxygen species generated by metabolic processes, ultraviolet radiation or oxidizers may damage cells, initiating proinflammatory cascades. In addition to serving as structural skin components, keratinocytes have significant immunologic activity: they secrete proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-? and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Infant skin is particularly susceptible to irritation, inflammation and infection, since skin barrier function is not fully developed after birth and continues to mature throughout the first few years of life. Non-invasive methods such as fluorescence spectroscopy, spectral imaging and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, as well as minimally invasive tape stripping, can be used to assess subclinical inflammatory markers in vivo, including erythema, epidermal cell proliferation rate and cytokine concentrations. Appropriately formulated skin care products may help maintain skin barrier integrity and enhance its capacity. In the future, assessment of subclinical inflammation may help clinicians prevent acute or chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin. PMID:23448341

Stamatas, G N; Morello, A P; Mays, D A

2013-09-01

98

SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2010-05-26

99

Tumor necrosis factor-?-induced CTACK\\/CCL27 (cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine) production in keratinocytes is controlled by nuclear factor ?B  

Microsoft Academic Search

CTACK\\/CCL27 is pivotal in mediating the migration of lymphocytes into the skin, through the binding to the chemokine receptor CCR10. CCL27 is continuously expressed by keratinocytes, but highly upregulated in inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. CCL27 can be induced in cultured keratinocytes by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, which is also known to induce activity of the

Christian Vestergaard; Claus Johansen; Kristian Otkjaer; Mette Deleuran; Lars Iversen

2005-01-01

100

Postanaesthetic cerebral necrosis in five horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

After being anaesthetised for between one hour 40 minutes and seven hours, five adult horses developed acute neurological signs and extensive cerebrocortical necrosis. Four of them had had abdominal surgery for colic and one had had repeated orthopaedic interventions. Between five hours and seven days after the surgery, all five horses suddenly developed severe signs of a predominantly prosencephalic disturbance:

J. S. McKay; D. F. Kelly; M. Senior; R. S. Jones; T. W. Forest; A. de Lahunta; B. A. Summers

2002-01-01

101

MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN)  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN): A Viral Infection of the Atlantic Cod and Other. In this study, we have investigated PEN in the Atlantic cod, herring, and other marine and anadromous species of PEN-infected erythrocytes were irregular in outline, often appearing fragmented. Electron microscopy

102

Intrauterine epidermal necrosis: Report of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extensive epidermal necrosis in newborn infants is an unusual event of heterogeneous cause. Objective: The objective of this article is to describe what seems to be a previously unrecognized lethal disease. Methods: The clinical and histopathologic features of three premature infants, two of them nonidentical twins, and the autopsy findings of one of them were analyzed. Results: Intrauterine lethal

Ramón Ruiz-Maldonado; Carola Durán-McKinster; Daniel Carrasco-Daza; Lourdes Tamayo-Sánchez; María de la Luz Orozco-Covarrubias

1998-01-01

103

Snapshot in surgery: intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necrosis.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with rectal cancer was found to have an incidental ring-like lesion in the left rectovesical pouch. Histology revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necroses are postulated to be a result of infarcted epiploic appendages resulting in a free-floating lesion. PMID:25767714

Oh, Han Boon; Arab, Nahlah; Teo, Lynette; Lieske, Bettina

2015-02-01

104

Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

105

Snapshot in surgery: intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necrosis  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A 66-year-old man with rectal cancer was found to have an incidental ring-like lesion in the left rectovesical pouch. Histology revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necroses are postulated to be a result of infarcted epiploic appendages resulting in a free-floating lesion.

Oh, Han Boon; Arab, Nahlah; Teo, Lynette; Lieske, Bettina

2015-01-01

106

UPDATE ON PHLOEM NECROSIS OF ELMS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phloem necrosis (PN), caused by a submicro- scopic mycoplasmalike organism, is lethal in five elm (U\\/mus) species native to North America. All American elms, including those resistant to Dutch elm disease, are highly susceptible. The causal organism, which has never been cultured apart from plant or insect hosts, spreads within infected trees only within phloem sieve tubes. Infected red (slippery)

W. A. Sinclair; E. J. Braun; A. O. Larsen

107

Nephronectin expression in nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is characterized by an initiation phase, followed by an extension phase, and a maintenance and recovery phase, the latter of which involves increased regenera- tion of tubular cells. Nephronectin (NPNT), a ligand for a8b1 integrin, is expressed in the ureteric bud epithelium during kidney morphogenesis. However, little is known about the potential involvement of NPNT

Chao-Wen Cheng; Shuk-Man Ka; Shun-Min Yang; Hao-Ai Shui; Yao-Wen Hung; Pei-Chun Ho; Yung-Chih Su; Ann Chen

2008-01-01

108

CSD skin test  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease skin test ... cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. After 48 to 72 hours, a health care ... no special preparation. People with dermatitis or other skin irritations should have the test performed on an ...

109

Skin lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures are easily done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

110

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Gala Young Associates After-Party A Night the Stars Shine On Road to Healthy Skin Tour International ... The Skin Cancer Foundation Gala A Night the Stars Shine On The Road to Healthy Skin Tour ...

111

Skin (Pressure) Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

112

Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

113

How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Español How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer To detect skin cancer early, examine your skin all over your body ... Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer Posted: September 16, 2011 We Can Answer Your ...

114

Harms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic diseases: A focused Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

We performed a focused review of risk of harms of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in adult rheumatic diseases. Increased risk of serious infections, tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections has been reported across various studies, with etanercept appearing to have modestly better safety profile in terms of tuberculosis and opportunistic infections and infliximab with higher risk of serious infections. Evidence suggests no increase in risk of cancer with anti-TNF biologics, but there is an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Elderly patients appear to be at increased risk of incident or worsening heart failure with anti-TNF biologic use. PMID:23444956

Jain, Archana; Singh, Jasvinder A.

2013-01-01

115

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

116

Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up. PMID:24369521

Bhatt, Malay Y.; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

117

Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis.  

PubMed

Over the last several years, there have been refinements in the understanding and nomenclature regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute pancreatitis frequently develop acute pancreatic collections that, over time, may evolve into pancreatic pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Endoscopic management of these local complications of acute pancreatitis continues to evolve. Treatment strategies range from simple drainage of liquefied contents to repeated direct endoscopic necrosectomy of a complex necrotic collection. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocysts may arise as a consequence of pancreatic ductal obstruction that then leads to pancreatic ductal disruption. In this review, we focus on the indications, techniques and outcomes for endoscopic therapy of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis. PMID:25222140

Law, Ryan; Baron, Todd H

2015-02-01

118

Intestinal necrosis due to norovirus enteritis.  

PubMed

Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. We report a rare case of intestinal necrosis due to norovirus gastroenteritis in a healthy adult. A 47-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal fullness. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and diffuse tenderness. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed intestinal distention, pneumatosis, and portal venous gas, findings suggestive of intestinal necrosis. Norovirus genome was detected in his stools using the RT-PCR method. Upon laparotomy, a segment of necrotic bowel 170 cm from the ileocecal valve was identified, and the lesion was resected with an end ileostomy. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he was transferred to another hospital on the 7th post-operative day. Ileostomy closure was performed one month after the first surgery at the transfer hospital. He had no recurrent episodes. PMID:25471340

Yasuda, Hiromi; Okita, Yoshiki; Imaoka, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Koji; Shigemori, Tsunehiko; Kato, Toshio; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

2015-02-01

119

Idiopathic incus necrosis: Analysis of 4 cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with idiopathic incus necrosis who have conductive hearing loss and an intact ear drum. The study included four patients (3 women and 1 man; the ages of the patients were 22, 31, 35, and 56 years, respectively) with unilateral conductive hearing loss, no history of chronic serous otitis media, an intact ear drum, normal middle ear mucosa, and necrosis of the long processes of the incus. On preoperative pure tone audiometry, air-bone gaps were 24, 25, 38, and 33 dB. Bilateral tympanometry and temporal bone computed tomography results were normal. All 4 patients underwent an exploratory tympanotomy. During the operation, the mucosa of the middle ear was normal, with a mobile stapes foot plate and malleus. No evidence of any granulation tissue was found; however, necrosis of the incus long processes was seen. For ossicular reconstruction, we used tragal cartilage between the incus and the stapes in 1 patient; in the other 3 patients, glass ionomer bone cement was used (an interposition cartilage graft also was used in the patients who received the glass ionomer bone cement). In all patients, air-bone gaps under 20 dB were established in the first year after surgery. In the ossicular disorders within the middle ear, the incus is the most commonly affected ossicle. While, the most common cause of these disorders is chronic otitis media, it may be idiopathic rarely. Several ossicular reconstruction techniques have been used to repair incudostapedial discontinuity. PMID:23460219

Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail; Akdogan, Volkan; Avci, Suat; Ozluoglu, Levent

2013-02-01

120

Skin cancer in skin of color.  

PubMed

In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients (Halder & Bridgeman-Shah, 1995) (see Table 7). PMID:19691228

Bradford, Porcia T

2009-01-01

121

Comparing Quantitative Values of Two Generations of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography Systems: Can We Predict Necrosis?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Several devices exist today to assist the intraoperative determination of skin flap perfusion. Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography (LAICGA) has been shown to accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis using quantitative perfusion values. The laser properties of the latest LAICGA device (SPY Elite) differ significantly from its predecessor system (SPY 2001), preventing direct translation of previous published data. The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical relationship of perfusion values between these 2 devices. Methods: Breast reconstruction patients were prospectively enrolled into a clinical trial where skin flap evaluation and excision was based on quantitative SPY Q values previously established in the literature. Initial study patients underwent mastectomy skin flap evaluation using both SPY systems simultaneously. Absolute perfusion unit (APU) values at identical locations on the breast were then compared graphically. Results: 210 data points were identified on the same patients (n = 4) using both SPY systems. A linear relationship (y = 2.9883x + 12.726) was identified with a high level or correlation (R2 = 0.744). Previously published values using SPY 2001 (APU 3.7) provided a value of 23.8 APU on the SPY Elite. In addition, postoperative necrosis in these patients correlated to regions of skin identified with the SPY Elite with APU less than 23.8. Conclusion: Intraoperative comparison of LAICGA systems has provided direct correlation of perfusion values predictive of necrosis that were previously established in the literature. An APU value of 3.7 from the SPY 2001 correlates to a SPY Elite APU value of 23.8. PMID:25525483

Fourman, Mitchell S.; Rivara, Andrew; Dagum, Alexander B.; Huston, Tara L.; Ganz, Jason C.; Bui, Duc T.; Khan, Sami U.

2014-01-01

122

Estrogens and aging skin  

PubMed Central

Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

Thornton, M. Julie

2013-01-01

123

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule1 Suppression in Skin by Topical Delivery of AntiSense Oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We topically applied 20 nucleotide phosphorothioate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide in a cream formulation. It effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-?-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human skin transplanted on severe compromised immunodeficient mice. The effects were concentration dependent, sequence specific, and resulted from reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels in the skin. Intravenous administration of the drug

Rahul C. Mehta; Kimberly K. Stecker; Scott R. Cooper; Michael V. Templin; Yali J. Tsai; Thomas P. Condon; C. Frank Bennett; Gregory E. Hardee

2000-01-01

124

Psoriasis induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: a paradoxical adverse reaction.  

PubMed

Administration of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents is beneficial in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. We describe 5 patients in whom psoriasiform skin lesions developed 6-9 months after the initiation of anti-TNF therapy for longstanding, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (etanercept or adalimumab), typical ankylosing spondylitis (infliximab), and Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (infliximab). In all 5 patients, the underlying disease had responded well to anti-TNF therapy. Four patients developed a striking pustular eruption on the palms and/or soles accompanied by plaque-type psoriasis at other skin sites, while 1 patient developed thick erythematous scaly plaques localized to the scalp. In 3 patients there was nail involvement with onycholysis, yellow discoloration, and subungual keratosis. Histologic findings from skin biopsies were consistent with psoriasis. None of these patients had a personal or family history of psoriasis. In all patients, skin lesions subsided either with topical treatment alone, or after discontinuation of the responsible anti-TNF agent. The interpretation of this paradoxical side effect of anti-TNF therapy remains unclear but may relate to altered immunity induced by the inhibition of TNF activity in predisposed individuals. PMID:16052599

Sfikakis, P P; Iliopoulos, A; Elezoglou, A; Kittas, C; Stratigos, A

2005-08-01

125

Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver  

PubMed Central

Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

126

Transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promotes the survival of venous-congested skin flaps in rabbit ear.  

PubMed

Venous congestion after skin flap transplantation usually slows blood flow velocity and induces skin flap necrosis and surgical failure. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can promote neovascularization and have been extensively applied in cell transplantation therapy and tissue regeneration. However, their function has not been reported in venous-congested skin flaps. In this study, rabbit ADSCs were isolated and identified. We established a rabbit ear venous-congested skin flap model and injected ADSCs into points along the midlines of skin flaps. The survival conditions of venous-congested skin flaps on postoperative day 7 showed that there was obvious swelling, hemorrhage, or necrosis in skin flaps of the control group, while the skin flap survival rate in the ADSC treatment group significantly increased. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining results indicated that compared with the control group, thrombosis was significantly relieved and neovascularization was observed in the ADSC treatment group. Immunofluorescence revealed that the CD34 expression level and the number of capillaries significantly increased in the ADSC treatment group. In summary, ADSC transplantation promotes neovascularization in venous-congested skin flaps and skin flap survival. Therefore, ADSC transplantation may be an effective measure for promoting the survival of venous-congested skin flaps. PMID:25190589

Xu, Nan; Guo, Shu; Wang, Yuxin; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Chenchao

2015-03-01

127

Localized interdental bone necrosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Restorative dentistry involves use of various intracoronal and intracanal medicaments. Commonly used endodontic medicaments include paraformaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. These agents are caustic and in higher and in inappropriate concentrations can cause immediate damage to the surrounding hard and/or soft tissues. Proper knowledge of such agents and careful use of such intracanal medicaments is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries. This report presented a case of localized alveolar bone necrosis which is an iatrogenic damage occurred because of improper use of intracanal medicaments and improper management of carious tooth structure. Subsequent management of the case is also discussed in this case report. PMID:25214737

Reddy, K Krishna Mohana; Shankar, B Shiva; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Sudhakar, Jaradoddi; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar

2014-07-01

128

Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Renal papillary necrosis was induced in rats by bromoethylamine hydrobromide and studied electron microscopically and histochemically. Morphologic changes appear to develop in vessels and tubules simultaneously, rather than tubular lesions preceding and leading to vascular lesions, or vice versa. Abnormalities are recognized as early as 3 hours, but platelets do not make their appearance until 12 hours, eliminating primary vascular thrombosis as the source of papillary injury. ImagesFig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 8Fig 9Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4261830

Hill, G. S.; Wyllie, R. G.; Miller, M.; Heptinstall, R. H.

1972-01-01

129

Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors - state of knowledge.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawi?ska, Olga; Ba?kowiec-Iskra, Ewa

2014-12-22

130

Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors – state of knowledge  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawi?ska, Olga

2014-01-01

131

Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.  

PubMed

Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

2013-12-01

132

Growth on demand: Reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin  

PubMed Central

Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. redHere we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. redThis allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part.redTo demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

Zöllner, Alexander M.; Holland, Maria A.; Honda, Kord S.; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

2013-01-01

133

Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.  

PubMed

Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand

2013-01-01

134

Necrosis Avidity: A Newly Discovered Feature of Hypericin and its Preclinical Applications in Necrosis Imaging  

PubMed Central

Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [123I]iodohypericin, [124I]iodohypericin, and [131I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin. PMID:24052807

Jiang, Binghu; Wang, Jichen; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

2013-01-01

135

Squamous cell skin cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

136

Skin graft - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: extensive wounds burns specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur. The most common sites ...

137

Polymer photonic sensing skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.

2010-09-01

138

Aging changes in skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial ... can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ... hormone production Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells ...

139

Skin Pigmentation Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

140

Fungal Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor Intertrigo Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Fungal Skin Infections 4 ...

141

Bilateral putaminal necrosis and bronopol toxicity.  

PubMed

Among alcohols, methanol intoxication is the most frequently associated with cerebral toxicity, causing retinal damage and putaminal necrosis. This consequence is believed to be due to the transformation of methanol into formic acid. We describe the case of a patient who presented with acute impairment of consciousness and tetraparesis after she had been drinking several bottles of a topical antiseptic solution (Lysoform Medical) containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propandiol (bronopol) among excipients, in order to lose weight during previous months. Moreover, she had been on a strict slimming diet. Soon after admission, a severe respiratory and metabolic impairment became rapidly evident, requiring an intensive care unit admission. Cerebral MRI showed the presence of bilateral putaminal necrosis. She recovered in 10?days, surprisingly, without any evident clinical neurological signs. Methanol, also bronopol, when diluted in aqueous solution, at warm temperature and/or higher pH, may release formaldehyde, which is converted into formic acid, a basal ganglia toxic compound. PMID:25697297

Trivisano, Marina; Carapelle, Elena; Martino, Tommaso; Specchio, Luigi Maria

2015-01-01

142

Tc-99m PYP localization in calf muscle necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) can localize in an acute myocardial infarct and other extraosseous lesions, including soft tissue necrosis and severe cellular injury A case of Tc-99m PYP uptake in calf muscle necrosis following transfemoral cardiac catheterization is presented. This was incidentally detected on Tc-99m PYP imaging performed for an acute myocardial infarction. Repeat Tc-99m PYP imaging one month later was normal, implying resolution of the ischemic muscle necrosis.

Virupannavar, S.; Shirazi, P.H.; Khedkar, N.V.; Kaplan, E.

1984-05-01

143

Skin graft (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A skin graft is a surgical procedure in which a piece of skin is transplanted from one area to another. ... a great loss of tissue, a full thickness graft, a flap of skin with underlying muscle and blood vessels, may be ...

144

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

145

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

146

Skin conditions: new drugs for managing skin disorders.  

PubMed

New drugs are available for managing several common skin disorders. For psoriasis, topical corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy, but topical vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriene, now have a role. They are as effective as medium-potency topical steroids but without steroid side effects, though they can induce hypercalcemia if the dose exceeds 100 g/week. For more severe cases, methotrexate has been widely used, but other drugs now also are prescribed. They include calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, and more recently, biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. For children and pregnant women, in whom the previously discussed drugs are not appropriate, narrowband UV-B light often is the first-line treatment. For eczema, patients requiring steroid-sparing topical drugs can be treated with calcineurin inhibitors (ie, pimecrolimus or tacrolimus); between the 2, tacrolimus is the first choice for adults and children older than 2 years. When systemic management is needed, oral calcineurin inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine) are appropriate, though oral steroids often are needed for severe cases. The need for systemic management can sometimes be delayed with use of diluted bleach baths. For acne vulgaris, standard treatments with topical benzoyl peroxide and topical or systemic antibiotics are used widely, as are oral contraceptives, but oral isotretinoin is the most effective treatment. PMID:23600334

Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

2013-04-01

147

The Skin Deep Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâ??from the sunâ??s ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS; )

2010-05-26

148

Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

Redlich, Carrie A.

2010-01-01

149

Tumor necrosis factor alpha in mycobacterial infection.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a critical immune mediator in protection against and pathology of tuberculosis (TB). TNF-? had been found to be associated with TB when it was originally identified as cachexin and until today TB research continues to unveil novel roles of this cytokine of highest relevance for the disease process and for novel intervention strategies. The essentiality of TNF-? for containment of active TB is reflected by redundancy of cellular sources of this cytokine, by complexity of mechanisms regulating TNF-? abundance and by substantial polyfunctionality of this mediator. The propensity of TNF-? to modulate granuloma biogenesis and integrity in TB represents the quintessential process in infection outcome. The TNF-? signaling pathway has proved amenable for therapy of autoimmune and other chronic inflammatory noninfectious diseases. Whether or not, and to which extent, host-directed therapies based on this cytokine will reach the patient as adjunct therapy against TB remains to be seen. PMID:24819298

Dorhoi, Anca; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

2014-06-01

150

BOVINE TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR-1 AND METHODS OF USE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invention relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding a bovine tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1). Also within the invention is a soluble bovine TNF-R1, which is a potent inhibitor of bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The invention demonstrates that soluble bovine TNF-R1 has ...

151

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Microsatellite Haplotypes in Relation to Extended  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Microsatellite Haplotypes in Relation to Extended Haplotypes involved in effector immune function 121 (complement proteins C2, C4, and factor B and tumor From from those of other extended haplotypes. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF) (Y 141 and p IS] are closely

Alper, Chester A.

152

Necrosis affinity evaluation of 131I-hypericin in a rat model of induced necrosis.  

PubMed

Cancers are often with spontaneous or therapeutic necrosis that could be utilized as a generic target for developing new treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated hypericin (Hyp), a naturally occurring compound, after intravenous (i.v.) injection in a rat model of liver and muscle necrosis (n = 42), and evaluate its necrosis affinity. Hyp was labeled with (131)I with labeling efficiency >99%. After incubating in solution/rat plasma for 8 days, radiochemical purity of (131)I-Hyp remained 98.1 and 97.1%, respectively, indicating good in vitro stability. SPECT-CT images at 24 h after i.v. injection of (131)I-Hyp in rats with induced liver and muscle necrosis showed obvious tracer absorption in necrotic tissues. Biodistribution studies revealed that the percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) evolved from 1.9 %ID/g at 6 h, through a maximum 3.0 %ID/g at 12 h, to 1.0 %ID/g at 192 h in necrotic liver. Pharmacokinetics studies revealed that the terminal elimination half-life, total body clearance and area under the curve of (131)I-Hyp were 32.7 h, 9.2 L/h/kg and 1.6 MBq/L*h, respectively. These results demonstrated that (131)I-Hyp features a long blood circulation in animals and persistent retention in necrotic tissues. Therefore, (131)I-labeled Hyp could be a broad-spectrum anti-tumor agent with a cost much cheaper relative to the biological agents such as monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23627568

Kong, Ming; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Cuihua; Jiang, Xiao; Li, Yue; Gao, Meng; Yao, Nan; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Xiaoning; Fang, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng

2013-07-01

153

United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.  

PubMed

We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. PMID:25497376

Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

2015-02-01

154

Molecular mechanisms of liver injury: apoptosis or necrosis.  

PubMed

Hepatic apoptosis is thought of as a prevalent mechanism in most forms of liver injury. However, the role of hepatic apoptosis is often intermixed with the cellular necrosis. It remains unknown how apoptosis is relevant to the progression of the liver injury. This review summarizes the characteristics of both hepatic apoptosis and necrosis in pathogenesis of liver diseases. Apoptosis and necrosis represent alternative outcomes of different etiology during liver injury. Apoptosis is a main mode of cell death in chronic viral hepatitis, but is intermingled with necrosis in cholestatic livers. Necrosis is the principal type of liver cell killing in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Anti-apoptosis as a strategy is beneficial to liver repair response. Therapeutic options of liver disease depend on the understanding toward pathogenic mechanisms of different etiology. PMID:24867271

Wang, Kewei

2014-10-01

155

Treatment of recalcitrant psoriatic arthritis with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody.  

PubMed

Currently available treatments for psoriatic arthritis are either not completely effective or toxic in some patients. As tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is involved in both the joint and skin involvement in psoriatic arthritis, blockade of TNF-alpha seems a reliable way to treat patients with this disease. We report two patients with progressive recalcitrant psoriatic arthritis treated with low-dose methotrexate (7.5 mg, once per week) in combination with intravenous chimeric monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibody (infliximab, 3 mg/kg body weight). Both showed a dramatic and rapid response in the reduction of pain, followed by improvement of laboratory and clinical signs of joint inflammation. Skin disease also responds after a short delay. The observation shows that infliximab is effective and well tolerated in patients with recalcitrant progressive psoriatic arthritis. Different kinetics of symptom release during treatment suggest a variable role for TNF-alpha in disease pathways of pain, joint inflammation and skin involvement. PMID:12046813

Wollina, U; Konrad, H

2002-03-01

156

Plasma intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in neonates with bowel necrosis.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To determine if the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are biochemical markers of bowel necrosis in neonates. METHODS--Plasma ALP isoenzymes were measured in 22 babies with bowel necrosis, histologically confirmed, and in 22 matched controls. The isoenzymes were also measured in 16 infants with signs of necrotising enterocolitis, who recovered without histological confirmation of bowel necrosis. The isoenzymes were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Auxiliary tests for identification included neuraminidase digestion and treatment with monoclonal and polyclonal antiplacental antibodies. RESULTS--Intestinal ALP was detected in 16 infants with bowel necrosis--13 had fetal intestinal ALP (FI-ALP) and three had adult intestinal ALP (AI-ALP). FI-ALP was detected in nine of the controls. In the babies with bowel necrosis intestinal ALP was found over all gestations, but in the controls only in those less than 34 weeks. The percentages of total ALP activity due to intestinal ALP were significantly higher in those with bowel necrosis compared with matched controls (p = 0.028). In babies of all gestations diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of intestinal ALP as a marker of bowel necrosis was 73% and diagnostic specificity 59%. In babies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, diagnostic sensitivity fell to 60% but the test became completely specific. In two babies FI-ALP increased from zero/trace to high activity coincident with the episode of bowel necrosis. In 16 babies with signs of necrotising enterocolitis but unconfirmed bowel necrosis FI-ALP was detected in four. CONCLUSION--Intestinal ALP seems to be released into the circulation in some babies with bowel necrosis, but its detection does not have the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to be a reliable biochemical marker of the condition. Images PMID:8157755

McLachlan, R; Coakley, J; Murton, L; Campbell, N

1993-01-01

157

Levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis of nose, ears, and extremities: Case report  

PubMed Central

Levamisole is an immunomodulatory and antihelminthic drug, previously removed from the United States market, and now estimated to be present in the vast majority of cocaine distributed in the United States. Levamisole-adulterated cocaine (LAC) exposure can result in neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis with a predilection for subsites of the face. The objective of this review is to increase awareness among otolaryngologists of the manifestations of LAC exposure. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use, consulted for purpuric, necrotic lesions of the nose, cheeks, and ears, with accompanying leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The effects of levamisole are immune mediated, with antibodies directed against neutrophils causing neutropenia, and vasculitis caused by antibody deposition or secondary to induction of antiphospholipid antibodies causing thrombosis. LAC exposure can be differentiated from other similar appearing pathologies by evaluating serology for specific ANCA. The most important treatment is cessation of cocaine use, which most often results in complete resolution of symptoms. Awareness of the presentation, complications, and treatment of LAC exposure may be especially important for otolaryngologists, who may be one of the firsts to evaluate an affected patient. PMID:25565048

Jiron, Jose L.; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Folbe, Adam J.

2014-01-01

158

The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

2012-01-01

159

Skin Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten

160

Peoniflorin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-? induced chemokine production in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells by blocking nuclear factor-?B and ERK pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peoniflorin (PF) extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora pall displays anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties in several animal models. Chemokines are vital for directing the\\u000a movement of circulating leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory\\u000a skin diseases. Herein, we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of PF on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)

Tao Chen; Zai-pei Guo; Xiao-yan Jiao; Rui-zhen Jia; Yu-hong Zhang; Jing-yi Li; Xu-lei Huang; Hong-jie Liu

2011-01-01

161

Skin tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The coverage of extensive wounds with viable autologous keratinocytes remains the only option of treatment if autologous donor skin is not obtainable. There is evidence that proliferating keratinocytes, as suspended cells or as a single layer, are adequate for wound closure. Understanding keratinocyte-matrix interactions not only allows us to influence keratinocyte outgrowth, adhesion, and migration, but may also guide us to modify matrix molecules for enhancing keratinocyte take. Further approaches may include the generation of genetically manipulated keratinocytes, which allow the use of an off-the-shelf epidermal replacement. As surgeons, our goal is to help burn patients with the best quality of skin in the shortest time possible. As tissue engineers, we have not achieved the goal of a universal skin product. By continually reviewing the options and using them, we can at least use the proper material in the adequate situation. Because of the limited resources, the need for comparisons of clinical effectiveness and cost are ever more important. As anatomy and physiology of engineered skin substitutes improve, they will become more similar to native skin autografts. Improvement of skin substitutes will result from inclusion of additional cell types (eg, melanocytes) and from modifications of culture media and scaffolds. Skin-substitute materials may be able to stimulate regeneration rather than repair, and tissue-engineered skin may match the quality of split-skin autografts, our present gold standard. PMID:14621305

Bannasch, H; Föhn, M; Unterberg, T; Bach, A D; Weyand, B; Stark, G B

2003-10-01

162

Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2006-03-14

163

Great Toe Necrosis Predicts an Unfavorable Limb Salvage Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The initial location of necrosis may affect the limb salvage rate. This study of 130 patients with chronic toe ulcers or gangrene was performed to assess whether the location of initial necrosis in the toes affected limb salvage prognosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the initial necrosis was in the great toe or in other toes. Limb salvage prognosis was determined retrospectively. In the great toe group, the rates of total toe loss and major amputation were 50.0% and 24.4%, respectively. When the initial necrosis was in other toes, these rates were 27.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Great toe necrosis is associated with significantly higher rates of total toe loss (odds ratio = 3.10; P = 0.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.43?6.68) and major amputation (odds ratio = 3.66; P = 0.007; 95% confidence interval, 1.37?9.79). The great toe is supplied by 3 source arteries, whereas the lesser toes are fed by 1 or 2 arteries. Therefore, necrosis initiating from the great toe may reflect the presence of severe vascular disorders. The great toe is also anatomically connected to much of the foot via the tendons. Infection is more likely to spread along these tendons, which may reduce limb prognosis. Thus, the initial location of necrosis may be predictive of limb prognosis. PMID:25426399

Ichioka, Shigeru

2014-01-01

164

Redox Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) is a key cytokine that has been shown to play important physiologic (e.g., inflammation) and pathophysiologic (e.g., various liver pathologies) roles. In liver and other tissues, TNF treatment results in the simultaneous activation of an apoptotic pathway (i.e., TRADD, RIP, JNK) and a survival pathway mediated by NF-?B transcription of survival genes (i.e., GADD45?, Mn-SOD, cFLIP). The cellular response (e.g., proliferation versus apoptosis) to TNF is determined by the balance between the apoptotic signaling pathway and the NF-?B survival pathway stimulated by TNF. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important modulators of signaling pathways and can regulate both apoptotic signaling and NF-?B transcription triggered by TNF. ROS are important in mediating the sustained activation of JNK, to help mediate apoptosis after TNF treatment. In some cells, ROS are second messengers that mediate apoptosis after TNF stimulation. Conversely, ROS can cause redox modifications that inhibit NF-?B activation, which can lead to cell death triggered by TNF. Consequently, the redox status of cells can determine the biologic response that TNF will induce in cells. In many liver pathologies, ROS generated extrinsically (e.g., inflammation) or intrinsically (i.e., drugs, toxins) may act in concert with TNF to promote hepatocyte death and liver injury through redox inhibition of NF-?B. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2245–2263. PMID:19361274

Ybanez, Maria D.; Ahmadi, Sara; Yeh, Kelvin; Kaplowitz, Neil

2009-01-01

165

Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor  

SciTech Connect

Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

1986-06-01

166

Pesticide induced muscle necrosis: mechanisms and prevention.  

PubMed

The nerve agent soman, as well as other organophosphates such as paraoxon and phospholine in concentrations that caused cholinergic symptoms induced a progressive dose-related necrosis in rat skeletal muscle fibers. The severity of the myopathy depended on a critical decrease in activity and duration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The number of muscle fibers affected was greatest with soman, followed by tertiary phospholine, paraxon , and quaternary phospholine. The necrotic nerve fibers were repaired within 1 week. Atropine and gentamycin in concentrations that do not block neuromuscular transmission, attenuate the necrotic action of the organophosphates by interacting with the presynaptic Ca2+ uptake mechanism. The half-time recovery rate of AChE after exposure to soman varied between 12 hr for sciatic nerve, 5-9 days for muscle, and 14 days for brain. AChE activity of peripheral nerve was minimally inhibited by soman and had recovered to control activity within 24 hr. The reason for this apparent insensitivity of the nerve AChE to soman may be due to the high activity of an enzyme that hydrolyzes soman. AChE at the neuromuscular junction in part has a protective and regulatory function through its control of free acetylcholine (ACh). By limiting the accumulation of ACh and the extent of its interaction with pre- and postsynaptic membranes, the morphological integrity of nerve terminals and muscle is preserved. PMID:6724209

Dettbarn, W D

1984-04-01

167

Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich  

E-print Network

Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

Kaganovich, Igor

168

Skin signs of systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin complaints are some of the commonest reasons patients and parents seek medical attention. Some may have skin changes as part of a multi-organ disease. For others, severe skin disease may predispose to secondary internal complications. In other circumstances, skin changes may be a sign of an immunological response to infection or medication. Recognizing skin signs provides a unique opportunity

R. Yogendra Prasad Hunasehally; Richard G. Goodwin

2011-01-01

169

Detection of Necrosis by Release of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity  

PubMed Central

Summary Apoptosis and necrosis are two major forms of cell death observed in normal and disease pathologies. Although there are many assays for detection of apoptosis, relatively few assays are available for measuring necrosis. A key signature for necrotic cells is the permeabilization of plasma membrane. This event can be quantified in tissue culture settings by measuring the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). When combined with other methods, measuring LDH release is a useful method for detection of necrosis. In this chapter, we describe the step-by-step procedure for detection of LDH release from necrotic cells using a microtiter plate based colorimetric absorbance assay. PMID:23397389

Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Moriwaki, Kenta; De Rosa, María José

2013-01-01

170

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

171

Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

172

Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.  

PubMed

We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

2014-04-01

173

Arsenite Sensitizes Human Melanomas to Apoptosis via Tumor Necrosis Factor ?-mediated Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen and is associated with a variety of cancers including those of the skin. Paradoxically, arsenic has also been used, amid at low doses, in the treatment of leukemia for over a century. Here we demonstrate that low to moderate concentrations of arsenite (2–10 ?M) that has little or no effect on normal melanocytes may induce apoptosis of human melanomas including highly metastatic ones despite their low surface Fas levels. The two prerequisites that dictate apoptotic response of melanomas upon arsenite treatment are low nuclear NF-?B activity and an endogenous expression of tumor necrosis factor ?. Under these conditions, melanoma cells acquired sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor ?-mediated killing. On the other hand, signaling pathways including those of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT, MEK-ERK, and JNK play a protective role against arsenite-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in melanoma cells. Suppression of these pathways dramatically accelerates arsenite-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these data could provide potential approaches to sensitize melanomas to the cytotoxic effects of arsenite through modulating the signaling pathways. PMID:15028728

Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

2015-01-01

174

Treating Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers experience high rates of skin disease that result from their working and living conditions. Knowledge of the ways farmworkers treat skin disease symptoms will provide a foundation for developing culturally appropriate health education, improving the delivery of health services, and improving occupational health policy for agricultural workers. The purpose of this paper is to describe

Thomas A. Arcury; Quirina M. Vallejos; Steven R. Feldman; Sara A. Quandt

2006-01-01

175

Measuring skin reflectance parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of determining skin reflectance parameters, and studies their stability and discriminating power for different individuals. Our study uses radiance data captured by a Cyberware 3030 range scanner. We analyse the data using a layered reflectance model based on the Beckmann-Kirchhoff wave scattering model. The parameters of this model are the thickness of the skin layers,

Matthew P. Dickens; William A. P. Smith; Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock

2008-01-01

176

Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare and contrast their own skin (including the area covered) with that of an orange. This activity helps learners understand that skin is a vital part of the body and must be protected from sun damage. This lesson guide includes background information, resources, variation ideas and a bilingual (English and Spanish) handout.

Nancy P. Moreno

2011-01-01

177

Bleeding into the skin  

MedlinePLUS

Bleeding under the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny pinpoint red dots (called ... Aside from the common bruise, bleeding into the skin or mucous membranes is a very significant sign and should always be checked out by a health care ...

178

Ballistic skin simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10–20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials

Jorma Jussila; Ari Leppäniemi; Mikael Paronen; Erkki Kulomäki

2005-01-01

179

Stages of Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... not spread to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma. A skin cancer lesion on the face that ... leg that looks pink and raised (right panel). Squamous cell carcinoma occurs on areas of the skin that have ...

180

You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS; )

2006-04-30

181

Topical skin targeting effect of penetration modifiers on hairless mouse skin, pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study was to investigate the topical skin targeting effects and mechanism of combination penetration modifiers of 1,2-hexanediol (or 1,2-heptanediol) and 1,4-cyclohexanediol on transdermal absorption of metronidazole (MTZ) in different skin models. Methods: Six formulations were applied to pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin models, respectively, and the results were compared with the previous data on hairless mouse skin worked out by our laboratory. Four parameters (flux, Tlag, Q24 and targeting ratio) were used to evaluate permeability and targeting effect in skin. Results: The combined penetration modifiers played a general role on decreasing permeability without reducing skin retention. The most significant skin permeability decrement to MTZ was pig abdominal skin (permeability decrement was ?20% for hairless mouse skin, 60% for pig abdominal skin and 40% for pig ear skin, respectively) while the strongest skin targeting effect appeared in hairless mouse skin (targeting ratios were 1.79 for hairless mouse skin, 1.24 for pig abdominal skin and 1.05 for pig ear skin, respectively) under the role of penetration modifiers. Conclusions: Thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was the major factor impact on skin targeting effect. Selection criteria of skin models also have been discussed in this study. PMID:24329579

Yu, Meng; Guo, Fang; Ling, Ying; Li, Nan; Tan, Fengping

2013-12-13

182

General Information about Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

183

Mom and Baby Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...

184

6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

185

A Novel Model of Human Skin Pressure Ulcers in Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pressure ulcers are a prevalent health problem in today's society. The shortage of suitable animal models limits our understanding and our ability to develop new therapies. This study aims to report on the development of a novel and reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model in mice. Material and Methods Male non-obese, diabetic, severe combined immunodeficiency mice (n?=?22) were engrafted with human skin. A full-thickness skin graft was placed onto 4×3 cm wounds created on the dorsal skin of the mice. Two groups with permanent grafts were studied after 60 days. The control group (n?=?6) was focused on the process of engraftment. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment, histological analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. The pressure ulcer group (n?=?12) was created using a compression device. A pressure of 150 mmHg for 8 h, with a total of three cycles of compression-release was exerted. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment and histological analysis. Results Skin grafts in the control group took successfully, as shown by visual assessment, FISH techniques and histological analysis. Pressure ulcers in the second group showed full-thickness skin loss with damage and necrosis of all the epidermal and dermal layers (ulcer stage III) in all cases. Complete repair occurred after 40 days. Conclusions An inexpensive, reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model has been developed. This novel model will facilitate the development of new clinically relevant therapeutic strategies that can be tested directly on human skin. PMID:25310568

Maldonado, Andrés A.; Cristóbal, Lara; Martín-López, Javier; Mallén, Mar; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Buján, Julia

2014-01-01

186

Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis is a challenging complication of end-stage renal disease, with an unknown underlying mechanism. Several risk factors have been identified, such as hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, low serum albumin levels, and history of warfarin therapy. This article presents a case of calciphylaxis provoked by reintroduction of warfarin therapy, introducing the possibility of direct induction. PMID:23966800

Saifan, Chadi; Saad, Marc; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

2013-01-01

187

Prothrombin complex concentrates to reverse warfarin-induced coagulopathy in patients with intracranial bleeding.  

PubMed

Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) offer a means for the rapid reversal of warfarin, particularly in the setting of life-threatening bleeding. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a PCC-based protocol in patients with warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subdural hematoma (SDH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This was a retrospective case-series review of patients treated with an institution-approved warfarin reversal protocol. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage and known warfarin use with an international normalized ratio (INR)>1.4 received fresh frozen plasma (FFP), vitamin K (phytonadione), and weight-based, 3-factor PCC (Profilnine(®) SD) dose based on the initial INR. Demographic and clinical information, the degree of and time to INR normalization, and adverse events were recorded. The thirty study patients included 19 with primary ICH, 7 with SDH, and 4 with SAH. The mean age was 72.8 (±11) years, including 11 (37%) patients ?80years old. The median presenting INR was 2.3 (IQR 2-3.3) and post-treatment INR was 1.4 (IQR 1.3-1.5, Z score 6.4, p<0.001). Median time from PCC administration to the first follow up INR was 95 (IQR 50-140) min. No patient's INR increased by more than 0.3 over 72h. Nine patients (30%) underwent neurosurgical procedures after PCC administration and no procedure-related bleeding complication was noted. Adverse events included 3 instances of early hematoma expansion, one ischemic stroke in a patient with endocarditis on post-PCC day 1, one pulmonary embolism 5weeks after PCC treatment, and one coronary in-stent thrombosis 60days after PCC treatment. 6 patients died prior to hospital discharge of anticipated complications of their initial event, and none from identifiable thrombotic complications of PCC. A 3-factor PCC preparation (Profilnine(®) SD), administered with FFP and vitamin K to patients with acute warfarin-associated intracranial bleeding is a reasonable approach to urgent warfarin reversal. However, randomized, prospective trials are needed to verify the safety and clinical effectiveness of PCC administration in this population. PMID:22835715

Cabral, Katherine P; Fraser, Gilles L; Duprey, Jennifer; Gibbons, Beth A; Hayes, Timothy; Florman, Jeffrey E; Seder, David B

2013-06-01

188

Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

2012-05-01

189

Femoral head necrosis treated with vascularized iliac crest graft.  

PubMed

We reviewed 24 hips with avascular necrosis of the femoral head in 24 patients treated with vascularized iliac bone grafts 12 years after operation. In 7 patients the necrosis was classified as Ficat Stage II and in 17 patients as Stage III. Eight patients showed poor results. In 6 hips with fair results, moderate progression of the necrosis was noted at 3 to 8 years postoperatively. In 5 hips showing good results, slow progression with incipient signs of arthrosis were noted 8 years after surgery. In the remaining 5 patients with excellent results, no evidence of progression was noted 9 to 14 years postoperatively. The method described is recommended for treatment in the Ficat Stage II and early Stage III, when necrosis does not yet involve the complete femoral head. PMID:10486026

Pavlovcic, V; Dolinar, D; Arnez, Z

1999-01-01

190

Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

2013-01-01

191

Toxic acute tubular necrosis following treatment with zoledronate (Zometa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic acute tubular necrosis following treatment with zoledronate (Zometa).BackgroundRenal failure and toxic acute tubular necrosis (ATN) may be seen following exposure to a variety of therapeutic agents. Zoledronate (Zometa) is a new, highly potent bisphosphonate used in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. We report the first clinical-pathologic study of nephrotoxicity associated with this agent.MethodsA cohort of six patients (four

Glen S. Markowitz; Paul L. Fine; Jay I. Stack; Cheryl L. Kunis; Jai Radhakrishnan; Winicjusz Palecki; Jin Park; Samih H. Nasr; Shirley Hoh; David S. Siegel; Vivette D. D'Agati

2003-01-01

192

Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States.BackgroundThe national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized avascular necrosis (AVN) in renal transplant recipients has not been reported.MethodsThis historical cohort study consisted of 42,096 renal transplant recipients enrolled in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. The data source was USRDS

Kevin C Abbott; Robert J Oglesby; Lawrence Y Agodoa

2002-01-01

193

Renal cortical necrosis: A rare complication of Plasmodium vivax malaria.  

PubMed

A young female with Plasmodium vivax malaria presented with anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia, and advanced renal failure. She remained anuric for more than 3 weeks. Kidney biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute cortical necrosis. During follow-up, she became dialysis independent, but remained in stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 3 month. P. vivax is supposed to be benign in nature, but can lead to rare and severe complication like renal cortical necrosis and progress to CKD. PMID:25484536

Kumar, R; Bansal, N; Jhorawat, R; Kimmatkar, P D; Malhotra, V

2014-11-01

194

Intestinal Necrosis due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate) in Sorbitol  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis. Sorbitol, added as a cathartic agent, may be primarily responsible. Previous studies have documented bowel necrosis primarily in postoperative, dialysis, and transplant patients. We sought to identify additional clinical characteristics among patients with probable SPS-induced intestinal necrosis. Methods Rhode Island Hospital surgical pathology records were reviewed to identify all gastrointestinal specimens reported as containing SPS crystals from December 1998 to June 2007. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and hospital courses of histologically verified cases of intestinal necrosis were extracted from the medical records. Results Twenty-nine patients with reports of SPS crystals were identified. Nine cases were excluded as incidental findings with normal mucosa. Nine patients were excluded as their symptoms began before SPS administration or because an alternate etiology for bowel ischemia was identified. Eleven patients had confirmed intestinal necrosis and a temporal relationship with SPS administration suggestive of SPS-induced necrosis. Only 2 patients were postoperative, and only 4 had end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All patients had documented hyperkalemia, received oral SPS, and developed symptoms of intestinal injury between 3 hours and 11 days after SPS administration. Four patients died. Conclusion Intestinal ischemia is a recognized risk of SPS in sorbitol. Our series highlights that patients may be susceptible even in the absence of ESRD, surgical intervention, or significant comorbidity. PMID:19373153

McGowan, C. E.; Saha, S.; Chu, G.; Resnick, M. B.; Moss, S. F.

2013-01-01

195

[Skin diseases and obesity].  

PubMed

Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management. PMID:25760747

Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

2015-01-01

196

The Ontogeny of Skin.  

PubMed

Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

2014-04-01

197

The Ontogeny of Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

2014-01-01

198

Environment and the skin  

PubMed Central

The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic considerations, ultraviolet light, and phototoxic agents. PMID:413711

Suskind, Raymond R.

1977-01-01

199

Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.  

PubMed

Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues. PMID:22521864

Nicolaou, Anna

2013-01-01

200

Thermal Skin fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

Milam, T. B.

1972-01-01

201

Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool

Tim K. Lee; Lioudmila Tchvialeva; Haishan Zeng; David I. McLean; Harvey Lui

2009-01-01

202

Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

203

Follow-Up During Early Infancy of Newborns Diagnosed with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (ScFN) is an uncommon condition caused by generalized and/or local tissue hypoperfusion. The skin lesions of ScFN tend to improve spontaneously. However, ScFN may also lead to complications which cause serious problems. The severity of the etiologic factors contributing to the development of the disease determines the severity of complications. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for complications, especially for hypercalcemia which may be life-threatening. The severity and duration of hypercalcemia are associated with the extensity of skin lesions. We present a newborn who developed ScFN as a result of systemic hypotension. The ScFN resolved after the first few weeks of life, but the patient developed mild hypercalcemia during the 4-month follow-up period. The infant was breast-fed during follow-up, and vitamin D prophylaxis was not initiated. The hypercalcemia resolved within four months without any complications. We would like to draw attention to the need to monitor serum calcium levels in these infants and to refrain from initiating vitamin D prophylaxis in the first months of life. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22155466

Ak?n, Leyla; Sar?c?, Dilek; Y?lmaz, ?brahim; Balkanl?, Süleyman; Kurto?lu, Selim

2011-01-01

204

A Case of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Inhibitors-induced Pustular Psoriasis.  

PubMed

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents promise better disease control for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis resistant to classical disease-modifying treatments. Etanercept, a recombinant human TNF receptor fusion protein, is used to treat a variety of TNF-alpha-mediated diseases by inhibiting the biological activity of TNF-alpha. We experienced a case of pustular psoriasis in a 32-year-old man during anti-TNF-alpha therapy with etanercept. He had a history of ankylosing spondylitis for 2 years. Two years after treatment of etanercept, erythematous pustules developed on his palms and soles. He had no previous history of pustular psoriasis. The skin lesion improved as the etanercept therapy was stopped, but pustular skin eruption recurred as adalimumab, a different TNF-alpha inhibitor, was administered to manage his ankylosing spondylitis. Several TNF-alpha inhibitors have different molecular structures, but these inhibitors might have a similar potency to induce pustular psoriasis from this case. PMID:20548918

Park, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Chul

2010-05-01

205

Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

1955-01-01

206

Genetics and skin aging  

PubMed Central

Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

2012-01-01

207

Children's Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... free sunscreen with the ingredients zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. Reapply sunscreen approximately every two hours, even ... general term encompasses various inflamed skin conditions, including one of the most common forms of eczema, atopic ...

208

Skin Problems in Construction  

MedlinePLUS

... Some materials that can hurt your skin Wet cement Some cement dusts Lime Metalworking fluids Some paints Adhesives Epoxy ... you work with caustics like lime or wet cement. (Soaps that remove caustics and do not cause ...

209

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

210

Layers of the Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... of odor-producing bacteria. Sebaceous glands Sebaceous, or oil, glands, are attached to hair follicles and can ... the soles of the feet. These glands secrete oil that helps keep the skin smooth and supple. ...

211

Skin, Hair, and Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... infants and adolescents. Back Continue Bacterial Skin Infections Impetigo . Impetigo is a bacterial infection that results in a ... bacteria are the main causes of cellulitis and impetigo. Certain types of these bacteria are also responsible ...

212

Skin Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... and eyes from the sun has not been proven to lower the chance of getting skin cancer, ... risk of melanoma: Sunscreen It has not been proven that using sunscreen to prevent sunburn can protect ...

213

Allergic Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

Hives and Angioedema Urticaria is the medical term for hives, which are red, itchy, raised areas of the skin. They can range in ... appear anywhere on your body. Most cases of hives are known as acute and go away within ...

214

Examine Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... IV Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Patient Access Grant: Apply Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

215

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... D Cosmetic treatments Cosmeceuticals Cosmetic dermatology Global rejuvenation Laser hair removal Liposuction Gold Triangle Awards Award winners ... for people with skin of color. Until recently, laser hair removal was not an option for people ...

216

Designing building skins  

E-print Network

This thesis involves framing criteria and discerning issues to be considered in the design of building skins in an urban environment. The 'information age' has paradoxically seen the demise of the facade as an important ...

Desai, Arjun

1992-01-01

217

Neuroendocrinology of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical observations of the skin as a target for melanotropins have been complemented by the discovery of their actual production at the local level. In fact, all of the elements controlling the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis are expressed in the skin including CRH, urocortin, and POMC, with its products ACTH, a-MSH, and b-endorphin. Demonstration of the corresponding recep-

ANDRZEJ SLOMINSKI; JACOBO WORTSMAN

2000-01-01

218

Cardiolipin plays a role in KCN-induced necrosis.  

PubMed

Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique anionic, dimeric phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is essential for the function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. While the role of cardiolipin in apoptosis is well established, its involvement in necrosis is enigmatic. In the present study, KCN-induced necrosis in U937 cells was used as an experimental model to assess the role of CL in necrosis. KCN addition to U937 cells induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, while the antioxidants inhibited necrosis, indicating that ROS play a role in KCN-induced cell death. Further, CL oxidation was confirmed by the monomer green fluorescence of 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) and by TLC. Utilizing the red fluorescence of the dimeric NAO, redistribution of CL in mitochondrial membrane during necrosis was revealed. We also showed that the catalytic activity of purified adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase complex, known to be modulated by cardiolipin, decreased following KCN treatment. All these events occurred at an early phase of the necrotic process prior to rupture of the cell membrane. Furthermore, CL-deficient HeLa cells were found to be resistant to KCN-induced necrosis as compared with the wild type cells. We suggest that KCN, an effective reversible inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase and thereby of the respiratory chain leads to ROS increase, which in turn oxidizes CL (amongst other membrane phospholipids) and leads to mitochondrial membrane lipid reorganization and loss of CL symmetry. Finally, the resistance of CL-deficient cells to necrosis further supports the notion that CL, which undergoes oxidation during necrotic cell death, is an integral part of the milieu of events taking place in mitochondria leading to membrane disorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24995676

Tsesin, Natalia; Khalfin, Boris; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

2014-10-01

219

Pregnancy and Skin  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

2014-01-01

220

Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure. PMID:22110782

2011-01-01

221

The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  

PubMed

The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

2012-07-01

222

Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.  

PubMed

Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

2014-01-01

223

Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

2014-01-01

224

The skin: its structure and response to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The response of the skin to ionizing radiation has important implications both for the treatment of malignant disease by radiation and for radiological protection. The structural organization of human skin is described and compared with that of the pig, with which it shows many similarities, in order that the response of the skin to ionizing radiation may be more fully understood. Acute radiation damage to the skin is primarily a consequence of changes in the epidermis; the timing of the peak of the reaction is related to the kinetic organization of this layer. The rate of development of damage is independent of the radiation dose, since this is related to the natural rate of loss of cells from the basal layer of the epidermis. Recovery of the epidermis occurs as a result of the proliferation of surviving clonogenic basal cells from within the irradiated area. The presence of clonogenic cells in the canal of the hair follicle is important, particularly after non-uniform irradiation from intermediate energy beta-emitters. The migration of viable cells from the edges of the irradiated site is also significant when small areas of skin are irradiated. Late damage to the skin is primarily a function of radiation effects on the vasculature; this produces a wave of dermal atrophy after 16-26 weeks. Dermal necrosis develops at this time after high doses. A second phase of dermal thinning is seen to develop after greater than 52 weeks, and this later phase of damage is associated with the appearance of telangiectasia. Highly localized irradiation of the skin, either to a specific layer (as may result from exposure to very low energy beta-emitters) or after exposure to small highly radioactive particles, 'hot particles', produces gross effects that become visibly manifest within 2 weeks of exposure. These changes result from the direct killing of the cells of the skin in interphase after doses greater than 100 Gy. Dose-effect curves have been established for the majority of these deterministic endpoints in the skin from the results of both experimental and clinical studies. These are of value in the establishment of safe radiation dose limits for the skin. PMID:1969905

Hopewell, J W

1990-04-01

225

Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review.  

PubMed

Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as "black esophagus" or "acute necrotizing esophagitis", is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

2013-01-01

226

Minimally invasive intervention for infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Infected necrosis is the main indication for invasive intervention in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The 2013 IAP/APA guidelines state that percutaneous catheter drainage should be the first step in the treatment of infected necrosis. In 50-65% of patients, additional necrosectomy is required after catheter drainage, which was traditionally done by open necrosectomy. Driven by the perceived lower complication rate, there is an increasing trend toward minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy. The authors present an overview of current minimally invasive treatment options for necrotizing pancreatitis and review recent developments in clinical studies. PMID:25122506

Hollemans, Robbert A; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J; Bollen, Thomas L; Timmer, Robin; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

2014-11-01

227

Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as “black esophagus” or “acute necrotizing esophagitis”, is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

2013-01-01

228

Bullous skin reaction seen after extravasation of calcium gluconate.  

PubMed

Intravenous (IV) calcium is usually given to temporarily treat the effects of hyperkalaemia on muscle and heart. When extravasation of a calcium gluconate infusion occurs, there may be rapid and marked swelling and erythema, with signs of soft-tissue necrosis or infection, and ensuing extensive local calcification, called calcinosis cutis. We report a 26-year-old woman who was hospitalized for exacerbation of acute intermittent porphyria. She had a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure. On the second day of her hospitalization, she developed hyperpotassaemia (6.7 mEq/L potassium; normal range 3.5-5 mEq/L). She was given an IV infusion of 10 mL calcium gluconate into the left dorsal pedal vein. Bullous skin reactions occurred in the infusion area nearly 2 h after administration. The patient's leg was elevated and the lesions cleaned with 0.9% saline. By day 9 of hospitalization, the lesions had markedly regressed. Several drugs have been associated with dermoepidermal blistering as an adverse drug reaction, but there is only one existing report in the literature about this side-effect associated with calcium gluconate. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of bullous skin reactions, which may be a predictor of extravasation and necrosis, when treating patients with IV calcium gluconate. PMID:22830330

Celbek, G; Gungor, A; Albayrak, H; Kir, S; Guvenc, S C; Aydin, Y

2013-03-01

229

Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  

PubMed

Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

2013-04-01

230

Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

1989-01-01

231

Update on skin allergy.  

PubMed

Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers. PMID:25283085

Schlapbach, C; Simon, D

2014-12-01

232

Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.  

PubMed

The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

2012-02-01

233

Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2006-02-13

234

The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger

1999-01-01

235

Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

The skin represents the largest organ of the body and provides a vital interface between the body and the environment. Hereditary and acquired alterations of structural proteins and lipids of the stratum corneum and epidermal tight junctions leading to a diminished skin barrier function are major causative factors for a number of skin diseases, in particular atopic dermatitis (AD). This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of the skin barrier in AD with regard to pathogenesis and treatment, on the relationship between skin barrier abnormalities and immune aberrations, and on potential therapies aimed at repair of the skin barrier. Furthermore recent advances in the genetics of AD will be addressed. PMID:24389202

Kezic, Sanja; Novak, Natalija; Jakasa, Ivone; Jungersted, Jackob M; Simon, Michel; Brandner, Johanna M; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A; Weidinger, Stephan

2014-01-01

236

About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

237

Periocular Skin Cancer -- Skin Tumors Around the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... include ?at squamous cells, round basal cells, and pigment producing melanocytes . The dermis is the deeper layer of skin and contains the hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, and blood vessels. Skin cancers ...

238

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lipid hydroperoxide-induced tumor necrosis  

E-print Network

- perimental diabetes induced with streptozotocin, serum LHP levels increase and reach peak con- centrationORIGINAL ARTICLE Lipid hydroperoxide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, vascular endothelial Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA Lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) at high concentrations are cytotoxic

Sasisekharan, Ram

239

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

Marion Man-Ying Chan

1995-01-01

240

Recent Progress in the Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is used synonymously with TNF-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine. The effects of TNF were first described in the last century, but the soluble factor was discovered in 1975. Now TNF is one of the most important cytokines investigated by scientists from different fields. This short review briefly summarizes the state of the art and adds the

Lothar Rink; Holger Kirchner

1996-01-01

241

Necrosis targeted combinational theragnostic approach to treat cancer  

PubMed Central

Residual cancer cells and subsequent tumor relapse is an obstacle for curative cancer treatment. Tumor necrosis therapy (TNT) has recently been developed to cause residual tumor regression or destruction. Here, we exploited the avidity of the sennidin A (SA) tracer and radioiodinated SA (131I-SA) to necrotic tumors in order to further empower TNT. We showed high uptake and prolonged retention of SA in necrotic tumors and a quick clearance in other non-targeted tissues including the liver. On SPECT-CT images, tumor mass appeared persistently as a hotspot. Based on the prominent targetability of 131I-SA to the tumor necrosis, we designed a combinational theragnostic modality. The vascular disrupting agent (VDA) combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) was used to cause massive tumor necrosis, which formed the target of 131I-SA that subsequently killed the residual tumor cells by cross-fire irradiation of beta particles. Consequently, 131I-SA combined with CA4P significantly inhibited tumor growth, extended tumor doubling time and prolonged mean animal survival. In conclusion, 131I-SA in combination with necrosis inducing drugs/therapies may generate synergetic tumoricidal effects on solid malignancies by means of primary debulking and secondary cleansing process. PMID:24931286

Ji, Yun; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Wei; Gao, Meng; Li, Yue; Wang, Junhu; Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Ziping; Jiang, Xiao; Yao, Nan; Wang, Xiaoning; Fang, Zhijun; Yin, Zhiqi; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian

2014-01-01

242

Matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor and multiple sclerosis: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least 14 zinc-dependent enzymes which are known to degrade the protein components of extracellular matrix. In adddition, MMPs and related enzymes can also process a number of cell surface cytokines, receptors, and other soluble proteins. In particular we have shown that the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-?, from

S Chandler; K. M Miller; J. M Clements; J Lury; D Corkill; D. C. C Anthony; S. E Adams; A. J. H Gearing

1997-01-01

243

Modulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor by Microbial Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to invasion by microbial pathogens, host defense mechanisms get activated by both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses. TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine expressed by activated macrophages and lymphocytes that induces diverse cellular responses that can vary from apoptosis to the expression of genes involved in both early inflammatory and acquired

Masmudur M. Rahman; Grant McFadden

2006-01-01

244

Severe acute tubular necrosis observed subsequent to oxaliplatin administration  

PubMed Central

A 67-year-old man known for metastatic colon cancer received treatment with oxaliplatin and developed severe acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed severe acute tubular necrosis. Acute kidney injury is a rare but severe adverse effect of oxaliplatin administration.

Filewod, Niall; Lipman, Mark L.

2014-01-01

245

Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members in the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family contains death receptors, which have a cytoplasmic death domain and can induce apoptosis, as well as receptors with no apparent homology in the cytoplasmic tail. This second group of receptors binds TNF receptor–associated factors (TRAFs), which are implicated in gene regulation and anti–apoptotic signaling. A bewildering variety of TNF receptor family members and

Loes A. Gravestein; Jannie Borst

1998-01-01

246

Endoscopic management of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.  

PubMed

Endoscopic management of infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis is increasingly being performed. Although the role of the interventional endoscopist in treating necrotizing pancreatitis is growing, a multidisciplinary team including dedicated surgeons and interventional radiologists is a condition sine qua non for optimal patient management. Optimal management starts with a correct diagnosis with accurate description of the extent and nature of the inflammatory changes according to the recently updated criteria. This is important to consequently select the correct patients for the correct intervention at the correct interval after onset. When a decision is made to endoscopically intervene in a patient with (infected) pancreatic necrosis, the actual endoscopic technique does not differ much from the first retrospective series published a decade ago. Although endoscopic intervention for pancreatic necrosis is increasingly performed, evidence for superiority of endoscopic treatment over other techniques is still lacking. Dedicated endoscopic accessories for optimal drainage and necrosectomy are still lacking as well. This review provides an overview of current status, technique and recent innovations of endoscopic treatment of walled-off pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25345777

Voermans, Rogier P; Besselink, Marc G; Fockens, Paul

2015-01-01

247

Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

2003-01-01

248

Skin disorders in amputees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatologic problems restrict the normal use of a prosthetic limb. The importance of contact dermatitis to skin morbidity in a population of amputees and the selection criteria for patch testing have not been clearly defined.Objective: We describe the range of dermatoses seen in a population of amputees and examine the incidence, causes, and patterns of contact dermatitis.Methods: This is

Calum C. Lyon; Jai Kulkarni; Erik Zimerson; Ernest Van Ross; Michael H. Beck

2000-01-01

249

Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.ccitonline.org/ceo/content.cfm?content_id=96.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

250

Dry Skin: Environmental Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is absolutely essential for the normal functioning of the skin and especially the stratum corneum (SC). However, as the SC is continuously exposed to varying humidities, maintenance of water within the tissue is crucial. Under most circumstances water present within the SC will be derived from bodily water, being lost by transepidermal water loss, and is normally bound by

A. V. Rawlings

2004-01-01

251

Cephalopod behaviour: Skin flicks.  

PubMed

Cephalopods, such as octopus and squid, can change their coloration in an instant, and even produce moving patterns on their skin. A new study describes these wavelike patterns in a colourful tropical cuttlefish, providing insights into the neural mechanisms that generate them. PMID:25093557

Osorio, Daniel

2014-08-01

252

Slicing, skinning, and grafting  

E-print Network

We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

Dumas, David

2007-01-01

253

[Skin diseases and obesity].  

PubMed

Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease representing a major health problem. Among its consequences, diverse facets of the cutaneous physiology are altered. Some dermatoses are also more prevalent. The most typical ones are acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, signs of hyperandrogeny, striae distensae, stasis acroangiodermatitis, leg ulcers, lymphoedema and intertrigo. PMID:12693306

Martalo, O; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Scheen, A; Piérard, G E

2003-02-01

254

Chemokines and skin diseases.  

PubMed

Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

Sugaya, Makoto

2015-04-01

255

Deactivation of endothelium and reduction in angiogenesis in psoriatic skin and synovium by low dose infliximab therapy in combination with stable methotrexate therapy: a prospective single-centre study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are inflammatory diseases that respond well to anti-tumour necrosis factor-? therapy. To evaluate the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor-? treatment on expression of adhesion molecules and angiogenesis in psoriatic lesional skin and synovial tissue, we performed a prospective single-centre study with infliximab therapy combined with stable methotrexate therapy. Eleven patients with both active psoriasis and psoriatic

Amber Y Goedkoop; Maarten C Kraan; Daisy I Picavet; Menno A de Rie; Marcel BM Teunissen; Jan D Bos; Paul P Tak

2004-01-01

256

Risks of Skin Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Risks of Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This ... A biopsy may cause scarring. Screening tests have risks. Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not ...

257

Skin Cancers of the Feet  

MedlinePLUS

... often resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the ... a plantar wart, a fungal infection, eczema, an ulcer, or other common skin conditions of the foot. ...

258

First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

259

Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging  

PubMed Central

The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

2014-01-01

260

Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

261

The skin in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The skin is one of the major organ systems involved in diabetes. Certain changes occur inevitably in this disease, and are undoubtedly the cause of many of the skin disorders seen in patients with diabetes. Other skin disorders are related to common disease processes, and still others are simply unexplained statistical observation.

M. J. D. Goodfield; L. G. Millard

1988-01-01

262

Evolving concepts of neonatal skin.  

PubMed

Skin barrier function is crucial to health. Importantly, the skin operates as an air-liquid, a liquid-liquid, and an immunological barrier. The skin's physical and chemical structures, as well as its microbiome, function to create, maintain, and repair this complex barrier. PMID:25403932

Coughlin, Carrie C; Taïeb, Alain

2014-11-01

263

Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract) Ho-Lun Cheng , Tamal K. Dey , Herbert Edelsbrunner small and large angles. Skin Surfaces. The approach to deforming surfaces taken in this paper is based on the technical notion of skin surfaces, as introduced in [3]. The main reason for this choice is the existence

Sullivan, John M.

264

[Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].  

PubMed

Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

2014-01-01

265

AT NORTHWESTERN SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring to reverse the growing incidence of all forms of skin cancer by contributing breakthroughs and innovations

Engman, David M.

266

Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail: gilmours@mlhs.org

2007-11-01

267

Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative about basic genetic and developmental pathways, and provide important clues to the processes of photoprotection, cancer predisposition

Jennifer Y. Lin; David E. Fisher

2007-01-01

268

Polyamines and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:17234230

Gilmour, Susan K.

2007-01-01

269

T-cell costimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells in vitro: presence of suppressive activity in supernatants from skin epithelial cell cultures.  

PubMed

Oral Langerhans cells (LC) have better T-cell costimulatory capacity than skin LC. In this study factors affecting this capacity have been assessed in a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction (MELR) assay. Flow cytometry analysis of freshly recovered cells revealed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression on 7.5% of the oral epithelial cells and 9.7% of the skin epithelial cells. Monoclonal anti class II antibodies significantly reduced the T-cell proliferation in the MELR. Pretreatment of skin epithelial cells with interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha or interferon (IFN)-gamma did not affect the MELR proliferation, but incubation with IFNgamma significantly suppressed the T-cell response. Transfer of supernatants from cultures of skin epithelial cells and allogeneic T cells to cultures of oral epithelial cells and T cells resulted in a reduced T-cell proliferation while supernatants from oral epithelial cells and T cells did not reduce proliferation. The higher proliferation in cultures of T cells and oral epithelial cells than in cultures containing skin epithelial cells may be due to the presence of a suppressive factor in the skin epithelial cell suspensions. PMID:14871193

Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

2004-02-01

270

Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

271

TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR IS A SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION FACTOR FOR HUMAN MYELOMA CELLS1  

E-print Network

1 TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR IS A SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION FACTOR FOR HUMAN MYELOMA CELLS1 MICHEL Keywords: multiple myeloma, apoptosis, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6. Running title: TNF that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) is also a survival factor for myeloma cell lines, although less potent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Take my breath away: necrosis in kidney transplants kills the lungs!  

PubMed

Necrosis is not only a regulated process, it is an interconnected molecular network allowing different genetically encoded forms that are more or less immunogenic. Zhao et al. elegantly illustrate this concept, underscore the need for combination therapy to successfully interfere with regulated necrosis, and identify the role of regulated necrosis in the pathophysiology of remote lung injury. PMID:25826542

Vanden Berghe, Tom; Linkermann, Andreas

2015-04-01

273

Comparative Genomic Profiling of Synovium Versus Skin Lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To our knowledge, there is no broad genomic analysis comparing skin and synovium in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Also, there is little understanding of the relative levels of cytokines and chemokines in skin and synovium. The purpose of this study was to better define inflammatory pathways in paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue in patients with PsA. Methods We conducted a comprehensive analysis of cytokine and chemokine activation and genes representative of the inflammatory processes in PsA. Paired PsA synovial tissue and skin samples were obtained from 12 patients on the same day. Gene expression studies were performed using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Confirmatory quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on selected transcripts. Cell populations were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results Globally, gene expression in PsA synovium was more closely related to gene expression in PsA skin than to gene expression in synovium in other forms of arthritis. However, PsA gene expression patterns in skin and synovium were clearly distinct, showing a stronger interleukin-17 (IL-17) gene signature in skin than in synovium and more equivalent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-? gene signatures in both tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive molecular comparison of paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue samples in PsA. Our results support clinical trial data showing that PsA skin and joint disease are similarly responsive to TNF antagonists, while IL-17 antagonists have better results in PsA skin than in PsA joints. Genes selectively expressed in PsA synovium might direct future therapies for PsA. PMID:25512250

Belasco, Jennifer; Louie, James S; Gulati, Nicholas; Wei, Nathan; Nograles, Kristine; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G

2015-01-01

274

Skin contamination dosimeter  

DOEpatents

A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

2011-06-21

275

Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center

2009-01-01

276

Diagnosing Common Skin Eruptions  

PubMed Central

The skin reacts to various insults in a limited number of ways. For this reason the etiologic diagnosis of a simple eruption may require some scrutiny on the part of the examiner. Only when a true diagnosis is arrived at, will the treatment be effective or successful. The author provides several examples of commonly seen eruptions and discusses their differential features. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468760

Enta, Tom

1972-01-01

277

[Psoriasiform skin reactions during treatment with etanercept].  

PubMed

Anti-TNFs have a wide spectrum of skin lesions, psoriasis being found among them paradoxically. A 42-year old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis since 19 years of age was referred to the Dermatology service due to pustular psoriasis on both soles during treatment with etanercept. Due to her incapacity to walk and the pain reported by the patient, etanercept was replaced with adalimumab with clinical improvement and total disappearance of the lesions at six weeks of switching the anti-TNF. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are drugs that act in T cell mediated diseases. The appearance of psoriasiform rashes is more frequent than reported in the literature. They appear in all the indications and with all the anti-TNFs. Adalimumab is the most frequent. Three types of reactions are produced, the pustular one being the most frequent. It predominates in women and may appear chronologically at any time during the treatment. Regarding the treatment, it is recommendable to continue with the anti-TNFs. PMID:20492890

Santos-Juanes, J; Galache, C

2010-05-01

278

Painful Skin Ulcers in a Hemodialysis Patient  

PubMed Central

Summary Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2–4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. PMID:24202137

2014-01-01

279

[Basophils in skin inflammation].  

PubMed

Basophils represent less than 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes. Under physiological conditions, basophils principally circulate in peripheral blood, while mast cells reside in peripheral tissues. Like mast cells, they express the high-affinity IgE receptor on their cell surface and release chemical mediators. Because of morphological and functional similarities, basophils have long been considered to be redundant "circulating mast cells" and minor (probably negligible) players in inflammation. Mouse and human basophils cannot be stained in routinely processed histological specimens, and thus, our understanding of tissue basophils in allergic inflammation had been limited. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that basopihls play non-redundant roles from mast cells. Basophils function as a source of IL-4, IL-13, and CCL22, thereby contributing Th2 immunity. They are also capable of presenting antigens. Basophils are essential for the development of IgE-mediated chronic allergic skin inflammation in mice. Recent immunohistochemical studies with an basophil-specific antibody revealed that, in humans, varying numbers of basophils infiltrate skin lesions of inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria, prurigo, and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Basophils may play important roles in a variety of inflammatory skin diseases than previously thought. PMID:21628847

Satoh, Takahiro

2011-01-01

280

[Skin and stress].  

PubMed

The concept of stress was developed based on data from experimental pathology and psychology studies. Selye defined stress and described the physiologic changes induced by stress, under the designation "general adaptation syndrome". The interactive aspect of stress has since then been emphasized. Stress results from a unique interaction between a thinking individual and a physical or social environment. The presence in humans of a mental apparatus capable of thinking, reminiscing, and fantasizing accounts for the specific features of stress as a clinical condition. It follows that psychosomatic dermatology cannot be satisfied with defining and documenting stress, with establishing a link between stress and a disorder of the skin (an organ that plays a unique role in communication), and with evaluating the biological mechanism underlying the skin lesions. Another essential goal is to understand why an individual patient, with his or her unique history, develops a skin disorder as a manifestation of an inability to cope with adversity. Two psychologic factors should be taken into account in dermatology, namely stress and the personality of the person subjected to the stress. What makes a life event stressful is often the personality of the subject experiencing the event. PMID:9157367

Consoli, S

1996-12-01

281

Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.  

PubMed

Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

2013-04-01

282

Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds  

PubMed Central

Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

2013-01-01

283

Acute Retinal Necrosis with Multiple Viral Infections: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 52-year-old male presented with acute retinal necrosis in his left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed stellate keratic precipitates and cells in the anterior chamber and vitreous. Funduscopy of his left eye revealed multiple yellow deposits. Pathological examination of the vitreous showed both small, reactive lymphocytes and a few macrophages. IL-6 and IFN-? were elevated in the vitreous. Microdissected macrophages from the vitreous revealed DNAs from multiple viruses. The patient responded to oral valacyclovir. We conclude that multiple viral infections can be involved in the pathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis and that adequate anti-viral therapy has a beneficial effect on disease progression. However, retinal detachment can be a consequence for a poor visual outcome. PMID:25584358

Chen, Shida; Malik, Khurram J; Shen, Defen; Chan, Chi-Chao

2014-01-01

284

Tumor necrosis factor allelic polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been described previously. A total of 207 Asian Indian patients of 15-year duration of type 2 diabetes were identified. This group included (i) 100 patients with DR and (ii) 107 patients without retinopathy (DNR). In this study, we correlated the length of the (GT)n microsatellite di-nucleotide repeat upstream

Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel; Sarangapani Sripriya; Ravi Nagaraj Vellanki; Neelam Kumari Upadyay; Sengamedu S. Badrinath; T. Arokiasamy; B. Sukumar; Authiappan Vidhya; Biju Joseph; Tarun Sharma; Lingam Gopal

2001-01-01

285

Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

2014-01-01

286

Endocytosis of Uncleaved Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated monocytes and macrophages secrete the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). TNF-? is produced as a 26 kd transmembrane protein that is cleaved to release a 17 kd soluble protein. TNF-? in both forms is biologically active. The intracellular trafficking of membrane-associated TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophages was assessed after treatment with the metalloprotease inhibitor BB-3103, which prevents the

Wenda Shurety; Julia K Pagan; Johannes B Prins; Jennifer L Stow

2001-01-01

287

Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

288

Two tumour necrosis factor receptors: structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) exerts two main effects: a beneficial one as an anti-infection, anti-tumour cytokine, and a detrimental one in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Two receptors (TNF-R) mediate these effects, but their precise role in different cell types is far from solved. TNF induces receptor oligomerization, an event that is believed to connect the receptors to downstream

Peter Vandenabeele; Wim Declercq; Rudi Beyaert; Walter Fiers

1995-01-01

289

Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

2014-01-01

290

Processing of tumour necrosis factor-alpha precursor by metalloproteinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

TUMOUR necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis and the cachexia associated with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection1. TNF-alpha is initially expressed as a 233-amino-acid membrane-anchored precursor which is proteolytically processed to yield the mature, 157-amino-acid cytokine2. The processing enzyme(s) which cleave TNF-alpha are

A. J. H. Gearing; P. Beckett; M. Christodoulou; M. Churchill; J. Clements; A. H. Davidson; A. H. Drummond; W. A. Galloway; R. Gilbert; J. L. Gordon; T. M. Leber; M. Mangan; K. Miller; P. Nayee; K. Owen; S. Patel; W. Thomas; G. Wells; L. M. Wood; K. Woolley

1994-01-01

291

Mutation, purification and chemical studies on the tobacco necrosis virus  

E-print Network

of precipitated infective virus ? ? ? ? ? 31 Precipitation of infective virus with chemicals ? ? ? 32 Sedimentation of the virus by centrifugation . . . . 35 TABLE OF CONTENTS Effect of ageing infectious juice upon infectivity ? 36 Effect of repeated...MUTATION, PURIFICATION AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE TOBACCO NECROSIS VIRUS A Dissertation By William D. Hockaday, Jr* Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

Hockaday, William Don

1957-01-01

292

Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin  

PubMed Central

The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

293

Cellular and molecular pathways to myocardial necrosis and replacement fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a fundamental component of the adverse structural remodeling of myocardium present in the failing heart. Replacement fibrosis appears at sites of previous cardiomyocyte necrosis to preserve the structural integrity of the myocardium, but not without adverse functional consequences. The extensive nature of this microscopic scarring suggests cardiomyocyte necrosis is widespread and the loss of these contractile elements, combined with fibrous tissue deposition in the form of a stiff in-series and in-parallel elastic elements, contributes to the progressive failure of this normally efficient muscular pump. Cellular and molecular studies into the signal-transducer-effector pathway involved in cardiomyocyte necrosis have identified the crucial pathogenic role of intracellular Ca2+ overloading and subsequent induction of oxidative stress, predominantly confined within its mitochondria, to be followed by the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that leads to the destruction of these organelles and cells. It is now further recognized that Ca2+ overloading of cardiac myocytes and mitochondria serves as a prooxidant and which is counterbalanced by an intrinsically coupled Zn2+ entry serving as antioxidant. The prospect of raising antioxidant defenses by increasing intracellular Zn2+ with adjuvant nutriceuticals can, therefore, be preferentially exploited to uncouple this intrinsically coupled Ca2+–Zn2+ dyshomeostasis. Hence, novel yet simple cardioprotective strategies may be at hand that deserve to be further explored. PMID:20405318

Gandhi, Malay S.; Kamalov, German; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.

2010-01-01

294

Progressive striatal necrosis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background We report a case of childhood onset, generalized dystonia due to slowly progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies. This clinical phenotype has not been previously associated with NMDA receptor autoimmunity. Case presentation An eighteen year old man presented with a history of childhood-onset, progressive generalized dystonia. Clinical examination revealed a pure generalized dystonia with no cognitive or other neurological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral high T2 signal striatal lesions, which were slowly progressive over a period of nine years. New parts of the lesion showed restricted water diffusion suggesting cytotoxic oedema. Positron emission tomography of the brain showed frontal hypermetabolism and cerebellar hypometabolism. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in the patient’s serum and cerebrospinal fluid. There was no neoplasia or preceding infection or vaccination. Conclusion This is the first report of chronic progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of disease associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies and suggest that these should be included in the work-up of dystonia with striatal necrosis. PMID:23725534

2013-01-01

295

[Bilateral avascular necrosis after resurfacing hip arthroplasty. A case report].  

PubMed

Resurfacing hip arthroplasty is an alternative to conventional arthroplasty and it is indicated in young and active patients. Good results and the prevention of complications stem from a meticulous surgical technique and proper patient selection. We present herein the case of a 43 year-old patient who, after undergoing bilateral hip replacement with resurfacing prostheses, sustained a non-simultaneous fracture of both femoral necks due to avascular necrosis. He was treated by placing a metaphyseal anchoring stem. Postoperative X-rays showed proper implant placement without femoral notching, with a discrete 7 degrees valgus alignment of the femoral component. Both passive and active mobility was painful. X-rays showed cervical fracture of the right femur. The femoral head was attached to the implant, with no metallosis nor loosening of the femoral or acetabular components, but the bone had a fragmented and friable appearance that histopathologically was defined as avascular necrosis. Femoral neck fracture is the main complication after resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The effect of other factors like bone necrosis due to cement is unknown. PMID:22512114

Sanz-Ruiz, P; Chana-Rodríguez, F; Villanueva-Martínez, M; Vaquero-Martín, J

2011-01-01

296

Pulmonary patch repair of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation secondary to caustic ingestion.  

PubMed

Corrosive aerodigestive injury complicated by tracheobronchial necrosis is a rare complication after caustic ingestion that carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. If left untreated, tracheobronchial necrosis results in perforation, mediastinitis, and death. Pulmonary patch repair is a safe, effective, and easily performed surgical technique for the treatment of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation. Frequent endoscopic surveillance leads to early diagnosis and prompt operative management to prevent significant morbidity. We describe a pulmonary patch repair of a patient who had stage 3b necrosis of the esophagus and the stomach with tracheobronchial necrosis and perforation after caustic ingestion. PMID:24882314

Chiba, Shintaro; Brichkov, Igor

2014-06-01

297

Identification of dirty necrosis in colorectal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dirty necrosis within glandular lumina is often considered as a characteristic of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that is a diagnostically useful feature of CRCs with DNA microsatellite instability (MSI). Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is based on the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence signals, was used to identify dirty necrosis. Our results demonstrated that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of dirty necrosis and the signal intensity as well as an emission spectrum that can help to differentiate dirty necrosis from cancer cells. These findings indicate that MPM may be helpful in distinguishing MSI colorectal carcinoma via the identification of dirty necrosis.

Li, Lianhuang; Jiang, Weizhong; Yang, Yinghong; Chen, Zhifen; Feng, Changyin; Li, Hongsheng; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

2014-06-01

298

[Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].  

PubMed

We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

Mahé, A

2002-01-01

299

Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

2013-12-01

300

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

301

Epidemiology of skin cancer.  

PubMed

Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in Europe in the next decades. PMID:25207363

Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

2014-01-01

302

Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-08-01

303

Experimental 70% hydrofluoric acid burns: histological observations in an established human skin explants ex vivo model  

PubMed Central

Background: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is particularly dangerous due to the potential for systemic effects and induction of severe skin necrosis through two mechanisms: corrosiveness and local tissue toxicity. In addition, because it is only partially dissociated (pKa 3.2), it is capable of penetrating deeply into tissues. There is a lack of experimental studies that objectively characterize the behavior of HF diffusion into human skin, specifically the kinetics of tissue penetration resulting in severe cellular lesions. Methodology/principal findings: We describe the cutaneous effects of HF using an established ex vivo human skin model. The diffusion of 70% HF starts within the first minute of contact at the epidermal surface and after 2min reaches the basal layer. In the subsequent minute, the epidermis is destroyed and lesions appear in the papillary dermis after 4min. Soon after, damage appears in the upper reticular dermis. Thus, 70% HF needs only 5min of contact to completely penetrate human skin explants. This experiment is reproducible and corroborates previous studies and clinical effects reported in accidental HF exposures. Conclusion/significance: This study shows that the management of HF chemical skin exposure is a question of minutes, especially for initial decontamination. These experimental observations could be useful for objectively comparing skin decontamination methods. Further studies should help to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:21077748

Burgher, François; Mathieu, Laurence; Lati, Elian; Gasser, Philippe; Peno-Mazzarino, Laurent; Blomet, Joël; Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

2011-01-01

304

Skin Care: Acne  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students are asked to think about what they already know about how the body changes as people age. More specifically, they are asked to talk about acne and what they consider to be the most effective ways of treating it and preventing its spread. Using online resources, they discover that there are many misconceptions about the exact causes and best treatments for acne. After completing the lesson, they have a good understanding of how to prevent and treat acne, and take care of their skin in general.

Science Netlinks

2005-02-14

305

Improved Skin Friction Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

1986-01-01

306

Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

2008-01-01

307

[Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].  

PubMed

There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

2012-01-01

308

Skin changes in variegate porphyria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin of 20 patients with variegate porphyria (VP) was studied using light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy. Twelve patients had skin symptoms and markedly increased fecal protoporphyrin excretion. Their sun-exposed skin was characterized by homogeneous PAS-positive thickening and IgG deposition in the vessel walls. The basic ultrastructural change was thickening of the vascular walls caused by reduplication of the basal

K. Timonen; K.-M. Niemi; P. Mustajoki; R. Tenhunen

1990-01-01

309

Molecular Events in Skin Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin cancer represents the most frequent cancer in humans and includes different entities, based on the cell types and tissues\\u000a affected. Next to epithelial tumors, such as keratinocyte-derived basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas\\u000a (SCC), and neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), skin malignancies also include neuroectodermal malignant melanoma (MM),\\u000a as well as tumors of skin-associated tissues, lipomas, angiosarcomas,

Thomas Meyer

310

Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2006-09-09

311

Skin - abnormally dark or light  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation ... disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Causes of hypopigmentation include: History of skin inflammation Certain fungal infections (such as tinea versicolor) ...

312

Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

2006-01-01

313

The future of skin metagenomics.  

PubMed

Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

2014-01-01

314

Measuring skin while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

1995-12-31

315

Versatile Use of Rhomboid Flaps for Closure of Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to present our clinical experience with rhomboid flaps. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who were operated on between January 2006 and October 2010 were included in the study. All defects were reconstructed using rhomboid flaps. Results: Twenty-four patients were operated on for various reasons, and 26 rhomboid flaps were performed. Eleven of the 24 cases were male, and the median age of participants was 47.5 years. Eight cases were operated on under general anesthesia, and 13 were locally anesthetized; the remaining cases were operated on under regional anesthesia. In 17 cases, the defect was due to a benign or malignant tumor excision, and five cases were operated on due to burn contracture. There were no occurrences of partial or total flap necrosis or hematoma in our series. Conclusion: Our series indicates that rhomboid flaps can be safely used to reconstruct small to moderately sized skin defects. PMID:25610151

Aydin, Osman Enver; Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Kuduban, Selma Denktas; Cinal, Hakan; Barin, Ensar Zafer

2011-01-01

316

[Necrotic skin lesions caused by pet rats in two teenagers].  

PubMed

We report 2 observations in young girls who, after exposure to domestic rats from the same pet shop, presented with inflammatory and necrotic skin wounds in the neck and face. Since lesions did not improve with antibiotic therapy, surgical excision of necrosis healed the wounds, with a 2nd intervention necessary in 1 patient. All bacteriological investigations appeared to be negative; finally, electron microscopy of excised subepidermal tissue and PCR characterization provided the diagnosis of cowpox virus (CPXV) infection. CPXV is part of the Orthopox virus genus, like variola virus, and is generally transmitted to humans by infected cats or rodents. CPXV infection should be kept in mind when macular, vesicular, or necrotic cutaneous wounds do not improve with antibiotics. PMID:21194905

Mancaux, J; Vervel, C; Bachour, N; Domart, Y; Emond, J-P

2011-02-01

317

Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

2013-01-01

318

Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin

2011-01-01

319

Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus

2006-01-01

320

Skin flaps and grafts - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

A skin graft is a piece of healthy skin removed from one area of your body to repair damaged or ... Autograft - self-care; Skin transplant - self-care; Split-skin graft - self-care; Full thickness skin graft - self-care; ...

321

Skin Cancer: Who Gets and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... Q - T Skin cancer Who gets, causes Skin cancer: Who gets and causes Who gets skin cancer? Anyone can get skin cancer. Even people who ... is a greater risk. Risk factors for skin cancer Scientists have found that the following increases a ...

322

Characteristics and Pathomechanisms of Endogenously Aged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin, being in direct contact with several environmental factors (e.g. UV irradiation), does not only undergo endogenous aging, which has to do with the ‘biological clock’ of the skin cells per se, but also exogenous aging. While exogenous skin aging has been extensively studied, the pathomechanisms of endogenous skin aging remain far less clear. Endogenous skin aging reflects reduction

Evgenia Makrantonaki; Christos C. Zouboulis

2007-01-01

323

Characteristics of the Aging Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

2013-01-01

324

Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study  

PubMed Central

A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio. In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability. Images PMID:14449812

Hughes, J. P. W.; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H.; Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A.

1962-01-01

325

Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. (Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-09-01

326

Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

2014-01-01

327

[Protocol for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with necrosis].  

PubMed

The Severe Acute Pancreatic Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital was officially created in the year 2000. Up to date, we have cared for more than 195 patients with Pancreatic Necrosis. All of them have been treated under a management protocol presented by us. This has helped us to standardize treatment and also to compare results with work groups around the world. This Protocol comes from our own experience and that of our colleagues abroad with a wide knowledge in this kind of pathology abroad, with whom we maintain close ties. PMID:16021203

Barreda, Luis; Targarona, Javier; Rodriguez, César

2005-01-01

328

Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Presenting as Cortical Laminar Necrosis: Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia. PMID:23482893

Choi, Jong Mun; Roh, Sook Young

2013-01-01

329

Emerging concepts in the management of acute retinal necrosis.  

PubMed

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), also known as Kirisawa-type uveitis, is an uncommon condition caused by infection of the retina by one of the herpes family of viruses, most typically varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus and less commonly cytomegalovirus. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging and is often aided by PCR-based analysis of ocular fluids. Treatment typically involves extended use of one or more antiviral agents. Long term retinal detachment risk is high. We review the literature on ARN and present an approach to the diagnosis and management of this serious condition. PMID:23235944

Wong, Robert William; Jumper, J Michael; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Fu, Arthur; Lujan, Brandon J; Cunningham, Emmett T

2013-05-01

330

Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management.  

PubMed

Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure. PMID:25538442

Rai, Sweta; Marsland, Alexander M; Madan, Vishal

2014-07-01

331

Renal cortical necrosis in a live kidney donor  

PubMed Central

Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is a rare cause of acute renal failure (ARF). There is no clinical case report of RCN in a live kidney donor. A 48-year-old female kidney donor developed sudden anuria five hours postnephrectomy and remained anuric for more than three months on maintenance hemodialysis. Laboratory investigations revealed the features of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of abdomen showed hypoattenuated subcapsular rim of renal cortex favoring diagnosis of RCN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of RCN in a live kidney donor in world literature. PMID:22279344

Prakash, J.; Srivastava, A.; Singh, S.; Ghosh, B.

2012-01-01

332

Expression and purification of woodchuck tumour necrosis factor alpha.  

PubMed

The production of recombinant woodchuck cytokines is an essential prerequisite to study the immune response to hepadnavirus infection in the woodchuck model. Woodchuck tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was expressed in mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli. A test system for the biological activity of woodchuck TNF-alpha was established on basis of its cytotoxic effect to the murine fibrosarcoma cell line L929. Recombinant TNF-alpha was purified and used for the production of neutralizing antisera. PMID:10843731

Lohrengel, B; Lu, M; Bauer, D; Roggendorf, M

2000-06-01

333

Ischemia Modified Albumin Can Predict Necrosis at Incarcerated Hernias  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the predictive effect of IMA in incarcerated hernias. Methods. Three groups (n = 7) of rats were operated. Group I aimed to mimic incarceration, group II aimed the strangulation, and group III was the sham group. IMA and LDH measurements were made. Results. IMA levels were significantly higher in strangulation mimicking group and IMA levels were normal at postoperative 6th hour in incarceration mimicking group. LDH levels were significantly higher in both incarceration and strangulation mimicking groups. Conclusion. IMA seems to be an effective marker in incarcerated hernias to predict necrosis. But we need further studies to generalise this hypothesis. PMID:24379518

Kadio?lu, Hüseyin; Bozkurt, Süleyman; Ferlengez, Ekrem; Memm?, Naim; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; Ç?pe, Gökhan; Müslümano?lu, Mahmut

2013-01-01

334

Role of myocardial lipids in development of cardiac necrosis.  

PubMed

Significant alterations in fatty acyl composition of cardiac phospholipids and neutral lipids are induced by dietary cod liver oil in the rat. Increased dietary availability of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega3) leads to extensive replacement of linoleic acid (18:2omega6) and arachidonic acid (20:4omega6) in phospholipids. Dietary cod liver oil (10%) reduces isoproterenol stress tolerance and results in increased development of cardiac necrosis and mortality following isoproterenol treatment. It is suggested that diminished catecholamine stress tolerance may be related to altered synthesis of prostaglandins or related products. PMID:1031956

Gudbjarnason, S; Oskarsdottir, G; Hallgrimsson, J; Doell, B

335

UV-induced skin damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290–320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320–400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation

M. Ichihashi; M. Ueda; A. Budiyanto; T. Bito; M. Oka; M. Fukunaga; K. Tsuru; T. Horikawa

2003-01-01

336

Polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

LC-mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products released by thioacidolysis of a grape (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot) skin extract showed that catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major constitutive units of grape skin tannins. Gallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate were also detected. Epicatechin represented 60% of the extension units, whereas 67% of the terminal units consisted of catechin. Six

Jean-Marc Souquet; Véronique Cheynier; Franck Brossaud; Michel Moutounet

1996-01-01

337

An Overview on Skin Whitening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of current skin whitening agents used worldwide, and their advantages and disadvantages. The recent research and development efforts in this area will also be discussed in light of proposing future direction for more effective skin whitening agents, and thus more effective products for consumers.

Evelyn G. Su

338

Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types  

PubMed Central

The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

2014-01-01

339

Environmental effects and skin disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is the largest organ in the body and one of its main functions is to protect the body from noxious substances, whether they are ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals or prolonged\\/repeated exposure to water. It is the level of exposure that determines if damage to the organism will result. The harm that can occur to the skin with sufficient

JSC English; RS Dawe; J Ferguson

340

Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

341

Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.  

PubMed

A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin. PMID:24946740

Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

2014-09-01

342

The Reconstitution of Living Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A living-skin equivalent useful as a skin replacement and as a model system for basic studies has been fabricated and tested extensively, it consists of two components: (1) a dermal equivalent made up of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix that is contracted and modified by the resident cells, and (2) an epidermis that develops from keratinocytes “plated” on the dermal

Eugene Bell; Stephanie Sher; Barbara Hull; Charlotte Merrill; Seymour Rosen; Annette Chamson; Daniel Asselineau; Louis Dubertret; Bernard Coulomb; Charles Lapiere; Betty Nusgens; Yves Neveux

1983-01-01

343

Skin Diseases in the Tropics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

Mahe, Antoine; And Others

1994-01-01

344

Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.  

PubMed

The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

Napierkowski, Daria

2013-03-10

345

Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea  

PubMed Central

Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

Kim, Min-Gi

2010-01-01

346

Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi

2001-01-01

347

Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

2014-01-01

348

Studies on bullfrog skin collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepsin-soluble collagens were prepared from bullfrog skin and partially characterized. This study revealed interesting differences in the frog skin collagen when compared with known vertebrate collagens. This may be attributed to the position of the amphibians in the vertebrate hierarchy. Therefore, detailed investigations on various physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight, amino acid composition, denaturation temperature, UV–Vis and IR spectra

H Li; B. L Liu; L. Z Gao; H. L Chen

2004-01-01

349

Taking Care of Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... jist), a doctor who specializes in skin care. Urticaria (say: ur-tuh- kar -ee-ah), also known as hives , is a type of skin rash that causes red blotches or bumps that itch. Hives can be caused by an infection, or an ...

350

Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Other common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and cryosurgery. Squamous cell carcinoma:This is the second most common type of skin cancer. These cancers also begin in the epidermis. Radiation therapy can be used to treat squamous cell cancers that start on the skin and ...

351

Moisturizing different racial skin types.  

PubMed

The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

Wan, Derrick C; Wong, Victor W; Longaker, Michael T; Yang, George P; Wei, Fu-Chan

2014-06-01

352

The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-01-01

353

The sensitive skin syndrome.  

PubMed

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-11-01

354

Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

2013-01-01

355

19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section 12...Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces...this part. Entry of Motor Vehicles, Motor Vehicle Engines...

2010-04-01

356

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

357

Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

2013-01-01

358

Sun’s effect on skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... detrimental. Within the skin’s epidermal (outer) layer are cells that contain the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin ... and to darken. The tan fades as these cells move toward the surface and are sloughed off. ...

359

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control  

E-print Network

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control Damien ROHMER, Stefanie HAHMANN, Marie, Cani (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 1 / 22 #12;Classical character animation pipeline (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 2 / 22 #12;Motivations: character animation Fits

Hahmann, Stefanie

360

Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

361

Chronic Itchy Skin Rashes in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... extensive areas of the skin, while scabies and hives (urticaria) are often widespread, covering the entire body. Click ... between people by prolonged skin-to-skin contact. Hives (Urticaria) Hives (urticaria), also known as welts, is ...

362

Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses  

E-print Network

Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)

2012-01-01

363

Should all skin grafts be low fat? Composite skin and fat grafts in facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the nose and scalp after resection of cutaneous malignancy can be challenging, and can involve multiple stage surgery and cause secondary scarring in adjacent facial areas. The author describes his experience of a series of 100 composite full thickness skin and fat grafts in the head and neck region using the neck as the donor site. The technique was used to reconstruct the nose (n=48) and scalp including temple and forehead (n=46), and at 6 other sites, mainly the cheek or lower eyelid. Defects ranged in size from 11 to 36mm and the thickness of fat varied from 1 to 5mm. One flap failed, one patient had necrosis of roughly 30% of the graft, which did not require surgical intervention, and one patient had early defatting of a prominent graft. The author outlines the technique used and the complications, and discusses the benefits and limitations of the technique, which, he believes, has a role in carefully selected patients. PMID:21269743

Holt, Donald Samuel

2012-03-01

364

Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

2009-10-01

365

Harnessing of Programmed Necrosis for Fighting against Cancers  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy has long been considered as one of useful strategies for cancer treatment. It is primarily based on the apoptosis that can selectively kill cancer cells. However, cancer cells can progressively develop an acquired resistance to apoptotic cell death, rendering refractory to chemo- and radiotherapies. Although the mechanism by which cells attained resistance to drug remains to be clarified, it might be caused by either pumping out of them or interfering with apoptotic signal cascades in response to cancer drugs. In case that cancer cells are defective in some part of apoptotic machinery by repeated exposure to anticancer drugs, alternative cell death mechanistically distinct from apoptosis could be adopted to remove cancer cells refractory to apoptosis-inducing agents. This review will mainly deal with harnessing of necrotic cell death, specifically, programmed necrosis and practical uses. Here, we begin with various defects of apoptotic death machinery in cancer cells, and then provide new perspective on programmed necrosis as an alternative anticancer approach. PMID:25009696

Cho, Young Sik; Park, Seung Yeon

2014-01-01

366

Carbendazim impends hepatic necrosis when combined with imazalil or cypermethrin.  

PubMed

Imazalil, cypermethrin and carbendazim are detected in plants for human nutrition. To explore whether their combinations, applied orally in low doses, would induce changes in metabolic patterns and hepatotoxicity, a subchronic in vivo experiment was conducted. Doses of 10mg/kg of imazalil (im) and cypermethrin (cy) and 20 mg/kg of carbendazim (car) and their combinations (im, 10 mg/kg+cy, 10mg/kg; im, 10mg/kg+car, 20mg/kg; car, 20 mg/kg + im, 10 mg/kg) were given to Swiss mice daily over 28 days. After 24 hr from the last dose, the relationships of cytotoxicity biomarkers were analysed: serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transferase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine and total proteins. Individual pesticides showed different toxic potential (cy>im car) generally characterized by increase in enzyme activities. Histological analysis showed that cypermethrin, but not imazalil or carbendazim, alone can cause mild necrosis. Combinations generally caused decrease in the activity of enzymes, indicating liver damage. Low doses of carbendazim in combination with low doses of imazalil or cypermethrin caused very pronounced hepatic necrosis, more than any of the three individually applied pesticides or combination of imazalil and cypermethrin. In fruits and vegetables for human consumption, residues of these three pesticides and prolonged combined intake of low doses, which by themselves acutely would not cause any effect, may have similar hepatotoxic effects. PMID:22077925

Diki?, Domagoj; Landeka, Irena; Kneževi?, Fabijan; Mojsovi?-?ui?, Ana; Benkovi?, Vesna; Horvat-Kneževi?, Anica; Lon?ar, Goran; Tepari?, Renata; Rogi?, Dunja

2012-05-01

367

Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. “Gas-bloat” syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

2014-01-01

368

Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication.  

PubMed

Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. "Gas-bloat" syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

2014-09-27

369

Subchondral avascular necrosis: a common cause of arthritis.  

PubMed Central

(1) Subchondral avascular necrosis is an important cause of joint pain and disability and accounts for upwards of 20% of total hip replacements done in our hospital. (2) Early diagnosis may be made with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging and radioactive isotope studies. (3) Although the signs and symptoms are similar to those of osteoarthritis, there are significant differences--namely, (a) a history of sudden onset of pain, present in more than half the patients; (b) a younger age group; (c) a shorter duration of symptoms at time of surgery; (d) clinically the limiting factor is pain rather than actual joint deformity to account for restriction of movement; (e) a high incidence of multiple sites of involvement. (4) The disease is commonly associated with steroid treatment or alcohol abuse. Although many other causes are recognised, they are rare in Western urban practice. (5) Patients with stage I-II subchondral avascular necrosis, especially of the knee, are better treated conservatively. (6) Surgical treatment gives less satisfactory results than the treatment of osteoarthritis by similar modalities. Images PMID:2200357

Bullough, P G; DiCarlo, E F

1990-01-01

370

Porphyrin-laser photodynamic induction of focal brain necrosis  

SciTech Connect

A noninvasive photodynamic method has been developed to produce focal brain necrosis using porphyrin activated in vivo with laser light. After peripheral injection of the photosensitive porphyrin derivative, Photofrin I, mice were irradiated on the posterior lateral aspect of the head through the intact depilated scalp with 632 nm argon-dye laser light. Animals were studied at one, two and seven days after irradiation. Blood-brain barrier damage was detected by the intravenous injection of Evans blue, horseradish peroxidase and heterologous immunoglobulins. At one and two days after irradiation, the lesions were characterized by extravasation of immunoglobulin and Evans blue, and by edema, ischemia and infiltration by monocytes. On the seventh day after irradiation, the lesion was smaller than it had been two days after irradiation, and had reactive changes at its edges and coagulative necrosis at its center. Extravasation of Evans blue and immunoglobulin was markedly reduced by the seventh day after irradiation, but uptake of horseradish peroxidase by macrophages located at the periphery of the lesion was evident.

Stroop, W.G.; Battles, E.J.; Townsend, J.J.; Schaefer, D.C.; Baringer, J.R.; Straight, R.C. (VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

1989-09-01

371

A novel quantitative immunomagnetic reduction assay for Nervous necrosis virus.  

PubMed

Rapid, sensitive, and automatic detection platforms are among the major approaches of controlling viral diseases in aquaculture. An efficient detection platform permits the monitoring of pathogen spread and helps to enhance the economic benefits of commercial aquaculture. Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the cause of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, is among the most devastating aquaculture viruses that infect marine fish species worldwide. In the present study, a highly sensitive magnetoreduction assay was developed for detecting target biomolecules with a primary focus on NNV antigens. A standard curve of the different NNV concentrations that were isolated from infected Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) was established before experiments were conducted. The test solution was prepared by homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles coated with rabbit anti-NNV antibody. The magnetic nanoparticles in the solution were oscillated by magnetic interaction with multiple externally applied, alternating current magnetic fields. The assay's limit of detection was approximately 2 × 10(1) TCID(50)/ml for NNV. Moreover, the immunomagnetic reduction readings for other aquatic viruses (i.e., 1 × 10(7) TCID(50)/ml for Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and 1 × 10(6.5) TCID(50)/ml for grouper iridovirus) were below the background noise in the NNV solution, demonstrating the specificity of the new detection platform. PMID:22855375

Yang, Shieh Yueh; Wu, Jen Leih; Tso, Chun Hsi; Ngou, Fang Huar; Chou, Hsin Yiu; Nan, Fan Hua; Horng, Herng Er; Lu, Ming Wei

2012-09-01

372

Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?  

E-print Network

The Good Source of Vitamin D Mood Enhancer The Bad Premature Skin Aging Cararacts Skin Cancer ** http://www.skincancer.org/understanding-uva-and-uvb.html #12;What is skin cancer? http://www.skincancer.org/understanding-uva-and-uvb.html http://www.medical-look.com/diseases_images/Skin-diseases1.jpg #12;How common is skin cancer? 1 out of 3 cancers = skin cancer 1 10 million and counting 1 20

Goldman, Steven A.

373

The early changes in mouse skin following topical application of a range of middle distillate oil products.  

PubMed

A white spirit/naphtha, three kerosines, two gas oils and a catalytically cracked light cycle oil (LCO) were applied topically to mice, three times a week for up to 6 weeks, and skin changes were examined histopathologically at intervals. The changes within 1 week of treatment appeared to depend on the effect that the physicochemical properties of each type of product had on their penetration through the skin surface or via hair follicles. With white spirit the most prominent change was widespread epidermal necrosis occurring after the second treatment, implying that the lowest boiling point materials penetrate mainly through the surface epidermis. The earliest effects with kerosines were within and around hair follicles with epidermal degeneration developing later, suggesting a predominance of follicular entry. Gas oils and LCO produced similar changes to kerosines within 1 week, gas oils producing a slower and less severe response and LCO a more severe response. In skin examined after 1-6 weeks of treatment with all middle distillates, repeated cycles of necrosis and healing responses were evident; this implied that once the epidermal barrier layer had been damaged, follicular entry became less important. The severity of the skin changes observed with these middle distillates was probably sufficient for skin tumours to arise by a non-genotoxic mechanism if a similar treatment regime was used in a long-term skin painting study. A method of avoiding excessive skin irritation is therefore essential in such a study in order to obtain a reliable prediction of the human hazard of such materials. PMID:8376725

Ingram, A J; King, D J; Grasso, P; Sharratt, M

1993-01-01

374

Nodular cystic fat necrosis with calcification in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

Nodular cystic fat necrosis is a rare, benign form of encapsulated fat necrosis with distinct histology, characterized by cystic fat necrosis with lipomembranous changes and, in later stages, calcification. We report the case of a 7-year-old child with juvenile dermatomyositis who presented with three asymptomatic, firm, mobile nodules on the arms and neck. Histology was consistent with nodular cystic fat necrosis with prominent calcification. This is an unusual presentation of this entity because it has never been previously reported in association with juvenile dermatomyositis. PMID:24930439

Ferenczi, Katalin; Berke, Adrienne; Makkar, Hanspaul S

2014-01-01

375

Endothelial necrosis at 1h post-burn predicts progression of tissue injury  

PubMed Central

Burn injury progression has not been well characterized at the cellular level. To define burn injury progression in terms of cell death, histopathologic spatiotemporal relationships of cellular necrosis and apoptosis were investigated in a validated porcine model of vertical burn injury progression. Cell necrosis was identified by High Mobility Group Box 1 protein and apoptosis by Caspase 3a staining of tissue samples taken 1h, 24h and 7 days post-burn. Level of endothelial cell necrosis at 1h was predictive of level of apoptosis at 24h (Pearson's r=0.87) and of level of tissue necrosis at 7 days (Pearson's r=0.87). Furthermore, endothelial cell necrosis was deeper than interstitial cell necrosis at 1h (p<0.001). Endothelial cell necrosis at 1h divided the zone of injury progression (Jackson's zone of stasis) into an upper subzone with necrotic endothelial cells and initially viable adnexal and interstitial cells at 1h that progressed to necrosis by 24h, and a lower zone with initially viable endothelial cells at 1h, but necrosis and apoptosis of all cell types by 24h. Importantly, this spatiotemporal series of events and rapid progression resembles myocardial infarction and stroke, and implicates mechanisms of these injuries, ischemia, ischemia reperfusion, and programmed cell death, in burn progression. PMID:23627744

Hirth, Douglas; McClain, Steve A.; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

2013-01-01

376

Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Treatment of basal cell carcinoma ...

377

Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue. The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal, mechanical, biological and neural responses of the affected tissue: a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects. Currently, even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood, none exists to date in the interdisciplinary area. A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin, involving bioheat transfer, biomechanics and physiology. A comprehensive literature review pertinent to the subject is presented in this paper, covering four subject areas: (a) skin structure, (b) skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage, (c) skin biomechanics, and (d) skin biothermomechanics. The major problems, issues, and topics for further studies are also outlined. This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years. Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue, the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

2008-02-01

378

Alterations of skin innate immunity in lymphedematous limbs: Correlations with opportunistic diseases.  

PubMed

Lymphedematous areas are sites of regional immune destabilization depicting a typical example of an immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD). This study evaluates the expression of some components of the skin innate immunity on lymphedematous limbs with the aim to clarify some facets of the ICD. Patients selected underwent two skin biopsies: One was obtained from the limb affected by lymphedema, another from the contralateral healthy limb. Expression of some components of the skin innate immunity was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stronger gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), human ?-defensin 2 (HBD-2), desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) was found in keratinocytes derived from the affected limb compared with that of keratinocytes derived from contralateral healthy limb. Downregulation of survivin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) gene expression was found in the affected limbs. No induction of IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) was detectable in keratinocyte cultures obtained from both lymphedematous and normal limbs. Different phases and components of skin innate immunity turned out to be altered in the lymphedematous sites. Molecular alterations were similar in all patients recruited in the study. These changes might favor the local appearance or progression of opportunistic diseases such as tumors, infections, and immune-mediated skin disorders. PMID:25160100

Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Chessa, Marco Adriano; Russo, Teresa; Cozza, Valentina; Ruocco, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

379

Total hip arthroplasty in secondary systemic lupus erythematosus femoral head avascular necrosis.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disease with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations and a variable course. Lupus is marked by both humoral and cellular immunologic abnormalities, including multiple auto-antibodies especially anti DNA antibodies. Epidemiology - female predominance, occurring usually between second and fourth decade of life, more frequently in hispanic and black patients. Family predominance has been noticed. Provocative agents - ultraviolet light, viral infections, drugs and situational stresses. Pathogenesis - pathological features can affect a large spectrum of internal organs and systems - osteoarticulary injuries, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, digestive system lesions. Musculo skeletal abnormalities include migratory arthritis, effusion and stiffness in small and large joints. Articular erosions are uncommon. Skeletal abnormalities include osteopenia and osteonecrosis, due to two pathological mechanisms: vasculitis and long term corticotherapy. Fifteen to twenty percent of SLE patients are affected by femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAN). Diagnosis rests on clinical signs - hip pain, limited range of motion, walking with a limp.; radiological findings - best grouped in Arlet-Ficat standing system; MRI - high sensitivity, especially in infraradiological stages. Treatment - in incipient stages core decompression represents the best therapeutical option. In advanced, arthritis stages, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the standart treatment. Three implant types are available: bipolar, uncemented and cemented. An increased number of cotyloidites occurred after bipolar implants. Emphasised osteopenia and excessive bleeding represent contraindications for uncemented implants. Considering all of this, cemented implants are considered, the right choice, methacrylate cement providing strong and durable fixation of THA implants to bone. No meaningful differences were observed in postoperative functional recovery between LSE patients and other etiology FHAN patients. PMID:17966453

Orban, H; Cîrstoiu, C; Adam, R

2007-01-01

380

Neutron skins and neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

2013-11-07

381

Periostin in skin tissue and skin-related diseases.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only involved in the maintenance of normal physiological tissue but also in interactions with other ECM components, tissue remodeling, and modulating immune responses. The skin provides a distinctive environment characterized by rich fibroblasts producing various ECM proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and immune responses induced by external stimuli. Recently, periostin-a matricellular protein-has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD), attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24759560

Yamaguchi, Yukie

2014-06-01

382

The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

Huiying Li

383

Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici  

PubMed Central

Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 may play important roles in symptom development and may be crucial for virulence, necrosis-inducing activity, or cell death during infection by P. capsici. PMID:24886309

2014-01-01

384

Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose. PMID:21773033

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.

2011-01-01

385

Lyme borreliosis and skin.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

2013-05-01

386

[Smoking and the skin].  

PubMed

Smoking is the main modifiable cause of disease and death in the developed world. Tobacco consumption is directly linked to cardiovascular disease, chronic bronchitis, and many malignant diseases. Tobacco also has many cutaneous effects, most of which are harmful. Smoking is closely associated with several dermatologic diseases such as psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, hidrosadenitis suppurativa, and systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus, as well as cancers such as those of the lip, oral cavity, and anogenital region. A more debatable relationship exists with melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, and acne. In contrast, smoking seems to protect against mouth sores, rosacea, labial herpes simplex, pemphigus vulgaris, and dermatitis herpetiformis. In addition to the influence of smoking on dermatologic diseases, tobacco consumption is also directly responsible for certain dermatoses such as nicotine stomatitis, black hairy tongue, periodontal disease, and some types of urticaria and contact dermatitis. Furthermore, we should not forget that smoking has cosmetic repercussions such as yellow fingers and fingernails, changes in tooth color, taste and smell disorders, halitosis and hypersalivation, and early development of facial wrinkles. PMID:18358192

Just-Sarobé, M

2008-04-01

387

Lyme Borreliosis and Skin  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

2013-01-01

388

Development of prosthetic skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

Kilaru, Rohit

389

Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin  

PubMed Central

Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

2014-01-01

390

Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.  

PubMed

The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

2014-01-01

391

Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer.  

PubMed

It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies. PMID:24930491

Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

2014-08-01

392

Possible mechanism for testicular focal necrosis induced by hCG in rats.  

PubMed

Possible mechanisms for testicular focal necrosis induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were examined in Fischer 344 rats. A single s.c. injection of 2000 IU/kg hCG produced focal necrosis 2 days later in testicular tissues such as the seminiferous tubules in the frontal lower part of the testis (FLPT) of 11-week-old F344/Jcl rats. This hCG-induced necrosis was suppressed by an oral treatment (concomitant or delayed by 3 hr) with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, rofecoxib) or prostaglandin (PG) receptor blocker (AA-2414). Focal necrosis was also induced by intratesticular injection of PGF(2alpha) or PGE(2) with this necrosis suppressed by previous oral treatment with AA-2414, and the PGF(2) level in the testis increased 4 hr after hCG treatment. These findings suggested that de novo synthesis of PGs beginning at 3-4 hr was responsible for induction of necrosis. No necrosis was induced by hCG in the Leydig cell-devoid testis produced by ethane dimethanesulfonate treatment. Necrosis of spontaneously-induced Leydig cell tumor mass was also induced by hCG, suggesting that Leydig cells are responsible for induction of necrosis. An injection of dye into the testicular artery and laser Doppler flowmetry revealed a continuous reduction of blood flow at the FLPT at 6-48 hr after hCG treatment; contrary to this, the upper part showed an early recovery from the reduced flow. From these results, the mechanism of the hCG-induced necrosis was concluded to be: 1) hCG stimulates Leydig cells to synthesize PGs de novo; 2) PGs induce the intratesticular arteries to contract in the FLPT; and 3) obstruction of blood flow (ischemia) for more than 12 hr induced focal necrosis in the testis. PMID:17077584

Chatani, Fumio

2006-10-01

393

Pulmonary necrosis resulting from DNA vaccination against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The use of DNA constructs encoding mycobacterial proteins is a promising new approach to vaccination against tuberculosis. A DNA vaccine encoding the hsp60 molecule of Mycobacterium leprae has previously been shown to protect against intravenous infection of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both the prophylactic and immunotherapeutic modes. It is shown here, however, that this vaccine was not effective in a more realistic aerosol infection model or in a model of latent tuberculosis in the lungs. Moreover, when given in an immunotherapeutic model the immunized mice developed classical Koch reactions characterized by multifocal discrete regions of cellular necrosis throughout the lung granulomas. Similar and equally severe reactions were seen in mice given a vaccine with DNA coding for the Ag85 antigen of M. tuberculosis. This previously unanticipated safety problem indicates that DNA vaccines should be used with caution in individuals who may have already been exposed to tuberculosis. PMID:12654841

Taylor, Jennifer L; Turner, Oliver C; Basaraba, Randall J; Belisle, John T; Huygen, Kris; Orme, Ian M

2003-04-01

394

Tumour necrosis factor in man: clinical and biological observations.  

PubMed Central

Eighteen patients with advanced cancer have been treated intravenously with human recombinant tumour necrosis factor (rhTNF). The drug produced febrile reactions at all doses although these were preventable by steroids and indomethacin. Doses at or above 9 x 10(5) units (400 micrograms)m-2 were associated with hypotension, abnormal liver enzymes, leucopenia and mild renal impairment in a substantial proportion of patients. RhTNF was cleared from plasma with a half life of approximately 20 minutes but non-linear pharmacokinetics lymphoma, improvements in their tumours were recorded. RhTNF was noted to produce rapid increases in serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Endogenous TNF levels were not found to be elevated in 72 cancer patients. TNF deserves further therapeutic evaluation and these observations support its biological importance as an endogenous pyrogen, mediator of acute phase protein responses, and a mediator of endotoxic shock. PMID:3435706

Selby, P.; Hobbs, S.; Viner, C.; Jackson, E.; Jones, A.; Newell, D.; Calvert, A. H.; McElwain, T.; Fearon, K.; Humphreys, J.

1987-01-01

395

Formation of Ion-Permeable Channels by Tumor Necrosis Factor-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF, cachectin), a protein secreted by activated macrophages, participates in inflammatory responses and in infectious and neoplastic disease states. The mechanisms by which TNF exerts cytotoxic, hormonal, and other specific effects are obscure. Structural studies of the TNF trimer have revealed a central pore-like region. Although several amino acid side chains appear to preclude an open channel, the ability of TNF to insert into lipid vesicles raised the possibility that opening might occur in a bilayer milieu. Acidification of TNF promoted conformational changes concordant with increased surface hydrophobicity and membrane insertion. Furthermore, TNF formed pH-dependent, voltage-dependent, ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes and increased the sodium permeability of human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells. Thus, some of the physiological effects of TNF may be elicited through its intrinsic ion channel-forming activity.

Kagan, Bruce L.; Baldwin, Rae Lynn; Munoz, David; Wisnieski, Bernadine J.

1992-03-01

396

Tumor necrosis factor-?: regulation of renal function and blood pressure.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine that becomes elevated in chronic inflammatory states such as hypertension and diabetes and has been found to mediate both increases and decreases in blood pressure. High levels of TNF-? decrease blood pressure, whereas moderate increases in TNF-? have been associated with increased NaCl retention and hypertension. The explanation for these disparate effects is not clear but could simply be due to different concentrations of TNF-? within the kidney, the physiological status of the subject, or the type of stimulus initiating the inflammatory response. TNF-? alters renal hemodynamics and nephron transport, affecting both activity and expression of transporters. It also mediates organ damage by stimulating immune cell infiltration and cell death. Here we will summarize the available findings and attempt to provide plausible explanations for such discrepancies. PMID:23515717

Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

2013-05-15

397

Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

2014-01-01

398

Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America.  

PubMed

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture. PMID:12655081

Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A; Troyer, Ryan M; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D

2003-04-01

399

Tumor necrosis factor genomic polymorphism in Spanish IGA deficiency patients.  

PubMed

Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most common form of primary immunodeficiency. Its association with genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been repeatedly reported. Recently the susceptibility gene has been located in the class III region, around the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cluster. In this study we have examined IgAD association with TNF-alpha gene promoter polymorphisms and TNFa and b microsatellites. No significant association was found with the former polymorphisms and the observed associations with TNFa2 allele and haplotypes TNFa2b1 and TNFa2b3 were proven to be secondary to their occurrence on the B14-DR1 and B8-DR3 haplotypes, previously reported to be associated with susceptibility to IgAD. However, a primary negative (protective) association was found between the TNFa10 allele and IgAD. PMID:10852388

De la Concha, E G; Fernandez-Arquero, M; Vigil, P; Lazaro, F; Ferreira, A; Garcia-Rodriguez, M C; Fontan, G

2000-04-01

400

Humoral Sleep Regulation; Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor  

PubMed Central

Two substances, the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), known for their many physiological roles, for example, cognition, synaptic plasticity, and immune function, are also well characterized in their actions of sleep regulation. These substances promote non-rapid eye movement sleep and can induce symptoms associated with sleep loss such as sleepiness, fatigue, and poor cognition. IL1? and TNF? are released from glia in response to extracellular ATP. They bind to their receptors on neurons resulting in neuromodulator and neurotransmitter receptor up/downregulation (e.g., adenosine and glutamate receptors) leading to altered neuronal excitability and function, that is, a state change in the local network. Synchronization of state between local networks leads to emergent whole brain oscillations, such as sleep/wake cycles. PMID:22640617

Jewett, Kathryn A.; Krueger, James M.

2014-01-01

401

Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome (PORN) is a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and the majority of the described cases were related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a patient who is HIV negative with nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone use for 4 months who showed clinical features of PORN. Low CD4 counts and lymphocytopenia suggested immunosuppression. In the left eye, tractional retinal detachment at the posterior pole followed by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment developed. In addition to intravenous administration of acyclovir, vitreous surgeries including stripping of the posterior hyaloid and silicone-oil tamponade were successfully performed to repair the retinal detachment in the left eye and to prevent it in the right eye. PMID:11195746

Shinoda, K; Inoue, M; Ishida, S; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, S; Katsura, H

2001-01-01

402

Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

PubMed

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham's test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis. PMID:23354203

Wijewickrama, Eranga S; Gooneratne, Lalindra; De Silva, Chandu; Lanarolle, Rushika L

2013-01-01

403

Tumour necrosis factor ? blockade in treatment resistant pigmented villonodular synovitis  

PubMed Central

Case report: A patient presented with severe treatment resistant PVNS of the right knee joint. Several conventional treatment regimens, including open surgical synovectomy and intra-articular injections of yttrium-90 (90Y) failed to control the disease. After finding marked tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) expression in arthroscopic synovial tissue samples, treatment with an anti-TNF? monoclonal antibody (infliximab) at a dose of 5 mg/kg was started. Additional courses with the same dose given 2, 6, 14, and 20 weeks later, and bimonthly thereafter up to 54 weeks, controlled the signs and symptoms. Immunohistological analysis at follow up identified a marked reduction in macrophage numbers and TNF? expression in the synovium. Discussion: This is probably the first case which describes treatment with TNF? blockade of PVNS in a patient who is refractory to conventional treatment. It provides the rationale for larger controlled studies to elucidate further the efficacy of TNF? blockade treatment in refractory PVNS. PMID:15297283

Kroot, E; Kraan, M; Smeets, T; Maas, M; Tak, P; Wouters, J

2005-01-01

404

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

2014-03-01

405

Acute Dilatation, Ischemia, and Necrosis of Stomach without Perforation  

PubMed Central

Acute gastric dilatation can have multiple etiologies which may lead to ischemia of the stomach. Without proper timely diagnosis and treatment, potentially fatal events such as gastric perforation, haemorrhage, and other serious complications can occur. Here we present a 36-year-old man who came to the casualty with pain abdomen and distension for 2 days. Clinically, abdomen was asymmetrically distended more in the left hypochondrium and epigastrium region. Straight X-ray abdomen showed opacified left hypochondrium with nonspecific gaseous distension of bowel. Exploratory laparotomy revealed dilated stomach with patchy gangrene over lesser curvature and fundic area. About 4 litres of brownish fluid along with semisolid undigested food particles was sucked out (mainly undigested pieces of meat). Limited resection of gangrenous areas and primary repair were done along with feeding jejunostomy. Necrosis of the stomach was confirmed on histopathology. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day. PMID:24222883

Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Anil T.; Jaiswal, Sunil; Bhujabal, Siba Narayan

2013-01-01

406

[Tumour necrosis factor antagonists: infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept].  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) a has been identified through basic research as a molecule that has a central role in the regulation of many autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases. Experimental and clinical research with TNF antagonists has validated this observation. At this time, TNF blockade is indicated for rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. Recent clinical study with this type of molecularly targeted intervention has determined that chronic inflammatory diseases can share some pathophysiological mechanisms, while others are more specific for certain diseases. Therefore, TNF appears to play a central role in multiple forms of inflammation, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains intact during TNF blockade. For this reason, there is much interest in studies of combination therapy in which TNF antagonists are added to other treatments, such as methotrexate. Anti-TNF therapy is expensive; therefore, treatment strategies are needed that are affordable and provide optimal care for groups of patients that do not adequately respond to conventional therapy. PMID:16240851

Breedveld, F C

2005-10-01

407

Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.  

PubMed

With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

2014-01-01

408

Tumor necrosis factor blockade and the risk of viral infection  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? blockers have been widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. An increased risk of tuberculosis and opportunistic infections with TNF-? blockers has been well reported because of the primary role of TNF-? in host defense and immune response. However, little is known about the association between TNF-? blockers and viral infections. Because interferon-? and TNF-? play critical roles in the control of viral infection, depletion of TNF by treatment with TNF-? blockade may facilitate the risk of or reactivation of viral infection. Several large observational studies have recently found an increased risk of herpes zoster in patients receiving TNF-? blockers for rheumatoid arthritis. This review draws attention to several important viral infections such as human immunodeficiency, varicella-zoster and Epstein-Barr viruses, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus in patients receiving TNF-? blocking therapy, their implications in clinical practice, and possible preventative approach with vaccination. PMID:20142812

Kim, Seo Young; Solomon, Daniel H.

2011-01-01

409

What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... layer are called squamous cells because of their flat shape. Living squamous cells are found below the ... by the basement membrane. This is an important structure because when a skin cancer becomes more advanced, ...

410

Sun Safety: Save Your Skin!  

MedlinePLUS

... who work outdoors need to take precautions, too. SUN SAFETY Save Your Skin! 2 / FDA Consumer Health ... may increase sun sensitivity. Reduce Time in the Sun It’s important to limit sun exposure between 10 ...

411

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

412

Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

413

TRP channels in the skin.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as 'polymodal cellular sensors' on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24372189

Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöll?si, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

2014-05-01

414

The molecular effects of aloe-emodin (AE)/liposome-AE on human nonmelanoma skin cancer cells and skin permeation.  

PubMed

In this study, aloe-emodin (AE) was less cytotoxic to human noncancerous skin cells (premalignant keratinocytic HaCaT and fibroblast Hs68) than to nonmelanoma cancer cells (epidermoid carcinoma A431 and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC25). Notably, AE induced apoptosis by up-regulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Fas ligand and their cognate receptors, downstream adaptor TNF-R1-associated death domain and Fas-associated death domain, and activated caspase-8 in A431 and SCC25 cells. Moreover, AE up-regulated p53, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, depleted intracellular-reduced GSH, up-regulated cytochrome c and Bax, down-regulated Bcl-2, and activated caspase-9 and -3. The combinatory use of AE and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) achieved significantly more cell death in A431 and SCC25 cells than only the use of AE or 5-Fu, likely via regulation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 expressions. Incorporating AE into the liposomal formulation accelerated cell death of A431 and SCC25 cells within a short time. Furthermore, skin permeation profiles of drug suggest that the liposomal formulation enhances transdermal delivery of AE. Experimental data demonstrate the feasibility of applying liposome to deliver AE in clinical therapy. PMID:19928967

Chou, Tzung-Han; Liang, Chia-Hua

2009-12-01

415

Mechanical skin damage on wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and quantifies a mechanical skin damage resulting from the redistribution of stresses caused by drilling the well. The damage is localized within a radial ring around the borehole wall. The stresses (and related positive skin), increase with depth, angle of inclination, and well production. They rapidly fade with lateral radial distance. The damage becomes insignificant at approximately three times the borehole radius.

Morales, R.H.; Brown, E.; Norman, W.D. [and others

1995-12-31

416

Skin: Behavior and Health Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science; )

2006-09-07

417

Recombinant Allergens for Skin Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin testing is a basic diagnostic procedure widely used to explore immediate-type reactions to allergen preparations in vivo. Despite their reliability, if standardized extracts are used, skin tests suffer from limited reproducibility due to difficulties in preparing consistently standardized extracts from natural raw material. Starting from allergen-encoding cDNAs, large amounts of highly pure allergens with a high batch-to-batch consistency satisfying

Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier; Reto Crameri

2001-01-01

418

Strategies in Skin Cancer Chemoprevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal studies of skin cancer began more than 200 yr ago. The first skin tumor model to appear in the literature was reported\\u000a by London surgeon Percivall Pott in 1775 (1). His account of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps is considered the historical beginning of cancer research, as he delved\\u000a beyond treatment into the etiology of the disease (2). Pott’s

M. Suzanne Stratton; Steven P. Stratton; James Ranger-Moore; Janine G. Einspahr; G. Tim Bowden; David S. Alberts

419

Update on pathological skin picking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue\\u000a damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the\\u000a behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive

Jon E. Grant; Brian L. Odlaug

2009-01-01

420

How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... more"> 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or changes ... ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

421

Protective Skins for Composite Airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

2014-01-01

422

Skin disorders and thyroid diseases.  

PubMed

Thyroid disorders have a high prevalence in medical practice; they are associated with a wide range of diseases with which they may or may not share etiological factors. One of the organs which best show this wide range of clinical signs is the skin. This review is an attempt to approach most of the dermopathies reflecting several degrees of harmfulness, coming directly or indirectly from thyroid abnormalities, as well as to update current knowledge on the relationship between the thyroid and skin. We have proposed a primary classification of skin disorders, regarding thyroid involvement, into two main groups: 1) dermopathies associated with thyroid abnormalities, mainly with autoimmune thyroid diseases, like melasma, vitiligo, Sjogren's syndrome, alopecia, idiopathic hirsutism, pre-menstrual acne, bullous diseases, connective tissue diseases, hamartoma syndrome, atopy, leprosy and DiGeorge anomaly; and 2) dermopathies depending on the nature of the thyroid disorder, in which the evolution and outcome of the skin disorder depend on the thyroidal treatment in most cases, such as trophism and skin blood flow, myxedema, alopecia, onychodystrophy, hypo- and hyperhidrosis, xanthomas, intraepidermal bullae, carotenodermia, pruritus, flushing, pyodermitis, palmoplantar keratoderma, ecchymosis, etc. In some other cases, the skin disease which developed as a consequence of the thyroid abnormality can remain unaltered despite functional treatment of the thyroid problem, such as pretibial myxedema, thyroid acropachy and some cutaneous manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. PMID:11686547

Niepomniszcze, H; Amad, R H

2001-09-01

423

Radiation sterilization of skin allograft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

2009-07-01

424

Venous free flaps for the treatment of skin cancers of the digits.  

PubMed

Microvascular reconstruction using distant free flaps is often required after excision of skin cancers of the digits. The delivered flaps should be chosen with many factors taken into consideration, especially in the digits, in which a very thin, pliable, and durable flap is required to maintain both function and cosmetic appearance. Free flaps, such as perforator flaps, however, for distal or small defects of the hand after excision of skin cancer, require the sacrifices of the main arterial pedicle with deep dissection and exhibit potential limitations regarding flap size and location of the defect. Instead, arterialized venous free flap could be used as an alternative reconstructive method for skin cancers of the digits. Twelve soft tissue defects of the digits after excision of skin cancers (5 cases of malignant melanoma and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma) were reconstructed using arterialized venous free flaps from January 2009 to May 2011. The flaps ranged in size from 1 × 1.5 cm to 5 × 7 cm. The flaps completely survived in 9 cases. Partial necrosis developed in 3 cases; however, skin graft was necessary only for 1 case. There were no recurrences or metastases for at least 20 months after the last case. Recently in cases of noninvasive or low-grade skin cancer of the hand, the concept of "preservative surgery" has been a higher priority compared with functional and esthetic aspects. Particularly in cases of reconstruction of a small-sized fingertip defect as 1 functional unit, arterialized venous free flaps offer several advantages, such as thinness and color similar to the hand, technical ease with a short operative time, long vascular pedicle, less donor site morbidity with no sacrifice of a major vessel, applicable to any site, and modifiable to the appropriate size and shape. Arterialized venous free flap could serve as a useful and reliable method for soft tissue reconstruction after excision of skin cancers in the digits. PMID:25003463

Park, Ji Ung; Kim, Kiwan; Kwon, Sung Tack

2015-05-01

425

Knockout of Endothelial Cell-Derived Endothelin-1 Attenuates Skin Fibrosis but Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET)-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-?, CTGF and TGF-? was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach. PMID:24853267

Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Aoi, Jun; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-01-01

426

A strain of Clover yellow vein virus that causes severe pod necrosis disease in snap bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2000, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) has been associated with severe virus epidemics in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the upper Midwestern states, New York, and Ontario, Canada. The causal agent of a disease causing severe mosaic, apical necrosis stunting and extensive pod necrosis wa...

427

Conjunctival necrosis following a subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide in a child.  

PubMed

Conjunctival necrosis is a rare complication following periocular/intraocular triamcinolone acetonide injection and has been reported extensively in adults. We describe a child who developed conjunctival necrosis following subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide for severe chronic anterior uveitis. Prompt diagnosis and management of this uncommon condition is vital. PMID:25624689

Ying-Jiun, Chong; Chee-Kuen, Wong; Shatriah, Ismail

2015-01-01

428

Results of Contemporary Surgical Management of Radiation Necrosis using Frameless Stereotaxis and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Radiation necrosis is a well-known complication of radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors. Although surgery was once considered the mainstay of treatment, no recent reports have evaluated the use of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI) and frameless stereotaxis during surgical resection of radiation necrosis. In this retrospective review, we evaluate the effectiveness of surgical resection using frameless stereotaxis and IOMRI

Christopher M. McPherson; Ronald E. Warnick

2004-01-01

429

Fat necrosis of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign inflammatory process that may be mistaken for cancer in clinical examination or imaging studies. Although its mammographic manifestations are well known, data from other imaging modes, particularly sonography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited. With the growing number of breast surgeries performed today (eg, breast-conserving, autologous tissue reconstruction, mammoplasty), fat necrosis is

Luciano Fernandes Chala; Nestor de Barros; Paula de Camargo Moraes; Érica Endo; Su Jin Kim; Kátia Maciel Pincerato; Filomena Marino Carvalho; Giovanni Guido Cerri

2004-01-01

430

Solution Structure of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Death Domain  

E-print Network

Solution Structure of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Death Domain Steven F. Sukits1 , Lih 02140, USA Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 death domain (TNFR-1 DD) is the intra- cellular functional members of the death domain superfamily. The secondary structure and three- dimensional structure of R347K

Powers, Robert

431

Block copolymer nanotemplating of tobacco mosaic and tobacco necrosis viruses q  

E-print Network

Block copolymer nanotemplating of tobacco mosaic and tobacco necrosis viruses q Arthur V. Cresce This paper examines the interaction between a block copolymer and a virus. A poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and tobacco necrosis virus on microphase-separated PS/P4VP­ Ni was examined

Rubloff, Gary W.

432

Myocardial Necrosis in the Rat: a Comparison between Isoprenaline, Orciprenaline, Salbutamol and Terbutaline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiotoxic effects of isoprenaline, orciprenaline, salbutamol, and terbutaline were compared in rats following daily subcutaneous administration for three consecutive days. Isoprenaline appeared to be the drug prone to induce myocardial necrosis, and salbutamol and terbutaline the least likely to do so. The data suggest that the more ?1-stimulating a compound is, the more likely it is to causemyocardial necrosis.Copyright

G. Magnusson; E. Hansson

1973-01-01

433

Conjunctival Necrosis Following a Subconjunctival Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide in a Child  

PubMed Central

Conjunctival necrosis is a rare complication following periocular/intraocular triamcinolone acetonide injection and has been reported extensively in adults. We describe a child who developed conjunctival necrosis following subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide for severe chronic anterior uveitis. Prompt diagnosis and management of this uncommon condition is vital. PMID:25624689

Ying-Jiun, Chong; Chee-Kuen, Wong; Shatriah, Ismail

2015-01-01

434

Glutamate-induced neuronal death: A succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ischemic brain injury, glutamate accumulation leads to overstimulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors with intracellular Ca2+ overload and neuronal cell death. Here we show that glutamate can induce either early necrosis or delayed apoptosis in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. During and shortly after exposure to glutamate, a subpopulation of neurons died by necrosis. In these cells, mitochondrial membrane potential

Maria Ankarcrona; Jeannette M. Dypbukt; Emanuela Bonfoco; Boris Zhivotovsky; Sten Orrenius; Stuart A. Lipton; Pierluigi Nicotera

1995-01-01

435

Necrosis correlates with high vascular density and focal macrophage infiltration in invasive carcinoma of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis is a common feature of invasive carcinoma of the breast and is caused by chronic ischaemia leading to infarction. Although necrosis was previously assumed to be due to a generally poor blood supply in the tumour, in this study we show that it is present in tumours with focal areas of high vascular density situated away from the actual

R D Leek; R J Landers; A L Harris; C E Lewis

1999-01-01

436

Mapping a neutralizing epitope on the coat protein of striped jack nervous necrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), a fish nodavirus, is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in marine fishes. The fish nodaviruses are divided into four different genotypes based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene. In the present study, partial coat protein genes of fish nodaviruses were expressed. This allowed the sero- logical relationship among the

Toyohiko Nishizawa; Ryoko Takano; Kiyokuni Muroga

1999-01-01

437

Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

2010-02-01

438

Mechanisms of Photoaging and Chronological Skin Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

uman skin, like all other organs, undergoes chronological aging. In addition, unlike other organs, skin is in direct contact with the environment and therefore undergoes aging as a consequence of environmental damage. The primary environmental factor that causes human skin aging is UV irradiation from the sun. This sun-induced skin aging (photoaging), like chronological aging, is a cumulative process. However,

Gary J. Fisher; Sewon Kang; James Varani; Zsuzsanna Bata-Csorgo; Yinsheng Wan; Subhash Datta; John J Voorhees

2002-01-01

439

Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for experimental studies of percutaneous penetration prescribe optimal barrier integrity of the skin. The barrier integrity of the skin exposed in occupational or household situations is, however, not always ideal, and skin problems are among the most dominant reasons for absence from work. We have therefore evaluated an experimental model for percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin. The influence

Jesper B. Nielsen

2005-01-01

440

NUTRITIONAL PROTECTION AGAINST SKIN DAMAGE FROM SUNLIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The concept of systemic,photoprotection,by dietary means,is gaining momentum. Skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the major cause of skin disorders such as sunburn, photodamage, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most of the erythemal annual UV dose is encountered under nonvacation conditions, when no sunscreen is applied. In the absence of topically added compounds, skin protection depends solely

Helmut Sies; Wilhelm Stahl

2004-01-01

441

Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction  

E-print Network

Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction Shark Skin Drag Reduction Amy Lang1 , Maria Laura Riblets; Shark denticles; Shark skin separation control Definition The scales, or denticles, on fast-swimming sharks have evolved two mechanisms for controlling the boundary layer flow over the skin surface leading

Motta, Philip J.

442

Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum  

E-print Network

Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum Computing diffusion through human skin is usually diffusion through human skin using two and three dimensional models. First computations for this problem were made a decade ago, yielding new insight into permeation pathways through human skin, which were

Hackbusch, Wolfgang

443

Skin temperature response during cycle ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic exercise has among other things an effect on core body temperature, skin bloodflow and skin temperature. The skin through vasodilatation is used to transfer metabolic heat from the core to the external environment preventing a rise in body temperature that would be harmful to body organs. The purpose of the study was to characterize the regional skin temperature response

T. J. Malkinson

2002-01-01

444

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging The full report is titled “Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging. A Randomized Trial.” It is in the 4 June 2013 ... skin cancer, whether it can protect against skin aging has not been established. Antioxidants, such as -carotene, ...

445

Skin cancer and solar UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

F. R. de Gruijl

1999-01-01

446

[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis  

E-print Network

cause squamous cell cancer that is believed to cause up to 20% of skin cancer deaths. ACKNOWLEDGMENT of either wellness or skin cancer. 2) The responsibility for follow-up on skin damage and to obtain further, including skin cancer. 5) Even if my results today do not indicate sun damage, this does not mean that I do

New Mexico, University of

447

A study of the postburned restored skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of restored skin (RS) resulting from healing of partial skin thickness burns was analyzed. Comparisons within symmetric skin areas were performed between RS and healthy undamaged skin (HS), using spectrophotometry, in 118 subjects, 64 males, 54 females with an age range of 1–70 years. A total of 379 samples were analyzed. The CIE-1976 color system was adopted where

D do A. Carvalho; U Mariani; D de S. Gomez; R Gemperli; M. C Ferreira

1999-01-01

448

The stereoscan observations of the skin of catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis, following chromium exposure  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of the skin of air-breathing catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis (Bloch) was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in both fish exposed for seven days to 5.6 mg/L chromium in water and unexposed fish. In the control fish, the epidermis have several hexa or polygonal mucous goblet cells which are uniform in shape and size, and microvilli-like structures are present in the mucous cells. An SEM study of the Cr-exposed epidermis revealed an increased number of active mucous cells having a dilated flask or cylindrical shape; they had lost their hexa or polygonal shape. Chromium exposure also caused focal necrosis and hypersecretion in these cells. The accumulation of excess mucus suggests a molecular interaction between mucus glycoprotein and toxic chromium ions. Such changes may result in osmoregulation failure and a loss resistance by the skin surface to a wide variety of fish pathogens.

Khangarot, B.S.; Tripathi, D.M. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Locknow (India))

1992-01-01

449

Electron microscopic study on black pig skin irradiated with pulsed dye laser (504 nm)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective damage of epidermal pigment cells induced by 504 nm pulsed dye laser at different pulse durations and fluence on black pig skin was examined electron microscopically. Epidermal melanosomes were satisfactorily disrupted at shorter pulse duration (100 ns). Epidermal blister formation and necrosis were seen at 2 days postirradiation, and reepithelization was evident at 7 days postirradiation in all specimens. Repigmentation was evident 21 to 56 days after irradiation. Histological pigmentary incontinence was evident at 2 days and persisted until 56 days postirradiation. This phenomenon was observed more frequently in skin exposed to longer pulse duration and at low fluences. Optimal parameters required to induce epidermal melanosome disruption using the 504 nm pulsed dye laser will be discussed.

Yasuda, Yukio; Tan, Oon T.; Kurban, Amal K.; Tsukada, Sadao

1991-06-01

450

Tumor necrosis factor is delivered to mitochondria where a tumor necrosis factor-binding protein is localized.  

PubMed

The roles of the known tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (TNFR-I and TNFR-II) and their associated signaling pathways in mediating the diverse actions of TNF remain incompletely defined. We have found that a proportion of exogenous TNF is delivered to mitochondria as well as to lysosomes. Using confocal and immunoelectron microscopy and Western blotting of subcellular fractions, we have identified a 60-kd protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane that is recognized by a monoclonal antibody to TNFR-II. In isolated mitochondria, this protein binds [125I]-TNF. This provides evidence of a mitochondrial binding protein for an extracellular ligand and demonstrates the presence of a pathway capable of delivering TNF from the cell surface to mitochondria. These findings suggest that TNF effects on cells may be due in part to a direct effect on mitochondria. PMID:9881958

Ledgerwood, E C; Prins, J B; Bright, N A; Johnson, D R; Wolfreys, K; Pober, J S; O'Rahilly, S; Bradley, J R

1998-12-01

451

Histologic evaluation of the width of soft tissue necrosis adjacent to carbon dioxide laser incisions  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the width of tissue necrosis lateral to carbon dioxide laser incisions on human intraoral excisional biopsy specimens. Measurements were made on specimens including epithelium, muscle, dense and loose connective tissue, and salivary gland. Results showed a mean width of tissue necrosis of 86 microns in epithelium, 85 microns in muscle, 51 microns in loose connective tissue, 96 microns in dense connective tissue, and 41 microns in salivary gland. The range of thermal necrosis in different tissue types is probably based on the water content within each type. A cellular partially homogenized zone of reversible thermal damage up to 500 microns in width was visible adjacent to the zone of thermal necrosis. The relatively narrow width of tissue necrosis with this technique may account for the claimed superior properties of laser-induced wounds compared with those created by electrosurgery.

Pogrel, M.A.; McCracken, K.J.; Daniels, T.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-11-01

452

[Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis. PMID:24837841

Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

2014-01-01

453

Abdominal fat necrosis in a pygmy goat associated with fescue toxicosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal fat necrosis was diagnosed in an 11-year-old female pygmy goat with a 10-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and progressive abdominal distension. Gross necropsy findings revealed multiple firm, dark yellow, nodular masses of fat throughout the abdominal cavity, which compressed several abdominal organs including the rumen, small intestine, spiral colon, and gall bladder. Histologically, multiple to coalescing adipocyte necrosis, saponification, and infiltration with variable numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells was observed. Fat necrosis in this case was attributed to tall fescue toxicity based on the presence of high levels of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected fescue identified in the goat's pasture. This is the first known report of abdominal fat necrosis in a goat and demonstrates the fat necrosis syndrome of fescue toxicosis in ruminants. PMID:15305753

Smith, Geoffrey W; Rotstein, David S; Brownie, Cecil F

2004-07-01

454

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  

PubMed

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo

2008-01-01

455

NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER  

E-print Network

NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 21 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3.1. SUMMARY Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC their cancer diagnosis. Table 3.1 Summary information for non-melanoma skin cancer in Ireland, 1995-melanoma skin cancer cases in Ireland, 1995-2007, by sex females males 3.2. INTERNATIONAL VARIATIONS

Paxton, Anthony T.

456

Supplementation of Flaxseed Oil Diminishes Skin Sensitivity and Improves Skin Barrier Function and Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skin sensitivity is a common problem in the Western population correlated with changes of skin properties like skin barrier function, hydration and skin physiology. Skin properties can be modulated by dietary fatty acids (FA), especially poly-unsaturated FA. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily supplementation with flaxseed oil and safflowerseed oil on healthy volunteers with

K. Neukam; S. De Spirt; W. Stahl; M. Bejot; J.-M. Maurette; H. Tronnier; U. Heinrich

2011-01-01

457

Removing bonded skin from a substrate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

Chartier, E. N.

1980-01-01

458

Developing Topical Prodrugs for Skin Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin plays multiple roles in protection from environmental insults yet skin damage, particularly that derived from sunlight,\\u000a constitutes a major public health problem. End stage skin damage in the form of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most\\u000a frequent malignancies in the United States with more than 1,000,000 cases diagnosed annually (Karagas et al. 1999). Melanoma\\u000a skin cancer is

Elaine L. Jacobson; Hyuntae Kim; Moonsun Kim; Georg T. Wondrak; Myron K. Jacobson

459

Telocytes in human skin – are they involved in skin regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Telocytes (TCs), a particular interstitial cell type, have been recently described in a wide variety of mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). The TCs are identified morphologically by a small cell body and extremely long (tens to hundreds of ?m), thin prolongations (less than 100 nm in diameter, below the resolving power of light microscopy) called telopodes. Here, we demonstrated with electron microscopy and immunofluorescence that TCs were present in human dermis. In particular, TCs were found in the reticular dermis, around blood vessels, in the perifollicular sheath, outside the glassy membrane and surrounding sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles and both the secretory and excretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. Immunofluorescence screening and laser scanning confocal microscopy showed two subpopulations of dermal TCs; one expressed c-kit/CD117 and the other was positive for CD34. Both subpopulations were also positive for vimentin. The TCs were connected to each other by homocellular junctions, and they formed an interstitial 3D network. We also found TCs adjoined to stem cells in the bulge region of hair follicles. Moreover, TCs established atypical heterocellular junctions with stem cells (clusters of undifferentiated cells). Given the frequency of allergic skin pathologies, we would like to emphasize the finding that close, planar junctions were frequently observed between TCs and mast cells. In conclusion, based on TC distribution and intercellular connections, our results suggested that TCs might be involved in skin homeostasis, skin remodelling, skin regeneration and skin repair. PMID:22500885

Ceafalan, Laura; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M; Simionescu, Olga

2012-01-01

460

Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.  

PubMed

In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

2014-01-23

461

Photochemoprotective effect of Calluna vulgaris extract on skin exposed to multiple doses of ultraviolet B in SKH-1 hairless mice.  

PubMed

UVB is a major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention represents an important strategy in protecting the skin against the detrimental effects of ultraviolet B (UVB). We investigated the activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) delivered via a hydrogel on 3 main pathways (oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage) on skin exposed to multiple doses of UVB in SKH-1 mice. Fifty female mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, vehicle, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, and Cv + vehicle + UVB irradiated. The extract was applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg polyphenols/cm2 30 minutes before each UVB (240 mJ/cm2) exposure over 10 consecutive days. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) levels, sunburn cell formation and epidermal thickness, and the number of epidermal cell layers in skin were evaluated 24 hours after the last treatment. UVB increased cytokine levels (P < 0.001), formation of CPDs (P < 0.001) and sunburn cells (P < 0.001), and the epidermal thickness and number of epidermal cell layers (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. The topical application of Cv protected the skin against inflammation and DNA damage, as shown by a decreased number of CPDs (P < 0.001) and sunburn cells (P < 0.001). The administration of Cv via hydrogel may be a viable method for chemoprevention.. PMID:23339698

Olteanu, Elena Diana; Filip, Adriana; Clichici, Simona; Daicoviciu, Doina; Achim, Marcela; Postescu, Ion Dan; Bolfa, Pompei; Bolojan, Laura; Vlase, Laurian; Muresan, Adriana

2012-01-01

462

Fermented Maesil (Prunus mume) with probiotics inhibits development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.  

PubMed

Maesil (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.), a potential source of free radical scavengers and inhibitor of pro-inflammatory mediators, is used in traditional Korean medical preparations as a remedy for skin disorders as have probiotics. The action of a probiotic fermented Maesil preparation on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions was determined in a NC/Nga mouse model as an initial step towards the development of a therapeutic feed supplement for use in dogs. Continuous ingestion of the experimental feed markedly inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions, as evidenced by a marked decrease in skin signs and reduced inflammation within the skin lesions. Efficacy was confirmed by significant decreases in eosinophil ratio and serum IgE concentration, and a reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from the ear. Relative mRNA expression levels of IL-4, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the spleens of the experimental animals were also decreased and there was an increased serum concentration of IL-10 with a concurrent decreased IL-4 concentration in comparison to a control group. Taken together, the results indicate that some component(s) of fermented Maesil have the ability to suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions, possibly by stimulation of IL-10. Beneficial effects of fermented Maesil may thus be expected in dogs with AD, although this and the nature of the active pathway remain to be explored. PMID:20141605

Jung, Bock-Gie; Cho, Sun-Ju; Koh, Hong-Bum; Han, Dong-Un; Lee, Bong-Joo

2010-04-01

463

Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin  

PubMed Central

The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be used. This article reflects on the following topics: topical retinoids, peels, botulinum neurotoxin, soft tissue fillers, lasers, topical and systemic endocrinological therapies, and phytohormones. A thorough knowledge of the properties (benefits, limitations, and complications) of the expanding array of possibilities for rejuvenation of the skin is essential for any physician treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18047257

Sator, Paul G

2006-01-01

464

The Transcription Factors c-rel and RelA Control Epidermal Development and Homeostasis in Embryonic and Adult Skin via Distinct Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the roles of Rel\\/NF-B transcription factors in mouse skin development with loss-of-function mutants has been limited by redundancy among these proteins and by embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RelA. Using mice lacking RelA and c-rel, which survive throughout embryogenesis on a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-)-deficient background (rela\\/ c-rel\\/ tnf\\/), we show that c-rel and RelA are

Raffi Gugasyan; Anne Voss; George Varigos; Tim Thomas; Raelene J. Grumont; Pritinder Kaur; George Grigoriadis; Steve Gerondakis

2004-01-01

465

Malassezia skin diseases in humans.  

PubMed

Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfì, F; Galeone, M

2013-12-01

466

Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

2006-02-01

467

Tribological evaluation of porcine skin.  

PubMed

This research studies the effects of external parameters on the friction of porcine skin. A tribometer was used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the same. The effects of DI water and body oil on porcine skin against steel and glass balls were evaluated in terms of coefficient of friction (COF). The COF dropped rapidly when DI water/body oil was introduced into the sliding system and remained stable when the volume of the liquid exceeded a certain value. The COF increased with increasing sliding speed under dry conditions and decreased in wet. Under an increasing normal force, the COF decreased regardless of the presence of liquid. The ratio of the real contact area to the nominal contact area of the skin with the steel/glass ball was found to increase with a power law as the applied force was increased. These results reveal basic tribological properties of the skin in contact with a hard slider. These properties could be used as reference for the design and development of artificial skin in prosthetic applications. PMID:24373917

Xiao, Huaping; Ariyasinghe, Nethika; He, Xingliang; Liang, Hong

2014-04-01

468

Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Research about the skin barrier and its properties has increased significantly since the 60s, with studies that indicated its resistance when isolated, as well as its particularities in relation to skin permeability. At the same time, description of Odland bodies helped to understand how stratum corneum stability is maintained. The âbrick and mortarâ model is the most accepted so far. In this analogy, the corneocytes are the bricks and the intercellular lipids are the mortar. Currently, there is concrete evidence that the stratum corneum is an active metabolic structure that holds adaptive functions, interacting dynamically with the underlying epidermal layers. The skin barrier also plays a role in the inflammatory response through melanocyte activation, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia. The intensity of this response will essentially depend on the severity of the injury. Skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis are clinically observed by the presence of dry skin, a common and significant symptom which constitutes a diagnostic and monitoring parameter. The stratum corneum hydration level and transepidermal water loss are associated with the level of damage to the barrier, representing biophysical parameters. These parameters help doctors monitor patients in a less invasive and more sensitive manner. PMID:20520934

Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna; Aoki, Valeria

2010-01-01

469

Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... workplace to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical. The MSDS will describe any known risk for skin irritation, ... or skin cancer. Be sure to read each MSDS your company provides. Skin Problems Irritation and Rashes. ...

470

Palatal necrosis in an AIDS patient: a case of mucormycosis.  

PubMed

We report a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis presenting in a patient with AIDS and review the literature on mucormycosis occurring in the setting of HIV disease. Mucormycosis in HIV is rare. However, it can be the presenting opportunistic infection in AIDS. Predisposing factors for Mucor infection in HIV disease include low CD4 count, neutropenia, and active intravenous drug use. Mucormycosis can present in the basal ganglia, the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, or may be disseminated. The disease may develop insidiously or may progress rapidly with a fulminant course. Therapy usually consists of surgical debridement/excision accompanied by intravenous amphotericin B. PMID:10916685

Moraru, R A; Grossman, M E

2000-07-01

471

Sarcoma-like tumor of head and neck skin.  

PubMed

A group of tumors referred to as atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) predominantly occur in sun-damaged skin of the elderly, particularly in the head and neck region. Although this group of tumors is often regarded as of mesenchymal phenotype, the matter of histogenesis has not been entirely resolved. Evans H and Smith JL reported in 1980 that prognosis was not significantly different irrespective of whether there was a definite squamous cell carcinoma component or not, supporting a view that these are all carcinomata in nature (sarcomatoid carcinoma [SC]). There are a number of clinicopathologic studies of AFX in the literature but information on morphologically similar sarcoma-like tumors with immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial differentiation is sparse. One hundred sarcoma-like tumors (SLTs) of head and neck skin of the elderly, treated by surgical excision, were studied. Clinical information was obtained, and pathology reports and hematoxylin and eosin sections were reviewed to document size (maximum dimension), extent of invasion, mitotic count, vascular and perineural invasion, margin status, ulceration, necrosis, and the presence of actinic keratosis in adjacent/overlying skin. Immunostains examined included: pan-cytokeratins (CKs) (AE1/AE3, MNF116), high-molecular weight CKs (34?E12, CK5/6, CK14), p63, and melanocytic (S100, Melan A, HMB-45, MITF), vascular (CD31, CD34), and muscle markers (SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon) to exclude melanoma and definite sarcoma entities. The tumors were divided into AFX/PDS (G1), the SC group, which was subdivided into SLT with only p63 positivity (G2a) and SLT with CK positivity regardless of p63 status (G2b), and SLT with a minor morphologic squamous cell carcinoma component (G3). Clinicopathologic findings of each group were compared, in relation to outcomes. Age at diagnosis ranged from 51 to 96 years (median, 79 y), with M:F=11.5:1. There were 53 tumors in G1 (19AFX, 34PDS), 37 in G2 (25 in G2a, 12 in G2b), and 10 in G3. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical and pathologic parameters or survival among all 3 groups. CKs and p63 expression, size, extent of invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, mitotic count, and ulcer did not affect outcome, whereas margin status and necrosis did by both univariate and multivariate analysis and by only univariate analysis, respectively. Sixty patients had multiple nonmelanomatous skin cancers. Actinic keratosis was observed in overlying/adjacent epidermis in 51 cases. Eight patients had prior radiotherapy to head skin cancers; 1 patient developed 2 separate tumors (G1 and G3) after radiotherapy. Four patients died of tumor (1 G1, 2 G2b, and 1 G3); of these, 3 cases had positive margin, and 1 had narrow margin. Our results have shown similarities of various clinicopathologic parameters between AFX/PDS and SC, raising the possibility that both entities are related, and some of the former entities may represent complete dedifferentiation (complete loss of epithelial phenotype) with a gain of mesenchymal phenotype. In addition, the difference between AFX and PDS appears to be the extent of invasiveness (stage) rather than a different histogenesis. Further investigations are needed. However, from a practical point of view, efforts should be made to excise this group of tumors with clear margins, as margin status appears to be the most important prognostic factor regardless of the presence or absence of epithelial differentiation. PMID:24705313

Nonaka, Daisuke; Bishop, Paul W

2014-07-01

472

Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.  

PubMed

The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases. PMID:24931861

Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

2014-07-01

473

Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers  

PubMed Central

Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

2011-01-01

474

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 Is a Dynamic Tight Junction-Related Shuttle Protein Involved  

E-print Network

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 Is a Dynamic Tight Junction-Related Shuttle in vivo evidences that Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 (TRAF4) plays a key biological, Alpy F, Baguet A, Polette M, Stoll I, et al. (2008) Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Protective effect of menhaden oil on renal necrosis occurring in weanling rats fed a methyl-deficient diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weanling rats fed a lipotropic-deficient diet (LDD) may develop acute renal failure with morphological features that vary from focal tubular necrosis to widespread cortical necrosis and eventually reparative changes. The type of lipid in the diet influences the development of renal necrosis. The aim of this work was to study the effect of dietary menhaden oil on the development of

Mar??a C Courrèges; Carla Caruso; Jochen Klein; Alberto J Monserrat

2002-01-01

476

Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade  

PubMed Central

Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. PMID:25201987

Liu, Kai; Ding, Lianggong; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Chunyue; Lei, Ye; Han, Shuting; Tao, Wei; Miao, Dengshun; Steller, Hermann; Welsh, Michael J.; Liu, Lei

2014-01-01

477

Accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in distinction between radiation necrosis and recurrence of brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Distinction between radiation necrosis and recurrence of intraparenchymal tumors is necessary to select the appropriate treatment, but it is often difficult based on imaging features alone. We developed an algorithm for analyzing magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings and studied its accuracy in differentiation between radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. Methods: Thirty-three patients with a history of intraparenchymal brain tumor resection and radiotherapy, which had developed new enhancing lesion were evaluated by MRS and subsequently underwent reoperation. Lesions with Choline (Cho)/N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) > 1.8 or Cho/Lipid > 1 were considered as tumor recurrence and the remaining as radiation necrosis. Finally, pre-perative MRS diagnoses were compared with histopathological report. Results: The histological diagnosis was recurrence in 25 patients and necrosis in 8 patients. Mean Cho/NAA in recurrent tumors was 2.72, but it was 1.46 in radiation necrosis (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Cho/Lipid was significantly higher in recurrent tumors (P < 0.01) with the mean of 2.78 in recurrent tumors and 0.6 in radiation necrosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm for detecting tumor recurrence were 84%, 75% and 81%, respectively. Conclusion: MRS is a safe and informative tool for differentiating between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis.

Anbarloui, Mousa Reza; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Khoshnevisan, Alireza; Khadivi, Masoud; Abdollahzadeh, Sina; Aoude, Ahmad; Naderi, Soheil; Najafi, Zeynab; Faghih-Jouibari, Morteza

2015-01-01

478

A novel role for the apoptosis inhibitor ARC in suppressing TNF?-induced regulated necrosis.  

PubMed

TNF? signaling can promote apoptosis or a regulated form of necrosis. ARC (apoptosis repressor with CARD (caspase recruitment domain)) is an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis that antagonizes both the extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial/ER) apoptosis pathways. We discovered that ARC blocks not only apoptosis but also necrosis. TNF?-induced necrosis was abrogated by overexpression of wild-type ARC but not by a CARD mutant that is also defective for inhibition of apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of ARC exacerbated TNF?-induced necrosis, an effect that was rescued by reconstitution with wild-type, but not CARD-defective, ARC. Similarly, depletion of ARC in vivo exacerbated necrosis caused by infection with vaccinia virus, which elicits severe tissue damage through this pathway, and sensitized mice to TNF?-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The mechanism underlying these effects is an interaction of ARC with TNF receptor 1 that interferes with recruitment of RIP1, a critical mediator of TNF?-induced regulated necrosis. These findings extend the role of ARC from an apoptosis inhibitor to a regulator of the TNF? pathway and an inhibitor of TNF?-mediated regulated necrosis. PMID:24440909

Kung, G; Dai, P; Deng, L; Kitsis, R N

2014-04-01

479

Bevacizumab as Therapy for Radiation Necrosis in Four Children With Pontine Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Diffuse pontine gliomas are a pediatric brain tumor that is fatal in nearly all patients. Given the poor prognosis for patients with this tumor, their quality of life is very important. Radiation therapy provides some palliation, but can result in radiation necrosis and associated neurologic decline. The typical treatment for this necrosis is steroid therapy. Although the steroids are effective, they have numerous side effects that can often significantly compromise quality of life. Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been suggested as a treatment for radiation necrosis. We report on our initial experience with bevacizumab therapy for radiation necrosis in pediatric pontine gliomas. Materials and Methods: Four children with pontine gliomas treated at the Children's Hospital in Denver and the University of Colorado Denver developed evidence of radiation necrosis both clinically and on imaging. Those 4 children then received bevacizumab as a treatment for the radiation necrosis. We reviewed the clinical outcome and imaging findings. Results: After bevacizumab therapy, 3 children had significant clinical improvement and were able to discontinue steroid use. One child continued to decline, and, in retrospect, had disease progression, not radiation necrosis. In all cases, bevacizumab was well tolerated. Conclusions: In children with pontine gliomas, bevacizumab may provide both therapeutic benefit and diagnostic information. More formal evaluation of bevacizumab in these children is needed.

Liu, Arthur K., E-mail: arthur.liu@ucdenver.ed [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States); Macy, Margaret E.; Foreman, Nicholas K. [Children's Hospital, Denver, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States)

2009-11-15

480

Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade.  

PubMed

Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. PMID:25201987

Liu, Kai; Ding, Lianggong; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Chunyue; Lei, Ye; Han, Shuting; Tao, Wei; Miao, Dengshun; Steller, Hermann; Welsh, Michael J; Liu, Lei

2014-09-23

481

Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer  

PubMed Central

The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer. PMID:25575023

Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N.; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Murrell, Dedee F.; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M.

2015-01-01

482

BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid.  

PubMed

Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563

Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

483

Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer.  

PubMed

The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mec