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Warfarin-induced skin necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin necrosis is a rare but serious side-effect of treatment with warfarin. At particular risk are those with various thrombophilic abnormalities, especially when warfarinisation is undertaken rapidly with large loading doses of warfarin. With the increasing number of patients anticoagulated as out-patients for thromboprophylaxis, we are concerned that the incidence of skin necrosis may increase. If skin necrosis does occur,

Andrew J Stewart; Ian D Penman; Margaret K Cook; Christopher A Ludlam



Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and warfarin-induced skin necrosis: case report.  


This paper describes a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicated by warfarin-induced skin necrosis in a 74-year old female patient hospitalized with diagnoses of a hip fracture, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is a rare complication of anticoagulant therapy, with high morbidity and mortality that may be associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:21308322

Kaiber, Flávia Larissa; Malucelli, Tiago Osternack; Baroni, Eloína do Rocio Valenga; Schafranski, Marcelo Derbly; Akamatsu, Hélcio Takeshi; Schmidt, Carolina Cecília Finkler


Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis in 2 Patients with Protein S Deficiency: Successful Reinstatement of Warfarin Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is a rare but serious complication of oral anticoagulant therapy. This condition has been associated with protein C deficiency but only rarely reported in patients with a deficiency of protein S. We have managed 2 patients with a history of warfarin-induced skin necrosis who were diagnosed as being protein-S-deficient. Since both patients were candidates for long-term anticoagulant

David R. Anderson; Patrick Brill-Edwards; Irwin Walker



Warfarin-induced skin necrosis diagnosed on clinical grounds and treated with maggot debridement therapy.  


A patient with a history of deep vein thrombosis presented with painful bruising and blistering on his left leg 7-10 days after warfarin treatment. A complicated 2-month treatment followed, where vasculitis was originally diagnosed from histological findings before the final diagnosis of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) was made on clinical grounds. Warfarin was stopped, reversed and low molecular weight heparin started but, the lesions had progressed to full thickness necrosis. This was originally treated with conventional surgical debridement before introducing maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in an effort to try to salvage the limb. PMID:23362073

Biscoe, Anna Louise; Bedlow, Alison



Warfarin-induced tissue necrosis: a case study.  


Warfarin-induced tissue necrosis is a rare and serious side effect associated with warfarin treatment. A case study of a patient with warfarin-induced tissue necrosis taken from clinical practice illustrates the importance of timely diagnosis and treatment to avoid the devastating consequences of this adverse drug reaction. Nurse prescribers must be alert to and aware of potential adverse drug reactions that may be caused by any prescribing decision, and should be able to take appropriate action when such an event occurs. PMID:23240517

Crumbie, Alison; Fisher, Heather; Leedham, Grace


Warfarin-induced Venous Limb Gangrene.  


Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant that has been associated with several significant cutaneous side effects, most notably warfarin-induced skin necrosis. A lesser known adverse reaction to warfarin is warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. Both cutaneous adverse effects share the same pathophysiology, but are clinically quite different. The majority of cases of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene has been in patients with cancer or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, other hypercoagulable disease states, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, can be associated with venous limb gangrene. In order to increase recognition of this important condition, the authors report a case of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene in a patient with presumed antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and review the literature on warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. PMID:23198012

Grim Hostetler, Sarah; Sopkovich, Jennifer; Dean, Steven; Zirwas, Matthew



A Case of Warfarin Skin Necrosis Despite Enoxaparin Anticoagulation in a Patient with Protein S Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is a rare complication associated with the use of oral anticoagulants. Most patients develop this at the initiation of therapy, often while still receiving intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH). Recently, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have gained wider use, providing an option for outpatient treatment of deep-vein thrombosis. The treatment protocols are similar to UFH, including the early initiation of

Chau Y. Tai; Ralph Ierardi; James B. Alexander



Gemcitabine-Induced Extensive Skin Necrosis  

PubMed Central

An 82-year-old woman presented with oedema and extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the back side of her lower limbs, emerging after the second cycle of chemotherapy consisting of Gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. The absence of any convincing argument in favor of cardiovascular or autoimmune disease led us to attribute the onset of skin necrosis to chemotherapy administration. Although skin ischemia has also been described as a paraneoplastic syndrome, in this case we could observe a temporal and causal relationship to Gemcitabine infusion. Recently, this drug has been associated with important vascular side effects; its vascular toxicity is in fact higher than previously estimated. To our knowledge, careful attention should be reserved to neoplastic patients candidated to Gemcitabine administration, especially if previously affected by arterial vascular disease, venous thromboembolism, or collagenoses.

D'epiro, Sara; Salvi, Monica; Mattozzi, Carlo; Giancristoforo, Simona; Campoli, Marco; Zanniello, Ramona; Luci, Cecilia; Macaluso, Laura; Giovannoni, Sara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano; Richetta, Antonio Giovanni



Chronic ulcerative colitis, skin necrosis, and cryofibrinogenemia.  


Necrotizing skin lesions developed in a man with chronic ulcerative colitis. No evidence of intrinsic disease of medium or small-sized vessels was found. A circulating cryofibrinogen was thought to be responsible for in situ thrombosis leading to skin infarctions. Sodium warfarin in a daily dose of 2.5 to 5 mg appears to have thwarted progression of developing lesions and the occurrence of new ones. PMID:970774

Ball, G V; Goldman, L N



Severe Skin Necrosis Associated with Heparin in Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin necrosis is a well-recognized although rare complication of continuous heparin therapy. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic woman with end-stage renal failure who received intermittent intravenous heparin during hemodialysis. She developed severe necrotic cutaneous ulcers over both legs, with typical histological findings. Thrombocytopenia never occurred but platelet studies demonstrated enhanced aggregation when heparin was added in vitro.

Martine Leblanc; Louise F. Roy; Louis Legault; Louis R. Dufresne; Claude Morin; Claude Thuot



Use of drug therapy to manage acute cutaneous necrosis of the skin.  


Acute cutaneous necrosis is defined as a sudden onset of gangrenous skin changes in the skin, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The following diseases are included in this discussion: coumadin necrosis, heparin necrosis, brown recluse spider bite, necrotizing fasciitis, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, calciphylaxis, clotting abnormalities and embolic phenomena. The importance of early diagnosis, early distinction and early drug therapy or drug withdrawal must match the diagnosis for maximal preservation of the skin and underlying tissue. PMID:20514791

Wallace, Jill S; Hall, John C



Necrosis prediction of photodynamic therapy applied to skin disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great selectivity and the lack of side effects of Photodynamic Therapy make it more advantageous than radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The application of PDT to skin diseases is particularly appropriate, due to the accessibility of this tissue. Common disorders like nonmelanoma skin cancer, that includes basocelullar or squamous cell carcinomas, can be treated with PDT. Conventional procedures, like surgery or radiotherapy, are not so efficient and do not, in general, obtain the same favourable results. PDT in dermatology medical praxis uses fixed protocols depending on the photosensitizer and the optical source used. These protocols are usually provided by the photosensitizer laboratory, and every lesion is treated with the same parameters. In this work we present a photo-chemical model of PDT applied to skin disorders treated with topical photosensitizers. Optical propagation inside the tissue is calculated by means of a 3D diffusion equation, solved via a finite difference numerical method. The photosensitizer degradation or photobleaching is taken into account, as the drug looses efficiency with the irradiation time. With these data the necrosis area is estimated, so this model could be used as a predictive tool to adjust the optical power and exposition time for the particular disease under treatment.

Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Romanov, O. G.; López-Escobar, M.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.



Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster.  


Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure - VAC), and skin grafting. Various means to prevent such adverse events are also presented. The aim of publishing this case is to stress the need to:Take proper measures preoperatively in neglected club feet to decrease the impact of deformity.To be aware of various different flaps and methods of closure as mentioned in literature and to reaffirm the fact that primary closures done under tension are bound to fail and end up in disasters.To be patient and use the modern concepts of wound management like topical negative pressure if such unfortunate complications do occur and thereby attempt to salvage the feet. PMID:21526037

Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Aithan, Bandar



Low molecular weight heparin-induced skin necrosis: a case report.  


Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are the standard agents used for antithrombotic therapy and prophylaxis. Despite their widespread use, reports about adverse effects from LMWHs are very scarce. Heparin-induced skin necrosis at the injection site is a rare adverse effect, more commonly associated with unfractionated heparin (UFH) rather than with LMWH, while its mechanism remains unclear. This paper deals with the enoxaparin induced skin necrosis. PMID:21687550

Katsourakis, Anastasios; Noussios, George; Kapoutsis, George; Chatzitheoklitos, Efthimios



Management dilemmas in patients with mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced major bleeding  

PubMed Central

Management of warfarin-induced major bleeding in patients with mechanical heart valves is challenging. There is vast controversy and confusion in the type of treatment required to reverse anticoagulation and stop bleeding as well as the ideal time to restart warfarin therapy safely without recurrence of bleeding and/or thromboembolism. Presently, the treatments available to reverse warfarin-induced bleeding are vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates and recombinant activated factor VIIa. Currently, vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma are the recommended treatments in patients with mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced major bleeding. The safe use of prothrombin complex concentrates and recombinant activated factor VIIa in patients with mechanical heart valves is controversial and needs well-designed clinical studies. With regard to restarting anticoagulation in patients with warfarin-induced major bleeding and mechanical heart valves, the safe period varies from 7-14 d after the onset of bleeding for patients with intracranial bleed and 48-72 h for patients with extra-cranial bleed. In this review article, we present relevant literature about these controversies and suggest recommendations for management of patients with warfarin-induced bleeding and a mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for separate specific guidelines from major associations/ professional societies with regard to mechanical heart valves and warfarin-induced bleeding.

Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Muslahi, Muhanna; Haque, Mohammed A; Shehab, Abdullah



Coumadin-induced skin necrosis in a 64 year-old female despite LMWH bridging therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Coumadin is the standard oral anticoagulant used in a variety of clinical conditions. Coumadin inhibits the vitamin-K dependent gamma-carboxylation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X and the anticoagulant proteins C and S. Rarely, skin necrosis occurs when the resultant initial procoagulant state in the first few days of starting coumadin leads to thrombosis and formation of blood clots tin the dermal capillaries. This in turn causes skin necrosis due to interruption in blood supply to the skin. Case Report: We are presenting the case of a 64 year-old female admitted for acute respiratory distress secondary to newly-diagnosed pulmonary embolism. The patient was started on therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and coumadin. After 5 days of treatment, the patient started complaining of pain and numbness in both upper extremities. Overnight, this rapidly progressed to manifest hemorrhagic bullae with necrotic areas. This was immediately recognized as coumadin-induced skin necrosis. Coumadin was stopped immediately. Vitamin K was administered and local wound care was provided. Therapeutic LMWH was continued. The skin lesions began to show improvement after 3 days. Conclusions: In coumadin-induced skin necrosis, the patient initially presents with pain and erythema, followed by petechial lesions which progress to become purpuric. Hemorrhagic bullae with necrosis and eschar formation may soon develop. Once it is suspected, coumadin should be stopped and the patient should be given Vitamin K and FFP to reverse the effects of coumadin.

Kumar, Mehandar; Abrina, Vanessa Mae; Chittimireddy, Sasikala



Caffeine protects human skin fibroblasts from acute reactive oxygen species-induced necrosis.  


Oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in aging and carcinogenesis. Little is known about either the effects of acute ROS in necrosis and inflammation of skin or the therapeutic agents for prevention and treatment. Previously, our laboratory identified caffeine as an inhibitor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-generated lipid peroxidation products in human skin fibroblasts. Here, we study effects of caffeine on acute ROS-mediated necrosis. Human skin fibroblasts were incubated with caffeine, followed by H2O2 challenge. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell morphology, counts, apoptosis and necrosis, and ROS. We found that caffeine protects from H2O2 cell damage at lower (0.01 mM) and intermediate (0.1 mM) doses. The beneficial effects of caffeine appear to be mediated by a mechanism other than antioxidant function. PMID:23135086

Silverberg, Jonathan I; Patel, Mital; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared



Skin necrosis during oral anticoagulant long-term treatment: an atypical side.  


The effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism, with regards to both acute phase and long term prophylaxis, in patients with recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and persistence of risk factors, has been confirmed by many studies. However, it is not free of complications such as hemorrhage or, more rarely, skin necrosis. The patient, observed by us since 1994, was treated with oral vitamin K antagonists: he was affected by post-thrombotic syndrome and deficiency of congenital procoagulant factors (factor II heterozygote and MTHFR positive heterozygote) and secondary deficiency of procoagulant factors due to the consumption of protein C, with appearance of skin necrosis that occurred after many years of oral anticoagulant treatment. The change of therapy from oral anticoagulant to low molecular weight heparin and the use of local dressing, led to the resolution of the clinical symptoms and on to healing. PMID:19190562

Antignani, P L; Schacther, I; Allegra, C



Intravascular coagulation necrosis of the skin associated with cryofibrinogenemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiolipin autoantibodies.  


Intravascular coagulation necrosis of the skin is rare and appears as hemorrhagic infiltrates that may develop ulcerating necrosis, mainly on the acral areas. The face, arms, and legs were severely involved in our patient. In this patient intravascular coagulation necrosis was associated with cryofibrinogenemia, diabetes mellitus, and IgM cardiolipin autoantibodies. In addition, rheumatoid factor, elevated polyclonal IgA, and haptoglobin were present as risk factors for the vasculopathy. Skin biopsy specimens showed plugging of dermal venules by thrombi formed of fibrin and erythrocytes. Immunohistologic staining revealed a strong positive reaction for fibrinogen, with some positivity for C3, C4, IgG, IgA, and IgM. Erythrocyte extravasation occurred in late lesions without being accompanied by perivascular leukocytic infiltrates. Detailed clinical examination failed to identify an underlying malignancy. Treatment with heparin and prednisolone produced only a brief remission. However, the combination of chlorambucil (7 mg/day orally) with low-dose oral prednisolone (10 mg/day) for several weeks controlled the disease and greatly reduced the cryofibrinogen. No relapse occurred after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:1761765

Zouboulis, C C; Gollnick, H; Weber, S; Peter, H H; Orfanos, C E



Ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy and skin necrosis caused by vascular embolization after hyaluronic Acid filler injection: a case report.  


Hyaluronic acid filler injection is widely used for soft tissue augmentation. However, there can be disastrous complications by direct vascular embolization. We present a case of ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy and skin necrosis after hyaluronic acid filler injection on glabellar.Blepharoptosis, exotropia and diplopia developed suddenly after the injection, and skin necrosis gradually occurred. Symptoms and signs of oculomotor nerve palsy continuously improved with steroid therapy. Skin defects healed with minimal scars through intensive wound care.Percutaneous filler injection of periorbital areas should be performed carefully by experienced surgeons, and the possibility of embolization should be considered promptly if symptoms develop. PMID:23203244

Kwon, Seung Gee; Hong, Jong Won; Roh, Tai Suk; Kim, Young Seok; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Soo



Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy for Nasal Skin Necrosis after Filler Injection.  


With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medical professionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. We herein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injections and were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) therapy. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane) injection in her forehead, glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammation was observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who received a filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm) on her nasal dorsum and tip at a private clinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containing ADSCs harvested from each patient's abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected into the lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additional treatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6 months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated the acute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring, and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics. PMID:22783492

Sung, Ha Min; Suh, In Suck; Lee, Hoon-Bum; Tak, Kyoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Min; Jung, Min Su



Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy for Nasal Skin Necrosis after Filler Injection  

PubMed Central

With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medical professionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. We herein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injections and were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) therapy. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane) injection in her forehead, glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammation was observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who received a filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm) on her nasal dorsum and tip at a private clinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containing ADSCs harvested from each patient's abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected into the lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additional treatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6 months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated the acute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring, and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics.

Sung, Ha Min; Lee, Hoon-Bum; Tak, Kyoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Min; Jung, Min Su



TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification.

Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.



Are there specific haemostatic abnormalities in children surviving septic shock with purpura and having skin necrosis or limb ischaemia that need skin grafts or limb amputations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10% of children surviving septic shock with purpura have skin necrosis or limb ischaemia (SNLI.). Among 44 children\\u000a consecutively admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit, 35 (80%) survived, 6 of them (17%) developed SNLI (defined as\\u000a the need of a surgical procedure). Two timed haemostasis measurements included the determination of coagulation factors, protein\\u000a C (PC), protein S

R. Cremer; F. Leclerc; B. Jude; A. Sadik; S. Leteurtre; C. Fourier; A. Martinot; J. F. Diependaele



Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin  

PubMed Central

Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses.

Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Biro, Tamas; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf



Autoimmune Bullous Skin Diseases Occurring under AntiTumor Necrosis Factor Therapy: Two Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are increasingly being used for a rapidly expanding number of rheumatic and systemic diseases. As a result of this use, and of the longer follow-up periods of treatment, there are a growing number of reports of the development of autoimmune processes related to anti-TNF agents. The use of anti-TNF agents has been associated with

L. Boussemart; S. Jacobelli; F. Batteux; C. Goulvestre; P. Grange; A. Carlotti; J. P. Morini; I. Gorin; J. M. Ziza; M. F. Avril; N. Dupin



Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-mediated signaling is required for skin cancer development induced by NF-?B inhibition  

PubMed Central

NF-?B signaling plays an important role in skin development and epidermal growth control. Moreover, inhibition of NF-?B signaling in murine epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, by expression of a keratin 5 (K5)-directed superrepressor form of inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B?), results in an inflammatory response characterized by a massive dermal infiltration of neutrophils, epidermal hyperplasia, and a rapid development of aneuploid squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We now show that by crossing K5-I?B? mice onto a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1(Tnfr1)-null background, both the inflammatory and the tumorigenic responses are blocked. The specificity of the block is illustrated by the fact that K5-I?B? mice lacking the IL-1 receptor type 1 (Il1r1) develop inflammation and squamous cell carcinomas. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated K5-I?B?/Tnfr1-/- mice with Tnfr1+/- bone-marrow does not induce the inflammatory or the tumorigenic phenotype, indicating a critical dependence on Tnfr1-mediated signaling in skin cells or nonimmune cells. Our results suggest a critical role of local Tnfr1-mediated signaling and associated inflammatory response cooperating with repressed keratinocyte NF-?B signaling in driving skin cancer development.

Lind, Maria H.; Rozell, Bjorn; Wallin, Robert P. A.; van Hogerlinden, Max; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Toftgard, Rune; Sur, Inderpreet



Cryofibrinogenemia and skin necrosis in a patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.  


A 34-year-old woman with diffuse mediastinal B cell large cell lymphoma presented 60 days after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and post-transplant immunotherapy with interleukin-2, with skin necrosis in the ears and extremities. Extensive work-up revealed the presence of cryofibrinogenemia and associated thrombotic vasculopathy. The patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids and therapeutic plasma exchange. However, she had recurrence of large cell lymphoma a few weeks later and died of progressive disease. Cryfibrinogenemia and skin necrosis may have occurred secondary to the imminent relapse, or as a rare complication of high-dose chemotherapy or treatment with interleukin-2. PMID:11223976

Shimoni, A; Körbling, M; Champlin, R; Molldrem, J



Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ‘sunburn’ response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans' cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-?, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the ‘sunburn’ response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast

Laurence J Walsh



Blockade of Thrombospondin-1-CD47 Interactions Prevents Necrosis of Full Thickness Skin Grafts  

PubMed Central

Thrombospondin-1 is a potent physiologic regulator of nitric oxide driven blood flow and angiogenesis. This regulation requires the cell receptor CD47. In a murine model of skin graft survival we demonstrate that endogenous thrombospondin-1 limits graft survival via CD47 and targeting CD47 with antibodies or suppressing CD47 with a morpholino oligonucleotide enhances graft survival by blocking this pathway. Background Skin graft survival and healing requires rapid restoration of blood flow to the avascular graft. Failure or delay in the process of graft vascularization is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. One of the primary regulators of blood flow and vessel growth is nitric oxide (NO). The secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) limits NO-stimulated blood flow and growth and composite tissue survival to ischemia. We herein demonstrate a role for TSP1 in regulating full thickness skin graft survival. Methods and Results Full thickness skin grafts (FTSG) consistently fail in wild type C57 Bl/6 mice but survive in mice lacking TSP1 or its receptor CD47. Ablation of the TSP1 receptor CD36, however, did not improve FTSG survival. Remarkably, wild type FTSG survived on TSP1 null or CD47 null mice, indicating that TSP1 expression in the wound bed is the primary determinant of graft survival. FTSG survival in wild type mice could be moderately improved by increasing NO flux, but graft survival was increased significantly through antibody blocking of TSP1 binding to CD47 or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide suppression of CD47. Conclusions TSP1 through CD47 limits skin graft survival. Blocking TSP1 binding or suppressing CD47 expression drastically increased graft survival. The therapeutic applications of this approach could include burn patients and the broader group of people requiring grafts or tissue flaps for closure and reconstruction of complex wounds of diverse etiologies.

Isenberg, Jeff S; Pappan, Loretta K.; Romeo, Martin J; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Wink, David A.; Frazier, William A.; Roberts, David D



Early effects of tumour necrosis factor ? blockade on skin and synovial tissue in patients with active psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) blockade using infliximab, a chimeric anti-TNF? antibody, is an effective treatment for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Objective: To analyse the early effects of infliximab treatment on serial skin and synovial tissue biopsy samples. Methods: Twelve patients with both active psoriasis and PsA received a single infusion of either infliximab (3 mg/kg) (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) intravenously. Synovial tissue and lesional skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to analyse the inflammatory infiltrate. In situ detection of apoptotic cells was performed by TUNEL assay and by immunohistochemical staining with anti-caspase-3 antibodies. Stained tissue sections were evaluated by digital image analysis. Results: A significant reduction in mean (SEM) T cell numbers was found in both lesional epidermis (baseline 37 (11) cells/mm, 48 hours 26 (11), p = 0.028) and synovial tissue (67 (56) cells/mm2v 32 (30), p = 0.043) after infliximab treatment, but not after placebo treatment (epidermis 18 (8) v 43 (20), NS; synovium 110 (62) v 46 (21), NS). Similarly, the number of macrophages in the synovial sublining was significantly reduced after anti-TNF? treatment (100 (73) v 10 (8), p = 0.043). The changes in cell numbers could not be explained by induction of apoptosis at the site of inflammation. Conclusions: The effects of anti-TNF? therapy in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis may be explained by decreased cell infiltration in lesional skin and inflamed synovial tissue early after initiation of treatment.

Goedkoop, A; Kraan, M; Teunissen, M; Picavet, D; de Rie, M A; Bos, J; Tak, P



Spontaneous necrosis of the skin associated with cryofibrinogenemia, cryoglobulinemia, and homocystinuria.  


Cryofibrinogenemia has been associated with a variety of skin manifestations including purpura, livedo reticularis, and ulceration. Our patient, who had undergone axillobifemoral bypass 5 years previously, presented following the spontaneous development of a necrotic wound involving the left groin scar. The location of the wound suggested the possibility of underlying graft infection, but indium-111 white blood cell scan and MRI failed to show any evidence of infection. The patient was initially treated with oral antibiotics and outpatient debridement with no improvement. A more aggressive approach with inpatient operative debridement and intravenous antibiotics produced moderate improvement. Three months later, the patient developed an identical necrotic wound in the right groin and subsequently a third lesion involving a scar distant from any of the patient's grafts. No evidence of active vasculitis was seen on microscopic examination of the excised tissues. Cryoglobulin and cryofibrinogen assays were positive, and urinary and plasma homocysteine levels were elevated. The patient was subsequently treated with stanozolol, a low-methionine diet, and outpatient intravenous antibiotics with rapid improvement of her wounds. In patients with spontaneous ulceration of the extremities, particularly when they do not respond appropriately to standard therapy, the possibility of cryoglobulinemia or cryofibrinogenemia should be considered. PMID:8879392

Williamson, A E; Cone, L A; Huard, G S



Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer  

PubMed Central

A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies.

Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.



Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter.  


Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2 weeks. PMID:23887994

Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N



Levamisole-induced occlusive necrotising vasculitis in cocaine abusers: an unusual cause of skin necrosis and neutropenia.  


We present three cases describing the various skin manifestations of presumed levamisole-contaminated cocaine use. Antibody-mediated vasculitis and neutropenia were consistent findings in these cases and repeat exposure resulted in distinct dermatologic complications. This phenomenon of levamisole-induced vasculitis and neutropenia is being increasingly described and has characteristic wound manifestations that must be recognised and treated early. PMID:22716045

Belfonte, Cassius D; Shanmugam, Victoria K; Kieffer, Nicole; Coker, Shodeinde; Boucree, Suelyn; Kerr, Gail



Murine Insulin Growth Factor-like (IGFL) and Human IGFL1 Proteins Are Induced in Inflammatory Skin Conditions and Bind to a Novel Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member, IGFLR1*  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a human skin condition characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and infiltration of multiple leukocyte populations. In characterizing a novel insulin growth factor (IGF)-like (IGFL) gene in mice (mIGFL), we found transcripts of this gene to be most highly expressed in skin with enhanced expression in models of skin wounding and psoriatic-like inflammation. A possible functional ortholog in humans, IGFL1, was uniquely and significantly induced in psoriatic skin samples. In vitro IGFL1 expression was up-regulated in cultured primary keratinocytes stimulated with tumor necrosis factor ? but not by other psoriasis-associated cytokines. Finally, using a secreted and transmembrane protein library, we discovered high affinity interactions between human IGFL1 and mIGFL and the TMEM149 ectodomain. TMEM149 (renamed here as IGFLR1) is an uncharacterized gene with structural similarity to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Our studies demonstrate that IGFLR1 is expressed primarily on the surface of mouse T cells. The connection between mIGFL and IGFLR1 receptor suggests mIGFL may influence T cell biology within inflammatory skin conditions.

Lobito, Adrian A.; Ramani, Sree R.; Tom, Irene; Bazan, J. Fernando; Luis, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Wayne J.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Gonzalez, Lino C.



Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population.

Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM



Interleukin1? But Not Tumor Necrosis Factor is Involved in West Nile Virus-Induced Langerhans Cell Migration from the Skin in C57BL\\/6 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Langerhans cells are bone marrow-derived epidermal dendritic cells. They migrate out of the epidermis into the lymphatics and travel to the draining lymph nodes where they are responsible for the activation of T cells in the primary immune response. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1?, have previously been shown to be responsible for Langerhans cell migration in response to contact sensitizers

Scott N Byrne; Gary M Halliday; Linda J Johnston; Nicholas J C King



Wound necrosis after total knee arthroplasty.  


Quickly evolutive skin necrosis and deep infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are not uncommon. Several predisposing factors, such as immunosuppression, malnutrition, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple scars, and vascular disease can be involved in the onset of wound complications, as well as long tourniquet time and early knee flexion. Skin necrosis after TKA can be treated in different ways, including local wound care, debridement, and soft tissue coverage with muscle or skin grafts. This article presents a rare case of skin necrosis occurring in a patient without any other apparent risk factor after TKA. A 78-year-old woman affected by primary osteoarthritis of the right knee who had no comorbidities and who had already undergone TKA for primary osteoarthritis on the left knee underwent a cemented TKA. Three days postoperatively, she developed a fever and wound problems, which soon after turned into skin necrosis. This complication was first treated surgically with a debridement of the wound with antibiotic therapy and local wound care, then with vacuum-assisted closure (Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, Texas) therapy and soft tissue coverage using skin grafting. She had a complete recovery in the next 3 months; the skin grafting was well tolerated and the range of motion and functional outcome were good. PMID:19292412

Patella, Vittorio; Speciale, Domenico; Patella, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio; Pesce, Vito; Spinarelli, Antonio



Arginine extravasation leading to skin necrosis.  


Arginine hydrochloride is used in the evaluation of short stature and in the management of urea cycle disorders. In recent times, it has been used in the treatment of stroke-like episodes of MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes). We want to highlight the need for good intravenous access and monitoring the drip site to prevent extravasation injuries that can be caused by arginine, which is a hyperosmolar solution. PMID:21535285

Abraham, Mary B; van der Westhuyzen, Jasper; Khanna, Vikrant



An unusual complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a well-described cause of subcutaneous calcification occurring in a young infant. Calcification of areas of fat necrosis in the neonate is a rare condition. In this case, the radiographic demonstration of soft-tissue calcification revealed the skin calcification in the absence of clinical signs of SCFN and without hypercalcaemia in the first 48 h of life.

Alaoui, Kaltoum; Abourazzak, Sana; Oulmaati, Abdellah; Hida, Moustapha; Bouharrou, Abdelhak



Pig as an experimental model for the study of snake venom induced local tissue necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local tissue necrosis due to snake envenoming has resulted in considerable chronic disability. Specific antivenom, though highly useful in systemic poisoning, is not very effective in preventing the local tissue damages which occur within minutes of envenomation. Most of the studies on local tissue necrosis have been done in rodents whose skin structures are significantly different from human skin structure.

Srisurat Imkhieo; Chowalit Nakthong; Wannapa Kespichayawattana; Rungtiva Sirimujalin; Parin Suwannaprapha; Kavi Ratanabanangkoon



Acute retinal necrosis.  

PubMed Central

We treated 2 patients with unilateral acute retinal necrosis in association with uveitis. The disorder began as anterior uveitis, secondary glaucoma, and retinal vasculitis, and then developed into retinal necrosis within a few months. The aetiology was obscure and the appropriate treatment debatable. We also review reports of patients showing the same clinical characteristics, termed Kirisawa-type uveitis and bilateral acute retinal necrosis, and believe the disorders to be identical. Images

Hayasaka, S.; Asano, T.; Yabata, K.; Ide, A.



Skin Pigment  


... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...


Bone Marrow Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow necrosis is regarded as an uncommon entity that is associated with a poor prognosis. However, organized studies using either bone marrow biopsy specimens or autopsy material showed that bone marrow necrosis can be demonstrated in approximately one third of specimens. It is found in a large number of both malignant and nonmalignant disorders, in addition to occurring following

Marcel E. Conrad



A warfarin-induced subconjunctival hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients who are on warfarin therapy may present with a variety of ocular side effects, particularly hemorrhages. These ocular events may be the only indication that the patient is at risk for serious sequelae, including hemorrhagic stoke.

Marie I. Bodack



[Intraabdominal fat necrosis].  


The processes that course with intraabdominal fat necrosis often manifest with acute or subacute abdominal pain; these clinical findings can be caused by various conditions, including epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, encapsulated fat necrosis, mesenteric panniculitis, appendicitis, diverticulitis, and certain neoplasms. In this context, although the anatomic location of the pain and accompanying symptomatology can help orient the diagnosis, there is a risk of unnecessary surgery. Imaging tests like ultrasonography and especially computed tomography are essential for diagnosing intraabdominal fat necrosis. Radiologists must be familiar with the characteristic findings for all the conditions that can cause acute or subacute abdominal pain to ensure appropriate management and prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22019421

Aguilar-García, J J; Alcaide-León, P; Vargas-Serrano, B



Large necrosis: a rare complication of medial thighplasty.  


Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can have bariatric surgery. Weight loss causes excess skin on the body, including the thighs. This leads to difficulty walking and psychological disorders such as devalued self-image. Medial thighplasty is an intervention to reduce excess skin and fat in the thighs. The main complications are scar migration, scar infection, hematoma, lymphedema, gaping vulva, and, rarely, skin necrosis. We describe a case of flap necrosis after a reoperation of medial thighplasty. Treatment included debridement of necrotic tissue and healing of the wound by secondary intention (vacuum-assisted closure and dressings with calcium alginate). Complete healing was achieved in 4 months. As the patient refused any new procedure, skin grafting was not performed. The aesthetic results of plastic surgery procedures are often imperfect. Patients should be clearly prepared and informed about the results expected from the operation. Surgeons should know contraindications for reoperation. PMID:21607533

Bertheuil, N; Aillet, S; Heusse, J L; Flecher, E; Watier, E



Bilateral scalp necrosis with giant cell arteritis.  


We present a patient with bilateral scalp necrosis caused by giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis). A 67-year-old woman, who had been treated with 5 mg of oral prednisolone every other day for polymyalgia rheumatica, developed painful egg-sized regions of necrosis on both of her temples. Doppler pulsemetory revealed bilateral obstruction of the temporal arteries. Biopsy revealed ischemic necrosis of the skin and necrotic angiitis of the temporal arteries with giant cell infiltration. Bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid arteries and moderate retinal bleeding were revealed by angiography. Daily administration of prednisolone (20 mg/day) with intravenous and topical limaprost alphadex markedly improved her condition. The ulcers reepithelized without surgical treatment. There are few reports of bilateral scalp necrosis. Rapid and complete obstruction of the temporal artery may result in this condition. Simultaneous development of two ulcerative lesions in the ventro-parietal cranial regions is thought to correspond to systemic arterial involvement, including involvement of the internal carotid arteries. PMID:12692357

Matsushima, Midori; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-ichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi



Dry skin  


Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...


Skin Cancer  


... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma . Both patients have the ... type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. What skin cancer looks like Even the same type of ...


Tumor necrosis factor signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single mouse click on the topic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in PubMed reveals about 50 000 articles providing one or the other information about this pleiotropic cytokine or its relatives. This demonstrates the enormous scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of a molecule (or rather a large family of molecules), which began now almost 30 years ago

H Wajant; K Pfizenmaier; P Scheurich



[Postpartum renal cortical necrosis].  


The authors report two cases of post-partum cortical renal necrosis. The diagnosis was made on clinical and biological criteria (severe, prolonged oliguria, the signs of intra-vascular coagulation defects, a rise in L.D.H. and anaemia with micro-angiopathy. It is confirmed by selective renal arteriography and renal punch-biopsy. There is a threefold method of treatment: --of the kidney condition by repeated haemodialysis and diuretics; --antihypertensive treatment; --treatment aimed at the aetiological pathology (heparin, anti-platelet aggregation and fresh plasma). Functional recovery of the kidney was obtained in both cases (after an interval of 1 year and an interval of 1 1/2 year). The authors review the diagnostic, physiopathological, morphological and therapeutic elements in the condition of cortical renal necrosis. PMID:7161455

Hiault, C; Dequiedt, P; Benoit, O; Dognin, C; Monnier, J C; Cotteel, M; Puech, F; Leroy, J L; Tacquet, A; Delecour, M



Necrosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis was long regarded as an accidental cell death process resulting from overwhelming cellular injury such as chemical\\u000a or physical disruption of the plasma membrane. Such a definition, however, proved to be inapplicable to many necrotic scenarios.\\u000a The discovery that genetic manipulation of several proteins either protected or enhanced necrotic cell death argued in favor\\u000a of a regulated and hence

Tobias Eisenberg; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez; Sabrina Büttner; Nektarios Tavernarakis; Frank Madeo



Skin - clammy  


Sweat - cold; Clammy skin; Cold sweat ... Clammy skin may be an emergency. Call your doctor or 911 immediately. ... care depends on what is causing the clammy skin. Call for medical help if you are not ...


Localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene) in a spinal cord injury patient – a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men with spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have a greater incidence of bacterial colonisation of genital skin as compared to neurologically normal controls. We report a male patient with paraplegia who developed rapidly progressive infection of scrotal skin, which resulted in localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene). CASE PRESENTATION: This male patient developed paraplegia at T-8 level 21

Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul M Soni; Peter L Hughes; Paul Mansour; Gurpreet Singh; James Darroch; Tun Oo



Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting.

Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo



Avascular necrosis in HIV.  


Avascular necrosis (AVN) is an emerging complication of HIV infection. The incidence of AVN in HIV patients is greater than the general population. Although the incidence has increased in the HAART era, the aetiology remains unclear. We report our experience of AVN from our tertiary referral HIV centre and evaluate risk factors for its development. Review of MRI reports of HIV-positive patients between 2007 and 2010 identified 22 patients with AVN (19 men, 3 women). Case notes and electronic records were reviewed. Twenty-two patients developed AVN, among 6,487 HIV patients attending our centre (0.34% incidence; 95% CI, 0.2-0.48%). 68% of patients had multi-joint involvement. The median nadir CD4 count was 52 cells/?L. 73% of patients had more than two risk factors including HAART (91%), protease inhibitors (68%), hypercholesterolaemia (59%), corticosteroids (55%), hypertriglyceridaemia (45%), smoking (45%), alcohol (27%) and CD4 <200 cells/?L (23%). 9% were idiopathic. AVN is an important musculoskeletal manifestation of HIV and may be multi-focal with multi-factorial aetiology. Preventative strategies should focus on risk factor modification. When investigating joint pain in HIV-infected patients, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for AVN. Unexplained AVN, particularly if multi-focal, should prompt consideration of HIV testing. PMID:21938549

Mehta, Puja; Nelson, Mark; Brand, Alexander; Boag, Fiona



Cutaneous necrosis by cold agglutinins associated with glomeruloid reactive angioendotheliomatosis.  


The cold agglutinin syndrome is a haemolytic disorder that can cause skin lesions, mainly on the acral areas, with acrocyanosis being the most frequent manifestation. Cutaneous necrosis due to cold agglutinins is very rare. Reactive angioendotheliomatosis (RAE) is an uncommon condition that exclusively affects the skin, characterized by a hyperplasia of endothelial cells and pericytes that can result in the formation of glomeruloid structures. The association of cold agglutinin syndrome with glomeruloid RAE has not been previously described. We report a 70-year-old man diagnosed as having a B-cell low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He had two episodes of cutaneous necrosis in acral areas which were related to exposure to cold and due to IgM anti-I(T) cold agglutinins. Biopsy specimens showed vessel proliferations composed of dilated vascular spaces in the dermis and subcutis. Some vessel lumina were partially occluded by eosinophilic thrombi of fibrin and erythrocytes. Numerous closely packed capillaries were observed within pre-existing dilated vessels. This intravascular proliferation of capillaries displayed a glomeruloid pattern. We emphasize the possible presence of a cold agglutinin syndrome in patients with skin necrosis and findings of RAE with a glomeruloid pattern. Cold agglutinaemia may cause these distinctive histological changes. PMID:9990375

Porras-Luque, J I; Fernández-Herrera, J; Daudén, E; Fraga, J; Fernández-Villalta, M J; García-Díez, A



Skin culture  


... culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes . See also: Herpes culture ... There is no preparation needed for a culture. For information on how to prepare for a skin or mucosal sample, see: Skin lesion biopsy Gum biopsy


Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric



Skin Aging  


Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...


Skin aging and dry skin.  


Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

Hashizume, Hideo




PubMed Central

Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation.

Opie, Eugene L.



On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.  


Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation. PMID:14482110




Endoscopic therapy for organized pancreatic necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The treatment of patients with extensive pancreatic necrosis remains controversial; a subpopulation of patients with extensive acute pancreatic necrosis develop complex, organized collections. This study examined the feasibility of endoscopic drainage in patients with extensive organized pancreatic necrosis. METHODS: Eleven patients with organized pancreatic necrosis (8 sterile and 3 infected) after severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis underwent attempted

TH Baron; WG Thaggard; DE Morgan



Skin Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Penetration of the skin is a key element in cutaneous reactions to xenobiotics, drugs, or other compounds. The structure of\\u000a the skin is described in the present chapter. Based on this structure analysis, theoretical diffusion models are presented.\\u000a The inter- and intraindividual variation in the skin-barrier function is discussed and the complex influence of a carrier\\u000a medium on percutaneous absorption

Hans Schaefer; Thomas E. Redelmeier; Jürgen Lademann


Skin of Color  


... skin care Mom and baby skin care Nails Pregnancy and breastfeeding Sensitive skin Skin of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold ...


Oxygenation and microcirculation during skin stretching in undermined and nonundermined skin.  


The aim of this experimental study was to assess the skin microcirculation of undermined and nonundermined wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. In eight piglets, 9 x 9-cm wounds were created on both flanks by excision of the skin and the subcutaneous layer down to the muscular fascia, with general anesthesia. On one flank, the surrounding skin was completely undermined. For a period of 30 minutes, wound closure was performed with a stretching device, using the principle of load cycling. The device stretched the skin and moved the opposing wound edges toward each other. During this period, laser Doppler flowmetry and transcutaneous oximetry were simultaneously used to monitor microcirculation and oxygenation in the stretched skin of both flanks. Undermining of the surrounding skin produced a 12 percent decrease in the laser Doppler flowmetry signal and a 21 percent decrease in the transcutaneous oximetry value. Skin stretching resulted in decreases in the laser Doppler flowmetry signals and the transcutaneous oximetry values, whether or not the skin was undermined. Releasing the stretching device resulted in rapid normalization of the laser Doppler flowmetry values in undermined and nonundermined skin and a slow return of the transcutaneous oximetry values to close to baseline levels in nonundermined skin. The transcutaneous oximetry values in undermined skin did not return to baseline levels; each period of skin stretching resulted in an additional decrease in the transcutaneous oximetry values. Stretching of undermined skin for 30 minutes produced a significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in skin oxygenation. As a result, 50 percent of the undermined stretched skin demonstrated skin necrosis at the wound edges, which was still present after 1 week. Wound healing in the nonundermined stretched skin proceeded without problems. It is concluded from these experiments that the viability of undermined skin becomes compromised as a result of significantly decreased oxygen availability in the skin during and after stretching. Consequently, it is recommended that skin stretching be performed on nonundermined skin, rather than undermined skin. In addition, when skin is stretched to close a large defect, it is logical to use cyclic loading, so that recuperation of the skin circulation can occur. Furthermore, laser Doppler flowmetry seemed to produce atypical signals in monitoring of skin viability of wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. PMID:14504513

Melis, Paris; Noorlander, Maril L; van der Kleij, Ad J; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; van der Horst, Chantal M A M



Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.



Skin Infections  


... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...


Skin Conditions  


Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It is, in terms of both weight, between 6 and 9 pounds, and surface area, about 2 square yards. Your skin separates the inside of your body from the ...


Tumor necrosis factor-? decreases aquaporin-3 expression in DJM-1 keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water\\/glycerol-transporting protein that is strongly expressed at the plasma membranes of keratinocytes in skin. There is evidence for involvement of AQP3-facilitated water and glycerol transport in skin hydration and wound repair, respectively. In this study, we show that tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and TNF receptor-1 signaling decreased AQP3 protein expression and plasma membrane water permeability in

Ichiro Horie; Mamiko Maeda; Satoshi Yokoyama; Akinori Hisatsune; Hiroshi Katsuki; Takeshi Miyata; Yoichiro Isohama



Efficacy of postoperative steroids on ischemic skin flap survival in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis of skin flaps remains a significant clinical problem. This study examined whether steroids improve skin flap survival in rats. Random skin flaps were raised in 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intramuscular methylprednisolone (n=15) or saline solution (n=15) were administered 1, 24, and 48 h after flap elevation. Surviving flap areas were measured after 7 days. The mean surviving flap area

Bekir Kuru; Soykan Dinç; Mithat Çamlibel; Engin Durmu?; Haluk Alagöl



Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the metabolic disposition of acetaminophen and the susceptibility of hamsters, mice and rats to acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis has been examined. The fraction of low doses of acetaminophen converted to the mercapturic acid metabolite was highest in the most susceptible species (hamsters, mice), and lowest in the more resistant species (rat). Pretreatment regimens known to potentiate the hepatotoxicity

D. J. Jollow; S. S. Thorgeirsson; W. Z. Potter; M. Hashimoto; J. R. Mitchell



The role of cytokines in skin aging.  


Abstract Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging. PMID:23659624

Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J



Skin Care for Acne-Prone Skin  


Skin Care for Acne-prone Skin What Dermatologists Recommend Skin care can be just as important as the treatment(s) you use to clear your acne. Proper skin care can reduce possible side effects from prescription medications. ...


An approach to repair of radiation necrosis of chest wall and mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chest wall reconstruction following radiation no longer need be a protracted sequence of multiple stage tissue transfer with potential necrosis of the flap at each step. Muscle flaps with or without the overlying skin provide very reliable and effective methods of single-stage repair. For the anterior chest the latissimus dorsi, the rectus abdominis, and pectoralis muscles are the choices with

William Sando; M. J. Jurkiewicz



Raynaud's phenomenon, anticentromere antibodies, and digital necrosis without sclerodactyly: An entity independent of scleroderma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe 4 women of 43, 73, 84, and 86 years with Raynaud's phenomenon, severe digital necrosis, and high serum levels of anticentromere antibodies without skin thickening or internal organ sclerosis. Investigations revealed no diabetes or arterial vascular disease leading to arterial obstruction. Histologic examination did not show any dermal sclerosis or calcinosis. The intravenous infusions of prostaglandin reversed the

Evelyn M. Sachsenberg-Studer; Christa Prins; Jean-Hilaire Saurat; Denis Salomon



Skin Cancer  


... young men. 12 Survival rates Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the two most common forms of skin ... if detected early. 2 Both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas have cure rates approaching 95 percent if detected ...


Skin Cancer  


... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...


An unusual cause of toe necrosis  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vascular disease is a rare feature of pheochromocytoma. This potentially catastrophic but curable tumor should be suspected in combination of distal necrosis with hypertension and palpable pulses. We report such an unusual case of pheochromocytoma presenting as toe necrosis.

Bandawar, Mayur S.; Ansari, Mohammad S.; Behera, Arunanshu; Bhadada, Sanjay K.



The biochemistry of neuronal necrosis: rogue biology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When stressed beyond their tolerance, cells undergo necrosis, an acute, non-apoptotic form of cell death. Necrosis is crucial to the damage that injury and disease inflict on the nervous system. Recent discoveries have shed light onto the molecular requirements for necrosis, and provide new evidence that, as is the case for apoptosis, the mechanisms of necrotic cell death are conserved

Popi Syntichaki; Nektarios Tavernarakis



Warfarin-induced changes in procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins.  


Dicoumarol was found to be the causative agent of a haemorrhagic disease in cattle following the ingestion of spoiled sweet clover. Vitamin K deficiency in chickens caused bleeding. Dicoumarol was later determined to be a vitamin K antagonist. A more potent form of the drug was produced synthetically and, following its initial use as rat poison, was recognized as a potential anti-thrombotic treatment in humans. The mode of action of a coumarin derivative (i.e. warfarin) is described. The overall effect of high-dose and low-dose warfarin and the possibility of a transient state of hypercoagulability on the introduction and withdrawal of treatment is considered. PMID:8589201

Stirling, Y



Warfarin induced coagulopathy in children: assessment of a conservative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIncreasing numbers of children are being administered warfarin therapy as thromboprophylaxis. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with a target international normalised ratio (INR) of 2–3.5, called the therapeutic range. The length of time a patient's INR remains within the therapeutic range is calculated as ‘time in the therapeutic range’. Risk for haemorrhage in children receiving warfarin is 0.5%\\/patient-year and

M E Bauman; K Black; M L Bauman; S Kuhle; L Bajzar; MP Massicotte



Walled-off pancreatic necrosis  

PubMed Central

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and alcoholism. WOPN comprises a later and local complication of ANP, occurring more than 4 wk after the initial attack, usually following development of pseudocysts and other pancreatic fluid collections. The mortality rate associated with WOPN is generally less than that of infected pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention had been the mainstay of treatment for infected peripancreatic fluid collection and abscesses for decades. Increasingly, percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have been used, and encouraging results have recently been reported in the medical literature, rendering these techniques invaluable in the treatment of WOPN. Applying the recommended therapeutic strategy, which comprises early treatment with antibiotics combined with restricted surgical intervention, fewer patients with ANP undergo surgery and interventions are ideally performed later in the course of the disease, when necrosis has become well demarcated.

Stamatakos, Michael; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Stergiopoulos, Spyros; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Safioleas, Michael



The gracilis musculocutaneous flap: vascular supply of the muscle and skin components  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  In reconstructive techniques, the use of the composite gracilis skin flap may be complicated by a total or partial necrosis\\u000a of the cutaneous paddle. Our study was aimed to describe the vascular anatomy of the gracilis muscle and the related skin,\\u000a in order to have a better understanding of the skin’s blood supply, and to help in determining a safer

Dorothée Coquerel-Beghin; Pierre-Yves Milliez; Isabelle Auquit-Auckbur; Guillaume Lemierre; Fabrice Duparc



Reducing the risk of nipple necrosis: technical observations in 340 nipple-sparing mastectomies.  


Optimizing cosmesis is a common goal of breast surgery. In support of immediate breast reconstruction, nipple-sparing techniques have evolved. There is still a lack of agreement on the optimal technique and skin flap necrosis can be problematic. In this study, we review our experience with 340 NSM. Between March 2006 and February 2011, 340 NSMs were performed. Mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. Patient demographics and surgical techniques were reviewed. Anatomic observations were made and supported by breast images. A total of 340 NSMs in 231 patients by a single surgeon (AJS) were reviewed. Risk reduction was the indication for surgery in 59% with 50 patients (21.6%) testing positive for a BRCA1/2 gene mutation. There were two flap losses and 14 hematomas. Complete nipple necrosis occurred in three cases (0.8%) and partial loss in six patients. Recommendations are made to reduce the risk of nipple necrosis included the following: (a) preserving major perforating vessels (b) elevating skin flaps in the plane between the subcutaneous fat and the breast glandular tissue (c) the use of incisions that do not devascularize the nipple-areola complex. Nipple-sparing mastectomy can be performed with an acceptably low risk of nipple necrosis. Attention to detail including preserving major perforating vessels, elevating skin flaps in the appropriate plane and careful attention to incision planning are all required for a consistently good cosmetic outcome. PMID:23336933

Stolier, Alan J; Levine, Edward A



Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille



A Case Report of the Use of Nanocrystalline Silver Dressing in the Management of Acute Surgical Site Wound Infected With MRSA to Prevent Cutaneous Necrosis Following Revision Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the use of nanocrystalline silver (Acticoat 7, Smith and Nephew, London, UK) in an acute surgical wound to prevent localized skin necrosis due to infection, thereby avoiding skin grafting as a secondary procedure. Two patients were successfully treated with Acticoat 7 dressings without using systemic antimicrobials after developing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the surgical site. Despite

Mayukh Bhattacharyya; Helen Bradley



Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.



Traumatic fat necrosis of male breast.  


Fat necrosis is a benign nonsuppurative inflammatory process that most commonly occurs in female breast. It is a rare condition in male breast. There are very few reports in the literature. There is a wide range of manifestations of fat necrosis and can mimic breast cancer clinically and radiologically. We report a case of fat necrosis of the breast in a 57-year-old man. PMID:23849832

Akyol, Muammer; Kayali, Alperen; Yildirim, Nezahat



Vasculitis Associated With Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and outcomes of patients in whom vasculitis developed in association with use of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) inhibitors. Patients and Methods This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1, 1998, through March 31, 2011, with a diagnosis of vasculitis induced by anti–TNF-? therapy. Results Of 8 patients with vasculitis associated with anti–TNF-? therapy (mean age, 48.5 years), 6 (75%) were female. Four (50%) had rheumatoid arthritis, 1 (13%) had Crohn disease, and 3 (38%) had ulcerative colitis. Five (63%) were treated with infliximab, 2 (25%) with etanercept, and 1 (13%) with adalimumab. The mean duration of treatment before development of vasculitis was 34.5 months. The skin was the predominant organ affected (5 patients [63%]), with the most common cutaneous lesion being palpable purpura (4 of 5 [80%]). Two organs involved in systemic vasculitis were the peripheral nervous system (4 patients [50%]) and kidney (1 patient [13%]). All cases of vasculitis were histopathologically confirmed. Seven of 8 patients improved with discontinuation of therapy (mean time to resolution, 6.9 months) and adjuvant treatment (all 8 received prednisone; another agent was also used in 7); rechallenge with anti–TNF-? therapy was not attempted in any patient. At last follow-up, no patients had experienced a recurrence of vasculitis after therapy discontinuation. Conclusion Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis was the most common finding, but systemic vasculitis, including peripheral nerve and renal vasculitis, was also frequently observed.

Sokumbi, Olayemi; Wetter, David A.; Makol, Ashima; Warrington, Kenneth J.



Allergy testing - skin  


Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...


About MRSA Skin Infections  


... my family from MRSA skin infections? About MRSA Skin Infections: What is MRSA? MRSA is methicillin-resistant ... What are the signs and symptoms of MRSA skin infections? Most staph skin infections, including MRSA, appear ...


Skin Pigmentation Disorders  


Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...


Skin lesion of coccidioidomycosis  


... skin. The skin rash, or skin lesions, include erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme . They are thought to be ... the initial (primary) infection Erythema multiforme (target lesions) Erythema nodosum Papular rash Skin lesion of widespread (disseminated) disease: ...


Skin care and incontinence  


Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF YOUR SKIN Using diapers and other products ... Over time, the skin can break down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...


Information for Healthcare Professionals: Tumor Necrosis ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Information for Healthcare Professionals: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Blockers (marketed ... Although there were other contributory factors, the role ... More results from


Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.



Tribometrology of Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani



The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)



Excitotoxins in Neuronal Apoptosis and Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal loss is common to many neurodegenerative diseases. Although necrosis is a common histopathologic feature observed in neuropathologic conditions, evidence is increasing that apoptosis can significantly contribute to neuronal demise. The prevalence of either type of cell death, apoptosis or necrosis, and the relevance for the progression of disease is still unclear. The debate on the occurrence and prevalence of

Pierluigi Nicotera; Stuart A. Lipton



The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in the Pathogenesis of Vitiligo.  


Vitiligo is an acquired immune disorder of the skin characterized by the presence of white depigmented macules. Its immunopathogenesis is not completely understood, but inflammatory alterations in the skin microenvironment, and particularly increased expression of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), are thought to be essential regulators of melanocyte dysfunction and death. In this article we review the evidence that implicates TNF? in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, including studies on serum and tissue levels of TNF?, TNF? gene polymorphisms, in vitro studies, and therapeutic trials using TNF? inhibitors. TNF? emerges as a complex mediator with apparently conflicting roles in vitiligo. PMID:23912226

Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Salas-Alanis, Julio C



Bullae and Sweat Gland Necrosis in the Differential Diagnosis for Vibrio vulnificus Infection in an Alcoholic Patient  

PubMed Central

Bullae and sweat gland necrosis remain rare cutaneous manifestation, and these conditions can be misdiagnosed as Vibrio vulnificus infections or other soft tissue infections because of their low index of suspicion. A 46-yr-old man with a history of continued alcohol consumption presented with erythematous and hemorrhagic bullous lesions on his left arm. The patient reported that after the ingestion of clams, he slept for 12 hr in a heavily intoxicated state. Then the skin lesions started as a reddish patch that subsequently became hemorrhagic bullae. V. vulnificus infection, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis were considered in initial differential diagnosis. However, on the basis of sweat gland necrosis on histopathologic examinations and negative results on bacterial cultures, we made the diagnosis of bullae and sweat gland necrosis. Therefore, bullae and sweat gland necrosis should also be considered in chronic alcoholic patients who present with bullae and a previous history of unconsciousness.

Kim, Gun-Wook; Park, Hyun-Je; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum



Prediction of pancreatic necrosis by dynamic pancreatography.  

PubMed Central

Parenchymal necrosis has recently been recognized as the principal determinant of the incidence of secondary infection in acute pancreatitis. Because secondary infection of pancreatic necrosis accounts for more than 80% of all deaths from acute pancreatitis, a method for determining the presence or absence of parenchymal necrosis would offer considerable prognostic and therapeutic information. Thirty seven patients with unequivocal acute pancreatitis and five normal controls were prospectively studied with intravenous bolus, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (dynamic pancreatography). In the absence of pancreatic necrosis, there were no significant differences in parenchymal enhancement between any of the following patient groups: controls (5), uncomplicated pancreatitis (20), pancreatic abscess (7), or peripancreatic necrosis (4)(p less than 0.05). On the other hand, pancreatic parenchymal enhancement was significantly reduced or absent in all six patients with segmental or diffuse pancreatic necrosis (p less than 0.05). Postcontrast pancreatic parenchymal enhancement was also found to be inversely correlated with the number of Ranson signs (p less than 0.001). Dynamic pancreatography offers prognostic information and is a safe and reliable technique for predicting the presence or absence of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis. Images Figs. 1A and B. Figs. 3A and B. Figs. 4A and B. Fig. 5. Figs. 6A and B. Fig. 7.

Bradley, E L; Murphy, F; Ferguson, C



SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Cutaneous skin tag  


Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. It is usually small, but may be ...


Asymptomatic syphilitic massive necrosis of the spleen in late syphilis.  


The varieties of luetic clinical variants are countless in nature. In this regard, an autopsy case of a 72-year-old homeless man who accidentally succumbed to carbon-monoxide poisoning is here presented and reviewed. The autopsy revealed the highly unusual finding of asymptomatic syphilitic necrosis of spleen followed by luetic mesaortitis, a solitary skin gumma, and syphilitic arthritis. The spleen was 8?×?4?×?3?cm in size; the capsule was completely calcified and firm, 3 to 5?mm thick. Only in the region of the hilus was a small part of preserved tissue found. After puncturing the capsule, a brown-yellowish pus-like mass was found which filled the entire space inside. When reviewing the relevant literature, this case and its finding of pan splenic necrosis accompanied by a calcified capsule seem to be unique in nature. In terms of the final diagnosis, a Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay confirmed it to be syphilis. Since it was a late stage of the disease, it is estimated that it may have been present for more than 20 or 30 years in the deceased. PMID:23970621

Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukmirovic, Filip; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag



Skin side effects of inflammatory bowel disease therapy.  


Skin manifestations are common in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and can be associated with the disease itself, with nutritional deficiencies, or with therapy. All drugs currently used for treating IBD have the potential to cause dermatologic manifestations that can have a wide range of clinical presentations, from mild drug eruptions to potentially life-threatening immune-mediated reactions. The wider use of thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor in the past years has led to the recognition of 2 more skin complications of IBD therapy: the potentially disfiguring non-melanoma skin cancer associated with the current or past use of thiopurines and the paradoxical new onset or exacerbation of anti-tumor necrosis factor-associated psoriasis. Despite being rare, these complications can be severe and lead to therapy discontinuation, and therefore, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with their epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Herein, we reviewed the skin side effects of IBD therapy, specially focusing in thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and in the recently described skin cancer and psoriasis, and we tried to advance some practical algorithms that can provide some help to the clinicians dealing with these complications in their day-by-day practice. PMID:23474780

Torres, Joana; Buche, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric



Skin layers (image)  


... melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells. Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a ...


Skin lesion KOH exam  


Potassium hydroxide examination of skin lesion ... The health care provider scrapes the lesion off your skin, using a blunt edge such as the edge of a microscope slide. The scrapings from the skin ...


Skin lesion biopsy  


Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be easily done in outpatient medical offices or your doctor's office. Which procedure you have depends the location, size, ...


Antiphospholipid syndrome and the skin.  


The antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired multisystem disorder of hypercoagulation, which may be primary or secondary to underlying diseases. Serologic markers for the syndrome are the lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinical features include recurrent thrombotic events (arterial or venous), repeated fetal loss, and thrombocytopenia. Cutaneous manifestations may occur as the first sign of antiphospholipid syndrome. These include livedo reticularis, necrotizing vasculitis, livedoid vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, cutaneous ulceration and necrosis, erythematous macules, purpura, ecchymoses, painful skin nodules, and subungual splinter hemorrhages. Antiphospholipid syndrome may also be associated rarely with anetoderma, discoid lupus erythematosus, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, or disorders that closely resemble Sneddon or Degos syndromes. Noninflammatory vascular thrombosis is the most frequent histopathologic feature observed. Prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome relies principally on anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents. PMID:9204065

Gibson, G E; Su, W P; Pittelkow, M R



Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Reserpine is able to exert a pronounced inhibitory effect on the development of papillary necrosis following the administration of bromoethylamine hydrobromide to the rat. This inhibitory effect has been observed using light microscopy, histochemistry, indigo carmine excretion and urine output. These observations suggest that vasoconstriction may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis, but the evidence for this is incomplete. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6

Wyllie, R. G.; Hill, G. S.; Murray, G.; Ramsden, P. W.; Heptinstall, R. H.



Bioenergetic aspects of apoptosis, necrosis and mitoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review I summarize interrelations between bioenergetic processes and such programmed death phenomena as cell suicide\\u000a (apoptosis and necrosis) and mitochondrial suicide (mitoptosis). The following conclusions are made. (I) ATP and rather often\\u000a mitochondrial hyperpolarization (i.e. an increase in membrane potential, ??) are required for certain steps of apoptosis and necrosis. (II) Apoptosis, even if\\u000a it is accompanied by

V. P. Skulachev



[Palatal necrosis in children. Case report].  


Palate necrosis as a consequence of palate infection it's an exceptional condition about there's not too much references at literature. We present a case of a 6 months old child who present a palatal necrosis after a supurative medial otitis that involved hard and soft palate, with positive culture for Pseudomona aeruginosa causing a almost complete absence of the palate that simulate a bilateral palatal cleft. PMID:16846136

Sancho, M A; Parri, F J; Raigosa, J M; Lerena, J; Cacéres, F; Muñoz, M E



Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.  


Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A



Skin discoloration - bluish  


Lips - bluish; Fingernails - bluish; Cyanosis; Bluish lips and fingernails; Bluish skin ... have a bluish color to their skin, called cyanosis. Depending on the cause, cyanosis may develop suddenly, ...


The effect of nifedipine on skin-flap survival.  


Nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker, is a peripheral vasodilator and has been shown to increase blood flow to skin. The hypothesis that nifedipine would thereby improve skin-flap viability was tested by comparing the extent of necrosis of long pedicle flaps in control and nifedipine-treated rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg/kg nifedipine in chocolate PO t.i.d. or plain chocolate according to protocols. Serum nifedipine levels were determined by gas chromatography. Dorsal cephalad-based random vascular pedicle flaps (2 X 6 cm) were elevated, sutured to their beds, and photographed for computer-aided surface area determinations. The extent of distal flap necrosis was expressed as a percentage of the total flap area, and differences were studied by one-way analysis of variance. The differences between the mean percentages of necrosis at 1 and 2 weeks for the groups were not statistically significant. We conclude that nifedipine has no effect on the extent of necrosis of the random skin flap in the rat. PMID:2293738

Emery, F M; Kodey, T R; Bomberger, R A; McGregor, D B



Caring for Tattooed Skin  


... with the tattoo ink, causing a painful skin reaction. The UV light also can cause inks in tattoos to fade. If your tattooed skin feels dry, apply a water-based lotion or cream. ... If you have a skin reaction or see your tattooed skin changing in any ...


Skin Texture Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative characterization of skin appearance is an important but difficult task. The skin surface is a detailed landscape, with complex geometry and local optical properties. In addition, skin features depend on many variables such as body location (e.g. forehead, cheek), subject parameters (age, gender) and imaging parameters (lighting, camera). As with many real world surfaces, skin appearance is strongly affected

Oana G. Cula; Kristin J. Dana; Frank P. Murphy; Babar K. Rao



Skin manifestations of drug allergy.  


Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S



Skin manifestations of drug allergy  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients.

Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S



Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-2 are expressed strongly in hidradenitis suppurativa.  


Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic skin condition, characterized clinically by painful, recurrent, deep- seated nodules and suppuration, and histologically by hyper-trophic scarring of apocrine gland bearing skin and sinus tracts. The overall consequence of the disease is considerable tissue remodelling and the underlying alterations in innate immunity are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of human beta-defensin 2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in skin lesions of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. A total of 14 skin samples from patients and 2 skin samples from healthy volunteers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Human beta-defensin 2 was negative in 12/14 specimens. Elevated expression of metalloproteinase-2 was observed in keratinocytes, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in dermis, sweat glands, hair follicles and sinus tracts, suggesting a key role for hidradenitis suppurativa pathogenesis. Decreased human beta-defensin 2 in the presence of inflammatory (TNF-?-containing) cells suggests a decreased innate immunity in hidradenitis suppurativa-affected skin. PMID:23096596

Mozeika, Elga; Pilmane, Mara; Nürnberg, Birgit Meinecke; Jemec, Gregor B E



Human skin in organ culture and human skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) in monolayer culture for assessment of chemically induced skin damage.  


Human skin cells (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) in monolayer culture and human skin in organ culture were exposed to agents that are known to produce irritation (redness, dryness, edema and scaly crusts) when applied topically to skin. Among the agents used were three well accepted contact irritants (i.e., all-trans retinoic acid [RA], sodium lauryl sulfate [SLS] and benzalkonium chloride) as well as the corrosive organic mercury compound, aminophenyl mercuric acetate (APMA), and 5 contact sensitizers (oxazolone, nickel sulfate, eugenol, isoeugenol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate [EGDM]). As a group, the contact irritants (including the corrosive mercuric compound) were cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts and suppressed growth at lower concentrations than the contact sensitizers. The contact irritants also produced histological changes (hyperplasia, incomplete keratinization, loss of the granular layer, acantholysis and necrosis) in organ-cultured skin at dose levels at which the contact sensitizers appeared to be inert. Finally, the profile of secreted molecules from organ-cultured skin was different in the presence of contact irritants versus contact sensitizers. Taken together, these data suggest that the use of organ-cultured skin in conjunction with cells derived from the skin in monolayer culture may provide an initial approach to screening agents for deleterious changes in skin. PMID:17763283

Varani, James; Perone, Patricia; Spahlinger, Diana M; Singer, Lisa M; Diegel, Kelly L; Bobrowski, Walter F; Dunstan, Robert



Comparative Study of 1,064-nm Laser-Induced Skin Burn and Thermal Skin Burn.  


Infrared lasers are widely used in medicine, industry, and other fields. While science, medicine, and the society in general have benefited from the many practical uses of lasers, they also have inherent safety issues. Although several procedures have been put forward to protect the skin from non-specific laser-induced damage, individuals receiving laser therapy or researchers who use laser are still at risk for skin damage. This study aims to understand the interaction between laser and the skin, and to investigate the differences between the skin damage caused by 1,064-nm laser and common thermal burns. Skin lesions on Wistar rats were induced by a 1,064-nm CW laser at a maximum output of 40 W and by a copper brass bar attached to an HQ soldering iron. Histological sections of the lesions and the process of wound healing were evaluated. The widths of the epidermal necrosis and dermal denaturalization of each lesion were measured. To observe wound healing, the epithelial gap and wound gap were measured. Masson's trichrome and picrosirius red staining were also used to assess lesions and wound healing. The thermal damage induced by laser intensified significantly in both horizontal dimension and in vertical depth with increased duration of irradiation. Ten days after wounding, the dermal injuries induced by laser were more severe. Compared with the laser-induced skin damage, the skin burn induced by an HQ soldering iron did not show a similar development or increased in severity with the passage of time. The results of this study showed the pattern of skin damage induced by laser irradiation and a heated brass bar. This study also highlighted the difference between laser irradiation and thermal burn in terms of skin damage and wound healing, and offers insight for further treatment. PMID:23559275

Zhang, Yi-Ming; Ruan, Jing; Xiao, Rong; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yue-Sheng



Staphylococcus sciuri exfoliative toxin C (ExhC) is a necrosis-inducer for mammalian cells.  


Staphylococcus sciuri (S. sciuri) is a rare pathogen in humans, but it can cause a wide array of human infections. Recently a S. sciuri isolate (HBXX06) was reported to cause fatal exudative epidermitis (EE) in piglets and thus considered as a potential zoonotic agent. To investigate the pathogenicity of this bacterium, we cloned exfoliative toxin C (ExhC), a major toxin of the S. sciuri isolate and performed functional analysis of the recombinant ExhC-his (rExhC) protein using in vitro cell cultures and newborn mice as models. We found that rExhC could induce necrosis in multiple cell lines and peritoneal macrophages as well as skin lesions in newborn mice, and that the rExhC-induced necrosis in cells or skin lesions in newborn mice could be completely abolished if amino acids 79-128 of rExhC were deleted or blocked with a monoclonal antibody (3E4), indicating aa 79-128 portion as an essential necrosis-inducing domain. This information contributes to further understandings of the mechanisms underlying S. sciuri infection. PMID:21829591

Li, Haihua; Wang, Yongqiang; Ding, Lin; Zheng, Shijun J



[Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].  


A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin



Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion  

PubMed Central

Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion.

Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.



Cutaneous Necrosis and Calcinosis Following Electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report 2 children who developed circumscribed dystrophic calcifications at the site of electrode placement after electroencephalographic examination. Deep cutaneous necrosis was a prominent clinical feature. A biopsy showed focal dermal calcification confirmed by a diffractometer analysis of a calcific granule. Cutaneous calcinosis is a possible risk of the usage of an electrode paste containing calcium chloride. Prolonged exposure

G. Mancuso; A. Tosti; P. A. Fanti; R. M. Berdondini; R. Mongiorgi; A. Morandi



Bone marrow necrosis complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia.  


Two women with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase were found to have bone marrow necrosis when severe bone pains and falling blood counts prompted a marrow examination to exclude blast transformation. One patient survived for 12 months following the event without transforming. The second patient died soon after and was found to have widespread extramedullary disease. PMID:1934927

Macheta, A T; Cinkotai, K I; Love, E M; Geary, C G; Liu Yin, J A



CCR Connections - Skin Cancer

The epidermis, where the keratinocytes live, is a hotbed of cell turnover, Roop explained. This outer layer of our skin replaces itself every three to four weeks in humans. “Yet many of us develop skin cancer late in life.


Laser Skin Renewal  


... or Side Effects The range of potential side effects is listed below. Ablative: Redness Swelling Bleeding Oozing Crusting Infection Pain Skin color change (temporary or permanent) Acne flare Sensitive skin ...


Allergy Skin Tests  


Allergy skin tests Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Allergy skin tests By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ...


Learning about Skin Cancer  


... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...


Stress and Skin  


... their skin. For example, they often lack the energy and motivation to adhere to their skin care regimens, and there also might be signs of stress-related behaviors — such as scratching, pulling or rubbing — that can ...


Whatâs On My Skin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, based on the Science Friday segment Life on Our Skin, students will formulate a hypothesis about which area of skin on their bodies may have the most or least amount or kinds of bacteria.

Science, Talking



Skin and Nerve Biopsies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Skin and Nerve Biopsies RA Malik Page 2. ... Nerve Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials • Skin Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials ... More results from


Development and Validation of Human Psoriatic Skin Equivalents  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease driven by aberrant interactions between the epithelium and the immune system. Anti-psoriatic drugs can therefore target either the keratinocytes or the immunocytes. Here we sought to develop an in vitro reconstructed skin model that would display the molecular characteristics of psoriatic epidermis in a controlled manner, allowing the screening of anti-psoriatic drugs and providing a model in which to study the biology of this disease. Human skin equivalents generated from normal human adult keratinocytes after air exposure and stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor displayed the correct morphological and molecular characteristics of normal human epidermis whereas the psoriasis-associated proteins, hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, and CK16, were absent. Skin equivalents generated from foreskin keratinocytes were clearly abnormal both morphologically and with respect to gene expression. When normal skin equivalents derived from adult keratinocytes were stimulated with psoriasis-associated cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-22] or combinations thereof, strong expression of hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, CK16, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? was induced as shown by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Retinoic acid but not cyclosporin A was found to inhibit cytokine-induced gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results illustrate the potential of this disease model to study the molecular pathology and pharmacological intervention in vitro.

Tjabringa, Geuranne; Bergers, Mieke; van Rens, Desiree; de Boer, Roelie; Lamme, Evert; Schalkwijk, Joost



Automatic Skin Color Beautification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann


Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): definition, semiology, prognosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and place relative to other periodic joint diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition of periodic fever and pain. Most patients are of northern European descent. The attacks manifest as fever and pain in the joints, abdomen, muscles, skin, or eyes, with variations across patients. An acute-phase response occurs during the attacks. Patients with TRAPS are at risk for AA amyloidosis,

Charles Masson; Virginie Simon; Emmanuel Hoppé; Paolo Insalaco; Idrissa Cissé; Maurice Audran



On skin expansion.  


This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. PMID:23651568

Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N



Docosahexaenoic acid enrichment can reduce L929 cell necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis in human monocytic U937 cells (J. Nutr. 130: 1095–1101, 2000). In the present study, we examined the effects of DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on TNF-induced necrosis, another mode of cell death, using L929 murine fibrosarcoma cells. After preincubation with PUFA conjugated with BSA for

Etsu Kishida; Michiko Tajiri; Yasuo Masuzawa



Integra Artificial Skin as a useful adjunct in the treatment of purpura fulminans.  


Purpura fulminans is a devastating disorder characterized by rapidly progressing hemorrhagic necrosis of the skin, vascular collapse, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. It is most often seen in children, and it is usually preceded by meningococcemia or another infection. Most often, the disorder results in severe skin loss, but it can also result in the need for extremity amputations. In extreme cases, wound coverage after excision may be problematic because of the limited existence of donor sites and the need for amputation revisions. The case of a 21/2-year-old male requiring amputations of all four extremities due to severe purpura fulminans is presented to illustrate the use of Integra Artificial Skin (Integra Lifesciences Corp., Plainsboro, NJ) to obtain immediate wound closure. Integra Artificial Skin is a bilayered skin substitute that engrafts to a viable wound bed. In the case presented here, where the viability of the underlying tissue of the amputated stumps was questionable, the artificial skin acted as an indicator of that viability. It engrafted well onto the upper extremity stumps, which were of excellent viability, but it needed to be replaced on the lower extremity stumps, which required further debridement and amputation revisions. The use of artificial skin spared the patient the immediate use of his limited and valuable autograft sites. In conclusion, Integra Artificial Skin can be a useful adjunct in the treatment of severe purpura fulminans that includes skin and extremity necrosis. PMID:9710731

Besner, G E; Klamar, J E


Focal necrosis of the spinal cord in utero.  


We examined a child who suffered in utero necrosis of the spinal cord. Necrosis of this type typically occurs in the fetus with neck hyperextension and breech position and presumably results from focal ischemia of the spinal cord. PMID:6615275

Young, R S; Towfighi, J; Marks, K H



Harms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic diseases: A focused Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

We performed a focused review of risk of harms of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in adult rheumatic diseases. Increased risk of serious infections, tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections has been reported across various studies, with etanercept appearing to have modestly better safety profile in terms of tuberculosis and opportunistic infections and infliximab with higher risk of serious infections. Evidence suggests no increase in risk of cancer with anti-TNF biologics, but there is an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Elderly patients appear to be at increased risk of incident or worsening heart failure with anti-TNF biologic use.

Jain, Archana; Singh, Jasvinder A.



Reconstruction of iatrogenic skin defects of the Achilles tendon region: an analysis of 25 consecutive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achilles tendon surgery is quite common, typical indications being acute tendon rupture and chronic tendinitis. Post-operative wound infection or skin necrosis occurs in 2.4–5% of these operations. Soft tissue reconstruction of the Achilles tendon region presents a challenge due to the limited amount of local tissue available. We interviewed 25 consecutive patients with a post-operative skin defect, caused by infection

Antti Koski; Erkki Tukiainen; Sinikka Suominen; Sirpa Asko-Seljavaara



Necrosis: a specific form of programmed cell death?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time necrosis was considered as an alternative to programmed cell death, apoptosis. Indeed, necrosis has distinct morphological features and it is accompanied by rapid permeabilization of plasma membrane. However, recent data indicate that, in contrast to necrosis caused by very extreme conditions, there are many examples when this form of cell death may be a normal physiological

Sergey Y. a Proskuryakov; Anatoli G Konoplyannikov; Vladimir L Gabai



Aseptic necrosis of the capitate bone in two gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseptic necrosis of the capitate bone is a rare disease, except in the scaphoid bone and the lunate bone. This report describes an aseptic necrosis of the bone in two gymnasts. In both cases, the necrosis probably resulted from dorsiflexion compression injury in gymnastics. In an attempt to enable these patients to continue athlet ics, partial resection and drilling were

S. Murakami; H. Nakajima



Relationship of necrosis to organ failure in severe acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic necrosis and organ failure are principal determinants of severity in acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of necrosis to organ failure in severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis from May 1992 to January 1996 were retrospectively studied. Pancreatic necrosis was identified by characteristic findings on dynamic contrast-enhanced computerized

S Tenner; G Sica; M Hughes; E Noordhoek; S Feng; M Zinner; PA Banks



Pulmonary infectious complications of tumor necrosis factor blockade.  


The understanding of the infection risks posed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has continued to evolve in the 10 years since these drugs first were introduced. Recent prospective studies have confirmed the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation posed by TNF antibodies to be several fold greater than soluble TNF receptor. Certolizumab pegol, a monovalent anti-TNF Fab' fragment, appears to share this risk, despite its lack of Fc and its inability to cross-link transmembrane TNF or activate complement. Two-step (boosted) tuberculin skin test screening and initiation of treatment for latent TB infection can greatly reduce the TB risk of anti-TNF treatment in western countries. Current recommendations for withdrawal of anti-TNF therapy when TB is diagnosed place patients at risk for paradoxical worsening due to recovery of TNF-dependent inflammation. Further research is needed to determine how best to prevent and manage their infectious complications and to determine their potential adjunctive therapeutic role in chronic infectious diseases. PMID:20674798

Wallis, Robert S; Schluger, Neil W



Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors.

Redlich, Carrie A.



Lipomembranous fat necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue.  


Lipomembranous fat necrosis (LMFN) is a special subtype of fat necrosis characterized by the development of pseudocystic cavities lined with hyaline-crenulated membranes. This regressive degeneration or localized destruction of adipose tissue has been reported as a focal phenomenon or, rarely, as an extensive one in several pathologic conditions of the subcutaneous tissue. LMFN is frequently observed in patients who have chronic sclerotic infiltrated plaques or tender subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities, often diagnosed as lipodermatosclerosis. There is increasing evidence that it is a morphologic feature that cannot be related to any particular clinical setting, however. Multiple local or systemic events causing a compromise in the blood supply of the subcutaneous tissue have been incriminated. The current knowledge of the different disorders associated with LMFN is reviewed. The different postulated pathogenic mechanisms leading to LMFN are also discussed. PMID:18793985

Segura, Sonia; Pujol, Ramon M



Systemic skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotoxin, the major component of the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, was investigated. Mice received an intramuscular injection of crotoxin (0.35mg\\/kg body weight) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, which were evaluated 3h, 24h and 3 days later. Control mice were injected with saline. Right and left TAs, gastrocnemius, soleus and right masseter

T. F Salvini; A. C Amaral; E. H Miyabara; J. A. O Turri; P. M Danella; H. S Selistre de Araújo



Acute esophageal necrosis: a rare syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acute esophageal necrosis, which presents as a black esophagus on endoscopy, is a rare disorder that is poorly described in\\u000a the medical literature. In this study, we analyze all cases reported to date to define risk factors, clinical presentation,\\u000a endoscopic features, histologic appearance, treatment, complications, outcome and etiopathogenesis of the disease and to describe\\u000a a distinct medical syndrome and propose

Grigoriy E. Gurvits; Alexander Shapsis; Nancy Lau; Nicholas Gualtieri; James G. Robilotti



Skin Thickness Changes in Normal Aging Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age-dependent decrease of skin thickness was studied with a morphometric procedure on upper inner arm skin biopsies. Epidermal thickness decreased somewhat faster in men (7.2 % of the original value\\/decade) than in women (5.7 %). The total dermal thickness decreased at about the same rate in men and women (6%\\/decade). The thickness of the superficial layer of the dermis

M. C. Branchet; S. Boisnic; C. Frances; A. M. Robert



Genetic control of necrosis - another type of programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

Necrosis has been thought to be an accidental or uncontrolled type of cell death rather than programmed. Recent studies from diverse organisms show that necrosis follows a stereotypical series of cellular and molecular events: swelling of organelles, increases in reactive oxygen species and cytoplasmic calcium, a decrease in ATP, activation of calpain and cathepsin proteases, and finally rupture of organelles and the plasma membrane. Genetic and chemical manipulations demonstrate that necrosis can be inhibited, indicating that necrosis can indeed be controlled and follows a specific “program.” This review highlights recent findings from C. elegans, yeast, Dictyostelium, Drosophila, and mammals that collectively provide evidence for conserved mechanisms of necrosis.

McCall, Kimberly



Acute hemorrhagic necrosis of tumors induced by interleukin-1 alpha: effects independent of tumor necrosis factor.  


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a protein synthesized in response to the endotoxin bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is the classical mediator of acute hemorrhagic necrosis of tumors. We have demonstrated that interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), with a spectrum of activities very similar to those of TNF, also causes acute hemorrhagic necrosis of tumors. Both TNF and IL-1 induce a cascade of events including the synthesis or release of each other. The present studies were thus undertaken to determine whether the hemorrhagic necrosis induced in tumors by IL-1 alpha is due to TNF. Kinetic parameters of IL-1 alpha-induced hemorrhage were similar to those observed with recombinant murine TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha) or LPS in RIF-1 fibrosarcomas in C3H/HeN (endotoxin-sensitive) mice. However, the amount of TNF found in the sera or tumors of animals treated with LPS was more than 20-fold higher than in mice treated with IL-1 alpha, and LPS induced similar degrees of hemorrhagic necrosis, which was measured by determining the packed volume of red blood cells by 59Fe labeling. A low but significantly hemorrhagic dose of IL-1 alpha induced no detectable TNF in tumors. Pretreatment with 250 micrograms of neutralizing antibody to TNF had no effect on IL-1 alpha-induced hemorrhage, whereas TNF-alpha- and LPS-induced hemorrhagic effects were significantly reduced. These results demonstrate an important antitumor activity of IL-1 alpha that appears to be independent of TNF. PMID:2061944

Johnson, C S; Chang, M J; Braunschweiger, P G; Furmanski, P



Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)



Skin protection for hairdressers.  


The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte



Early stages of calciphylaxis: are skin biopsies the answer?  


Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment - after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests - be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis. PMID:22110432

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko



Early Stages of Calciphylaxis: Are Skin Biopsies the Answer?  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment – after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests – be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis.

Latus, Joerg; Kimmel, Martin; Ott, German; Ting, Evelyn; Alscher, M. Dominik; Braun, Niko



Resolvin D2 prevents secondary thrombosis and necrosis in a mouse burn wound model  

PubMed Central

Deep partial thickness burns are subject to delayed necrosis of initially viable tissues surrounding the primary zone of thermally induced coagulation, which results in an expansion of the burn wound, both in area and depth, within 48 hours postburn. Neutrophil sequestration and activation leading to microvascular damage is thought to mediate this secondary tissue damage. Resolvins, a class of endogenous mediators derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to regulate the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that exogenous resolvins could mitigate the deleterious impact of the inflammatory response in burn wounds. Using two different mouse burn injury models involving significant partial thickness injuries, we found that a systemically administered single dose of resolvin D2 (RvD2) as low as 25 pg/g bw given within an interval of up to 4 hours postburn effectively prevented thrombosis of the deep dermal vascular network and subsequent dermal necrosis. By preserving the microvascular network, RvD2 enhanced neutrophil access to the dermis, but prevented neutrophil-mediated damage through other anti-inflammatory actions, including inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and neutrophil platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In a clinical context, RvD2 may be therapeutically useful by reducing the need for surgical debridement and the area requiring skin grafting.

Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Sarin, Dhruv; Irimia, Daniel; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, Francois



Effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on formation of coagulative necrosis in goat liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motives of the work are to explore the effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on HIFU ablation goat liver. A model-JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System was used. A 0.75 MHz focused transducer with 150mm aperture and 120mm focal length was used in all experiment. Acoustical power can be adjusted. 30 goats were divided into control group (HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU alone), experiment group 1(HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU combined with microbubble) and experiment group 2(Ribs in HIFU beam path were surgically removed, HIFU alone). 20 targeted regions at 5cm away from skin surface were applied for creating necrosis with linear scanning of 15mm length using HIFU in 3 groups. All animals were sacrificed two days later and exposed organs were dissected. After obtaining the maximal section, the volumes of the necrotic regions were measured, then to calculate Energy Efficiency Factor (EEF). Researched results showed that Ribs in HIFU beam path affected the formation of coagulative necrosis and enhanced EEF in control group. HIFU combined with microbubble could enhance the formation of coagulative necrosis and decrease EEF.

Li, Faqi; Gong, Xiaobo; Hu, Kai; Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao



Skin Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is, in weight, the largest organ of the human body. Its primary role is that of a physical and biological barrier.\\u000a This principal function is most apparent in the skin’s relative lack of permeability for agents from outside, including microbes\\u000a and parasites, but also for water and water-soluble compounds. The resistance to exogenous influences is mainly the result

Jan D. Bos; Rosalie M. Luiten


Photobiology of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyone is familiar with the skin because it is the organ that is primarily responsible for the appearance of human beings.\\u000a In addition to this important role, skin also has a myriad of important maintenance functions. The specialized cells of the\\u000a skin work together to form the protective and supportive structures necessary for our bodily integrity [1]. The main structures

A. P. Pentland


Universal Seed Skin Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a principled approach for general skin segmentation using graph cuts. We present the idea of a highly adaptive\\u000a universal seed thereby exploiting the positive training data only. We model the skin segmentation as a min-cut problem on\\u000a a graph defined by the image color characteristics. The prior graph cuts based approaches for skin segmentation do not provide\\u000a general

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger



Tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreases aquaporin-3 expression in DJM-1 keratinocytes.  


Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein that is strongly expressed at the plasma membranes of keratinocytes in skin. There is evidence for involvement of AQP3-facilitated water and glycerol transport in skin hydration and wound repair, respectively. In this study, we show that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF receptor-1 signaling decreased AQP3 protein expression and plasma membrane water permeability in DJM-1 keratinocytes. TNF-alpha also decreased AQP3 mRNA expression and promoter activity, indicating that TNF-alpha suppresses AQP3 gene transcription. In addition, inhibitors of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) abolished the effect of TNF-alpha on AQP3 expression level, whereas inhibitors for NF-kappaB did not. These data indicate that TNF-alpha decreases AQP3 gene expression through p38 and ERK activation, and suggest that the decrease in AQP3 expression caused by TNF-alpha might be related to the phenotypes of skin inflammation, such as dry skin. PMID:19619514

Horie, Ichiro; Maeda, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hisatsune, Akinori; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Miyata, Takeshi; Isohama, Yoichiro



Bioengineered skin substitutes.  


Bioengineered skin has great potential for use in regenerative medicine for treatment of severe wounds such as burns or chronic ulcers. Genetically modified skin substitutes have also been used as cell-based devices or "live bioreactors" to deliver therapeutics locally or systemically. Finally, these tissue constructs are used as realistic models of human skin for toxicological testing, to speed drug development and replace traditional animal-based tests in a variety of industries. Here we describe a method of generating bioengineered skin based on a natural scaffold, namely, decellularized human dermis and epidermal stem cells. PMID:23494436

Lei, Pedro; You, Hui; Andreadis, Stelios T



Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Skin disease in antiquity.  


Dermatological conditions and treatment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disorders and literature from the classified period as well as Egyptian papyri, cuneiform tablets and the Bible. It is often more useful and informative to study naturally preserved skin rather than artificially mummified skin. Great care must be taken in making retrospective diagnosis. Skin manifestations of internal diseases are, and have always been, of the greatest clinical importance. Study of the past may give an insight into the epidemiological aspects of diseases such as TB, leprosy and syphilis which have spread across the world with serious social consequences. PMID:16521362

Liddell, Keith


Apoptosis, necrosis, and proliferation: possible implications in the etiology of keloids.  

PubMed Central

Keloids are collagenous lesions acquired as a result of abnormal wound heating. In this study we have assessed the potential role of proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis in keloids. Samples were immunolabeled for proliferating cell nuclear antigen or DNA strand breaks or stained with acridine orange. Proliferating cells were observed in the basal layer of the epidermis and fibroblasts in the dermis, the numbers of the latter being increased in comparison with normal skin. No proliferating cells were observed in the central region of the keloid. In normal skin, apoptotic cells were restricted to the basal layer of the epidermis. In keloid samples, numerous apoptotic cells were observed in the epidermis and dermis; the number and distribution of positive cells decreased more distal to the keloid lesion. Apoptotic endothelial cells of a small proportion of blood vessels in the dermis were also observed. Evidence of necrosis was also seen in the dermis. These results suggest that, with maturity, progressive cell degeneration primarily by apoptosis results in clearance of certain cellular populations resulting in the typical keloid lesion. However, the persistence of fibroblast proliferation at the dermal/keloid interface propagates the fibrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Appleton, I.; Brown, N. J.; Willoughby, D. A.



The chevron osteotomy and avascular necrosis.  


Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the first metatarsal head following the chevron procedure for hallux valgus correction, has been reported widely in the literature; however, in practice it is rarely encountered and may be an over reported myth associated with the chevron technique. Although an infrequent complication, the consequences for those who develop post-operative AVN can be severe. This paper presents an overview of the pathogenesis and classification of AVN. It reviews the vascular anatomy of the first metatarsal with reference to the surgical technique of chevron osteotomy with lateral release. Imaging techniques are described and the management of AVN and revision surgery are also discussed. PMID:23266130

Rothwell, Matthew; Pickard, James



Wounding of bioengineered skin: cellular and molecular aspects after injury.  


Skin substitutes are increasingly being used in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds but their mechanisms of action are largely unknown. In this study, using histology, immunostaining, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we determined the response to injury of a human bilayered skin substitute. Meshing or scalpel fenestration of the construct was found to stimulate keratinocyte migration and to decrease proliferation. By 24 h, flow cytometry of the keratinocyte component showed that meshing was associated with a 33% decrease in the number of cells in S phase (p < 0.01). An approximately 2-fold decrease in staining for Ki67, a proliferation marker, was observed with meshing of human bilayered skin substitute. The process of reepithelialization was apparent by 12 h, however, the wounded human bilayered skin substitute was healed by day 3, and a stratum corneum and fully stratified epithelium were re-established by day 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that the expression of acute proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1alpha, 6, and 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha) peaked by 12-24 h postinjury. The levels of mRNA of certain growth factors (transforming growth factor beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2) but not others (platelet-derived growth factors A and B, keratinocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factors 1 and 7, transforming growth factor beta3) increased by 12 h and peaked by 1-3 d after injury, returning to normal by day 6. Immunostaining for tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta1 paralleled these findings by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that human bilayered skin substitute, as a prototypic bilayered skin substitute, is a truly dynamic living tissue, capable of responding to physical injury in a staged and specific pattern of cell migration, reepithelialization, and cytokine expression. PMID:12230509

Falanga, Vincent; Isaacs, Cary; Paquette, Dana; Downing, Gregory; Kouttab, Nicola; Butmarc, Janet; Badiavas, Evangelos; Hardin-Young, Jan



Activated Langerhans Cells Release Tumor Necrosis Factor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Langerhans cell act as antigen presenting cells in immune reactions in the skin. What other roles they may play in inflammation are less well defined. We have tested whether these cells can produce TNF-alpha, an important mediator of inflammation. Resting...

J. W. Larrick T. Shi V. Morhenn Y. L. Chiang



Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...


Skin Cancer: Need for Skin Exam Increases with Age  


... are middle-aged and older. Why Age Increases Skin Cancer Risk By the time we reach middle ... freckle should be examined by a dermatologist. Regular Skin Exams Can Detect Skin Cancer The purpose of ...


Suppressed Alloantigen Presentation, Increased TNF-?, IL1, IL1Ra, IL10, and Modulation of TNF-R in UV-Irradiated Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines induced in skin by ultraviolet radiation cause local and systemic immunosuppression. Tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 are key mediators in the mouse, but less is known about cytokine synthesis and function in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin. We exposed human skin to 3 minimal erythema doses of solar-simulated radiation and raised suction blisters at intervals to 72 h. Alloantigen

Robert M. Barr; Susan L. Walker; Wailin Tsang; Graham I. Harrison; Parisa Ettehadi; Malcolm W. Greaves; Antony R. Young



The skin microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate

Elizabeth A. Grice; Julia A. Segre



Torsional Measurements on Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--An apparatus is described for measuring the STIFFNESS and ELASTICITY of thin strips of SKIN. Physical properties of skin in TORSION show decreases in sliffness with increased humidity of the ambient environment. The elasticity of the strips under- went a minimum between 50-80% relative humidity. Extraction of naturally occurring humectant was demonstrated to increase the physical stiffness of CALIUS and




Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms that are known or suspected to cause skin diseases in cetaceans are briefly reviewed. Viruses belonging to four families i.e. Caliciviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae were detected by electron microscopy, histology and molecular techniques in vesicular skin lesions, black dots perceptible by the touch, warts and tattoos in several species of odontocetes and mysticetes. Herpesviruses, poxviruses and likely a

Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; Koen Van Waerebeek; Leonardo Flach; Julio César Reyes; Marcos César de Oliveira; Salvatore Siciliano; Monica Echegaray; Francisco Viddi; Fernando Felix; Enrique Crespo; Gian Paolo Sanino; Isabel Cristina Avila; Natalia Fraijia; Cristina Castro


CSD skin test  


Cat scratch disease skin test ... An antigen related to the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. ... This test was once used to diagnose cat scratch disease, before Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that causes CSD, was identified.


Ischemia of Postmastectomy Skin After Infiltration of Local Anesthetic with Epinephrine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The goals of this study were to review the literature regarding the use of local anesthetic with epinephrine and to report\\u000a an observation of prolonged ischemia and necrosis in postmastectomy skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A PubMed literature review was performed and the patient’s medical record was reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Prior skin necrosis with epinephrine use in acral areas was often due to physician or manufacturing

Tristan L. HartzellNaveen; Naveen F. Sangji; Mary C. Hertl



Necrosis Avidity: A Newly Discovered Feature of Hypericin and its Preclinical Applications in Necrosis Imaging  

PubMed Central

Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [123I]iodohypericin, [124I]iodohypericin, and [131I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin.

Jiang, Binghu; Wang, Jichen; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng



Understanding skin care and skin barrier function in infants.  


Skin care practices involving the application of products to the skin are common. This article focuses on these aspects of infant skin care, the importance of skin barrier function and how the use of products and therapies applied to the skin can affect skin?barrier function. It also challenges current practice and tradition, and highlights the evolving body of research into practice and tradition. PMID:24021151

Lawton, Sandra



You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)



The spectrum of postoperative scleral necrosis.  


An otherwise healthy 62-year-old woman developed necrotizing scleritis 23 years following pterygium excision with adjunctive beta-radiation. Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis (SINS) was diagnosed, but the scleritis progressed despite anti-inflammatory therapy, and 10 weeks after presentation the patient developed a hypopyon and decreased vision. After cultures revealed no growth at 72 hours, immunosuppressive therapy was escalated, with a subsequent deterioration in the patient's clinical course. Scedosporium superinfection was eventually cultured and found on histological examination of the enucleated globe. In reported cases, infectious scleral necrosis occurs most commonly following pterygium (71.4%) and scleral buckling (97.2%) surgery. Hypopyon is uncommon (10.0%) in patients with postoperative scleral necrosis, but when present is a strong predictor of infection (odds ratio, 21.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-157.5). Rates of underlying autoimmune disease are generally low (0.0-12.5%) except following cataract and lens procedures, where the occurence of SINS heralds systemic illness in 42.9% of cases. PMID:23410842

Doshi, Rishi R; Harocopos, George J; Schwab, Ivan R; Cunningham, Emmett T



Inhibition of tumour necrosis factor alpha does not prevent experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.  


Paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis is the most common form of toxic liver injury experienced in clinical practice in the UK and USA. Recently, reports have described prevention of hepatic necrosis, induced by other hepato-toxins, by inhibiting tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). The aim of the present study was to determine the role of TNFalpha in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Six-week-old CBA/J female mice were given 300 mg/kg paracetamol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection after an 8-h fast. Hepatic expression of TNFalpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum TNFalpha was measured by ELISA. One hour prior to paracetamol injection, mice were also given blocking anti-TNFalpha antibodies, soluble TNFalpha receptor, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and dexamethasone. Hepatic injury was measured by serum aspartate aminotransferase and histological assessment on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained liver sections. There was a significant increase in serum TNFalpha at 6 h (control 0.002+/-0.002 ng/ml, n=7; paracetamol-treated 0.022+/-0.007 ng/ml, n=5, p<0.05), but hepatic TNFalpha expression did not change up to 24 h following paracetamol injection. Histologically severe centrilobular hepatic necrosis was noted at 3 h and progressed for 24 h after paracetamol poisoning. Death rate, serum aspartate aminotransferase, and hepatic histology were not significantly different between the groups treated with blocking anti-TNFalpha antibodies, soluble TNFalpha receptor, IL-10, and dexamethasone, compared with controls. In conclusion, there is no evidence to suggest that modulation of TNFalpha expression affects hepatic injury following experimental paracetamol poisoning; anti-TNFalpha therapies are therefore unlikely to be effective in the corresponding clinical situation. PMID:10700000

Simpson, K J; Lukacs, N W; McGregor, A H; Harrison, D J; Strieter, R M; Kunkel, S L



Skin Substitutes and Uses Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to improved methods for organotypic culture of skin substitutes. In some embodiments, the dermal equivalent of the skin substitute is lifted to air interface of the cul...

C. A. R. Ivarie L. A. Hoffman P. Barth



The Environment and the Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skin is an important interface between people and their physical, chemical, and biologic environment. Skin diseases comprise 35% to 85% of all occupational disease. The majority of environmental skin problems are eczematous in character and result fro...

R. R. Suskind



Mom and Baby Skin Care  


... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...


Nasal tip necrosis—an unusual presentation of rheumatoid vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an unusual case of cutaneous necrosis of the nasal tip presenting to a facial reconstructive surgeon. The patient\\u000a had developed this painless necrosis over a period of about 10 days. Her past medical history included rheumatoid arthritis.\\u000a She described an exacerbation of her arthritic symptoms in the weeks preceding the development of the nasal tip necrosis.\\u000a Her rheumatoid arthritis

G. E. Glass; A. V. Greig; J. Weir; N. Waterhouse



MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.

Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee



Tc-99m PYP localization in calf muscle necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) can localize in an acute myocardial infarct and other extraosseous lesions, including soft tissue necrosis and severe cellular injury A case of Tc-99m PYP uptake in calf muscle necrosis following transfemoral cardiac catheterization is presented. This was incidentally detected on Tc-99m PYP imaging performed for an acute myocardial infarction. Repeat Tc-99m PYP imaging one month later was normal, implying resolution of the ischemic muscle necrosis.

Virupannavar, S.; Shirazi, P.H.; Khedkar, N.V.; Kaplan, E.



Skin and antioxidants.  


It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar



Sensitive skin: an overview.  


Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity. PMID:22928591

Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H



The aging skin.  


In the past, sun exposure has been an integral part of the American life style. Along with increased leisure time, outdoor recreational sports, and sun bathing has come greater exposure to the sun. The cumulative effects of unprotected sun exposure coupled with the changes in the ozone layer have resulted in a large photodamaged population and an epidemic of the most dangerous skin cancer, malignant melanoma. Photodamage begins early, with a child's first unprotected sun exposure. Clinical studies show that 50% of an individual's ultraviolet light exposure occurs before the age of 18 years. This damage from acute and chronic ultraviolet light exposure has produced the explosion of skin cancers. Over the next 4 years, it is expected that skin cancer will become the most common type of cancer, and malignant melanoma will become the leading cause of death from skin cancer. This growing hazard to the public has profound medical and psychological ramifications. This paper will focus on prevention, identification, evaluation and treatment of photodamage to skin, as well as skin cancer. Special emphasis will be given to the National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program. PMID:9160214

Bergfeld, W F


Archaea on Human Skin  

PubMed Central

The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine



Carotenoids in human skin.  


The interaction of free radicals with antioxidants is a topic of increasing interest in the development of prevention strategies against skin ageing. Carotenoids can serve as marker substances for the complete antioxidative network of human skin. Recently, it has become possible to measure the carotenoids non-invasively and online using resonance Raman spectroscopy. This method has been used in various studies to investigate the interaction of carotenoid antioxidants and free radicals in human skin. In this review, the results of the selected studies are summarized and compared. It could be demonstrated that the carotenoid concentration of the skin reflects the lifestyle of individuals. A high level of carotenoids can be achieved with a healthy diet rich, for instance, in fruit and vegetables. Stress factors such as illness, UV and IR radiation of the sun, and smoking and alcohol consumption reduce the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin. It could be demonstrated that premature skin ageing was less in people with a high level of antioxidants in their tissue. Consequently, the furrows and wrinkles were not so deep and dense as in the skin of individuals with a low antioxidant level. The measurements are highly suited for the development of anti-ageing strategies and can be efficiently used in the medical diagnostics and therapy control. PMID:21366698

Lademann, Juergen; Meinke, Martina C; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E



Occupational skin disease.  


Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

Peate, W E



Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis V. Correlation of Hepatic Necrosis, Covalent Binding and Glutathione Depletion in Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously postulated that acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis in mice results from the formation of a reactive metabolite that arylates vital cellular macro-molecules. While studying species differences in susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis, hamsters were found to be particularly vulnerable. We now report the relationships between hepatic glutathione depletion, arylation of hepatic macromolecules in vivo and in vitro and hepatic necrosis

W. Z. Potter; S. S. Thorgeirsson; D. J. Jollow; J. R. Mitchell



Inflammatory papillomatous hyperplasia and epidermal necrosis in a transgenic rat for HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Background Skin lesions commonly affect AIDS patients. The pathogenesis of certain dermatologic disorders primarily associated to HIV-1 is unclear, and better forms of therapy for these conditions need to be discovered. Transgenic animal models represent a novel approach for the study of these disorders and for the quest of more effective forms of treatment. Objective Characterize this HIV-1 transgenic rat as a model to study skin diseases related to HIV/AIDS. Methods A transgenic rat was developed, using an HIV-1 construct with deleted gag and pol genes. Morphological and genotypical evaluations were followed by cytokine profile characterization of the lesions. Results We report the characterization of a colony of HIV-1 transgenic rats that developed skin lesions in a frequency of 22.5%. Cutaneous expression of functional HIV-1 transgenes correlated precisely with the severity of the phenotype. In early stages, rats manifested localized areas of xerosis and dispersed papulosquamous lesions. These hyperplastic manifestations were observed in conjunction with an increased epidermal expression of tat protein and a Th1/Th2 profile of cytokines. As the lesions progressed, they formed inflammatory plaques that subsequently ulcerated. Histologically, these lesions displayed a profound lymphocytic infiltrate, epidermal necrosis, and a marked increase of both Th1 and Th2 derived cytokines. Moreover, the presence of circulating IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 was detected. Conclusion This animal model as other HIV-1 transgenic mice described in the past, is not able to fully explain the myriad of skin findings that can occur in HIV-infected humans; however, it represents a potential animal model system for the study of immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.

Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Bryant, Joseph; Fishelevich, Rita; Jones, Odell D.; Deng, April; Eng, Maria L.; Gaspari, Anthony A.; Trujillo, J. Roberto



[Dermatoendocrinology. Skin aging].  


Hormones and their imbalances have significant effects on the morphology and physiology of the skin and influence various skin functions, especially wound healing and lipogenesis. With increasing age, the concentrations of important circulating hormones, including growth hormone and sex-related steroids, decrease continuously. As a result, physiologic processes are negatively influenced and various age-associated disorders may develop. As the population aged 80 and over is expected to rise in the next decades, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying skin aging and disease prevention will become even more important and play a role in preventing disease. PMID:20480124

Makrantonaki, E; Zouboulis, C C



Black esophagus: Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), commonly referred to as “black esophagus”, is a rare clinical entity arising from a combination of ischemic insult seen in hemodynamic compromise and low-flow states, corrosive injury from gastric contents in the setting of esophago-gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction, and decreased function of mucosal barrier systems and reparative mechanisms present in malnourished and debilitated physical states. AEN may arise in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction, hypoperfusion, vasculopathy, sepsis, diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol intoxication, gastric volvulus, traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta, thromboembolic phenomena, and malignancy. Clinical presentation is remarkable for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Notable symptoms may include epigastric/abdominal pain, vomiting, dysphagia, fever, nausea, and syncope. Associated laboratory findings may reflect anemia and leukocytosis. The hallmark of this syndrome is the development of diffuse circumferential black mucosal discoloration in the distal esophagus that may extend proximally to involve variable length of the organ. Classic “black esophagus” abruptly stops at the gastroesophageal junction. Biopsy is recommended but not required for the diagnosis. Histologically, necrotic debris, absence of viable squamous epithelium, and necrosis of esophageal mucosa, with possible involvement of submucosa and muscularis propria, are present. Classification of the disease spectrum is best described by a staging system. Treatment is directed at correcting coexisting clinical conditions, restoring hemodynamic stability, nil-per-os restriction, supportive red blood cell transfusion, and intravenous acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Complications include perforation with mediastinal infection/abscess, esophageal stricture and stenosis, superinfection, and death. A high mortality of 32% seen in the setting of AEN syndrome is usually related to the underlying medical co-morbidities and diseases.

Gurvits, Grigoriy E



Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps  

SciTech Connect

Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.



Assessment of biomechanical skin properties: Is cellulitic skin different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An objective in vivo measurement of viscoelastic skin properties is difficult. Consequently, the clinician's ability to evaluate the effectiveness of therapies that may affect skin pliability and skin surface characteristics is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Biomechanical Tissue Characterization BTC-2000 System for objective, noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic skin properties, specifically

Marek K. Dobke; Barry DiBernardo; R. Carl Thompson; Hakan Usal



Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...


Bleeding into the skin  


... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...


Skin Cancer (PDQ): Prevention  


... The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma , which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma , which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma ...


Skin Cancer (PDQ): Screening  


... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Skin Reactions to Cold  

PubMed Central

Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed.

Talpash, Orest



Chromophores in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

Young, Antony R.



Barrier Surfaces of Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stratum corneum, the nonliving layer of skin, is refractory as a substrate for chemical reactions, but it has a strong physical affinity for water. The chemical stability of stratum corneum is evident in its mechanical barriers which include insoluble cel...

M. M. Mershon



Upper eyelid necrosis and reconstruction after spider byte: case report and review of the literature.  


Spider bites are not very common, especially in the Mediterranean area, and those affecting the ocular-palpebral region involving reconstructive surgery are particularly rare. In May 2010, the case of a Caucasian 24-year-old female patient was brought to the attention of the Dermatology Department, University of Cagliari, Italy. The patient reported she woke up feeling an intense pain with itching and that also she had noticed a spider of an unknown species on her bed. The dermatosis had affected the right orbital region, where there was a considerable red and violet erythema and a hard edema, not foldable. When the necrosis appeared the patient was treated at the Plastic Surgery Unit where she underwent a reconstruction of the eyelid with a full thickness skin graft from the retroauricular area. The post-operative course was regular with a perfect in-take of the skin graft. When the patient was discharged she was sent to an Entomological University Centre to identify the spider species and the possible venom which caused the skin lesion. The spider which caused the injury has been a Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820). Loxoscelism is a necrotic arachnoidism caused by the poisonous bite of spiders belonging to the Loxosceles species. It is very important to identify what sort of lesion it is and to treat it in a combined way in order to choose the proper timing for surgery to avoid damages to the eyelid functioning. PMID:22530360

Ribuffo, D; Serratore, F; Famiglietti, M; Greco, M; Fois, F; Atzori, L; Pau, M; Aste, N



Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9

Ho, Vincent C.



Skin penetration enhancers.  


The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

Lane, Majella E



Skin pigmentation enhancers.  


The highest incidences of cancer are found in the skin, but endogenous pigmentation is associated with markedly reduced risk. Agents that enhance skin pigmentation have the potential to reduce both photodamage and skin cancer incidence. The purpose of this review is to evaluate agents that have the potential to increase skin pigmentation. These include topically applied substances that simulate natural pigmentation: dihydroxyacetone and melanins; and substances that stimulate the natural pigmentation process: psoralens with UVA (PUVA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), L-tyrosine, L-Dopa, lysosomotropic agents, diacylglycerols, thymidine dinucleotides, DNA fragments, melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) analogs, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), nitric oxide donors, and bicyclic monoterpene (BMT) diols. These agents are compared with regards to efficacy when administered to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes, animal skin, and human skin. In addition, mechanisms of action are reviewed since these may reveal issues related to both efficacy and safety. Both dihydroxyacetone and topically applied melanins are presently available to the consumer, and both of these have been shown to provide some photoprotection. Of the pigmentation stimulators, only PUVA and MSH analogs have been tested extensively on humans, but there are concerns about the safety and side effects of both. At least some of the remaining pigmentation stimulators under development have the potential to safely induce a photoprotective tan. PMID:11684462

Brown, D A



Bone Marrow Necrosis as the Only Manifestation of Disseminated Carcinomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case with thrombocytopenia and bone marrow necrosis as the only manifestation of disseminated carcinomatosis is reported. The diagnosis was first established by repeated bone marrow biopsy which revealed marked necrosis without evidence of malignancy. The patient’s general condition deteriorated rapidly despite therapy with steroids. Autopsy revealed disseminated metastatic adenocarcinoma, but the primary site of the tumor was not

Haim Granot; Aaron Polliack; Yaacov Matzner



Necrosis of the fetal brain stem with cerebellar hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two neonates are presented with intrauterine necrosis of the brain stem. In one the necrosis and calcification were multifocal and extended from the thalamus to the medulla oblongata. In the other the process was limited to the medulla, but was associated with severe hypoplasia of the nuclei pontis. In both cases the cerebellum was hypoplastic and immature for the gestational

E. C. Gessaga; M. Kaarsoo Herrick; H. Urich



Intraductal papilloma with “comedo-like” necrosis, a diagnostic pitfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis in the breast is more frequently associated with malignancies than benign conditions. In the latter, it may be diffuse as seen in infarcts, postpartum changes, and after anticoagulant therapy, or focal as in florid adenosis and juvenile papillomatosis. The goal of this study was to find other benign entities associated with necrosis. Using our pathology database from January 1994

Shabnam Jaffer; Ira J. Bleiweiss



Tribological behavior of scar skin and prosthetic skin in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfacial rub phenomena between scar skin and other external surfaces are a prevalent problem in everyday life. Literature on the tribological behavior of scar skin is scarce to date. In this study, the tribological behavior and comfort sensations of residual limb scar skin, prosthetic wearing skin and healthy limb skin were investigated in vivo by using UMT-II multi-specimen Micro-Tribometer

W. Li; M. Kong; X. D. Liu; Z. R. Zhou



Imaging manifestations of abdominal fat necrosis and its mimics.  


Intraabdominal fat is a metabolically active tissue that may undergo necrosis through a number of mechanisms. Fat necrosis is a common finding at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic findings of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include torsion of an epiploic appendage, infarction of the greater omentum, and fat necrosis related to trauma or pancreatitis. In addition, other pathologic processes that involve fat may be visualized at computed tomography, including focal lipohypertrophy, pathologic fat paucity (lipodystrophies), and malignancies such as liposarcoma, which may mimic benign causes of fat stranding. Because fat necrosis and malignant processes such as liposarcoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis may mimic one another, knowledge of a patient's clinical history and prior imaging studies is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:22084185

Kamaya, Aya; Federle, Michael P; Desser, Terry S


Bone marrow necrosis - initial presentation in sickle cell anemia  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Sickle cell anemia Symptoms: Bone marrow necrosis • bone pain • fever • hepatomegaly • icterus • splenomegaly • weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In sickle cell disease, bone involvement is the commonest clinical presentation in the acute as well as chronic setting presenting as painful vaso-occlusive crisis and avascular necrosis, respectively. Other complications include bone marrow necrosis and infarction. Case Report: We report a case of a 20-year-old male who was referred for bone marrow evaluation due to symptoms of fever, weakness, and repeated episodes of bone pains. Bone trephine biopsy revealed multiple areas of central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts. Conclusions: Recognition of necrosis through bone trephine biopsy is important for early initiation of therapy.

Shafiq, Maria; Ali, Natasha



Smart-skin antenna technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using smart materials and skins, one could design a smart structure with suitable feedback system architecture. This paper is designed to address some technical advances and applications of smart materials, smart skins and coatings covering a broad spectrum of electromagnetic fields. The Smart Skin Antenna Technology Program's objectives are to (1) use smart skin technologies to develop an antenna system

Vijay K. Varadan; Vasundara V. Varadan



Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.



75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo,...



Tumour necrosis factor: implications for surgical patients.  


Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is an inflammatory cytokine primarily produced by macrophages. It is a unique protein with contradictive properties; it has the ability to induce cellular death by apoptosis and oncosis, but can also induce cellular regeneration and growth. Genetic polymorphisms in TNFA have been associated with poor outcome in some surgical patients and this may provide a useful tool to screen for high-risk patients. Manipulating TNF-alpha levels in vivo may influence the progression of several pathological conditions. TNF-alpha has anti-cancer properties and has been used to treat cancer patients. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha drugs and antibodies has been successful in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, but disappointing in the management of patients with sepsis. This review article focuses on the biological activities, genetic polymorphism of TNFA and the role of TNF-alpha and anti-TNF-alpha treatments, based on animal experiments and clinical trials. PMID:17054552

Khalil, Alizan A; Hall, John C; Aziz, Farah A; Price, Patricia



Rabbit tumor necrosis factor: mechanism of action.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was examined for effects on normal and transformed cells in culture. Several assays for killing of L-929 cell targets were developed, and their sensitivities were compared. Normal cells were not killed by TNF, and the discrimination between normal and transformed cells was shown not to be due to a cell cycle-dependent mechanism. TNF killing of L-929 cells was delayed for 10 to 12 h and thereafter showed concentration and time-dependent increases in cytolysis. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide treatment of L-929 cells resulted in an enhancement of the rate of cell killing as well as a shortening of the preceding lag period. TNF killing of L-929 cells was temperature dependent; cells were considerably more resistant to lysis at 25 degrees C and showed enhanced killing at 39 degrees C as compared to 37 degrees C controls. The slope of the dose curve showed less than single-hit kinetics. A model for cell killing whose general features incorporate both the specificity and catalytic properties of an enzymatic reaction is proposed for TNF action.

Ruff, M R; Gifford, G E



Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in femoral head necrosis.  


We evaluated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on a cohort of patients with femoral head necrosis (FHN). This double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective study included 20 patients with unilateral FHN. All were Ficat stage II, treated with either compressed oxygen (HBO) or compressed air (HBA). Each patient received 30 treatments of HBO or HBA for 6 weeks. Range of motion, stabilometry, and pain were assessed at the beginning of the study and after 10, 20, and 30 treatments by a blinded physician. After the initial 6-week treatment, the blind was broken; and all HBA patients were offered HBO treatment. At this point, the study becomes observational. Pretreatment, 12-month. and 7 year-follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Statistical comparisons were obtained with nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Significant pain improvement for HBO was demonstrated after 20 treatments. Range of motion improved significantly during HBO for all parameters between 20 and 30 treatments. All patients remain substantially pain-free 7 years later: none required hip arthroplasty. Substantial radiographic healing of the osteonecrosis was observed in 7 of 9 hips. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to be a viable treatment modality in patients with Ficat II FHN. PMID:20637561

Camporesi, Enrico M; Vezzani, Giuliano; Bosco, Gerardo; Mangar, Devanand; Bernasek, Thomas L



Tumor necrosis factor and wound healing.  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), 1 to 500 ng in saline (PBS) or collagen, was applied to the wounds of normal and Adriamycin-impaired mice and wound disruption strength (WDS) and histology were examined. Also wounded mice were administered TNF 25 to 75 micrograms/kg IP daily and WDS was determined. Wound histology was examined 6 months after wounding and local TNF application. Local TNF 5 to 500 ng in PBS did not significantly affect WDS. Local TNF 5 to 50 ng in collagen increased WDS 33% to 65% in Adriamycin-impaired animals (p = 0.05 to p less than 0.02). Local TNF 50 to 500 ng in collagen increased WDS 23% to 49% in normal animals (p = 0.08 to p less than 0.01). Adriamycin-impaired animals demonstrated improved wound histology with local TNF in collagen. Systemic TNF did not significantly affect WDS. Local TNF in collagen did not induce histologic pathology at 6 months. TNF may modulate macrophage function and local TNF in collagen can improve WDS in normal and Adriamycin-impaired animals. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Mooney, D P; O'Reilly, M; Gamelli, R L



Leukaemic transformation in patients with haematological disease receiving tumour necrosis factor inhibitors.  


In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors as treatment for several inflammatory conditions. However, the question of whether TNF inhibitors increase the risk of malignancies (including lymphoma and leukaemia) in these diseases remains controversial. Despite this concern, anti-TNF therapy is being used experimentally in the management of haematological patients with risk of leukaemic transformation such as myeloproliferative neoplasms. We report here the first ever reported case of blastic transformation in a patient with myelofibrosis under etanercept treatment for a severe hidradenitis suppurativa. Although etanercept provided a sustained partial response of the skin disease, the patient developed an acute myeloid leukaemia after 27 months on exclusively etanercept therapy. According to the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System-plus score, the patient had a low risk for leukaemic transformation. We discuss here the potential of TNF inhibitors to increase the already elevated risk of leukaemic transformation of these haematological diseases. PMID:22550963

Ferrer-Marín, Francisca; Amigo, Maria Luz; Vicente, Vicente



Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  


Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam



Environment and the skin  

SciTech Connect

The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

Suskind, R.R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Health Science Center, OH (USA))



Challenges with the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral radiation necrosis.  


The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis. PMID:23790775

Chao, Samuel T; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Barnett, Gene H; Stevens, Glen H J; Murphy, Erin S; Stockham, Abigail L; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H



[Research progress on proteomics in femur head necrosis].  


Appearance of proteomics technology can fleetly filt and reveal specificity biomarkers of disease, this will help to reveal the pathogenesis of femur head necrosis and help early diagnosis, find more effective methods and therapeutic targets. At present, they are hot spots that find out the occurred mechanism,related proteins of early diagnosis and early treatment and its functional identification; set up the early related database; optimize the protein extraction methods for research of femur head necrosis. This article reviews the application of study technology of related proteins of femur head necrosis on bone tissue, serum,related animal model,and in order to provide further research ideas. PMID:23795453

Hu, Miao-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Cheng; Shan, Le-Tian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Tong, Pei-jian



Skin and Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Inch of Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different nerve receptors located in the skin and where are they? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students mark off a square-inch section of skin and gently poke the area, stimulating different nerve receptors. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve



Opaque skin sanitizing composition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A skin sanitizing composition includes an effective amount of an alcohol having 1 to 4 carbon atoms for providing sanitizing activity to the sanitizing composition as well as an effective amount of at least one moisturizing agent having opacifying properties for both making the sanitizing composition uniformly opaque when mixed and reducing water loss from the skin. The composition also includes an effective amount of a polymeric thickener for providing a viscosity of from about 1000 to about 65,000 cps and water.

Fendler; Eleanor J. (Hudson, OH); Dunkerton; Lois V. (Maumee, OH); Zirnis; Aija (Solon, OH)



Radiation necrosis of the mandible: a 10 year study. Part I. Factors influencing the onset of necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Of 404 patients who were irradiated for cancer in the oral region between 1971 and 1975, 19.1% developed radiation necrosis of the mandible. Three main effects, anatomic tumor site, tumor dose, and dental status, were found to have a statistically significant effect on incidence of necrosis. Necrosis was also found to occur more frequently in association with an implant than with treatment administered by an external radiation source alone. The T-stage of the tumor did not appear to affect the incidence of necrosis. Necrosis incidence was also studied over the two time periods: 1966 to 1969 (study I) and 1971 to 1975 (study II). Differences between the two periods were found in the primary etiological groupings. Necrosis attributed to spontaneous or unknown cause increased in the second study, while that associated with dental extractions before irradiation decreased. Fewer teeth were extracted before radiation therapy in study II than in study I. Less necrosis followed mandibular surgery for recurrent disease in study II than study I.

Murray, C.G.; Herson, J.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.



Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.



About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)  


... Care Ages & Stages Listen About Skin-to-Skin Care Article Body You may be able to hold ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...


The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  


The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong



Skin-to-skin contact. Part two: the evidence.  


Health professionals are increasingly recognising that skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby immediately after birth has important and significant health benefits for all babies. UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative has recently increased recommended minimum time spent in skin contact after birth from 30 minutes to one hour. This article looks at recent research into the benefits of skin contact and summarises the findings. PMID:21739738

Vincent, Sarah



Skin Problems in Construction  


... when you put on the gloves. If your hands have any of the harsh materials on them when you put on gloves, you can make your skin problems worse. (Don’t let the materials get inside your boots, either.) Make sure you use the right gloves for the job. Some gloves will not protect you from some ...


Shark skin laceration.  


We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature. PMID:17083886

Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted



Skin disorders in amputees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatologic problems restrict the normal use of a prosthetic limb. The importance of contact dermatitis to skin morbidity in a population of amputees and the selection criteria for patch testing have not been clearly defined.Objective: We describe the range of dermatoses seen in a population of amputees and examine the incidence, causes, and patterns of contact dermatitis.Methods: This is

Calum C. Lyon; Jai Kulkarni; Erik Zimerson; Ernest Van Ross; Michael H. Beck



Skin Allergy Quiz  


... itchy. Question 10 Can I get tested for food or medication allergy? Yes No Yes: Your local allergist can do a skin prick test or blood test to find out if you are allergic to several foods and drugs. You answered questions correctly. Learn more ...


Candida albicans skin abscess.  


Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter. PMID:17086322

Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos


Skin Cancer Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school curriculumâÂÂa part of Emory University's CancerQuest website, which focuses on the biology, detection and treatment of cancerâÂÂoffers resources for teaching about skin cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States.

Patricia Ann Marsteller (Emory University;)



Measuring and Protecting Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about their skin and the importance of protecting it. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)



Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

Bauer, Siegfried



Fueling the Flames: Mammalian Programmed Necrosis in Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death driven by TNF-like death cytokines, toll-like receptors and antigen receptors. Unlike necrosis induced by physical trauma, a dedicated pathway is involved in programmed necrosis. In particular, a kinase complex composed of the receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 is a central step in necrotic cell death. Assembly and activation of this RIPK1-RIPK3 “necrosome” is critically controlled by protein ubiquitination, phosphorylation and caspase mediated cleavage events. The molecular signals cumulate in formation of intracellular vacuoles, organelle swelling, internal membrane leakage, and eventually plasma membrane rupture. These morphological changes can result in spillage of intracellular adjuvants to promote inflammation and further exacerbate tissue injury. Because of the inflammatory nature of necrosis, it is an attractive pathway for therapeutic intervention in acute inflammatory diseases.

Chan, Francis Ka-Ming



The skin: its structure and response to ionizing radiation.  


The response of the skin to ionizing radiation has important implications both for the treatment of malignant disease by radiation and for radiological protection. The structural organization of human skin is described and compared with that of the pig, with which it shows many similarities, in order that the response of the skin to ionizing radiation may be more fully understood. Acute radiation damage to the skin is primarily a consequence of changes in the epidermis; the timing of the peak of the reaction is related to the kinetic organization of this layer. The rate of development of damage is independent of the radiation dose, since this is related to the natural rate of loss of cells from the basal layer of the epidermis. Recovery of the epidermis occurs as a result of the proliferation of surviving clonogenic basal cells from within the irradiated area. The presence of clonogenic cells in the canal of the hair follicle is important, particularly after non-uniform irradiation from intermediate energy beta-emitters. The migration of viable cells from the edges of the irradiated site is also significant when small areas of skin are irradiated. Late damage to the skin is primarily a function of radiation effects on the vasculature; this produces a wave of dermal atrophy after 16-26 weeks. Dermal necrosis develops at this time after high doses. A second phase of dermal thinning is seen to develop after greater than 52 weeks, and this later phase of damage is associated with the appearance of telangiectasia. Highly localized irradiation of the skin, either to a specific layer (as may result from exposure to very low energy beta-emitters) or after exposure to small highly radioactive particles, 'hot particles', produces gross effects that become visibly manifest within 2 weeks of exposure. These changes result from the direct killing of the cells of the skin in interphase after doses greater than 100 Gy. Dose-effect curves have been established for the majority of these deterministic endpoints in the skin from the results of both experimental and clinical studies. These are of value in the establishment of safe radiation dose limits for the skin. PMID:1969905

Hopewell, J W



Functional and structural evaluation of the vasculature of skin flaps after ischemia and reperfusion  

SciTech Connect

Free radicals and other toxic oxygen species play a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic organ damage. The abdominal skin flap has been used as a model to study the effects of superoxide dismutase on the survival of ischemic skin. We have evaluated the evolution of functional and structural injury to the vasculature after ischemic injury in superoxide dismutase-treated and control skin flaps. Ischemia was induced by creating abdominal skin flaps and occluding either the venous or both the venous and arterial blood supplies. Superoxide dismutase was administered immediately after the occlusion was released. At 1 hour of reflow, erythrocyte stasis, platelet deposition, neutrophil adherence, and injury to the endothelium of the large vessels and of the microvasculature were evident. The blood flow in the ischemic skin was only 3 percent of normal. Superoxide dismutase caused no change in the ultrastructure of the vasculature and a marginal decrease in vascular permeability in the ischemic skin at 1 hour of reflow. Increased fluorescent staining of the skin was evident after 24 hours of reflow in the superoxide dismutase-treated flaps. These findings indicate that injury to vascular endothelium by ischemia and reperfusion plays a role in the evolution of skin necrosis.

Marzella, L.; Jesudass, R.R.; Manson, P.N.; Myers, R.A.; Bulkley, G.B.



Neuronal necrosis and spreading death in a Drosophila genetic model.  


Brain ischemia often results in neuronal necrosis, which may spread death to neighboring cells. However, the molecular events of neuronal necrosis and the mechanisms of this spreading death are poorly understood due to the limited genetic tools available for deciphering complicated responses in mammalian brains. Here, we engineered a Drosophila model of necrosis in a sub-population of neurons by expressing a leaky cation channel in the Drosophila eye. Expression of this channel caused necrosis in defined neurons as well as extensive spreading of cell death. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated, caspase-independent apoptosis was the primary mechanism of cell death in neurons, while caspase-dependent apoptosis was primarily involved in non-neuronal cell death. Furthermore, the JNK activation in surrounding neurons was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Eiger (Drosophila tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)) released from necrotic neurons. Because the Eiger/ROS/JNK signaling was also required for cell death induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress, our fly model of spreading death may be similar to brain ischemia in mammals. We performed large-scale genetic screens to search for novel genes functioning in necrosis and/or spreading death, from which we identified several classes of genes. Among them, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) had been reported as a promising drug target for stroke treatment with undefined mechanisms. Our data indicate that ROCK and the related trafficking pathway genes regulate neuronal necrosis. We propose the suppression of the function of the trafficking system, ROS and cytokines, such as TNF?, as translational applications targeting necrosis and spreading death. PMID:23846225

Yang, Y; Hou, L; Li, Y; Ni, J; Liu, L



Relationship between dental disease and radiation necrosis of the mandible  

SciTech Connect

Preirradiation panoramic radiographs of forty-six dentate patients were examined for the presence of significant dental disease. Evidence of a positive association between dental disease present before radiation therapy and subsequent necrosis of the mandible was found leading to a recommendation that significant disease be eradicated before irradiation of oral tissues. Considerable suffering results from bone necrosis, which can be reduced by careful and rational dental diagnosis and treatment.

Murray, C.G.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.O.



Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitalized avascular necrosis after renal transplantation in the United States.BackgroundThe national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized avascular necrosis (AVN) in renal transplant recipients has not been reported.MethodsThis historical cohort study consisted of 42,096 renal transplant recipients enrolled in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. The data source was USRDS

Kevin C Abbott; Robert J Oglesby; Lawrence Y Agodoa



Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender



Acute retinal necrosis complicating chicken pox in a healthy adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of unilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) with marked vitritis and retinal necrosis leading to retinal breaks\\u000a following chicken pox successfully treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir, orbital floor triamcinolone\\u000a injections to contain the inflammation, and barrier laser therapy to secure the retinal breaks with good visual outcome. This\\u000a case is unusual in its severity

Iqbal Tajunisah; Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy



A new method for skin color enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier



Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  


... skin cancer appears in many shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This is a very common type of ... lip; skin on the lip can get thick Squamous cell carcinoma . These patients all have forms of squamous cell ...


Bone necrosis and urinary hydroxyproline excretion in rabbits.  


1. Aseptic necrosis of bone is a serious chronic complication of deep-sea diving and compressed-air work. 2. The changes to the bone which occur in this condition take time to develop to the stage where they cause the radiographic signs of bone necrosis, and consequently there is a delay of some months between the causal incident and the first diagnosis by radiography. 3. As a possible method for the earlier detection of bone necrosis the 24 h urinary excretion of hydroxyproline was measured over a period before and after experimental production of bone necrosis in rabbits by the intra-arterial injection of glass microspheres. 4. Total hydroxyproline excretion rose significantly within a few days of the injection in those rabbits in which there was later shown to be historical evidence of bone necrosis. This rise occurred long before there was any radiographic changes. 5. It is suggested that measurements of urinary hydroxyproline might be used to give an early indication of bone necrosis in man. PMID:862345

Weatherley, C R; Dale, G; McGurk, J; Walder, D N



Clinical and pathological characterization of northern elephant seal skin disease.  


From 1984 through 1992, staff at The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, Sausalito, California, USA) examined 207 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) with a condition of unknown etiology called northern elephant seal skin disease (NESSD). The skin lesions were characterized by patchy to extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation, punctate or coalescing epidermal ulceration, and occasionally, massive skin necrosis. Microscopic lesions included ulcerative dermatitis with hyperkeratosis, squamous metaplasia and atrophy of sebaceous glands. All diseased seals were less than 2 years of age and suffered from emaciation, depression, and dehydration. Mortality from septicemia increased significantly with severity of skin ulceration. Compared to 14 apparently unaffected seals, diseased seals had depressed levels of circulating thyroxine, triiodothyronine, retinol, serum iron, albumin, calcium, and cholesterol. Levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, blood urea nitrogen, and uric acid were elevated. Morphometrically, diseased animals were approximately 15% smaller than normal seals of the same sage. Serum and blubber concentrations of 36 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (sigma PCB) and dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were negatively correlated with body mass. Mean concentrations of sigma PCB and p,p'-DDE in serum in diseased seals were elevated as compared to apparently normal seals. Etiology of this syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of PCB toxicosis cannot be ruled out. PMID:9249688

Beckmen, K B; Lowenstine, L J; Newman, J; Hill, J; Hanni, K; Gerber, J



Stress-induced changes in skin barrier function in healthy women.  


Despite clear exacerbation of several skin disorders by stress, the effect of psychologic or exertional stress on human skin has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of three different stressors, psychologic interview stress, sleep deprivation, and exercise, on several dermatologic measures: transepidermal water loss, recovery of skin barrier function after tape stripping, and stratum corneum water content (skin conductance). We simultaneously measured the effects of stress on plasma levels of several stress-response hormones and cytokines, natural killer cell activity, and absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes. Twenty-five women participated in a laboratory psychologic interview stress, 11 women participated in one night of sleep deprivation, and 10 women participated in a 3 d exercise protocol. The interview stress caused a delay in the recovery of skin barrier function, as well as increases in plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and an increase in circulating natural killer cell activity and natural killer cell number. Sleep deprivation also decreased skin barrier function recovery and increased plasma interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and natural killer cell activity. The exercise stress did not affect skin barrier function recovery, but caused an increase in natural killer cell activity and circulating numbers of both cytolytic T lymphocytes and helper T cells. In addition, cytokine responses to the interview stress were inversely correlated with changes in barrier function recovery. These results suggest that acute psychosocial and sleep deprivation stress disrupts skin barrier function homeostasis in women, and that this disruption may be related to stress-induced changes in cytokine secretion. PMID:11511309

Altemus, M; Rao, B; Dhabhar, F S; Ding, W; Granstein, R D



Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis: a case report and review of literature.  


Calciphylaxis is a challenging complication of end-stage renal disease, with an unknown underlying mechanism. Several risk factors have been identified, such as hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, low serum albumin levels, and history of warfarin therapy. This article presents a case of calciphylaxis provoked by reintroduction of warfarin therapy, introducing the possibility of direct induction. PMID:23966800

Saifan, Chadi; Saad, Marc; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne



Liposomal form of dihydroquercetin contributes to skin regeneration after thermal burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that dihydroquercetin, a flavonoid of plant origin, localized in lecitin nanoparticles with glycine amino acid,\\u000a reduced inflammatory reactions in wound zones after thermal burns. The application of the liposomal complex to burn trauma\\u000a stabilized the endogenous antioxidant system and minimized the area of secondary necrosis in the wound. The intensification\\u000a of skin regeneration and repair of hair

A. A. Naumov; M. M. Potselueva



Repair of a canine forelimb skin deficit by microvascular transfer of a caudal superficial epigastric flap.  


Extensive skin loss from the forelimb of a Border collie was repaired by a microvascular caudal superficial epigastric flap, with secondary meshing of the flap to increase coverage. The caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein were anastomosed to the brachial artery and vein. End-to-end anastomosis to the brachial artery and vein did not compromise peripheral blood flow, and no flap necrosis was observed after subsequent limited meshing of the flap. PMID:20070493

Lewin, G A; Smith, J H



[Coumarin-induced necrotic purpura of the skin -- case report and review of the literature].  


We report the case of a 28-year old woman with extensive red-black colored lesions of the skin on the left thigh, which appeared without trauma. The disease arrived during longterm coumarin therapy because of a deep vein thrombosis and an antiphospholipid syndrome. After consideration of the differential diagnoses and due to the typical clinical picture we made the diagnosis of coumarin necrosis. We review the clinical and therapeutic features for this rare complication. PMID:22535458

Meierhofer, S; Colucci, G; Steiner, S



Binding and biological effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes.  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) localizes to the epidermis when injected in vivo, but its role in the skin has heretofore not been evaluated. As a first approach to assessing the role of TNF alpha in the skin, we evaluated the binding and biological effects of TNF alpha on human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes maintained in culture. We found that TNF alpha at 0.3-1.0 nM inhibited proliferation of keratinocytes in a reversible fashion as demonstrated by a reduction in total DNA content and clonal growth. The antiproliferative effects were most marked when TNF alpha was added in the preconfluent stages of cell growth. Accompanying this antiproliferative effect was a stimulation by TNF alpha of differentiation of keratinocytes as indicated by the stimulation of cornified envelope formation. Keratinocytes specifically bound TNF alpha, reaching maximal binding in 2 h at 34 degrees C or 8 h at 4 degrees C. Much of the apparent binding at 34 degrees C was due to internalization of the TNF alpha. At 4 degrees C the rate of internalization was much less. Confluent keratinocytes showed a single class of high-affinity receptors with 1,250 receptors/cell and a Kd of 0.28 nM. These data suggest a role for TNF alpha in the growth and differentiation of the epidermis. Images

Pillai, S; Bikle, D D; Eessalu, T E; Aggarwal, B B; Elias, P M



Follow-up during early infancy of newborns diagnosed with subcutaneous fat necrosis.  


Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (ScFN) is an uncommon condition caused by generalized and/or local tissue hypoperfusion. The skin lesions of ScFN tend to improve spontaneously. However, ScFN may also lead to complications which cause serious problems. The severity of the etiologic factors contributing to the development of the disease determines the severity of complications. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for complications, especially for hypercalcemia which may be life-threatening. The severity and duration of hypercalcemia are associated with the extensity of skin lesions. We present a newborn who developed ScFN as a result of systemic hypotension. The ScFN resolved after the first few weeks of life, but the patient developed mild hypercalcemia during the 4-month follow-up period. The infant was breast-fed during follow-up, and vitamin D prophylaxis was not initiated. The hypercalcemia resolved within four months without any complications. We would like to draw attention to the need to monitor serum calcium levels in these infants and to refrain from initiating vitamin D prophylaxis in the first months of life. PMID:22155466

Ak?n, Mustafa Ali; Ak?n, Leyla; Sar?c?, Dilek; Y?lmaz, Ibrahim; Balkanl?, Süleyman; Kurto?lu, Selim



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth



NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Phenol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Skin Notation Profile presents (1) a brief summary of technical data associated with skin contact with Phenol and (2) the rationale behind the hazard-specific skin notation (SK) assignment for Phenol. The SK assignment is based on the scientific rati...

A. Maier B. Gadagbui C. L. Geraci E. Esswein G. S. Dotson L. Tapp P. Schulte R. Niemeier T. J. Lentz



Image-based Skin Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative characterization of skin appearance is an im- portant but difficult task. The skin surface is a detailed landscape, with features that depend on many variables such as body location (knuckle vs. torso), subject parameters (age\\/gender\\/health) and imaging parameters (lighting and camera). Computational modeling of skin texture has potential uses in many fields and applications including realistic render- ing for

Oana G. Cula; Kristin J. Dan



Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin

Andrzej Slominski



Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging.  


Estrogens have a profound influence on skin. The relative hypoestrogenism that accompanies menopause exacerbates the deleterious effects of both intrinsic and environmental aging. Estrogens clearly have a key role in skin aging homeostasis as evidenced by the accelerated decline in skin appearance seen in the perimenopausal years. Estrogens improve skin in many ways. Among these, they increase collagen content and skin thickness and improve skin moisture. However, despite the knowledge that estrogens have such important effects on skin, the cellular and subcellular sites and mechanisms of estrogen action are still poorly understood. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been detected in skin, and recent studies suggest that estrogens exert their effect in skin through the same molecular pathways used in other non-reproductive tissues. Although systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used for many years, recent trials have reported a significant increased risk of breast cancer and other pathologies with this treatment. This has led to reconsider the risks and benefits of HRT. For this reason, systemic HRT cannot be recommended today to treat skin aging. Currently, intensive research is conducted to develop new drugs called selective ER modulators (SERMs). These drugs exert mixed estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects depending on the tissue and cell type. One might expect in the future such a drug targeting specifically the skin without systemic side effects. PMID:16433679

Verdier-Sévrain, Sylvie; Bonté, Frédéric; Gilchrest, Barbara



Methods and compositions for treating skin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for formulating products to normalize skin or treat irritated or inflamed skin, a method for normalizing skin or treating irritated or inflamed skin for improvement, and compositions therefor.



Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km\\/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction

Woong Sagong; Sangho Choi; Chulkyu Kim; Woo-Pyung Jeon; Haecheon Choi



Journey to the skin  

PubMed Central

The peripheral axons of vertebrate tactile somatosensory neurons travel long distances from ganglia just outside the central nervous system to the skin. Once in the skin these axons form elaborate terminals whose organization must be regionally patterned to detect and accurately localize different kinds of touch stimuli. This review describes key studies that identified choice points for somatosensory axon growth cones and the extrinsic molecular cues that function at each of those steps. While much has been learned in the past 20 years about the guidance of these axons, there is still much to be learned about how the peripheral axons of different kinds of somatosensory neurons adopt different trajectories and form specific terminal structures.

Wang, Fang; Julien, Donald P.; Sagasti, Alvaro



Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC.

Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal



Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.



Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Center, Virginia A.



Quantitation of postischemic skeletal muscle necrosis: histochemical and radioisotope techniques  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal muscle necrosis will result from prolonged periods of ischemia. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to estimate the extent of necrosis using nitroblue tetrazolium staining and technetium scanning. The bilateral canine gracilis muscle preparation with total vascular isolation was exposed to 4 hr of complete normothermic ischemia followed by reperfusion. After 45 hr of reperfusion /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (PYP) was injected and 3 hr later the muscles were harvested, cut into six slices, and stained with nitroblue tetrazolium. Biopsies were taken from tetrazolium-positive and -negative areas for electron microscopy to confirm the ability of the stain to distinguish viable from necrotic muscle. Computerized planimetry of the staining pattern was used to estimate the extent of necrosis as a percentage of the total muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed the validity of nitroblue tetrazolium to discriminate between viable and necrotic skeletal muscle in this experimental model. After 4 hr of ischemia the percentage necrosis was 30.2 +/- 6.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 12), there was no difference in the extent of necrosis in left vs right paired muscles, using tetrazolium staining or technetium PYP uptake. There was a statistically significant correlation between the percentage necrosis and the density of 99mTc PYP uptake per muscle (r = 0.83, P less than 0.001) and per slice (r = 0.94, P less than 0.001). This study demonstrates the ability of tetrazolium staining to accurately differentiate between viable and necrotic skeletal muscle and provides a reproducible method for estimating the extent of necrosis in the gracilis muscle model.

Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Gatley, R.; Romaschin, A.; Mickle, D.; Wilson, G.; Houle, S.; Walker, P.



[Skin and menopause].  


Important changes related to declining level of several hormones occur during menopause: vasomotor instability, bone loss, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, skin aging... Our objective was a review of the literature concerning the histological and clinical changes seen in post menopausal skin, and also an analysis of the effect of hormonal replacement therapy in slowing down the aging process. Decline in progesterone increases the impact of androgen on the sebaceous glands and hair. Decreased estrogen slows down mitotic activity in the epidermal basal layer, reduces the synthesis of collagen and contributes to thickening of the dermo-epidermal junction. This hypoestrogenemia may be spontaneously attenuated by local synthesis of oestradiol in peripheral target tissues according to the intracrine process. This new hormonal pattern is associated with skin atrophy, hyperseborrhea, increased pilosity on the cheeks and upper lip, loss of scalp hair, increase in degeneration of elastic tissue, atrophy and dryness of the vaginal mucosa. Estrogen treatment in post menopausal women has been shown to increase collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity. Biophysical properties are also significantly improved for the parameters reflecting hydration and sebum secretion. However, numerous side effects such as increased incidence of cancer and cardiovascular morbidity limit the use of this treatment. So non hormonal alternatives are proposed. Laser and lifting remain the most important options. PMID:17194967

Bensaleh, H; Belgnaoui, F Z; Douira, L; Berbiche, L; Senouci, K; Hassam, B



Combined effects of gender, skin type and polymorphic genes on clinical phenotype: use of rate of increase in numbers of basal cell carcinomas as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with a basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have an increased risk of further tumors. We studied the individual and combined impact of gender, skin type and allelic genes cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6), vitamin D receptor (VDR), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-?) on the rate of increase in BCC numbers after first presentation. Individually, male gender, skin type 1, CYP2D6 EM, VDR TT

Sudarshan Ramachandran; Anthony A Fryer; Tracy J Lovatt; Andrew G Smith; John T Lear; Peter W Jones; Richard C Strange



Migration of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in skin organ cultures: augmentation by TNF-a and IL1b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration from sites of antigen encoun- ter to lymphoid organs is essential to the strong immunogenic function of dendritic cells (DC). In the skin, migration proceeds through dermal lym- phatic vessels and is regulated in an incompletely understood way by inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) and interleukin-1b (IL-1b) in mouse skin organ cultures

Patrizia Stoitzner; Monica Zanella; Ulrike Ortner; Michael Lukas; Andrea Tagwerker; Katrin Janke; Manfred B. Lutz; Gerold Schuler; Bernd Echtenacher; Bernhard Ryffel; Franz Koch; Nikolaus Romani



Axillary skin: biology and care.  


In skin care, the axilla is a biologically unique site requiring specialized attention and care. This area of skin is often subject to hair removal techniques, such as shaving and plucking. These procedures damage the skin leading to erythema and dryness in the short term, and in some cases, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIHP) in the long term. This study will (i) briefly review the biology and unique properties of axillary skin, and (ii) describe the characteristics of the irritation and damage induced by contemporary skin care habits and resolution of these responses by the use of efficacious skin moisturizing technology. With respect to the latter, we propose that there are five groups of compounds, defined according to their mechanism of action, which are particularly relevant to the care of damaged axillary skin. PMID:22612735

Evans, R L; Marriott, R E; Harker, M



Quantification of the skin's topography by skin profilometry.  


Synopsis A method of skin profilometry is presented. The data generated using this method are used to (a) uncover sources of variation in skin profilometry, (b) provide information regarding the choice of roughness parameters best suited for characterizing the skin's topography, and (c) determine if skin profilometry is a valuable tool for quantitatively assessing changes in the skin's surface pattern. The data show the roughness parameter values to be dependent on the orientation of the tracings with regard to the major grooves and ridges present in the surface patterns. Large variabilities of roughness parameter values obtained for multiple scans within small areas of replicas are indicative of the nonhomogeneity of the skin's surface. The number of peaks, mean peak size, mean depth of roughness, depth of smoothness, and residual profile length appear to be the most utile roughness parameters for quantifying changes in the skin's topography. The ability of skin profilometry to detect subtle changes in the skin's surface pattern due to hydration indicates the method is a sensitive means of quantifying the skin's topography. PMID:19469963

Cook, T H; Craft, T J; Brunelle, R L; Norris, F; Griffin, W A



Ischemic necrosis following clubfoot surgery: the purple hallux sign.  


Ischemic necrosis, which develops rarely after clubfoot surgery, may have a vascular etiology, since many idiopathic and neurogenic clubfeet have congenital deficiency of the anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries. Dorsalis pedis deficiency is demonstrated more frequently in those clubfeet showing greater deformity. Substantial hypoplasia of the profunda femoris and posterior and anterior tibial arteries was evident in the affected limb of a patient in this series who underwent postoperative arteriography. Herein, we report massive necrosis in seven limbs of six patients after clubfoot surgery and have combined this series with seven previously published cases. Additional cases support our hypothesis that arterial deficiencies put some postoperative clubfeet at risk of perioperative ischemic necrosis. Necrosis occurs in those regions supplied by the congenitally diminished anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries. Knowing that children with congenital vascular deficiency are at risk for ischemic necrosis, surgeons should be alert to the subtle, early signs of ischemia and be prepared to prevent or ameliorate the consequences of this condition. Since hypoperfusion in these postoperative feet is a surgical emergency, we propose clinical guidelines for treatment for this phenomenon, which we have named the purple hallux sign. PMID:15552558

David, R Hootnick; Packard, David S; Levinsohn, E Mark; Berkowitz, Scott A; Aronsson, David D; Crider, Russell J



Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

Gonzalez, Javier [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, Ashok J. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Conrad, Charles A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Levin, Victor A. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail:



Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.  

PubMed Central

The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Majno, G.; Joris, I.



Cell death by necrosis, a regulated way to go.  


Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death with well-defined morphological traits that are often associated with activation of caspases. More recently evidence has become available demonstrating that upon caspase inhibition alternative programs of cell death are executed, including ones with features characteristic of necrosis. These findings have changed our view of necrosis as a passive and essentially accidental form of cell death to that of an active, regulated and controllable process. Also necrosis has now been observed in parallel with, rather than as an alternative pathway to, apoptosis. Thus, cell death responses are extremely flexible despite being programmed. In this review, some of the hallmarks of different programmed cell death modes have been highlighted before focusing the discussion on necrosis. Obligatory events associated with this form of cell death include uncompensated cell swelling and related changes at the plasma membrane. In this context, representatives of the transient receptor channel family and their regulation are discussed. Also mechanisms that lead to execution of the necrotic cell death program are highlighted. Emphasis is laid on summarizing our understanding of events that permit switching between cell death modes and how they connect to necrosis. Finally, potential implications for the treatment of some disease states are mentioned. PMID:18473819

Henriquez, Mauricio; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Quest, Andrew F G



Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.  


The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. PMID:21570537

Bonté, F



Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu



Radiation necrosis of the mandible: a 10 year study. Part II. Dental factors; onset, duration and management of necrosis  

SciTech Connect

In a review of patients receiving radiation for cancer in the oral region the rate of radiation necrosis of the mandible was found to be similar for patients who had dental extractions before radiation therapy and for the remainder of the dentate population. It was suggested that diseased teeth should be removed prior to irradiation and sufficient healing time should be allowed. Teeth should not be extracted after irradiation. Dental prostheses can be provided for most irradiated patients if adequate care is exercised. The probability of necrosis commencing was highest three to twelve months after the start of therapy; it diminished gradually after that period. The duration of necrosis was depicted as an exponential curve with a constant probability of necrosis termination at each time point after onset. In 46.8% of the patients in study II (1971-1975), the necrosis was healed by conservative means. This was a significant increase over study I (1966-1969), and a complementary reduction in the necessity for surgical intervention was also found.

Murray, C.G.; Herson, J.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.



The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I



Skin penetration enhancing components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a topical formulation for the treatment of a dermatological condition which comprises a macrocyclic lactone antibiotic, immunosuppresive macrolide or a biologically active analogue, derivative or pro-drug thereof; characterized in that it further comprises a permeation modulator and the permeation modulator and the macrocyclic lactone or macrolide or the biologically active analogue, derivative or pro-drug thereof are present in relative amounts such that when a therapeutic amount is applied to the skin a minimal systemic effect is produced. The immunosuppressive macrolide may be sirolimus.

Ormerod; Anthony David (Aberdeen, GB); Winfield; Arthur (Kuwait University, KW)



Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn with eosinophilic granules.  


Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn is a variant of lobular panniculitis characterized by focal areas of fat necrosis and a granulomatous infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells. Lipocytes and histiocytes contain needle-shaped clefts in a radial arrangement. Needle-shaped clefts may also be seen within the cytoplasm of multinucleated giant cells.(1-3) We present an unusual example of SFN showing multinucleated giant cells laced with eosinophilic granules. These eosinophilic granules are believed to be released from surrounding degranulating eosinophils. PMID:17576341

Tajirian, Ani; Ross, Rustin; Zeikus, Priya; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie



The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger



Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis  

PubMed Central

While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research.



Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries.

Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.



Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

PubMed Central

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis.

Slominski, Andrzej



[Thermal lasers and skin cicatrization].  


Any cutaneous damage triggers a cascade of biological effects in the skin responsible for re-establishing skin integrity. Wound healing is a complex biological process inducing dermal remodelling leading at least to a visible scar, and sometimes to hypertrophic or keloid scars. Recent studies suggest that using a laser generates a precisely defined thermal effect in the skin, improving the wound healing process and potentially opening the door to scarless healing. PMID:20132781

Mordon, Serge; Capon, Alexandre; Fournier, Nathalie; Iarmarcovai, Gwen



Fetal skin wound healing.  


The developing fetus has the ability to heal wounds by regenerating normal epidermis and dermis with restoration of the extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture, strength, and function. In contrast, adult wounds heal with fibrosis and scar. Scar tissue remains weaker than normal skin with an altered ECM composition. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanism of fetal wound healing remains largely unknown. We do know that early in gestation, fetal skin is developing at a rapid pace and the ECM is a loose network facilitating cellular migration. Wounding in this unique environment triggers a complex cascade of tightly controlled events culminating in a scarless wound phenotype of fine reticular collagen and abundant hyaluronic acid. Comparison between postnatal and fetal wound healing has revealed differences in inflammatory response, cellular mediators, cytokines, growth factors, and ECM modulators. Investigation into cell signaling pathways and transcription factors has demonstrated differences in secondary messenger phosphorylation patterns and homeobox gene expression. Further research may reveal novel genes essential to scarless repair that can be manipulated in the adult wound and thus ameliorate scar. PMID:19803418

Buchanan, Edward P; Longaker, Michael T; Lorenz, H Peter



A simple method for predicting survival of pedicled skin flaps before completely raising them  

PubMed Central

Background: Pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps are commonly used in plastic surgery. Once such a flap is completely raised on its pedicle it becomes defenceless against any possible necrosis. Aim: To use a simple method for raising such a flap in a manner that can predict the vascularity better, offering additional protection against necrosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 skin and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised in 27 patients. They were raised as bipedicle flaps; and the vascularity of the flap was tested by occluding the additional pedicle with a pedicle occlusion clamp. If the vascularity was found to be satisfactory the flap was primarily transferred; if found unsatisfactory it was either delayed or abandoned. The delayed flaps were again tested during transfer. Results: Nineteen (63.3%) flaps were primarily transferred, 11 (36.7%) flaps were delayed, and two (6.7%) delayed flaps displayed an unsatisfactory pattern during transfer. Twenty-two (73.3%) flaps fully survived and seven (23.3%) underwent partial thickness necrosis at the tip, which healed without any further surgical intervention, making 29 (96.7%) flaps clinically successful. There was major necrosis of one flap. All the flaps with a scar at the base survived. Discussion: The clinical success of 96.7% indicated a high-degree of predictability of flap survival through this method. Also, this method could safely assess the vascularity of flaps during primary transfer, during delayed transfer, and also those with a scar at the base. Conclusions: This technique is recommended in all major pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps.

Mishra, S.



Estrogen and skin: therapeutic options.  


Aging of the skin is associated with skin thinning, atrophy, dryness, wrinkling, and delayed wound healing. These undesirable aging effects are exacerbated by declining estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. With the rise in interest in long-term postmenopausal skin management, studies on the restorative benefits that estrogen may have on aged skin have expanded. Systemic estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to improve some aspects of skin. Estrogen restores skin thickness by increasing collagen synthesis while limiting excessive collagen degradation. Wrinkling is improved following estrogen treatment since estrogen enhances the morphology and synthesis of elastic fibers, collagen type III, and hyaluronic acids. Dryness is also alleviated through increased water-holding capacity, increased sebum production, and improved barrier function of the skin. Furthermore, estrogen modulates local inflammation, granulation, re-epithelialization, and possibly wound contraction, which collectively accelerates wound healing at the expense of forming lower quality scars. Despite its promises, long-term ERT has been associated with harmful systemic effects. In the search for safe and effective alternatives with more focused effects on the skin, topical estrogens, phytoestrogens, and tissue-specific drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been explored. We discuss the promises and challenges of utilizing topical estrogens, SERMs, and phytoestrogens in postmenopausal skin management. PMID:21714580

Shu, Yu Yu; Maibach, Howard I



Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.  


Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I



Periocular Skin Cancer -- Skin Tumors Around the Eye  


... but also has had extensive training in ophthalmic plastic surgery. When you are ready, you will be in experienced hands. Your surgery will be in the surgeon’s of?ce, an outpatient facility, or at a hospital depending on your surgical needs. PERIOCULAR SKIN CANCER – Skin Tumors Around The Eye


Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma

Andrzej T Slominski; Michal A Zmijewski; Blazej Zbytek; Anna A Brozyna; Jackie Granese; Alexander Pisarchik; Andre Szczesniewski; Desmond J Tobin



Skin demarcation and amputation level for foot gangrene following meningococcal septicemia.  


A case report of a 55-year-old woman who was being considered for bilateral below knee or Syme's amputations after gangrene at the level of both forefeet due to meningococcal septicaemia is described. An expectant approach for 6 months revealed that the tissues deep to the necrotic skin were viable and she was subsequently able to mobilize independently with normal footwear after bilateral toe amputations at the metatarsophalangeal joint levels. This case and a literature review suggest that the demarcation of healthy skin from necrotic skin (eschar) should not dictate the level of amputation in dry gangrene of the foot following meningococcal septicemia. Magnetic resonance imaging can overestimate the degree of muscle necrosis. Treatment should be individualized for each patient, but advice should include the option of prolonged conservative treatment to preserve limb length and function. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. PMID:23966262

Singh, Dishan; Swann, Amanda



Bilateral toe necrosis resulting from norepinephrine bitartrate usage.  


Acute limb ischemia may manifest by ischemic rest pain, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Acute arterial occlusion can be the result of emboli from a distant source, acute thrombosis of a previously patent artery, or direct trauma to an artery. Toe necrosis resulting from norepinephrine bitartrate (Levophed; Hospira Inc, Lake Forest, Illinois) is a rare case. PMID:23685523

Simman, Richard; Phavixay, Laemthong



Pathogenesis of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis in Atlantic Salmon ('Salmo salar').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry and yearling were found to undergo an active but subclinical infection following exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Eight-week-old Atlantic salmon fry were fed live virus and the mortality and virus c...

R. N. Swanson J. H. Gillespie



Subchondral avascular necrosis: a common cause of arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Subchondral avascular necrosis is an important cause of joint pain and disability and accounts for upwards of 20% of total hip replacements done in our hospital. (2) Early diagnosis may be made with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging and radioactive isotope studies. (3) Although the signs and symptoms are similar to those of osteoarthritis, there are significant differences--namely,

P G Bullough; E F DiCarlo



Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine



The stubborn hip: Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To highlight the unusually indolent course of avascular necrosis in this patient, the risk factors of which chiropractors should be aware, the necessity of and means to an early diagnosis, the limitations of plain film radiographs, as well as the current medical treatments. Clinical Features: A 27-year-old male professional soccer player had a tight and achy right hip for

Jason A. Pajaczkowski



Tumor necrosis factor blockade and the risk of viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers are widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Many studies have demonstrated an increased risk of opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and fungal infection in patients treated with TNF blockers, which is thought to be related to the primary role of TNF both in host defense and in the immune response.

Daniel H. Solomon; Seo Young Kim



Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia  

SciTech Connect

We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads.

Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr. (Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (USA))



Long survival of primary cerebral lymphoma with progressive radiation necrosis  

SciTech Connect

A 56-year-old man lived 8 years after excision and irradiation of a primary cerebral lymphoma. Delayed radiation necrosis caused progressive neurologic deterioration and probably his steroid-responsive episodes of obtundation. Vasogenic edema induced by radiation may account for the latter. An incidental extraneural lymphoma was found postmortem without evidence of CNS lymphoma.

Merchut, M.P.; Haberland, C.; Naheedy, M.H.; Rubino, F.A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The multifunctional cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha), is released from host cells in response to diverse injurious stimuli and is elevated during acute lung injury. Increased levels of TNF-alpha are found in both the bloodstream and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of experimental and...


Serratia marcescens Necrotizing Fasciitis Presenting as Bilateral Breast Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an extremely rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis. We report the first case of necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall due to infection with S. marcescens that initially manifested as bilateral breast necrosis. The patient had a fulminant course leading to death within 72 h of presentation. Literature pertinent to S. marcescens-mediated necrotizing fasciitis is also reviewed.

Rehman, Tayyab; Moore, Thomas A.



Characterization of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initially came to prominence because of its anti-tumor activity, most attention is now focused on its proinflammatory actions. TNF appears to play a critical role in both early and late events involved in inflammation, from localizing the noxious agent and amplifying the cellular and mediator responses at the local site and systemically, to editing (e.g.,

Michael W. Marino; Ashley Dunn; Dianne Grail; Melissa Inglese; Yuji Noguchi; Elizabeth Richards; Achim Jungbluth; Hisashi Wada; Malcolm Moore; Barbara Williamson; Sunanda Basu; Lloyd J. Old



Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor and its relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immunity and inflammation, and in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. TNF? is also the founding member of a still growing family of cytokines with diverse bioregulatory functions. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate TNF?-induced cellular

Véronique Baud; Michael Karin



Risk of avascular necrosis following short term megadose methylprednisolone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine whether administration of large doses of the corticosteroid methylprednisolone following spinal cord injury as recommended in the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study-2 (NASCIS-2) protocol results in an increased incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral or humeral head. All subjects were patients treated by a spinal cord injury physician in

P C Wing; P Nance; D G Connell; F Gagnon



Stability of tumor necrosis factor-? during ion exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturation of target protein by various separation and purification steps contributes significant part to the total product loss in bioseparation. The conformational change and accompanying loss of activity of tumor necrosis factor-a during ion exchange chromatography was reversible and was decreased by adding polyethylene glycol 200 at 2 to 5% (v\\/v) to the eluting solution.

Ming Li; Yunshan Wang; Weijun Li; Zhiguo Su



Inhibition of Prostaglandin D Synthase Suppresses Muscular Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal muscle wasting disease that is characterized by a deficiency in the protein dystrophin. Previously, we reported that the expression of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) appeared in necrotic muscle fibers from patients with either Duchenne muscular dystrophy or polymyositis. HPGDS is responsible for the production of the inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin D2. In this paper, we validated the hypothesis that HPGDS has a role in the etiology of muscular necrosis. We investigated the expression of HPGDS/ prostaglandin D2 signaling using two different mouse models of muscle necrosis, that is, bupivacaine-induced muscle necrosis and the mdx mouse, which has a genetic muscular dystrophy. We treated each mouse model with the HPGDS-specific inhibitor, HQL-79, and measured both necrotic muscle volume and selected cytokine mRNA levels. We confirmed that HPGDS expression was induced in necrotic muscle fibers in both bupivacaine-injected muscle and mdx mice. After administration of HQL-79, necrotic muscle volume was significantly decreased in both mouse models. Additionally, mRNA levels of both CD11b and transforming growth factor ?1 were significantly lower in HQL-79-treated mdx mice than in vehicle-treated animals. We also demonstrated that HQL-79 suppressed prostaglandin D2 production and improved muscle strength in the mdx mouse. Our results show that HPGDS augments inflammation, which is followed by muscle injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of HPGDS ameliorates muscle necrosis even in cases of genetic muscular dystrophy.

Mohri, Ikuko; Aritake, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Sato, Yo; Kamauchi, Shinya; Nagata, Nanae; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Taniike, Masako; Urade, Yoshihiro



Treatment of radiation necrosis with hyperbaric oxygen(OHP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-nine patients with radiation necrosis were received by the authors from January 1, 1969 through August 1, 1975. The patients were categorized according to site of injury. Full treatment protocol is discussed including local wound care, antibiotic coverage, surgical procedures, and the administration of hyperbaric oxygen. Results indicate that the combination of hyperbaric oxygen, properly timed surgery, and antibiotic therapy

G. B. Hart; Elgene G. Mainous



Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-? inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-? drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described.

Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.



Anorexia nervosa with Acute Tubular Necrosis Treated with Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with nonoliguric acute renal failure secondary to acute tubular necrosis in conjunction with anorexia nervosa is described. Parenteral feeding at a critical time has salutory effects on the biosynthesis of new protein and thereby reduces many of the hazards of azotemia. The technique of estimating endogenous acid production is applied for the first time in a severely malnourished

Gladys H. Hirschman; David D. Rao; James C. M. Chan



[Large-bowel necrosis following open-heart surgery].  


In the last 2 years 9 patients have been operated on in our surgical department because of colon necrosis which developed after open heart surgery. The symptoms--abdominal distension, circumscript peritonitis in the right lower part of the abdomen--developed 2-4 days after the heart operation. Laparotomies were carried out within 2 days from the onset of symptoms in all but one patient. In 7 patients the necrosis of the right colon, while in 2 other patients extreme dilatation of the colon was found. In 6 patients right hemicolectomy was carried out. One operation was finished without anastomosis with double stomas. In the 2 patients with no necrosis catheter-cecostomy was performed. All patients but one after hemicolectomy with reconstruction died after several reoperations because of suture leak. The other 3 patients were cured. We examined and analysed the pre-, intra- and postoperative circumstances of the heart operations, which lead to the severe complications. We think the cause of the problems was the liberal use of wide spectrum antibiotics with caused severe dysbacteriosis and Clostridium difficile toxicosis in the colon. This condition could lead to a pseudomembraneous colitis which resulted in the colon necrosis. PMID:16550801

Sugár, István; István, Gábor; Szabó, Akos; Tulassay, Eszter; Ondrejka, Pál; Szabolcs, Zoltán



Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

Marion Man-Ying Chan



Transmission of Tobacco Necrosis Virus by Zoospores of Olpidium brassicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Strain D of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) was transmitted by zoospores of 3 different isolates of Olpidium brassicae (Wor.) Dang. to roots of Mung bean and lettuce grown in modified Hoagland's solution diluted 1\\/20. On Mung bean roots necrotic local lesions formed one day after exposure to virus and zoospores. Virus in lettuce was assayed by inoculation to leaves

B. Kassanis; I. Macfarlane



Radiation necrosis of the brain following radiotherapy of extracerebral neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation therapy is often used in the treatment of tumors of the head and neck as well as neoplasms of the central nervous system. The hazards of this form of therapy have been widely discussed and most of the pathological changes in the central nervous system have been ascribed to improper dosimetry or other technical errors. Necrosis of the brain

J. A. Kusske; J. P. Williams; J. H. Garcia; H. W. Pribram



Modulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor by Microbial Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to invasion by microbial pathogens, host defense mechanisms get activated by both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses. TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine expressed by activated macrophages and lymphocytes that induces diverse cellular responses that can vary from apoptosis to the expression of genes involved in both early inflammatory and acquired

Masmudur M. Rahman; Grant McFadden



Fernblock, a Nutriceutical with Photoprotective Properties and Potential Preventive Agent for Skin Photoaging and Photoinduced Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-?B, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin.

Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles



Exploring Theranostic Potentials of Radioiodinated Hypericin in Rodent Necrosis Models  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present animal experiments were conducted to evaluate radioiodinated Hypericin (Hyp) for its regional distribution as well as theranostic potentials. Materials and Methods: Rat models of reperfused liver infarction (RLI) and hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) were surgically induced. R1 models received Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) intravenously at 10 mg/kg 24 h prior to radioiodinated Hyp. Three groups of 6 rats each containing 3 RLI and 3 R1 models received iv injections of 123I-Hyp at 37, 74, and 185 MBq/kg respectively and followed by 0.1 ml of 1% Evans blue solution were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 48 hour post injection immediately after in vivo examination of MRI and planar gamma scintigraphy. Besides, two groups of 6 R1 models that received either 300 MBq/kg of 131I-Hyp or vehicle intravenously were examined using MRI to compare tumor growth for 12 days. Autoradiography, gamma counting, and histopathology were performed for postmortem verifications and quantification. Results: Necrosis as seen in vivo on contrast-enhanced MRI corresponded well with the hot spots on planar scintigraphy. Autoradiography and gamma counting revealed intense accumulation of 123I-Hyp in necrotic liver (3.94 ± 1.60, 5.38 ± 1.04, and 6.03 ± 2.09 %ID/g ± SD) and necrotic tumor (4.27 ± 0.76, 5.57 ± 0.76, and 5.68 ± 1.33 %ID/g ± SD) relative to normal liver (1.76 ± 0.54, 0.41 ± 0.18, and 0.16 ± 0.07 %ID/g ± SD), with a high necrosis-to-liver ratio of 2.3, 14.0, and 37.0 at 4, 24 and 48 h respectively. Tumor volumes in R1 models that received 131I-Hyp and vehicle changed from 0.45 ± 0.09, and 0.47 ± 0.12 cm3 (p > 0.05) on day 0 to1.32 ± 0.76 and 3.63 ± 0.72 cm3 (p < 0.001) on day 12, with the corresponding necrosis ratios from 73 ± 12 %, and 76 ± 17 % to 47 ± 18% and 17 ± 13 % (p < 0.01), and with the tumor DT of 7.3 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Radioiodinated Hyp as a necrosis avid tracer appears promising for non-invasive imaging diagnosis of necrosis-related pathologies. Its prominent targetability to necrosis allows targeted radiotherapy for malignancies on top of a prior necrosis-inducing treatment.

Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Yu, Jie; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng



Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus



Characteristics and Pathomechanisms of Endogenously Aged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin, being in direct contact with several environmental factors (e.g. UV irradiation), does not only undergo endogenous aging, which has to do with the ‘biological clock’ of the skin cells per se, but also exogenous aging. While exogenous skin aging has been extensively studied, the pathomechanisms of endogenous skin aging remain far less clear. Endogenous skin aging reflects reduction

Evgenia Makrantonaki; Christos C. Zouboulis



Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin



[Travel and skin diseases].  


The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made. PMID:1544613

Stüttgen, G



Temporal differences of onset between primary skin lesions and regional lymph node lesions for tularemia in Japan: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 19 skin cases and 54 lymph node cases.  


For tularemia, a zoonosis caused by the gram-negative coccobacillus Francisella tularensis, research of the relation between skin lesions and lymph node lesions has not been reported in the literature. This report describes skin lesions and lymph node lesions and their mutual relation over time for tularemia in Japan. Around the second day after infection (DAI), a subcutaneous abscess was observed (abscess form). Hand and finger skin ulcers formed during the second to the fourth week. Subcutaneous and dermal granulomas were observed with adjacent monocytoid B lymphocytes (MBLs) (abscess-granulomatous form). From the sixth week, large granulomas with central homogeneous lesions emerged diffusely (granulomatous form). On 2-14 DAI, F. tularensis antigen in skin lesions was detected in abscesses. During 7-12 DAI, abscesses with adjacent MBLs appeared without epithelioid granuloma (abscess form) in regional lymph nodes. During the second to fifth week, granulomas appeared with necrosis (abscess-granulomatous form). After the sixth week, large granulomas with a central homogeneous lesion (granulomatous form) appeared. F. tularensis antigen in lymph node lesions was observed in the abscess on 7-92 DAI. Apparently, F. tularensis penetrates the finger skin immediately after contact with infected hares. Subsequently, the primary lesion gradually transfers from skin to regional lymph nodes. The regional lymph node lesions induced by skin lesion are designated as dermatopathic lymphadenopathy. This study revealed temporal differences of onset among the skin and lymph node lesions. PMID:22588497

Asano, Shigeyuki; Mori, Kikuo; Yamazaki, Kazuki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kanno, Takayuki; Sato, Yuko; Kojima, Masaru; Fujita, Hiromi; Akaike, Yasushi; Wakasa, Haruki



Skin Signs in Anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disorders are becoming an epidemic in Europe, particularly among young women, but European studies concerning this topic are few. In eating disorders, significant medical complications occur in all of the primary human organ systems, including the skin. Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the knowledge of skin signs in anorexia nervosa (AN) and verify whether

R. Strumìa; E. Varotti; E. Manzato; M. Gualandi



[Skin hydration and hyaluronic acid].  


Skin hydration mechanism is complex. Hyaluronic acid is a widely distributed glycosaminoglycan and one of the chief component of the extracellular matrix. It has a high water retaining ability and has recently been shown to be present in the epidermis. HA plays a central role in hydration and elasticity of skin. PMID:20435251

Masson, F



Skin problems in stoma patients.  


Ostomy patients are dependent on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common and may interfere with the use of ostomy pouching systems. This is a specialist area not commonly seen by dermatologists. This article seeks to provide an overview of the topic for the general dermatologist. A systematic literature search was conducted. The articles found were reviewed and relevant articles were selected by two investigators. Loss of skin integrity may be related to chemical injury, mechanical destruction, infectious conditions, immunological reactions, disease-related conditions. Peristomal irritant dermatitis caused by skin contact with ostomy effluent is by far the most ordinary condition seen. Mechanical trauma, infection and aggravation of pre-existing skin diseases are also seen. Allergic contact dermatitis, which is often cited as the cause of peristomal skin problems, appears to be a rare condition with an estimated prevalence of only 0.6%. In spite of the importance of the integrity of peristomal skin, the topic is poorly described in the literature. The existing publications suggest that although peristomal skin disease can be diagnosed and treated, additional information on both patients and physicians is necessary to optimize patient care. PMID:20465716

Nybaek, H; Jemec, G B E



SKIN: designing aesthetic interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose SKIN as an interdisciplinary design approach for sophisticated interactive surfaces, with an emphasis on their meanings and aesthetic qualities. SKIN: Surface Kinetics INterface, aims at integrating concept-driven design process and exploratory critical engagement with forms and materials into current user-centered design approaches in HCI research. The procedures of developing three design concepts and prototyping one

Heekyoung Jung; Youngsuk L. Altieri; Jeffrey Bardzell



Polymeric proanthocyanidins from grape skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

LC-mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products released by thioacidolysis of a grape (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot) skin extract showed that catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major constitutive units of grape skin tannins. Gallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate were also detected. Epicatechin represented 60% of the extension units, whereas 67% of the terminal units consisted of catechin. Six

Jean-Marc Souquet; Véronique Cheynier; Franck Brossaud; Michel Moutounet



The Reconstitution of Living Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A living-skin equivalent useful as a skin replacement and as a model system for basic studies has been fabricated and tested extensively, it consists of two components: (1) a dermal equivalent made up of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix that is contracted and modified by the resident cells, and (2) an epidermis that develops from keratinocytes “plated” on the dermal

Eugene Bell; Stephanie Sher; Barbara Hull; Charlotte Merrill; Seymour Rosen; Annette Chamson; Daniel Asselineau; Louis Dubertret; Bernard Coulomb; Charles Lapiere; Betty Nusgens; Yves Neveux



Smokers' Skin May Age Faster  


... those changes may be permanent." Facial creams and plastic surgery are options for people whose skin has been ... skin," he said. SOURCE: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, online October 29, 2013. Reuters Health (c) Copyright ...


Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the

Ralf Helbig; Julia Nickerl; Christoph Neinhuis; Carsten Werner; Richard Haverkamp



Future trends in skin resurfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser skin resurfacing continues to evolve through engineering and biological advances. The optimal combination of pulse duration and wavelength is still debated. Also, operative technique and wound management probably play as great a role in the cosmetic outcome as the characteristics of the laser pulse. Finally, the use of biologic response modifiers may eventually allow for skin rejuvenation without physical

E. Victor Ross; Bob Wilson



Treatment Options for Photodamaged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodamage of the skin can be a detriment to physical and psychological health with a consequent negative impact on both personal and professional life. Medical treatments for photodamaged skin include topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) as well as moisturizers, chemical peels, dermabrasion, ? hydroxy acids and cosmetic surgery. Of these treatment options, only tretinoin has been subjected to large-scale, controlled studies

Christopher E. M. Griffiths



Skin Diseases in the Tropics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

Mahe, Antoine; And Others



Acyclovir Bioavailability in Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical experience demonstrates that oral acyclovir (ACV) is superior to topical ACV in treating recurrent cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections. Cutaneous HSV-1 infections are complex in their pathology, affecting the basal epidermis in skin as well as establishing a latency phase in sensory ganglia. In vitro and in vivo human skin model systems were used in the

Greg E. Parry; Paul Dunn; Vinod P. Shah; Lynn K. Pershing



Effect of a topical treatment in organotypic culture of human breast skin after exposure to gamma-rays.  


The early radiation of epidermal reactions can lead to healing of the lesion or radiation necrosis. There is no general agreement for either the prevention and/or treatment of radiation skin response, also as little is known about the immediate phases of this phenomenon. We investigated the early effects exerted by Healing and Wound Emulsion (HWE) on human skin response after ionizing radiation. Epidermal morphology, Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70, and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) gene expression were investigated in organotypic human skin cultures undergoing a double dose of gamma-rays (2 Gy). HSP70 gene expression tended to be induced in the HWE group 6 hours after cream administration and was significantly up-regulated after 48 hours, when epidermal morphological alterations were evident. TGF-beta1 seems not affected in cream treated samples. HWE may stimulate skin to mount an early defensive response against damage induced by gamma rays. PMID:18162458

Gagliano, Nicoletta; Bedoni, M; Mantovani, G; Chiriva-Internati, M; Castelli, D; Torri, C; Donetti, E


First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...


First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by Soybean Vein Necrosis-associated Virus in Wisconsin and Iowa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...


Initiation of Liver Growth by Tumor Necrosis Factor: Deficient Liver Regeneration in Mice Lacking Type I Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that initiate liver regeneration after resection of liver tissue are not known. To determine whether cytokines are involved in the initiation of liver growth, we studied the regeneration of the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice lacking type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I). DNA synthesis after PH was severely impaired in these animals, and the expected

Yasuhiro Yamada; Irina Kirillova; Jacques J. Peschon; Nelson Fausto



Infection and necrosis of cowpea mesophyll cells by tobacco necrosis virus and two strains of tobacco mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cowpea mesophyll tissue with or without any epidermal layer was inoculated with tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), local necrotic lesions were produced. In epidermal strips isolated after inoculation of intact leaves local lesions were never observed. Homogenates of epidermal strips removed within 30 min after inoculation of the leaf with the cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus (Cp-TMV) or with

J. Salinas Calvete; D. H. Wieringa-Brants



Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment.

Wollina, Uwe



Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.  


Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe



Melatonin and human skin aging  

PubMed Central

Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review.

Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.



Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention.

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.



Genetics Home Reference: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome  


... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (often shortened to TRAPS ) ... definitions Reviewed August 2011 What is TRAPS? Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (commonly known as TRAPS) ...


Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis  


... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...


Skin hygiene practices, emollient therapy and skin vulnerability.  


The promotion and maintenance of skin integrity is one of the most common challenges for nurses in every sphere of practice, but particularly for those caring for patients with chronic inflammation of the skin (such as in eczema and psoriasis), and to those at risk of skin breakdown due to immobility, circulatory disease, or incontinence. A significant amount of nursing time is spent washing patients, or assisting them to wash. However, little attention has been given to a scientific appraisal or evidence of the effectiveness of these activities. PMID:15719795

Voegeli, David


The effect of combined modality treatment with ionising radiation and TPPS-mediated photodynamic therapy on murine tail skin.  

PubMed Central

The effect on normal skin of combined modality treatment with 300 kV X-rays and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the photosensitising drug meso-tetra (sulphonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS) was studied using the mouse tail necrosis assay. Prior treatment with a tolerance dose of PDT produced a significant increase in the probability of necrosis following graded doses of ionising radiation. A tolerance dose of X-rays administered prior to graded doses of PDT also produced a significant rise in the necrosis rate. TPPS appeared to have a radiosensitising effect but, as the animals were kept in subdued light, the low dose of PDT they therefore received may provide an alternative explanation. The effect of prolonging the interval between the modalities on the necrosis rate did not appear to be related to the time course of either the changes in blood flow produced by each modality, measured by xenon clearance studies or the development of the skin reaction following X-ray irradiation.

Benstead, K.; Moore, J. V.



[Beneficial action of the liposomal form of dihydroquercetin on the process of skin regeneration after thermal burn].  


It was found that the flavonoid of plant origin, dihydroquercetin, being localized in lecitin nanoparticles in the presence of amino acid, reduced inflammatory reactions in the wound zone after thermal burn. Application of the liposomal complex on burn trauma stabilized the endogenous antioxidant system and minimized the area of the secondary necrosis in burn wound. Also, intensification of skin regeneration and repair of hair follicles and sebaceous glands were observed. PMID:20540342

Naumov, A A; Potselueva, M M



Important role of CD18 in TNF a -induced leukocyte adhesion in muscle and skin venules in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the role of CD18 in tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)-induced leukocyte adhesion and extravasation in vivo. Material: Male wild-type (WT) and mutated mice with hypomorphic expression of CD18. Methods: Intravital microscopy was used to quantitate leuko- cyte-endothelium interactions provoked by TNF-a (0.5 mg) in the cremaster muscle and dorsal skin microcirculation. Tissue recruitment of leukocytes was evaluated in

X. W. Zhang; R. Schramm; Q. Liu; H. Ekberg; B. Jeppsson; H. Thorlacius



Prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury by soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Considerable indirect evidence suggests that cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? contributes to the hepatocellular damage caused by toxic liver injury. The effects of tumor necrosis factor ? neutralization on liver cell injury were determined in an in vivo model of toxic liver injury. Methods: The in vivo effects of tumor necrosis factor ? were examined in carbon tetrachloride liver

Mark J. Czaja; Jun Xu; Elaine Alt



Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tumour necrosis factor has about 30% homology in its amino acid sequence with lymphotoxin, a lymphokine that has similar biological properties. Recombinant tumour necrosis factor can be obtained by expression of its complementary DNA in Escherichia coli and induces the haemorrhagic necrosis of transplanted methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in syngeneic mice.

Diane Pennica; Glenn E. Nedwin; Joel S. Hayflick; Peter H. Seeburg; Rik Derynck; Michael A. Palladino; William J. Kohr; Bharat B. Aggarwal; David V. Goeddel



The importance of skin care and assessment.  


This article discusses the importance of skin care, including the more general aspects of skin care for the whole body. The information provided should be of benefit to both general and specialist nurses who have a specific responsibility for patients at risk of skin breakdown or damage. By outlining the structure and function of the skin, explaining how skin is damaged, examining the effects of incontinence and questioning current skin cleansing practices, the practitioner will be guided through the process of skin assessment and be introduced to skin care protocols. PMID:16509432

Holloway, Samantha; Jones, Vanessa


Dermatomyositis induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor in a patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  


IMPORTANCE Biologic therapies, including anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, are increasingly used to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, these agents have been reported to induce some of the very diseases they were designed to treat, including dermatomyositis (DM). We describe the first case of anti-TNF-associated DM without muscle involvement presenting in an adult patient with a history of arthritis since childhood. This cutaneous eruption recurred after rechallenge with an alternate anti-TNF agent. OBSERVATIONS A 46-year-old man with juvenile idiopathic arthritis developed a pruritic cutaneous eruption while receiving etanercept. Given concern about a drug-induced eruption, etanercept therapy was discontinued and the cutaneous findings improved. However, after rechallenge with adalimumab, he developed similar findings consistent with the skin manifestations of DM. After discontinuation of all anti-TNF drug therapy and the addition of methotrexate sodium, his eruption improved. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Because the use of these agents is increasing, practitioners should be aware of the possibility of anti-TNF-induced autoimmune disorders, including DM. The case described herein is unique in that anti-TNF-induced autoimmune disease occurred in a patient with existing arthritis since childhood and recurred with rechallenge, adding further evidence to support the existence of anti-TNF-induced DM. PMID:23986394

Liu, Stephanie W; Velez, Nicole F; Lam, Christina; Femia, Alisa; Granter, Scott R; Townsend, Henry B; Vleugels, Ruth Ann



Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.  


Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi



Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.  


Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A



Timing of skin wounds.  


Wound examination is indispensable in forensic practice. It is always necessary to determine wound vitality or wound age to correctly evaluate the relationship between death and any wounds. Thus, the determination of wound vitality or wound age is a classic but still modern theme in forensic pathology. Skin wound healing is a primitive but well orchestrated biological phenomena consisting of three sequential phases, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Many biological substances are involved in the process of wound repair, and this short and simplified overview of wound healing can be adopted to determine wound vitality or wound age in forensic medicine. With the development of immunohistochemistry and chemical analyses, the scientific field of wound age determination has advanced progressively during recent years. In particular, it has been demonstrated that collagens, cytokines, and growth factors are useful candidates and markers for the determination of wound vitality or age. In this review article, some interesting and instructive results are presented, contributing to the future practice of every forensic pathologist. PMID:17275383

Kondo, Toshikazu



Lyme Borreliosis and Skin  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management.

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas



Development of prosthetic skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

Kilaru, Rohit


Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication.  


A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit. PMID:22692484

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L



Gastric necrosis complicating acute gastric dilatation after Nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

A woman in her 70s was referred for the management of complex intestinal fistulation, which had developed as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surgical treatment of a jejunocolocutaneous fistula and formation of a double-barrelled ileocolostomy was undertaken uneventfully. Routine postoperative nasogastric intubation was not undertaken. On the seventh postoperative day she had nausea and hiccupping. A chest x-ray demonstrated a massively dilated stomach which was decompressed with a nasogastric tube. The patient sustained a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated. A subsequent CT scan demonstrated acute gastric necrosis but the patient was judged too unwell for surgical intervention and died. Postmortem examination revealed emphysematous gastric necrosis. This case highlights the potentially fatal consequences of acute gastric dilatation following major abdominal surgery in patients who have previously had a Nissen fundoplication and are consequently unable to vomit.

Barker, Jonathan A; Burnett, Hugh; Carlson, Gordon L



Facial necrosis after endovascular Onyx-18 embolization for epistaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Evolution in techniques and equipment has expanded the role, effectiveness, and safety of endovascular transarterial embolization for the treatment of severe epistaxis. Risks from this treatment approach include major ischemic complications. To date, there have been only a few reports of soft tissue necrosis following endovascular embolization for severe epistaxis; none involve the use of Onyx-18. Case Description: We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis that was refractory to medical and surgical management, which lead to endovascular intervention and embolization with Onyx-18. The patient subsequently developed nasal ala and facial necrosis as a result of the procedure. Conclusion: We report the use of Onyx-18 for the endovascular embolization of a patient with severe epistaxis and subsequent complications. In cases of severe epistaxis that warrant intervention in the form of embolization, ischemic complications are rare; however, ischemic complications may be unavoidable and should factor into the discussion regarding procedural risks.

Grandhi, Ramesh; Panczykowski, David; Zwagerman, Nathan T.; Gehris, Robin; Villasenor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Grandinetti, Lisa; Horowitz, Michael



Permanent renal loss following tumor necrosis factor ? antagonists for arthritis.  


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists are now widely used in the treatment of aggressive rheumatoid arthritis and are generally well tolerated. Although rare, they could induce systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated systemic vasculitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists associated glomerulonephritis usually subsides after discontinuation of the therapy and subsequent initiation of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Here we describe crescentic glomerulonephritis progression to end-stage renal disease in a patient following two doses of TNF-alpha antagonists for the treatment of reactive arthritis. To our knowledge, dialysis dependent permanent renal loss after TNF-alpha antagonists has not yet been reported. We suggest the renal function should be closely monitored in patients treated with TNF-alpha antagonists by rheumatologists. PMID:19536543

Chen, Tzu-Jen; Yang, Ya-Fei; Huang, Po-Hao; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Chiu-Ching



Preclinical evaluation of skin substitutes.  


The important requirements of a skin substitute such as water vapour permeability, adherence to the excised wound surface, oxygen permeability, mechanical properties, impermeability to micro-organisms and exudate soaking capacity have been highlighted. Two commercial synthetic skin substitutes, Bioclusive and Geliperm, have been used to establish the preclinical assessment procedures for skin substitutes. Two in vitro techniques, the 'Water Cup' and the 'Inverted Cup,' and two in vivo methods involving a 'Ventilated Hygrometer Chamber' system and an Evaporimeter have been employed to assess and compare the water vapour permeability of the skin substitutes under controlled conditions. An Evaporimeter, which is very simple to operate, provides more accurate results. A simple test has been designed to evaluate the early adherence of the skin substitutes to the excised wound surface of rats. The pulling force and the peeling force required to remove the membrane from the wound surface have been measured and these forces have been found to depend upon the composition of the membrane. An oxygen permeability cell has been fabricated which measures the dissolved oxygen permeability of the skin substitutes. The detection of oxygen is based on the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at the surface of a noble metal. The tensile properties of the skin substitutes have been measured by an International Standard procedure and both the skin prostheses are associated with some drawbacks. An in vitro method of testing the microbial permeability of the skin substitutes has been designed which simulates an oozing colonized wound that a skin substitute faces in cases of septicaemia. Both the test materials were impermeable to both bacteria and fungi and will provide an effective barrier. The effectiveness of the skin substitutes to absorb wound exudate from the wound surface has been evaluated by soaking the pieces of the membranes in water, plasma and serum and observing their weight gain. The soaking capacity depends upon the composition and nature of the material. The procedures developed have been employed to evaluate a hydrogel type synthetic skin substitute recently formulated in our laboratory. PMID:2275766

Nangia, A; Hung, C T



Human skin aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase.  


Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity has been measured in full-thickness biopsies of human skin from patients with and without psoriasis. Basal levels of enzyme activity varied over a fivefold range and were not related to age, sex or clinical condition. Induction of AHH activity by the application of coal tar resulted in a two- to fivefold increase in activity above basal levels, which was not related to the presence or absence of psoriasis. Separation of human skin into dermis and epidermis showed that human skin AHH activity is predominantly dermal. PMID:6696848

Finnen, M J; Lawrence, C M; Shuster, S



The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

Huiying Li


Beneficial effects of postnatal skin-to-skin contact.  


In a randomized trial, Bystrova et al. examined the traditional neonatal practice of swaddling. They demonstrated that extended skin-to-skin contact with the mother is the most effective way to maintain the infant's temperature and decrease the "stress of being born". Conclusion: Only through research such as that reported by Bystrova et al. can the advantages or disadvantages of routinely accepted perinatal practices be evaluated. PMID:12725538

Kennell, J H; McGrath, S K



Inhibition of Osteoblast Differentiation by Tumor Necrosis Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) has a key role in skeletal disease in which it promotes reduced bone formation by mature osteoblasts and increased osteoclastic resorption. Here we show that TNF inhib- its differentiation of osteoblasts from precursor cells. TNF-a treat- ment of fetal calvaria precursor cells, which spontaneously differen- tiate to the osteoblast phenotype over 21 days, inhibited differentiation as




Acute retinal necrosis diagnosed in a child with chronic panuveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To report the case of an immunocompetent child with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome, who was considered to have an idiopathic unilateral panuveitis sensitive to steroid treatment.Methods  Polymerase chain reaction for detection of viral DNA was applied to ocular fluids and in situ hybridization was performed on a retinal sample. HSV serology was performed using the ELISA

Christophe Chiquet; Bahram Bodaghi; Christiane Mougin; Fatiha Najioullah



Aeroportia and acute abdominal pain: ischemic bowel necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumatosis intestinalis and aeroportia are typical findings of mesenteric ischemia. The second carries a worse prognosis\\u000a than the former. We report the case of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain and acidosis after admission to the\\u000a coronary unit for myocardial infarction. An emergent abdominal CT scan showed aeroportia. Laparotomy confirmed extended bowel\\u000a necrosis. Aeroportia is a typical feature of

Pablo Ortega-Deballon; François Radais; Olivier Facy



Phase I clinical trial of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rH-TNF Asahi) was carried out in 29 patients, who received a total of 72 courses with doses ranging from 1 to 48x104 units\\/m2. Drug was given as 1-h i. v. infusions. Acute toxicities, taking the form of fever, chills, tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral cyanosis, nausea and vomiting, headache, chest tightness,

Patrick J. Creaven; John E. Plager; Sherry Dupere; Robert P. Huben; Hiroshi Takita; Arnold Mittelman; April Proefrock I



Diagnosis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy  

SciTech Connect

A 27-year-old man developed delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy to an arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging with technetium 99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and positron emission tomographic scanning with fludeoxyglucose F 18 aided in his evaluation. Significant improvement of his neurologic deficits resulted from corticosteroid therapy. Clinical resolution was corroborated by serial computed tomographic scans demonstrating regression of the abnormality (a mass lesion). Various facets of radiation injury are discussed, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy.

Kaufman, M.; Swartz, B.E.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Gee, M.; Blahd, W.H. (Wadsworth Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Complete necrosis of allograft ureter after cadaveric renal transplantation.  


Complete necrosis of a transplant ureter is a rare complication that needs to be considered early in cases of severe graft dysfunction if successful surgical intervention and restoration of graft function is to be achieved. We report on two cases of this complication occurring in children and discuss the surgical management. Surgical exploration of grafts where there is an early sudden decline in function is imperative as routine imaging will not exclude this potentially treatable problem. PMID:15009847

Sinha, Manish; Lewis, Malcolm A; Riad, Hany; Webb, Nicholas J A



Avascular necrosis of bone in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to delineate the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-infected patients with pain in large joints were prospectively screened. Patients had radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of their affected joints. Serum lipids, anticardiolipin antibody levels (IgG, IgM), and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed on all patients who had radiographic

Marcia F Blacksin; Patricia C Kloser; Jocelyn Simon



Processing of tumour necrosis factor-alpha precursor by metalloproteinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

TUMOUR necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis and the cachexia associated with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection1. TNF-alpha is initially expressed as a 233-amino-acid membrane-anchored precursor which is proteolytically processed to yield the mature, 157-amino-acid cytokine2. The processing enzyme(s) which cleave TNF-alpha are

A. J. H. Gearing; P. Beckett; M. Christodoulou; M. Churchill; J. Clements; A. H. Davidson; A. H. Drummond; W. A. Galloway; R. Gilbert; J. L. Gordon; T. M. Leber; M. Mangan; K. Miller; P. Nayee; K. Owen; S. Patel; W. Thomas; G. Wells; L. M. Wood; K. Woolley



Glioma recurrence versus radiation necrosis: accuracy of current imaging modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment for brain gliomas is a combined approach of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Nevertheless, high-grade\\u000a gliomas usually recur despite treatment. Ionizing radiation therapy to the central nervous system may cause post-radiation\\u000a damage. Differentiation between post-irradiation necrosis and recurrent glioma on the basis of clinical signs and symptomatology\\u000a has not been possible. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

George A. Alexiou; Spyridon Tsiouris; Athanasios P. Kyritsis; Spyridon Voulgaris; Maria I. Argyropoulou; Andreas D. Fotopoulos



Tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphisms are associated with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a has been shown to be an important factor in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, human studies of TNF polymorphisms in COPD have been equivocal. Six TNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (-1031C\\/T, -863C\\/A, -857C\\/T, -237G\\/A, -308G\\/A and +487G\\/A) and their haplotypes were investigated in 423 Caucasian smokers (298 patients with spirometric evidence of COPD

M. R. Gingo; L. J. Silveira; Y. E. Miller; A. L. Friedlander; G. P. Cosgrove; E. D. Chan; L. A. Maier; R. P. Bowler



Augmented Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Obese Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops in obesity. The insulin resistance of this disease may be mediated by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). In particular, the TNF-? derived from adipose tissues might be involved in the induction of peripheral insulin resistance in rodent models of obesity. In general, monocytes\\/macrophages have been considered as the major source of TNF-?. This study was designed to

Tadashi Yamakawa; Shun-Ichi Tanaka; Yuko Yamakawa; Yoshihiro Kiuchi; Fumiko Isoda; Susumu Kawamoto; Kenji Okuda; Hisahiko Sekihara



[Medial canthus necrosis associated with Hansen's disease: case report].  


In the present case we deal with a medial eyelid necrosis and injury of the canalicular system in a patient in treatment for lepromatous leprosy. Histology of the necrotic lesion showed granulomatous inflammatory reaction with accumulation of histiocytes and presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacilli. After medical treatment, the patient had a spontaneous recovery of the medial canthus architecture but with complete destruction of the canalicular system. PMID:21271033

Franco, Leiser; Carvalho, Giulianna Limongi de Souza; Carneiro, Haroldo Maciel; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Carvalho, Roberto Murillo Limongi de Souza


Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors for the treatment of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a unique form of chronic airway inflammation characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness\\u000a and the production of specific inflammatory mediators. Local activation of both immune and nonimmune cells in the lung triggers\\u000a the release of these immunomodulator molecules. Among them, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a multipotent pro-inflammatory\\u000a mediator, plays a critical role in immunoregulation of asthma by

Jiyoun Kim; Daniel G. Remick



Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by recombinant tumor necrosis factor.  

PubMed Central

Purified human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (rTNF) alpha inhibited the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis (L2/434/Bu) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The inhibition of C. trachomatis yield could be achieved even when the rTNF alpha (200 ng/ml) was added up to 12 h after infection. The effect of rTNF alpha on chlamydial infection was synergistic with that of gamma interferon. Images

Shemer-Avni, Y; Wallach, D; Sarov, I



Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell


Apoptosis versus oncotic necrosis in hepatic ischemia\\/reperfusion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm and cold hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to necrotic cell death (oncosis), which often occurs within minutes of reperfusion. Recent studies also suggest a large component of apoptosis after ischemia\\/reperfusion. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying adenosine triphosphate depletion—dependent oncotic necrosis and caspase-dependent apoptosis, with emphasis on shared features and pathways. Although apoptosis causes internucleosomal DNA degradation that

Hartmut Jaeschke; John J Lemasters



Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells  

PubMed Central

Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells. The proenkephalin gene and protein were expressed in skin and cultured cells, with significant expression in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Mass spectroscopy confirmed Leu- and Met-enkephalin in skin. UVR, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and TLR2 agonists stimulated proenkephalin gene expression in melanocytes and keratinocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In situ Met/Leu-enkephalin peptides were expressed in differentiating keratinocytes of the epidermis in the outer root sheath of the hair follicle, in myoepithelial cells of the eccrine gland, and in the basement membrane/basal lamina separating epithelial and mesenchymal components. Met/Leu-enkephalin expression was altered in pathological skin, increasing in psoriasis and decreasing in melanocytic tumors. Not only does human skin express proenkephalin, but this expression is upregulated by stressful stimuli and can be altered by pathological conditions.

Slominski, Andrzej T.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Brozyna, Anna A.; Granese, Jackie; Pisarchik, Alexander; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tobin, Desmond J.



Contribution of a mitochondrial pathway to excitotoxic neuronal necrosis.  


It is traditionally thought that excitotoxic necrosis is a passive mechanism that does not require the activation of a cell death program. In this study, we examined the contribution of the cytochrome c-dependent mitochondrial death pathway to excitotoxic neuronal necrosis, induced by exposing cultured cortical neurons to 1 mM glutamate for 6 hr and blocked by the NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine. Glutamate treatment induced early cytochrome c release, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Preincubation with the caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk, the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, or the specific pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-oph decreased the percentage of propidium iodide-positive neurons (52.5% +/- 3.1%, 39.4% +/- 3.5%, 44.6% +/- 3%, respectively, vs. 65% +/- 3% in glutamate + vehicle). EM studies showed mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in neurons in the early stages of necrosis and cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity in morphologically necrotic neurons. These results suggest that an active mechanism contributes to the demise of a subpopulation of excitotoxic necrotic neurons. PMID:19235896

Seo, Dae-Won; Lopez-Meraz, Maria-Leonor; Allen, Suni; Wasterlain, Claude Guy; Niquet, Jerome



Articular cartilage changes in avascular necrosis: an arthroscopic evaluation.  


Treatment methods for osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis) are wide and varied. When untreated, progression of the disease is common and may dictate femoral head replacement. However, before femoral head collapse, some patients have mechanical joint symptoms (locking, buckling, clicking) that are unaddressed by femoral head drilling alone. Radiographic examinations in these patients usually are nondiagnostic. Patients with these clinical criteria were evaluated arthroscopically. Between 1993 and 2000, seven patients were identified with known documented or radiographic diagnosis of avascular necrosis who had hip arthroscopy. Each patient's preoperative history, physical examination, plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and operative notes were reviewed from a prospectively-derived database. The duration and onset of symptoms were identified carefully. Case histories are presented on five of these patients. Articular cartilage changes were recorded and correlated to the preoperative radiologic studies. Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive, highly effective, joint-preserving surgery in the young patient with mechanical symptoms (locking, catching, buckling) and early avascular necrosis. Treatable lesions include loose bodies, synovitis, chondral flaps, and labral tears. In addition, accurate staging can be accomplished through direct observation. PMID:12579001

McCarthy, Joseph; Puri, Lalit; Barsoum, Wael; Lee, Jo-Ann; Laker, Michael; Cooke, Peter



Acriflavine-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in yeast Candida utilis.  


Acriflavine is an antiseptic, fungicide, and effective agent against parasitic infections, inducing petite mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and kinetoplast loss in Trypanosomidae. Here we showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis in the yeast Candida utilis. Cells were cultured in minimal medium, with 1.5% ethanol as substrate, in the presence of 30-180 micromol/L acriflavine. Fluorescence measurements showed a linear concentration-dependence flux of the drug into the cells. Acriflavine induced a decrease in cell number, an increase in trypan blue-positive cells, and a decrease in cell viability. Cells cultured in the presence of acriflavine showed an alteration in their respiratory control ratio and a decrease in their cytochrome content. Fluorescence microscopy, after acridine orange staining, revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in cultures conducted in the presence of acriflavine. Electron microscopy of cells grown in the presence of acriflavine showed apoptotic cells exhibiting chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic lysis, but reasonably well-preserved mitochondria, whereas necrotic cells showed no distinctive intracellular organelles. Data showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, acriflavine induced oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling. Generally, apoptosis is considered to be mediated either by a change in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release or by plasma membrane death receptor activation. The outer mitochondrial membrane permeability to cytochrome c, with efflux of protons to the cytosol and cytoplasmic acidification, produced a collapse in the electrochemical proton gradient, a decrease in ATP synthesis, and subsequent cytolysis leading to apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:19723067

Keyhani, Ezzatollah; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Attar, Farnoosh



Cellular and molecular pathways to myocardial necrosis and replacement fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a fundamental component of the adverse structural remodeling of myocardium present in the failing heart. Replacement fibrosis appears at sites of previous cardiomyocyte necrosis to preserve the structural integrity of the myocardium, but not without adverse functional consequences. The extensive nature of this microscopic scarring suggests cardiomyocyte necrosis is widespread and the loss of these contractile elements, combined with fibrous tissue deposition in the form of a stiff in-series and in-parallel elastic elements, contributes to the progressive failure of this normally efficient muscular pump. Cellular and molecular studies into the signal-transducer-effector pathway involved in cardiomyocyte necrosis have identified the crucial pathogenic role of intracellular Ca2+ overloading and subsequent induction of oxidative stress, predominantly confined within its mitochondria, to be followed by the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that leads to the destruction of these organelles and cells. It is now further recognized that Ca2+ overloading of cardiac myocytes and mitochondria serves as a prooxidant and which is counterbalanced by an intrinsically coupled Zn2+ entry serving as antioxidant. The prospect of raising antioxidant defenses by increasing intracellular Zn2+ with adjuvant nutriceuticals can, therefore, be preferentially exploited to uncouple this intrinsically coupled Ca2+–Zn2+ dyshomeostasis. Hence, novel yet simple cardioprotective strategies may be at hand that deserve to be further explored.

Gandhi, Malay S.; Kamalov, German; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.



Autoregulation in Muscle and Skin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal mechanisms involved in the establishment and location of basal vascular tone and 'active' autoregulation in muscle and skin are briefly discussed, with special regard to the local control of blood flow resistance and perfused capillary surfa...

B. Folkow



Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... highlights a recently released NCI brochure on the topic. Skin Cancer Home Page NCI's gateway for information ... for Multicultural Media Articles and videos about cancer topics that are tailored to minority communities affected by ...


Skin Color in Hyperbaric Oxygen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Skin color can change in hyperbaric oxygen atmospheres even though there is no blood circulation. A rabbit ear pinna was partially resected then resutured, resulting in congestion and discoloration of the pinna. When the animal was exposed in a hyperbaric...

E. Hardenbergh J. A. Miles D. E. Thorne



Skin Diseases and the Adolescent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)|

Bauer, Marjorie



[Preventing skin damage in beauticians].  


The incidence of occupational dermatitis of the hands is particularly high in the hairdressing trade. To elucidate the role of various risk factors, and to ultimately improve primary prevention of occupational hand dermatitis, a prospective cohort study was conducted between 1992 and 1997, including 2352 hairdressing trainees. Already six weeks after the start of training (median) 35.4% had--usually mild--irritant skin changes, mainly involving the interdigital web spaces. These were associated with subsequent, possibly more severe, hand dermatitis. Reduced exposure to wet work, i.e., improved skin protection with gloves, often led to the resolution of dermatitis of the hands. In conclusion, early irritant skin damage is a sentinel event that heralds possibly disabling occupational skin disease and should prompt adequate preventive measures. PMID:11329916

Uter, W; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O; Schwanitz, H J



The skin-blanching assay.  


The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness. PMID:22303935

Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B



Fat necrosis may mimic local recurrence of breast cancer in FDG PET/CT.  


Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign condition that most commonly occurs as the result of trauma. The radiographic and clinical significance of fat necrosis of the breast is that it may mimic malignancy. We present a case of false positive FDG PET/CT scan caused by fat necrosis and mimics local recurrence of breast carcinoma 3 years after radical mastectomy. Physicians must be aware of fat necrosis as a potential pitfall for PET/CT. Fat necrosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypermetabolic breast masses in patients who previously had mastectomy or mammoplasty. PMID:22871539

Akkas, Burcu E; Ucmak Vural, G



A case report: ulcerative colitis, treatment with an antibody against tumor necrosis factor (infliximab), and subsequent liver necrosis.  


In recent years, the use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) has expanded in rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology. In addition to the more common side effects such as infections and hypersensitivity reactions, elevations of liver enzymes have been reported during anti-TNF? therapy, although severe liver failure has been extremely uncommon. This report describes a patient with severe liver failure after induction therapy with the TNF? antibody infliximab (Remicade®). A 46-year old female patient received two infusions of infliximab at a dose of 400 mg on weeks 0 and 8 for steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. Eight weeks after the second infusion, she suffered acute liver failure with necrosis, requiring liver transplantation. PMID:22398069

Kinnunen, Urpo; Färkkilä, Martti; Mäkisalo, Heikki



Serotoninergic System in Hamster Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned the tryptophan hydroxylase cDNA from hamster pituitary and demonstrated its expression in the skin, melanotic and amelanotic melanomas, spleen, heart, and the eye. We further demonstrated that skin, melanomas, spleen, pituitary, and eye but not heart expressed arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA. The cutaneous expression of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene was accompanied by enzymatic activity for the conversion of

Andrzej Slominski; Alexander Pisarchik; Igor Semak; Trevor Sweatman; Andre Szczesniewski; Jacobo Wortsman



Recombinant Allergens for Skin Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin testing is a basic diagnostic procedure widely used to explore immediate-type reactions to allergen preparations in vivo. Despite their reliability, if standardized extracts are used, skin tests suffer from limited reproducibility due to difficulties in preparing consistently standardized extracts from natural raw material. Starting from allergen-encoding cDNAs, large amounts of highly pure allergens with a high batch-to-batch consistency satisfying

Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier; Reto Crameri



Radiation sterilization of skin allograft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10-6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.



UV Radiation and the Skin  

PubMed Central

UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy



Systemic antioxidants and skin health.  


Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general. PMID:23135663

Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel



Smart-skin antenna technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using smart materials and skins, one could design a smart structure with suitable feedback system architecture. This paper is designed to address some technical advances and applications of smart materials, smart skins and coatings covering a broad spectrum of electromagnetic fields. The Smart Skin Antenna Technology Program's objectives are to (1) use smart skin technologies to develop an antenna system architecture which is structurally integratable, wideband, and embedded/conformal; (2) design, develop, and fabricate a thin, wideband, conformal/arrayable radiator that is structurally integratable and which uses advanced Penn State dielectric and absorber materials to achieve wideband ground planes, and together with low RCS, wideband radomes; (3) implement a smart skin antenna system architecture. Traditional practice has been to design radome and antenna as separate entities and then resolve any interface problems during an integration phase. A structurally integratable conformal antenna, however, demands that the functional components be highly integrated both conceptually and in practice. Our concept is to use the lower skin of the radome as a substrate on which the radiator can be made using standard photolithography, thick film, or LTCC techniques.

Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.



Uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization for post-partum hemorrhage: review of the literature.  


Uterine necrosis is one of the rarest complications following pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). With the increasing incidence of cesarean section and abnormal placental localization (placenta previa) or placental invasion (placenta accreta/increta/percreta), more and more cases of uterine necrosis after embolization are being diagnosed and reported. Pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy, and surgical management includes hysterectomy. We performed a Medline database query following the first description of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization (between January 1985 and January 2013). Medical subheading search words were the following: "uterine necrosis"; "embolization"; "postpartum hemorrhage". Seventeen citations reporting at least one case of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization for PPH were included, with a total of 19 cases. This literature review discusses the etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization, and guidelines are detailed. The mean time interval between pelvic embolization and diagnosis of uterine necrosis was 21 days (range 9-730). The main symptoms of uterine necrosis were fever, abdominal pain, menorrhagia and leukorrhea. Surgical management included total hysterectomy (n=15, 78%) or subtotal hysterectomy (n=2, 10%) and partial cystectomy with excision of the necrotic portion in three cases of associated bladder necrosis (15%). Uterine necrosis was partial in four cases (21%). Regarding the pathophysiology, four factors may be involved in uterine necrosis: the size and nature of the embolizing agent, the presence of the anastomotic vascular system and the embolization technique itself with the use of free flow embolization. PMID:23932304

Poujade, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Pierre François; Davitian, Carine; Amate, Pascale; Chatel, Paul; Khater, Carine; Aflak, Nizar; Vilgrain, Valérie; Luton, Dominique



Drug delivery across the skin.  


Since the introduction of the first through the skin (TTS) therapeutic in 1980, a total of 34 TTS products have been marketed and numerous drugs have been tested by more than 50 commercial organisations for their suitability for TTS delivery. Most of the agents which have been tested have had low molecular weights, due to the impermeability of the skin barrier. This barrier resides in the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. It is mechanical, anatomical, as well as chemical in nature; laterally overlapping cell multi-layers are sealed by tightly packed, intercellular, lipid multi-lamellae. Chemical skin permeation enhancers increase the transport across the barrier by partly solubilising or extracting the skin lipids and by creating hydrophobic pores. This is often irritating and not always well-tolerated. The TTS approach allows drugs (< 400 kDa in size) to permeate through the resulting pores in the skin, with a short lag-time and subsequent steady-state period. Drug bioavailability for TTS delivery is typically below 50%, avoiding the first pass effect. Wider, hydrophilic channels can be generated by skin poration, with the aid of a small electrical current (> 0.4 mA/cm2) across the skin (iontophoresis) or therapeutic ultrasound (few W/cm2; sonoporation). High-voltage (> 150 V, electroporation) widens the pores even more and often irreversibly. These standard poration methods require experience and equipment and are therefore, not practical; at best, charged/small molecules (< or = 4000 kDa in size) can be delivered efficiently across the skin. In spite of the potential harm of gadget-driven skin poration, this method is used to deliver molecules which conventional TTS patches are unable to deliver, especially polypeptides. Lipid-based drug carriers (liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticle microemulsions, etc.) were proposed as alternative, low-risk delivery vehicles. Such suspensions provide an improved drug reservoir on the skin, but the aggregates remain confined to the surface. Conventional carrier suspensions increase skin hydration and/or behave as skin permeation enhancers. The recently developed carriers; Transferomes, comprise pharmaceutically-acceptable, established compounds and are thought to penetrate the skin barrier along the naturally occurring transcutaneous moisture gradient. Transfersomes are believed to penetrate the hydrophilic (virtual) channels in the skin and widen the former after non-occlusive administration. Both small and large hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules are deliverable across the stratum after conjugation with Transfersomes. Drug distribution after transdermal delivery probably proceeds via the lymph. This results in quasi-zero order kinetics with significant systemic drug levels reached after a lag-time of up to a few hours. The relative efficiency of TTS drug delivery with Transfersomes is typically above 50 %; with the added possibility of regional drug targeting. PMID:15989590

Cevc, G



Skin cancer and solar UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

F. R. de Gruijl



Bioinspired living skins for fouling mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biomimetic method to mitigate marine biofouling using a pilot-whale-inspired sacrificial skin concept has been developed. We developed a method to form conformal, protective skins in situ underwater using a circulatory system. In addition, the materials chemistry was tuned such that the skin dissolves after a tunable stable period, removing any foulants that may have collected on it. Skin formation,

Rahul Ganguli; Vivek Mehrotra; Bruce Dunn




Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The concept of systemic,photoprotection,by dietary means,is gaining momentum. Skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the major cause of skin disorders such as sunburn, photodamage, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most of the erythemal annual UV dose is encountered under nonvacation conditions, when no sunscreen is applied. In the absence of topically added compounds, skin protection depends solely

Helmut Sies; Wilhelm Stahl



A strategy for skin irritation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test

Michael K. Robinson; Mary A. Perkins



Human skin surface evaluation by image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human skin gradually lose its tension and becomes very dry as time flies by. Use of cosmetics is effective to prevent skin aging. Recently, there are many choices of products of cosmetics. To show their effects, It is desirable to develop a way to evaluate quantificationally skin surface condition. In this paper, An automatic skin evaluating method is proposed. The

Liangen Zhu; Xuemin Zhan; Fengying Xie



Spectral emissivity of skin and pericardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monochromator was modified to measure the emissivity, ?(?), of living tissue in the infrared region between 1 and 14 ?m. The infrared radiation from the tissue was compared with blackbody radiation and in this way ?(?) has been determined for white skin, black skin, burnt skin and pericardium.A compensating skin thermometer was constructed to measure the temperature of the

J. Steketee



Simulation of Optical Skin Lesion Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Black-white and colour skin/lesion images are synthesised with known characteristics such as boundary, skin pattern and colour. The skin and lesion textures are modelled by the auto-regressive (AR) process. Black-white skin lesion images are obtained by c...

Z. She P. J. Fish A. W. Duller



Expression of Cathepsins in Human Skin Photoaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsins are involved in regulatory mechanisms in human skin, but their role in photoaged skin remains unknown. This study investigates the role of cathepsin B, D, K, and G in skin photoaging in vivo and in vitro. Cathepsin-induced changes in skin as a result of chronic UV irradiation were detected by immunohistochemistry methods. Protein cathepsin expressions in UVA-induced premature senescence

Y. Zheng; W. Lai; M. Wan; H. I. Maibach



Assessment of the Interplay between Blood and Skin Vascular Abnormalities in Adult Purpura Fulminans.  


Rationale: Purpura fulminans in adults is a rare but devastating disease. Its pathophysiology is not well known. Objectives: To understand the pathophysiology of skin lesions in purpura fulminans, the interplay between circulating blood and vascular alterations was assessed. Methods: Prospective multicenter study in four intensive care units. Patients with severe sepsis without skin lesions were recruited as control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty patients with severe sepsis and purpura fulminans were recruited for blood sampling, and skin biopsy was performed in deceased patients. High severity of disease and mortality rates (80%) was observed. Skin biopsies in purpura fulminans lesions revealed thrombosis and extensive vascular damage: vascular congestion and dilation, endothelial necrosis, alteration of markers of endothelial integrity (CD31) and of the protein C pathway receptors (endothelial protein C receptor, thrombomodulin). Elevated plasminogen activating inhibitor-1 mRNA was also observed. Comparison with control patients showed that these lesions were specific to purpura fulminans. By contrast, no difference was observed for blood hemostasis parameters, including soluble thrombomodulin, activated protein C, and disseminated intravascular coagulation markers. Bacterial presence at the vascular wall was observed specifically in areas of vascular damage in eight of nine patients tested (including patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection). Conclusions: Thrombi and extensive vascular damage with multifaceted prothrombotic local imbalance are characteristics of purpura fulminans. A "vascular wall infection" hypothesis, responsible for endothelial damage and subsequent skin lesions, can be put forward. PMID:23924269

Lerolle, Nicolas; Carlotti, Agnes; Melican, Keira; Aubey, Flore; Pierrot, Marc; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Caille, Vincent; Hékimian, Guillaume; Gandrille, Sophie; Mandet, Chantal; Bruneval, Patrick; Dumenil, Guillaume; Borgel, Delphine



Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.



Use of the Delphi Panel Method to Assess Expert Perception of the Accuracy of Screening Test Systems for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen people, considered to be experts on fish virology, participated in a Delphi panel exercise to solicit opinion concerning the importance of factors that influence the ability of cell culture to detect infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in asymptomatic infected salmonids. Panelists rated many factors as having a strong impact on the sensitivity of

N. Nathalie Bruneau; Margaret A. Thorburn; Roselynn M. W. Stevenson



Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated NFkappaB/p65 in human keratinocytes by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone peptides.  


Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has pigmentary, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and general immunomodulatory roles. It can oppose several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a number of tissues, including skin. We have previously shown that alpha-MSH can inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upregulation and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) transcription factor activation in melanocyte and melanoma cells. It is thought, however, that this MSH biology may also extend to other cells of the skin and in this study we extend our work to keratinocytes. We have investigated in detail the ability of three alpha-MSH peptides to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated NFkappaB activation in nonpigmentary HaCaT keratinocytes (alpha-MSH, L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Val, and L-Lys-L-Pro-D-Val) and two adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides (1-17 and 1-39), reported to be present in skin tissue. NFkappaB/p65 activation was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunofluorescent microscopy. alpha-MSH, L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Val, and L-Lys-L-Pro-D-Val all significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated NFkappaB activation, whereas ACTH 1-17 and 1-39 did not, in the HaCaT keratinocytes. MSH peptides and ACTH 1-39 were effective, however, at inhibiting NFkappaB activation in normal human keratinocytes. Immunolabeling of inhibitor kappaBalpha of NFkappaB (IkappaBalpha) revealed an abnormal localization to the nucleus of HaCaT cells, which was unaffected by MSH/ACTH peptides. In contrast, normal human keratinocytes showed a normal IkappaBalpha distribution that responded to MSH/ACTH with nuclear translocation. Our data support previous work on the role of MSH/ACTH peptides as immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory regulators, and extend this work to keratinocytes identifying a novel IkappaBalpha mechanism and extends findings to ACTH peptides, identifying an abnormal IkappaBalpha mechanism in the immortal HaCaT versus normal keratinocyte. PMID:12485424

Moustafa, Manar; Szabo, Marika; Ghanem, Ghanem E; Morandini, Renato; Kemp, E Helen; MacNeil, Sheila; Haycock, John W



In vitro cytotoxicity tests on cultured human skin fibroblasts to predict skin irritation potential of surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured human skin cells are a potentially useful model for skin irritancy testing. We have investigated the use of human skin fibroblasts for in vitro screening for skin toxicity. To assess the cytotoxic effects of surfactants, cell viability was measured by the NRU (neutral red uptake) assay and AB (Alamar blue) assay as in vitro methods. The skin irritation potential

Jong Kwon Lee; Dai Byung Kim; Jong Il Kim; Pu Young Kim



Human Skin Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase  

PubMed Central

Coal tar products, which are widely used in treating dermatologic disease, contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including 3,4-benzo[a]pyrene (BP). BP is among the most potent environmental chemical carcinogens and is known to evoke tumors in the skin of experimental animals and perhaps also of man. In this study the effect of cutaneous application of coal tar solution (U. S. Pharmacopeia) on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the skin of patients usually treated with this drug was investigated. AHH, a cytochrome P-450 dependent carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme appears to play an important role in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbons into reactive moieties that can bind to DNA and that may directly induce cancer. Application of coal tar solution to human skin caused a two to five-fold induction of cutaneous AHH in nine subjects. In further studies, the incubation of human skin with coal tar solution in vitro also caused variable induction of cutaneous AHH. Maximum responses in both systems occurred after 24 h and enzyme activity in vitro was time- and tissue- and substrate-concentration dependent. Studies in experimental animals showed that topical application of coal tar solution caused induction of AHH in skin and, after percutaneous absorption, in liver as well. Assay of several defined constituents of coal tar for AHH induction showed that BP was the most potent inducer of AHH tested. These studies indicate that topical application of coal tar solution in doses ordinarily used in treating dermatologic disease causes induction of AHH in human skin and suggest that such induced enzymatic activity could relate to carcinogenic responses to this agent in skin or, after percutaneous absorption, in other tissues as well.

Bickers, David R.; Kappas, Attallah



Developing Topical Prodrugs for Skin Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin plays multiple roles in protection from environmental insults yet skin damage, particularly that derived from sunlight,\\u000a constitutes a major public health problem. End stage skin damage in the form of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most\\u000a frequent malignancies in the United States with more than 1,000,000 cases diagnosed annually (Karagas et al. 1999). Melanoma\\u000a skin cancer is

Elaine L. Jacobson; Hyuntae Kim; Moonsun Kim; Georg T. Wondrak; Myron K. Jacobson


Spectropolarimetric Imaging for Skin Characteristics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light scattering spectra and polarization states can provide important information about skin. To analyse the mechanisms of\\u000a interaction between skin and light, and the relationship between the changes of light’s characteristics and the variations\\u000a of skin’s states, a spectropolarimetric imaging system is proposed to acquire the spectral, polarimetric and spatial properties\\u000a of the skin. After acquiring the spectropolarimetric imagery, an

Yongqiang Zhao; Tieheng Yang; Peifeng Wei; Quan Pan



Endoscopic groin lymph node dissection as a preferable technique for malignant skin neoplasms.  


Groin lymph node dissection (GLND) remains an effective treatment for malignant neoplasms of the skin arising on the lower extremities and perineum. However, complications such as seroma, flap necrosis, and infections have been encountered. It is thought that a conventional operation using a long inguinal incision can result in those complications. To minimise the risk of such complications, endoscopic GLND (EGLND) was performed in five patients. No severe complications were found. Although EGLND is still in the developmental stage, this technique is suggested as a possible surgical option for reducing morbidity and improving aesthetic results. PMID:23627646

Ichimiya, Makoto; Goishi, Keiichi; Muto, Masahiko



The molecular effects of aloe-emodin (AE)/liposome-AE on human nonmelanoma skin cancer cells and skin permeation.  


In this study, aloe-emodin (AE) was less cytotoxic to human noncancerous skin cells (premalignant keratinocytic HaCaT and fibroblast Hs68) than to nonmelanoma cancer cells (epidermoid carcinoma A431 and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC25). Notably, AE induced apoptosis by up-regulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Fas ligand and their cognate receptors, downstream adaptor TNF-R1-associated death domain and Fas-associated death domain, and activated caspase-8 in A431 and SCC25 cells. Moreover, AE up-regulated p53, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, depleted intracellular-reduced GSH, up-regulated cytochrome c and Bax, down-regulated Bcl-2, and activated caspase-9 and -3. The combinatory use of AE and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) achieved significantly more cell death in A431 and SCC25 cells than only the use of AE or 5-Fu, likely via regulation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 expressions. Incorporating AE into the liposomal formulation accelerated cell death of A431 and SCC25 cells within a short time. Furthermore, skin permeation profiles of drug suggest that the liposomal formulation enhances transdermal delivery of AE. Experimental data demonstrate the feasibility of applying liposome to deliver AE in clinical therapy. PMID:19928967

Chou, Tzung-Han; Liang, Chia-Hua



Prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis: can pancreatic necrosis be predicted?  

PubMed Central

The value of six prognostic markers was assessed prospectively in 198 attacks of acute pancreatitis with specific attention to their ability to predict pancreatic necrosis. The Imrie Prognostic Score (IPS) was recorded within 48 h of diagnosis. The serum C-reactive protein (CRP) alpha 1 antiprotease (A1AP), alpha 2 macroglobulin (A2M), amylase and white cell count (WCC) were measured on days 1, 3 and 7. When comparing all severe clinical outcomes to mile outcomes, serum CRP concentrations were higher on all three days (P less than 0.02, less than 0.001, less than 0.001), A1AP concentrations were higher on day 3 (P less than 0.05), A2M concentrations were lower on day 7 (P less than 0.01) and WCC was higher on all three days (P less than 0.001, less than 0.001, less than 0.001). Serum amylase concentrations showed no significant differences. None of the measured parameters were helpful in distinguishing patients who subsequently developed pancreatic necrosis from patients who had other severe outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that the initial IPS showed greatest independent significance in predicting severe outcome followed by the WCC (days 1 and 7) and CRP (day 3). CRP and WCC may be clinically useful predictors of severe outcome to supplement the initial IPS. These methods are unlikely to distinguish pancreatic necrosis from other severe outcomes, but they may supplement clinical judgment in selecting a high risk group of patients for contrast enhanced computed tomography.

Leese, T.; Shaw, D.; Holliday, M.



Closed drainage versus open packing of infected pancreatic necrosis.  


Infected pancreatic necrosis is the most lethal form of pancreatic infections. We have compared our results of open packing and closed catheter drainage after surgical debridement in 20 patients between 1978 and 1993. There were 18 men and 2 women, ages 18 to 72 (mean 54 years). Pancreatitis was attributed to alcohol in eight patients, gallstones in four, surgery in four, hyperlipidemia in one, and was unknown in one. The most common infectious organisms were Strep. viridans, E. coli, Staph aureus, and Candida albicans. Surgical debridement and closed catheter drainage without lavage was the initial treatment in nine patients. Seven of 9 (78%) required reoperation for recurrent abscess and necrosis. Procedure related morbidity was 70 per cent and overall mortality was 44 per cent. Sepsis was the cause of death in three patients and multi-system organ failure in one patient. Surgical debridement and open packing was performed in 11 patients. Each patient had scheduled reoperations for repeat debridement and packing an average of 10 times over 21 days. Procedure-related morbidity was 73 per cent and overall mortality was 18 per cent. One patient died of cardiac failure and one of multisystem organ failure. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage and recurrent abscesses were more frequent after closed drainage, whereas gastric fistula and incisional hernia were more frequent after open packing. Ventilator dependence, pancreatic and intestinal fistula, and organ failure occurred at the same rate. In conclusion, surgical debridement and open packing, with planned redebridement and packing, is more effective in controlling the septic process than is closed catheter drainage of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:7793743

Harris, J A; Jury, R P; Catto, J; Glover, J L



Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. (Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, IL (USA))



The ultrasound aspect of the skin and subcutaneous fat layer in various benign and malignant breast conditions.  


In a series of 260 consecutive X-ray mammography examinations in symptomatic patients, 25 patients proved to have breast cancer, and 41 had various benign breast conditions. In the 66 patients with abnormal mammograms a real-time ultrasound examination with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer and a fluid offset pad was performed. This paper focuses on the ultrasound aspect of the skin and the subcutaneous fat layer in various benign and malignant breast conditions. In most of the malignant tumors studied as well as in cases of fat necrosis and breast abscesses, the following ultrasound signs were encountered: discontinuity of the sharp echogenic subcutaneous specular reflector, thickening of the skin, and locally increased echogenicity of the subcutaneous fat layer. In breast cancer these signs were seen in some patients with small tumors, in deeply located tumors as well as in patients with no skin retraction on clinical examination. The differential diagnosis between cancer and benign breast tumors cannot be based upon the ultrasound aspect of the skin and subcutaneous fat layer alone. X-ray mammography as well as clinical criteria and anamnestic factors should be used for the diagnosis of breast abscesses (calor, rubor, tumor, dolor) and for the diagnosis of fat necrosis (surgery, trauma). PMID:1797793

Beeckman, P; De Clerck, S; Jong, B; De Maeseneer, M



Patient skin preparation for surgery.  


Skin preparation of the patient begins before arriving to the operating room; its purpose is to reduce the risk of post operative wound infection. The objective of this study was to assess the skin preparation for surgical procedures in 3 different hospitals of the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals & Institutes (GOTHI) and to determine their conformity to the existing protocol and make comparisons between them in their performance. A prospective study using the audit was done for 1 month, nearly for the same period in each of the 3 hospitals (A,B,C) to observe the skin preparation practices considering showering, hair removal and the 5 steps of patient skin preparation on table in the operating room. The global results revealed that the compliance rate in the three hospitals together as regards performing the 5 steps of skin preparation in the operating room was 36.2%. It was 50.6% in hospital A, 43.3% in hospital B and 18.7% in hospital C. As regards showering before surgery, it was 55%, removing hair appropriately (clipping) was 23.7% and removing hair by means was 44.6%. PMID:19302781

El Sayed, Iman A; Hashem, Samar A; El Sayed, Abdallah S; Gadoua, Iman M; Kamel, Ahlam E; Perse, Olivia K; Baghagho, Ehssan A; Terzaki, Soraya R



Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis.  


Research about the skin barrier and its properties has increased significantly since the 60s, with studies that indicated its resistance when isolated, as well as its particularities in relation to skin permeability. At the same time, description of Odland bodies helped to understand how stratum corneum stability is maintained. The âbrick and mortarâ model is the most accepted so far. In this analogy, the corneocytes are the bricks and the intercellular lipids are the mortar. Currently, there is concrete evidence that the stratum corneum is an active metabolic structure that holds adaptive functions, interacting dynamically with the underlying epidermal layers. The skin barrier also plays a role in the inflammatory response through melanocyte activation, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia. The intensity of this response will essentially depend on the severity of the injury. Skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis are clinically observed by the presence of dry skin, a common and significant symptom which constitutes a diagnostic and monitoring parameter. The stratum corneum hydration level and transepidermal water loss are associated with the level of damage to the barrier, representing biophysical parameters. These parameters help doctors monitor patients in a less invasive and more sensitive manner. PMID:20520934

Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna; Aoki, Valeria


Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails  

PubMed Central

Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics.

Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten



Skin cancers in elderly patients.  


Cancer in older people is a common problem worldwide. Among various types of cancer, skin cancers represent an important percentage. The principal risk factors are sun exposure, family history of skin cancer, fair skin color, but also the age plays an important role in the genesis of skin cancers. In older people there are a more prolonged exposure to carcinogenesis and a decreased functionality of reparation mechanisms of the cells so they acquire a selective advantage of growing and proliferating. At the same time age causes alteration in immune system by increasing NK-cells absolute number and decreasing both the endogenous and the lymphokine-induced lytic activities. The anti-tumor immune response is also mediated by the cytotoxic T- lymphocytes and in the elderly a strong reduction of T-cell function has been demonstrated. In elderly patients the diagnosis and the treatment of skin cancers can be different from younger counterpart. For example in older patients with melanoma is important to evaluate Breslow depth while higher mitotic rate has major value in younger patients. Moreover, the treatment should consider the performance status of patients and their compliance. PMID:24102278

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Cappellani, Alessandro; Berretta, Massimiliano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele



Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.



Neural network diagnosis of avascular necrosis from magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have explored the use of artificial neural networks to diagnose avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head from magnetic resonance images. We have developed multi-layer perceptron networks, trained with conjugate gradient optimization, which diagnose AVN from single sagittal images of the femoral head with 100% accuracy on the training data and 97% accuracy on test data. These networks use only the raw image as input (with minimal preprocessing to average the images down to 32 X 32 size and to scale the input data values) and learn to extract their own features for the diagnosis decision. Various experiments with these networks are described.

Manduca, Armando; Christy, Paul S.; Ehman, Richard L.



Acute tubular necrosis due to cutaneous contact with cresol.  


The authors report a case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with second degree chemical burns to 9% of the total body surface area due to cutaneous contact with cresol. This was associated with acute oliguric kidney injury requiring haemodialysis. In contrast to previous reports of cresol ingestion, the patient did not have evidence of hepatic dysfunction, possibly due to a low cresol concentration in the portal vein and liver. Renal histopathology showed regional accentuated tubular necrosis and disruption of the tubular basement membrane. Renal toxicity was thought to be due to direct tubular toxicity and impaired renal blood flow. PMID:22707573

Okamoto, Koji; Noiri, Eisei; Oka, Machiko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Ohtake, Takayasu; Kobayashi, Shuzo



Intestinal necrosis in young patient due to arterial tumour embolism.  


A patient in the thirties, currently undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic osteosarcoma diagnosed 3 years earlier, was admitted with in the emergency department with abdominal pain. Laparoscopic surgery revealed severe inflammation and an abscess. 18 cm of small intestine was removed because of intestinal necrosis. Histological examination showed several arterial tumour emboli, morphologically similar to the primary sarcoma. The patient died 1 year after successful surgery. Because of the improved survival of patients with osteosarcoma, acute mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in acute abdomen in these patients. PMID:22983997

Dahle, Einar; Gögenur, Ismail; Nørgaard, Peter



Cortical laminar necrosis related to prolonged focal status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is radiologically defined as high intensity cortical lesions on T1 weighted MRI images following a gyral distribution. Histopathologically, CLN is characterised by pannecrosis of the cortex involving neurones, glial cells, and blood vessels. It has been reported to be associated with hypoxia, metabolic disturbances, drugs, and infections. We present two patients who developed CLN and permanent neurological deficits after prolonged and repeated focal status epilepticus. The possible mechanisms leading to CLN in these patients are discussed, together with the implications of prompt and aggressive treatment in similar cases.

Donaire, A; Carreno, M; Gomez, B; Fossas, P; Bargallo, N; Agudo, R; Falip, M; Setoain, X; Boget, T; Raspall, T; Obach, V; Rumia, J



Acute tubular necrosis due to cutaneous contact with cresol  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with second degree chemical burns to 9% of the total body surface area due to cutaneous contact with cresol. This was associated with acute oliguric kidney injury requiring haemodialysis. In contrast to previous reports of cresol ingestion, the patient did not have evidence of hepatic dysfunction, possibly due to a low cresol concentration in the portal vein and liver. Renal histopathology showed regional accentuated tubular necrosis and disruption of the tubular basement membrane. Renal toxicity was thought to be due to direct tubular toxicity and impaired renal blood flow.

Okamoto, Koji; Noiri, Eisei; Oka, Machiko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Ohtake, Takayasu; Kobayashi, Shuzo



Calcified myocardial necrosis in pediatric patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  


We report three autopsy cases of wide-spread myocardial necrosis with calcification in pediatric patients after temporary generalized hypoxia and initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but subsequent in-hospital death. Autopsy and histological workup in all three cases showed multiple circumscribed calcified and necrotic areas in progressive stages of organization within the myocardium. We conclude that these macro- and microscopic autopsy features appear to be related to reperfusion injuries in children as a consequence of hypoxic-ischemic changes occurring in the peri- and postresuscitation period. PMID:23264200

Buschmann, Claas T; Stenzel, Werner; Martin, Hubert; Heppner, Frank L; Guddat, Saskia S; Tsokos, Michael



Skin wound healing in different aged Xenopus laevis.  


Xenopus froglets can perfectly heal skin wounds without scarring. To explore whether this capacity is maintained as development proceeds, we examined the cellular responses during the repair of skin injury in 8- and 15-month-old Xenopus laevis. The morphology and sequence of healing phases (i.e., inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling) were independent of age, while the timing was delayed in older frogs. At the beginning of postinjury, wound re-epithelialization occurred in form of a thin epithelium followed by a multilayered epidermis containing cells with apoptotic patterns and keratinocytes stained by anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) antibody. The inflammatory response, early activated by recruitment of blood cells immunoreactive to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, iNOS, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, persisted over time. The dermis repaired by a granulation tissue with extensive angiogenesis, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and anti-?-SMA positive myofibroblasts. As the healing progressed, wounded areas displayed vascular regression, decrease in cellularity, and rearrangement of provisional matrix. The epidermis restored to a prewound morphology while granulation tissue was replaced by a fibrous tissue in a scar-like pattern. The quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated an up-regulated expression of Xenopus suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (XSOCS-3) and Xenopus transforming growth factor-?2 (XTGF-?2) soon after wounding and peak levels were detected when granulation tissue was well developed with a large number of inflammatory cells. The findings indicate that X. laevis skin wound healing occurred by a combination of regeneration (in epidermis) and repair (in dermis) and, in contrast to froglet scarless wound healing, the growth to a more mature adult stage is associated with a decrease in regenerative capacity with scar-like tissue formation. PMID:23640793

Bertolotti, Evelina; Malagoli, Davide; Franchini, Antonella



Bluetongue virus targets conventional dendritic cells in skin lymph.  


Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiological agent of bluetongue, a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants (particularly sheep), which causes important economic losses around the world. BTV is transmitted primarily via the bites of infected midges, which inject the virus into the ruminant's skin during blood feeding. The virus initially replicates in the draining lymph node and then disseminates to secondary organs where it induces edema, hemorrhages, and necrosis. In this study, we show that ovine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are the primary targets of BTV that contribute to the primary dissemination of BTV from the skin to draining lymph nodes. Lymph cDCs support BTV RNA and protein synthesis, as well as the production of infectious virus belonging to several different BTV serotypes, regardless of their level of attenuation. Afferent lymph cell subsets, other than cDCs, showed only marginal levels of BTV protein expression. BTV infection provoked a massive recruitment of cDCs to the sheep skin and afferent lymph, providing cellular targets for infection. Although BTV productively infects cDCs, no negative impact on their physiology was detected. Indeed, BTV infection and protein expression in cDCs enhanced their survival rate. Several serotypes of BTV stimulated the surface expression of the CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules on cDCs as well as the mRNA synthesis of cytokines involved in inflammation and immunity, i.e., interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-1beta, and IL-6. BTV-infected cDCs stimulated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 proliferation as well as gamma interferon production. BTV initially targets cDCs while preserving their functional properties, reflecting the optimal adaptation of the virus to its host cells for its first spread. PMID:19553336

Hemati, Behzad; Contreras, Vanessa; Urien, Céline; Bonneau, Michel; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mertens, Peter P C; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle




PubMed Central

Means have been described for the study of pressure conditions in normal and pathological skin of living human beings and mice. The true pressure in normal skin cannot be measured directly by any of the means hitherto described, because there is insufficient free fluid to make manometric determinations. However, for practical purposes, the intracutaneous pressure has been approximately estimated by introducing into skin exceedingly small amounts of a relatively unabsorbable fluid, a mixture of Locke's solution and a vital dye, and then finding the least pressure required to overcome the resistance of the skin to the passage of this fluid through it at the lowest rate measurable with accuracy by the apparatus at hand. In the present paper measurements of this pressure have been termed the interstitial resistance. In normal skin the interstitial pressure, as estimated by measurements of the interstitial resistance, is low, slightly less, on the average, than 1.7 cm. of water in the skin of the mouse, and less than 3.1 cm. of water in human skin. It remains unchanged in states of active hyperemia. In edematous skin the interstitial pressure can be directly measured by determination of the edema fluid pressure. It has been compared with determinations of the interstitial resistance and found to be only 0.5 cm. of water lower in both the mouse and man. Under the conditions of our experiments, in skin rendered slowly edematous by the introduction of irritant chemicals or their topical application, little rise in pressure took place. On the other hand, in rapidly forming edema of the skin the edema fluid pressure and the intradermal interstitial resistance rose and became great enough to hinder materially the further escape of fluid from the blood vessels. The edema fluid pressure rose in proportion to the rapidity with which the edema formed. When a rapidly formed edema subsided, the edema fluid pressure and interstitial resistance fell, but if inflammation and induration followed later, the interstitial resistance became high again. As these conditions subsided the interstitial resistance fell, at times to normal levels, even in the presence of edema. In mouse skin injured by squeezing according to a standard procedure, with result in pronounced edema, the intradermal interstitial resistance rose within a few hours to levels of 10 to 15 cm. of water. In those instances in which the injury progressed to induration, the interstitial resistance rose to such high levels that it seemed impossible that fluid could continue to escape from the capillaries. Such a state of affairs may be of great importance in determining whether necrosis follows trauma.

McMaster, Philip D.



Systemic FasL and TRAIL Neutralisation Reduce Leishmaniasis Induced Skin Ulceration  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL.

Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah



Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.  


Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

Tasew, Geremew; Nylén, Susanne; Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah; Chiodi, Francesca; Eidsmo, Liv



Protective effect of topical iodine containing anti-inflammatory drugs against sulfur mustard-induced skin lesions.  


Previous studies have shown the antidotal efficacy of topical iodine at 15 and 30 min post-exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). Here we demonstrate efficacy at longer intervals (20, 30, 45, and 60 min, respectively, for data) using an improved topical povidone-iodine preparation termed N66, which contains steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. In the mouse, N66 reduced severity of ear edema by 43, 47, 44, and 36%; ear epidermal ulceration by 74, 58, 45, and 58%; and epidermal necrosis by 54, 34, 26, and 31% at the respective time points. A similar effect was observed with encrustation. The healing marker, grade of acanthotic area, showed dramatic increases of 39.6-, 25.3-, 20.9-, and 22-fold. Severity of the dermal parameters, acute inflammation and dermal necrosis, was reduced by 63, 34, 34, and 38% and 80, 54, 54, and 59%, respectively. In guinea pig skin, topical treatment with N66 45 min post-exposure reduced the SM-induced ulceration area by 75%. The histological parameters subepidermal microblister formation, epidermal ulceration, epidermal necrosis, and encrustation were reduced by 63, 61, 41, and 41%, respectively. The healing marker, grade of acanthotic area, was elevated by 73%. N66 induced a statistically significant reduction in two dermal markers for tissue damage: acute inflammation (33%) and dermal necrosis (48%). Reduced skin damage was also observed in areas adjacent the treated sites. The pharmacologically active components of N66 showed additive effect. These findings suggest that the povidone-iodine preparation combined with anti-inflammatory agents functions as a potent antidote against skin lesions induced by SM at relatively long intervals between exposure and treatment. PMID:14618300

Wormser, Uri; Sintov, Amnon; Brodsky, Berta; Casillas, Robert P; Nyska, Abraham



Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems  


... workplace to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical. The MSDS will describe any known risk for skin irritation, ... or skin cancer. Be sure to read each MSDS your company provides. Skin Problems Irritation and Rashes. ...


Histologic Changes in Nude Mouse Skin and Human Skin Xenografts Following Exposure to Sulfhydryl Reagents: Arsenicals,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the histological changes in nude mouse skin and in human skin xenografts on nude mice following exposure to phenyldichloroarsine (PDA), a vesicant arsenical. Under light microscopy, the authors observed in PDA-treated human skin graf...

E. L. McGown T. Van Ravenswaay C. R. Dumlao



Polyphenolic composition of hazelnut skin.  


Skins from different hazelnut samples were characterized for total polyphenol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and their content in specific polyphenolic compounds. The main polyphenolic subclass, identified and quantified by means of HPLC-MS/MS, comprised monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols, which accounted for more than 95% of total polyphenols. Flavonols and dihydrochalcones were 3.5% while phenolic acids were less than 1% of the total identified phenolics. The TAC values of the skin samples ranged between 0.6 and 2.2 mol of reduced iron/kg of sample, which is about 3 times the TAC of whole walnuts, 7-8 times that of dark chocolate, 10 times that of espresso coffee, and 25 times that of blackberries. By describing the profile of polyphenols present in hazelnut skins, this study provides the basis to further investigate the potential health effects of hazelnut byproduct. PMID:21819158

Del Rio, Daniele; Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Brighenti, Furio



[Psyche and skin (author's transl)].  


The important psychological functions of the human skin - the skin functions as a border, contact and sense organ and as an organ of expression - as well as causalgenetic aspects of psychodermatology and the most important psychodermatological diseases are reported. Frequent psychosomatic dermatoses like chronic urticaria (bibliography), pruritus (case report, perioral dermatitis and alopecia areata (case reports) are described. In atopic dermatitis, psoriasis vulgaris and acne rosacea psychological factors are involved in addition to constitutional factors. Psychovegetative dermatoses can be due to situational problems (stress), but dermatologic symptoms may also have a mere appellant character (e.g. slight effluvium). Dermatologic symptoms may occur in connection with psychoses (e.g. parasitophobia). Psychic dermatologic symptoms may also arise secundary to severe chronic dermatoses. In psychoneurotic diseases such as dermatitis arterficialis skin is the target organ. Therapeutical aspects are considered. PMID:7467338

Cermak, T



Neutron skins and neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: The neutron skin of a heavy nucleus as well as many neutron-star properties are highly sensitive to the poorly constrained density dependence of the symmetry energy.Purpose: To provide for the first time meaningful theoretical errors and to assess the degree of correlation between the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb and several neutron-star properties.Methods: A proper covariance analysis based on the predictions of an accurately calibrated relativistic functional “FSUGold” is used to quantify theoretical errors and correlation coefficients.Results: We find correlation coefficients of nearly 1 (or -1) between the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb and a host of observables of relevance to the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars.Conclusions: We suggest that a follow-up Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) measurement, ideally with a 0.5% accuracy, could significantly constrain the equation of state of neutron-star matter.

Fattoyev, F. J.; Piekarewicz, J.



Environmental effects and skin disease.  


The skin is the largest organ in the body and one of its main functions is to protect the body from noxious substances, whether they are ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals or prolonged/repeated exposure to water. It is the level of exposure that determines if damage to the organism will result. The harm that can occur to the skin with sufficient exposure will be considered. Contact dermatitis, halogen acne, chemical depigmentation, connective tissue diseases and skin cancer are the conditions that will be covered in this chapter, as environmental exposure is important in their aetiologies. Systemic absorption will not be dealt with. Most environmental exposure to harmful substances will occur at work, but exposure may occur at home or during normal day-to-day activities. PMID:14757713

English, J S C; Dawe, R S; Ferguson, J



The stereoscan observations of the skin of catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis, following chromium exposure  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of the skin of air-breathing catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis (Bloch) was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in both fish exposed for seven days to 5.6 mg/L chromium in water and unexposed fish. In the control fish, the epidermis have several hexa or polygonal mucous goblet cells which are uniform in shape and size, and microvilli-like structures are present in the mucous cells. An SEM study of the Cr-exposed epidermis revealed an increased number of active mucous cells having a dilated flask or cylindrical shape; they had lost their hexa or polygonal shape. Chromium exposure also caused focal necrosis and hypersecretion in these cells. The accumulation of excess mucus suggests a molecular interaction between mucus glycoprotein and toxic chromium ions. Such changes may result in osmoregulation failure and a loss resistance by the skin surface to a wide variety of fish pathogens.

Khangarot, B.S.; Tripathi, D.M. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Locknow (India))



Hair transplantation using a freely transferred nonhair-bearing skin flap.  


Cicatricial alopecia is a common sequela of burns involving the head region. The authors present a case of an extensive form of cicatricial alopecia in an 18-year-old female patient who sustained a burn to the head at 2 years of age. The patient was treated with combined scalp reduction with the aid of tissue expanders and micrografting of the freely transferred, preexpanded deep inferior epigastric artery nonhair-bearing skin flap. The aim of this article is to show that hair transplantation on the freely transferred nonhair-bearing skin flap may be associated with infection and fat necrosis, and the end result is not satisfactory, as in the cases of hair transplantation on a normal bald scalp. PMID:10597828

A?ao?lu, G; Mavili, E; Kostako?lu, N



Cryofibrinogenaemia: not just skin deep.  


A Caucasian woman in her 60s with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented to our institution complaining of