Science.gov

Sample records for warfarin-induced skin necrosis

  1. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis following heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Bilal; Candelario, Nicole M; Rochet, Nicole; Tran, Connie; Brau, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulants, such as heparin and warfarin, are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. The risk of developing warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) with warfarin is reported to be <1%. However, the risk of WISN may be increased with the initiation of warfarin in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome (HITT). WISN can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis requiring amputations and mass debridement. This report describes a case of WISN following HITT and discusses the appropriate medical management of patients with HITT to avoid secondary WISN. PMID:26722173

  2. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis following heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nicole M.; Rochet, Nicole; Tran, Connie; Brau, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulants, such as heparin and warfarin, are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic events. The risk of developing warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) with warfarin is reported to be <1%. However, the risk of WISN may be increased with the initiation of warfarin in the setting of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome (HITT). WISN can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis requiring amputations and mass debridement. This report describes a case of WISN following HITT and discusses the appropriate medical management of patients with HITT to avoid secondary WISN. PMID:26722173

  3. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis associated with acquired protein C deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Kurosh; Younger, Ian; Gallo, John

    2003-02-01

    A 36-year-old woman developed skin necrosis of the inner thighs following the re-introduction of warfarin after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She had a history of liver disease and cardiomyopathy and was on warfarin for 10 years. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis secondary to protein C deficiency was diagnosed. Although warfarin was ceased immediately, the prothrombin time measurements remained prolonged and warfarin levels remained therapeutic. Our patient, who had attached great significance to warfarin therapy, had continued the ingestion of warfarin despite our advice. She required three surgical debridements. Protein C levels, as measured 1 year later, were within normal limits, confirming the transient nature of the acquired deficiency during the acute event. This is the second reported case of warfarin necrosis associated with acquired protein C deficiency. PMID:12581084

  4. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis and venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhaijee, F; Wainwright, H; Meintjes, G; Wilkinson, R J; Todd, G; de Vries, E; Pepper, D J

    2012-01-01

    Background At the turn of the century, only 300 cases of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) had been reported. WISN is a rare but potentially fatal complication of warfarin therapy. There are no published reports of WISN occurring in patients with HIV-1 infection or tuberculosis (TB). Methods We retrospectively reviewed cases of WISN presenting from April 2005 to July 2008 at a referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Results Six cases of WISN occurred in 973 patients receiving warfarin therapy for venous thrombosis (0.62%, 95% CI 0.25 - 1.37%). All 6 cases occurred in HIV-1-infected women (median age 30 years, range 27 - 42) with microbiologically confirmed TB and venous thrombosis. All were profoundly immunosuppressed (median CD4+ count at TB diagnosis 49 cells/?l, interquartile range 23 - 170). Of the 3 patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, 2 had TB-IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). The median interval from initiation of antituberculosis treatment to venous thrombosis was 37 days (range 0 - 150). The median duration of parallel heparin and warfarin therapy was 2 days (range 1 - 6). WISN manifested 6 days (range 4 - 8) after initiation of warfarin therapy. The international normalised ratio (INR) at WISN onset was supra-therapeutic, median 5.6 (range 3.8 - 6.6). Sites of WISN included breasts, buttocks and thighs. Four of 6 WISN sites were secondarily infected with drug-resistant nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) 17 - 37 days after WISN onset. In 4 patients, the median interval from WISN onset to death was 43 days (range 25 - 45). One of the 2 patients who survived underwent bilateral mastectomies and extensive skin grafting at a specialist centre. Conclusion This is one of the largest case series of WISN. We report a novel clinical entity: WISN in HIV-1 infected patients with TB and venous thrombosis. The occurrence of 6 WISN cases in a 40-month period may be attributed to (i) hypercoagulability, secondary to HIV-1 and TB; (ii) short concurrent heparin and warfarin therapy; and (iii) high loading doses of warfarin. Active prevention and appropriate management of WISN are likely to improve the dire morbidity and mortality of this unusual condition. PMID:20529438

  5. Epinephrine Injection Associated Scrotal Skin Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Murat; Kaynar, Mehmet; Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, Ilhan; Goktas, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Male circumcision is among the most frequent surgical interventions throughout history. Although considered as a minor intervention, it may have complications ranging from insignificant to catastrophic. These complications can be attributed to the surgical procedure and anesthesia. In this report we present two cases of scrotal skin necrosis after lidocaine with epinephrine injection using subcutaneous ring block technique prior to circumcision. PMID:26185706

  6. Bullous Dermatitis and Skin Necrosis Developing after Adrenalin Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Alper; Baratal?, Emre; Meral, Ozge; Ergul, Ay?e Betul; Aslaner, Hmeyra; Coskun, Ramazan; Torun, Yasemin Altuner

    2015-01-01

    Extravasation of vasopressors can have serious complications varying from simple local reactions to skin necrosis and compartment syndrome. Here, we presented bullous dermatitis and skin necrosis which developed due to extravasation of adrenalin infusion in a Hodgkin lymphoma patient with septic shock who was admitted due febrile neutropenia. PMID:26644776

  7. Foot Skin Ischemic Necrosis following Heel Prick in a Newborn.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Esad; Ariguloglu, Erdal Avni; Koklu, Selmin

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports on side effects after heel prick in neonates although heel prick has been performed all over the world for many years. The medicine staff had obtained only a drop of blood by pricking the baby's heel using a lancet without compressing the heel or foot to measure his blood glucose level 3 hours after birth. However he developed a severe and hemorrhagic skin reaction on his entire left foot, beginning 30 minutes after obtaining the drop of blood by pricking the baby's heel using a lancet. The lesion, which was treated with topical mupirocin and povidone-iodine solution daily, slowly decreased in size and had almost fully resolved within 3 weeks. He was healthy and 9 months old at the time of writing this paper. We herein report a case of foot skin ischemic necrosis following heel prick in a newborn. To our knowledge this patient is the first case of foot skin ischemic necrosis due to heel prick in newborns. PMID:24288643

  8. Skin and soft tissue necrosis from calcium chloride in a deicer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min P; Raho, Vittorio J; Mak, John; Kaynar, A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Calcium chloride salt is the principle ingredient of many commercially available deicers. Calcium chloride melts snow and ice by its osmotic action. We present a case of skin and soft tissue necrosis associated with the use of a calcium chloride-containing deicer. Although calcium chloride is known to produce soft tissue necrosis if it extravasates during intravenous administration, necrosis and skin sloughing has rarely been described after topical exposure to this salt. Calcium chloride likely produces tissue injury from the heat liberated by mixing calcium chloride with water (exothermic reaction) and from direct calcium deposits in the skin (calcinosis cutis) and soft tissue. PMID:17239731

  9. Nasal Skin Necrosis: An Unexpected New Finding in Severe Chikungunya Fever.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Crdova, Leopoldo G; Saravia, Vctor; Arvelaez, Joanne; Castro, Julio S

    2016-01-01

    Three adult Venezuelan patients with virologically confirmed Chikungunya fever, who developed extensive acute nasal skin necrosis early in the course of a life-threatening illness characterized by shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, are discussed. One patient survived and fully recovered. Nasal necrosis has not previously been associated with the disease. PMID:26423381

  10. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Induced Skin Necrosis without Platelet Fall Revealing Immunoallergic Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Thomas; Perbet, Sbastien; Lebreton, Aurlien; Gayraud, Guillaume; Cayot, Sophie; Tremblay, Aymeric; Ravinet, Aurlie; Christophe, Sbastien; Gurin, Renaud; Pascal, Julien; Jabaudon, Matthieu; Hassan, Amr; Sapin, Anne-Franoise; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are commonly used in the ICU setting for thromboprophylaxis as well as curative decoagulation as required during renal replacement therapy (RRT). A rare adverse event revealing immunoallergic LMWH induced thrombopenia (HIT) is skin necrosis at injection sites. We report the case of a patient presenting with skin necrosis witnessing an HIT after RRT, without thrombocytopenia. The mechanism remains unclear. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, functional tests (HIPA and/or SRA), and skin biopsy are of great help to evaluate differential diagnosis with a low pretest probability 4T's score. PMID:24307958

  11. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Induced Skin Necrosis without Platelet Fall Revealing Immunoallergic Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Godet, Thomas; Perbet, Sbastien; Lebreton, Aurlien; Gayraud, Guillaume; Cayot, Sophie; Tremblay, Aymeric; Ravinet, Aurlie; Christophe, Sbastien; Gurin, Renaud; Pascal, Julien; Jabaudon, Matthieu; Hassan, Amr; Sapin, Anne-Franoise; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are commonly used in the ICU setting for thromboprophylaxis as well as curative decoagulation as required during renal replacement therapy (RRT). A rare adverse event revealing immunoallergic LMWH induced thrombopenia (HIT) is skin necrosis at injection sites. We report the case of a patient presenting with skin necrosis witnessing an HIT after RRT, without thrombocytopenia. The mechanism remains unclear. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, functional tests (HIPA and/or SRA), and skin biopsy are of great help to evaluate differential diagnosis with a low pretest probability 4T's score. PMID:24307958

  12. Prevention of skin flap necrosis by a course of treatment with vasodilator drugs.

    PubMed

    Finseth, F; Adelberg, M G

    1978-05-01

    Large island skin flaps, comprising the entire abdominal covering in rats, were raised on one neurovascular pedicle in the groin. A standard area of necrosis was produced on the other side from the pedicle. However, when the animals were treated with certain vasodilator drugs for 15 days before and 7 days after the flaps were raised, there was little or no necrosis. The effect of the drug therapy was the same as a surgical delay. PMID:347479

  13. Skin necrosis after calcium hydroxylapatite injection into the glabellar and nasolabial folds.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Dan; Jones, Yian; McCann, John D; Anderson, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Calcium hydroxylapatite-induced skin necrosis occurred in 2 patients after injection in the glabella and the nasolabial fold, respectively. Supportive treatment with oral steroids, nitroglycerin paste, and warm compresses was initiated more than 48 hours after injection, and its role in recovery is uncertain. Both patients underwent microdermabrasion and used hydrocortisone ointment to flatten the scar, which resulted in gradual improvement with a reasonable cosmetic outcome 4 months after injection. This is the first report of calcium hydroxylapatite-induced skin necrosis. Injectors should be aware of this potential adverse event and counsel their patients appropriately. PMID:19935263

  14. Computational modeling of skin: Using stress profiles as predictor for tissue necrosis in reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tepole, Adrin Buganza; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Local skin flaps have revolutionized reconstructive surgery. Mechanical loading is critical for flap survival: Excessive tissue tension reduces blood supply and induces tissue necrosis. However, skin flaps have never been analyzed mechanically. Here we explore the stress profiles of two common flap designs, direct advancement flaps and double back-cut flaps. Our simulations predict a direct correlation between regions of maximum stress and tissue necrosis. This suggests that elevated stress could serve as predictor for flap failure. Our model is a promising step towards computer-guided reconstructive surgery with the goal to minimize stress, accelerate healing, minimize scarring, and optimize tissue use. PMID:25225454

  15. TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification. PMID:22034513

  16. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  17. Skin Necrosis in a Patient with Factor V Leiden Mutation following Nipple Sparing Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cinar, Can

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and immediate breast reconstruction have replaced radical surgical interventions for the treatment of selected patients with breast cancer undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. NSM is technically a difficult procedure. After dissection, the remaining breast skin and nipple-areola complex (NAC) must be thin enough to be free of tumor tissue and thick enough to preserve tissue perfusion. Factor V Leiden mutation is the most common cause of hereditary thrombophilia; thrombosis almost always develops in the venous system. The literature includes only a few case series of arterial thrombosis. The present study aimed to describe for the first time a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation that developed nipple-areola complex and skin necrosis, and multiple embolisms in the upper extremity arteries following NSM. PMID:26579335

  18. Sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis in a nondialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Emily J.; Bell, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Calciphylaxis or uremic arteriolopathy is a complex process typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease, but has also been reported in patients with normal renal function. However, therapies for calciphylaxis are based on reports of traditional patients (i.e., end-stage renal disease). A mainstay of therapy, sodium thiosulfate (STS), has been shown to be effective for the treatment of calciphylaxis. Without a standardized therapy reported for nondialysis patients there is a need for evidence-based therapy. Here, we report a case of a 63-year-old woman with an acute injury on chronic kidney disease (CrClBaseline = 48 mL/min, CrClAKI = 36 mL/min), not requiring dialysis, with warfarin-induced calciphylaxis. After 4 weeks of therapy with STS, sevelamer, alendronate, and enzymatic debridement the patient subjectively reported slight improvement of the necrotic ulcers but developed cellulitis on her nonaffected limb. Additionally, after 12 weeks of therapy she was readmitted for renal failure and subsequently required dialysis.

  19. [Pharmaceutical care for a patient with warfarin-induced autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Li, L; Xu, J; Zhang, C

    2016-02-18

    Here we reported a patient with warfarin-induced autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and explored new concerns for the pharmaceutical care of warfarin. A 57- year-old woman was admitted to hospital for repeated anorexia, abdominal pain and abnormal liver function. She received prosthetic heart valve replacement because of rheumatic heart disease, and had started warfarin medication since 2 years before. Her liver function was elevated with highest alanine aminotransferase 861 U/L, aspertate aminotransferase 604 U/L, and total bilirubin 106.7 μmol/L. Her anticoagulant therapy was switched to low molecular weight heparin and the liver function returned to normal. The liver function was elevated when she started to take warfarin again. The patient was then on liver protection therapy, and warfarin was stopped again for the liver biopsy for diagnosis reason. Through medication consultation and evaluation, pharmacists were invited to work together with the physicians and helped to differentiate the reason for abnormal liver function, and provided therapeutic suggestions. Also the pharmacists gained experiences in the treatment of AIH, and discovered a new and severe adverse drug reaction for warfarin. In treating this case, the pharmacists'active involvement into the treatment and evaluation of the effect on the patient reflected the advantage and importance of the multidisciplinary cooperation for pharmacists and physicians when complex diseases are faced. PMID:26885933

  20. Skin Necrosis and Purpura Fulminans in Children With and Without Thrombophilia-A Tertiary Center's Experience.

    PubMed

    Fruchtman, Yariv; Strauss, Tzipora; Rubinstein, Marina; Ben Harush, Miriam; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Kapelushmik, Joseph; Paret, Gideon; Kenet, Gili

    2015-10-01

    Purpura fulminans (PF) is a very rare clinicopathologic skin disorder comprising dermal microvascular thrombosis associated with perivascular hemorrhage of multiple origins. It may occur as the presenting symptom of severe congenital deficiency of protein C (PC) or protein S (PS) during the newborn period, or later in life following oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists, or of sepsis that may be associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment consists of anticoagulants and PC concentrates during acute episodes. We report our experience in the diagnosis and management of pediatric PF. The medical records of the 6 children aged 2-16years (median: 5years) who presented with PF to our tertiary care center between 1996 and 2013 were studied. The thrombophilia workup revealed either the presence of congenital homozygous PC deficiency, prothrombotic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden and FIIG20210A heterozygosity), acquired PC/PS deficiency, or no discernible thrombophilia. The skin necrosis resolved following conservative fresh-frozen plasma/anticoagulant therapy in 2 cases, whereas 3 children required interventional plastic surgery. The sixth case, a 10-year-old child with severe PC deficiency, heterozygous factor V Leiden, and FIIG20210A, received recombinant activated PC. PF in childhood is rare and has multiple etiologies. Understanding of the variable pathogenesis and risk factors will facilitate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management. PMID:26436558

  1. Skin Necrosis Resulting from Nontarget Embolization of the Falciform Artery during Transarterial Chemoembolization with Drug-Eluting Beads

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mitchell T.; Johnson, David Thor; Gipson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial embolic therapies are a mainstay of liver-directed therapies to palliate symptoms, improve survival, and bridge patients to transplantation. Vascular anatomy and type of embolic used can lead to complications of nontarget embolization with varying clinical consequences. This case report describes a rare, nontarget embolization of the falciform artery leading to supraumbilical skin necrosis. PMID:25762844

  2. Experimental work with isoxuprine for prevention of skin flap necrosis and for treatment of the failing flap.

    PubMed

    Finseth, F; Adelberg, M G

    1979-01-01

    The administration of isoxuprine intraperitoneally resulted in the complete survival of abdominal island skin flaps in rats that otherwise underwent a standard pattern of necrosis. The drug was effective when administered for two weeks before and one week after raising the flap, or when administered afterwards alone. The mechanisms of its action were investigated and are described. PMID:372989

  3. Reconstruction of cubital fossa skin necrosis with radial collateral artery perforator-based propeller flap (RCAP).

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Gandolfi, S; Ho Quoc, C; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, perforator flaps have become an indispensable tool for the reconstruction process. Most recently, "propeller" perforator flaps allow each perforator vessels to become a flap donor site. Once the perforator of interest is identified by acoustic Doppler, the cutaneous or fascio-cutaneous island is designed and then customized according to the principle of "perforasome". So, the flap can be rotated such a propeller, up to 180. Ideally the donor site is self-closing, otherwise it can be grafted at the same time. Through a skin necrosis secondary to a contrast medium extravasation of the cubital fossa in a 47-year-old man, we describe the use of propeller perforator flap based on a perforator of the radial collateral artery (RCAP). The perforator was identified preoperatively by acoustic Doppler then the flap was adapted bespoke to cover the loss of substance. Ultimately, the result was very satisfying. Well experienced for lower-extremity reconstruction, perforator-based propeller flap are still few reported for upper limb. It is likely that in the future, propeller flap supersede in many indication not only free flaps and locoregional flaps but also, leaving no room for uncertainties of the vascular network, the classic random flaps. PMID:23891106

  4. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  5. Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Br, Tams; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  6. The Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Molecule LIGHT Promotes Keratinocyte Activity and Skin Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Herro, Rana; Antunes, Ricardo Da S; Aguilera, Amelia R; Tamada, Koji; Croft, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Several inflammatory diseases including scleroderma and atopic dermatitis display dermal thickening, epidermal hypertrophy, or excessive accumulation of collagen. Factors that might promote these features are of interest for clinical therapy. We previously reported that LIGHT, a TNF superfamily molecule, mediated collagen deposition in the lungs in response to allergen. We therefore tested whether LIGHT might similarly promote collagen accumulation and features of skin fibrosis. Strikingly, injection of recombinant soluble LIGHT into naive mice, either subcutaneously or systemically, promoted collagen deposition in the skin and dermal and epidermal thickening. This replicated the activity of bleomycin, an antibiotic that has been previously used in models of scleroderma in mice. Moreover skin fibrosis induced by bleomycin was dependent on endogenous LIGHT activity. The action of LIGHT in vivo was mediated via both of its receptors, HVEM and LT?R, and was dependent on the innate cytokine TSLP and TGF-?. Furthermore, we found that HVEM and LT?R were expressed on human epidermal keratinocytes and that LIGHT could directly promote TSLP expression in these cells. We reveal an unappreciated activity of LIGHT on keratinocytes and suggest that LIGHT may be an important mediator of skin inflammation and fibrosis in diseases such as scleroderma or atopic dermatitis. PMID:25789702

  7. Blockade of Thrombospondin-1-CD47 Interactions Prevents Necrosis of Full Thickness Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Jeff S; Pappan, Loretta K.; Romeo, Martin J; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Wink, David A.; Frazier, William A.; Roberts, David D

    2008-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 is a potent physiologic regulator of nitric oxide driven blood flow and angiogenesis. This regulation requires the cell receptor CD47. In a murine model of skin graft survival we demonstrate that endogenous thrombospondin-1 limits graft survival via CD47 and targeting CD47 with antibodies or suppressing CD47 with a morpholino oligonucleotide enhances graft survival by blocking this pathway. Background Skin graft survival and healing requires rapid restoration of blood flow to the avascular graft. Failure or delay in the process of graft vascularization is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. One of the primary regulators of blood flow and vessel growth is nitric oxide (NO). The secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) limits NO-stimulated blood flow and growth and composite tissue survival to ischemia. We herein demonstrate a role for TSP1 in regulating full thickness skin graft survival. Methods and Results Full thickness skin grafts (FTSG) consistently fail in wild type C57 Bl/6 mice but survive in mice lacking TSP1 or its receptor CD47. Ablation of the TSP1 receptor CD36, however, did not improve FTSG survival. Remarkably, wild type FTSG survived on TSP1 null or CD47 null mice, indicating that TSP1 expression in the wound bed is the primary determinant of graft survival. FTSG survival in wild type mice could be moderately improved by increasing NO flux, but graft survival was increased significantly through antibody blocking of TSP1 binding to CD47 or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide suppression of CD47. Conclusions TSP1 through CD47 limits skin graft survival. Blocking TSP1 binding or suppressing CD47 expression drastically increased graft survival. The therapeutic applications of this approach could include burn patients and the broader group of people requiring grafts or tissue flaps for closure and reconstruction of complex wounds of diverse etiologies. PMID:18156939

  8. Skin sensitization induced Langerhans cell mobilization: variable requirements for tumour necrosis factor-?

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Laura H; Roberts, Ruth A; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Metryka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Upon antigen/allergen recognition, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are mobilized and migrate to the local lymph node where they play a major role in initiating or regulating immune responses. It had been proposed that all chemical allergens induce LC migration via common cytokine signals delivered by TNF-? and IL-1?. Here the dependence of LC migration on TNF-? following treatment of mice with various chemical allergens has been investigated. It was found that under standard conditions the allergens oxazolone, paraphenylene diamine, and trimellitic anhydride, in addition to the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate, were unable to trigger LC mobilization in the absence of TNF-? signalling. In contrast, two members of the dinitrohalobenezene family (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB] and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene [DNFB]) promoted LC migration independently of TNF-R2 (the sole TNF-? receptor expressed by LC) and TNF-? although the presence of IL-1? was still required. However, increasing doses of oxazolone overcame the requirement of TNF-? for LC mobilization, whereas lower doses of DNCB were still able to induce LC migration in a TNF-?-independent manner. These novel findings demonstrate unexpected heterogeneity among chemical allergens and furthermore that LC can be induced to migrate from the epidermis via different mechanisms that are either dependent or independent of TNF-?. Although the exact mechanisms with regard to the signals that activate LC have yet to be elucidated, these differences may translate into functional speciation that will likely impact on the extent and quality of allergic sensitization. PMID:25039377

  9. Skin sensitization induced Langerhans' cell mobilization: variable requirements for tumour necrosis factor-?.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Laura H; Roberts, Ruth A; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Metryka, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Upon antigen/allergen recognition, epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are mobilized and migrate to the local lymph node where they play a major role in initiating or regulating immune responses. It had been proposed that all chemical allergens induce LC migration via common cytokine signals delivered by TNF-? and IL-1?. Here the dependence of LC migration on TNF-? following treatment of mice with various chemical allergens has been investigated. It was found that under standard conditions the allergens oxazolone, paraphenylene diamine, and trimellitic anhydride, in addition to the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate, were unable to trigger LC mobilization in the absence of TNF-? signalling. In contrast, two members of the dinitrohalobenezene family (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB] and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene [DNFB]) promoted LC migration independently of TNF-R2 (the sole TNF-? receptor expressed by LC) and TNF-? although the presence of IL-1? was still required. However, increasing doses of oxazolone overcame the requirement of TNF-? for LC mobilization, whereas lower doses of DNCB were still able to induce LC migration in a TNF-?-independent manner. These novel findings demonstrate unexpected heterogeneity among chemical allergens and furthermore that LC can be induced to migrate from the epidermis via different mechanisms that are either dependent or independent of TNF-?. Although the exact mechanisms with regard to the signals that activate LC have yet to be elucidated, these differences may translate into functional speciation that will likely impact on the extent and quality of allergic sensitization. PMID:25039377

  10. Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  12. A study of the treatment time necessary for the vasodilator drug isoxsuprine to prevent necrosis in a skin flap.

    PubMed

    Zide, B; Buncke, H J; Finseth, F

    1980-07-01

    These results show that administration of isoxsuprine at least 13 days prior to flap elevation and continuance at least 7 days postoperatively does lead to completre survival of the abdominal neurovascular island skin flap in the rat. PMID:7426818

  13. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis in postpartum deep venous thrombosis complicated by nicoumalone-induced skin necrosis and failure in retrieval of inferior vena caval filter

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, B C; Patra, Soumya; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important cause for maternal morbidity and mortality in postpartum period. Though catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is now considered as a safe and effective therapy for the management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but still it is not indicated in postpartum DVT. We are presenting a case of 22-year-old female patient who presented with post-partum lower limb DVT and managed successfully with CDT by using injection streptokinase and temporary inferior vena caval filter was inserted as prophylactic for pulmonary embolism as she had extensive DVT extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). During follow-up, she developed large skin necrosis in left lower limb which was managed by adding injection low-molecular-weight heparin. IVC filter also could not be retrieved even after trying all manoeuvres during follow-up after 2?weeks. PMID:23887994

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-?-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    gren, Magnus S.; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H.; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-? on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-? (10ng/ml) in the absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-? (p<0.005) and accomplished by MMPs (p<0.005). Levels of the collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13 were insignificant and neither MMP-2 nor MMP-14 were associated with increased collagen degradation. TNF-? increased secretion of MMP-1 (p<0.01) but had no impact on MMP-1 quantities in the tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed similar tissue MMP-1 expression with or without TNF-? with epidermis being the major source of MMP-1. Increased tissue-derived collagenolytic activity with TNF-? exposure was blocked by neutralizing MMP-1 monoclonal antibody and was not due to down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. TNF-? increased production (p<0.01), tissue levels (p<0.005) and catalytic activity of the endogenous MMP-1 activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs=0.68, p<0.05) and was attenuated with selective MMP-3 inhibitor. Type I collagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-?. TNF-? had no significant effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-? augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin. PMID:25457675

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-?-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo.

    PubMed

    gren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may disrupt skin integrity. We have investigated the effects and mechanisms of exogenous TNF-? on collagen degradation by incubating human skin explants in defined serum-free media with or without TNF-? (10ng/ml) in the absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-? (p<0.005) and accomplished by MMPs (p<0.005). Levels of the collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13 were insignificant and neither MMP-2 nor MMP-14 were associated with increased collagen degradation. TNF-? increased secretion of MMP-1 (p<0.01) but had no impact on MMP-1 quantities in the tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed similar tissue MMP-1 expression with or without TNF-? with epidermis being the major source of MMP-1. Increased tissue-derived collagenolytic activity with TNF-? exposure was blocked by neutralizing MMP-1 monoclonal antibody and was not due to down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. TNF-? increased production (p<0.01), tissue levels (p<0.005) and catalytic activity of the endogenous MMP-1 activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs=0.68, p<0.05) and was attenuated with selective MMP-3 inhibitor. Type I collagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-?. TNF-? had no significant effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-? augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin. PMID:25457675

  16. Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Washington Y.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington H.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo human skin has been used extensively for cosmeceutical and drug delivery studies, transplantable skin allografts, or skin flaps. However, it has a half-life of a few days due to ischemic necrosis. Traditional methods of assessing viability can be time-consuming and provide limited metabolic information. Using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) we assess ischemic necrosis of ex vivo skin by NAD(P)H autofluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime. Ex vivo skin is stored in the presence and absence of nutrient media (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium) at -20, 4, and 37 C and room temperature over a 7-day time course to establish different rates of metabolic deterioration. At higher temperatures we observe a decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, higher image noise, and a significant increase in the average fluorescence lifetime (?m) from ~1000 to 2000 ps. Additionally, significant distortions in NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime histograms correspond to the reduction in autofluorescence. Skin kept at 4 C, with or without media, showed the least change. Our findings suggest that MPT-FLIM enables useful noninvasive optical biopsies to monitor the metabolic state and deterioration of human skin for research and clinical purposes.

  17. Paradoxical Autoinflammatory Skin Reaction to Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Blockers Manifesting as Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Angelo V; Tavecchio, Simona; Berti, Emilio; Gelmetti, Carlo; Cugno, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The therapy of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, may be associated with a number of cutaneous adverse effects, including psoriasis-like, eczema-like, and lichenoid eruptions. Other rare skin complications are neutrophilic dermatoses such as amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (APF), which is a chronic relapsing pustular disorder classified in this spectrum.The authors analyzed clinical, histopathologic, and cytokine expression profiles of 3 inflammatory bowel disease patients with APF triggered by adalimumab (patient 1) and infliximab (patients 2 and 3).All 3 patients presented with sterile pustules involving the cutaneous folds, genital regions, and scalp 6 months after starting adalimumab (patient 1) and 9 months after starting infliximab (patients 2 and 3). Histology was characterized by epidermal spongiform pustules with a dermal neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. Tumor necrosis factor blocker withdrawal associated with topical and systemic corticosteroids induced complete remission of APF in all 3 patients. The expressions of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and its receptors as well as TNF alpha and its receptors were significantly higher in APF than in controls. Also IL-17, leukocyte selectin, and chemokines, such as IL-8, [C-X-C motif] chemokine ligand 1/2/3 (C?=?cysteine, X?=?any amino acid), [C-X-C motif] chemokine ligand 16 (C?=?cysteine, X?=?any amino acid), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were significantly overexpressed. Finally, the authors found significant overexpression of both metalloproteinases 2/9 and their inhibitors 1/2.The observation of 3 patients with APF following anti-TNF therapy expands not only the clinical context of APF but also the spectrum of anti-TNF side effects. Overexpression of cytokines/chemokines and molecules amplifying the inflammatory network supports the view that APF is autoinflammatory in origin. PMID:26559252

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, and risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer: cohort study based on nationwide prospectively recorded data from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Julia F; Asker Hagelberg, Charlotte; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologic drugs, in patients starting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment, and in the general population. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data from Sweden. Participants Cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis naive to biologics (n=46 409), cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting TNF inhibitor treatment as first biologic in 1998-2012 (n=12 558), and matched general population comparator cohort, identified through national quality of care and health registers. Main outcome measure Hazard ratio of first in situ or invasive squamous cell skin cancer (1998-2012) and first basal cell cancer (2004-12). Results For basal cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.41) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.33; 236 v 1587 events) comparing TNF inhibitor treated patients with biologics-naive patients. For squamous cell cancer, the hazard ratio was 1.88 (1.74 to 2.03) comparing biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population and 1.30 (1.10 to 1.55; 191 v 847 events) comparing TNF inhibitors with biologics-naive patients; the latter translated to an annual number needed to harm in the order of 1600. Among people with a history of squamous cell or basal cell cancer, TNF inhibitors did not further increase risks. Conclusion A small to moderately increased risk of basal cell cancer was seen in biologics-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients, with no further effect of TNF inhibitors. For squamous cell cancer, the risk was nearly doubled in biologics-naive patients, with a further 30% increase in risk among patients treated with TNF inhibitors; this translates to one additional case for every 1600 years of treatment experience, assuming that this association reflected causality. Vigilance regarding skin malignancies may be advisable in rheumatoid arthritis, irrespective of TNF inhibitor treatment. Most of the increase in risk for non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF inhibitors originates from factors other than that treatment. PMID:26823527

  19. Risk of skin and soft tissue infections (including shingles) in patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, James B; Mercer, Louise K; Moseley, Alison; Dixon, William G; Ustianowski, Andrew P; Helbert, Matthew; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah PM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, BSRBR was established to evaluate the safety of these agents. This paper addresses the safety of anti-TNF therapy in RA with specific reference to serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSSI) and shingles. Methods A cohort of anti-TNF-treated patients was recruited alongside a comparator group with active RA treated with non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARD). 11 881 anti-TNF and 3673 nbDMARD patients were analysed. Follow-up was by 6-monthly questionnaires to patients and clinicians. Analyses considered SSSI and shingles separately. Incidence rates (IR) were calculated and then compared using survival analyses. Results The crude IR for SSSI were: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8); nbDMARD 0.7/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and shingles: anti-TNF 1.6/100 patient-years (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0); nbDMARD 0.8/100 patient-years (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). Adjusted HR were SSSI 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4), shingles 1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). For SSSI, no significant differences were seen between anti-TNF agents. For shingles, the lowest risk was observed for adalimumab (adjusted HR vs nbDMARD) 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and highest for infliximab (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.4)). Conclusion A significantly increased risk of shingles was observed in the anti-TNF-treated cohort. The risk of SSSI tended towards being greater with anti-TNF treatment but was not statistically significant. As with any observational dataset cause and effect cannot be established with certainty as residual confounding may remain. This finding would support the evaluation of zoster vaccination in this population. PMID:22532633

  20. Avascular Necrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-induced Proteolytic Activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Human Skin Is Controlled by Down-regulating Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 and Mediated by Tissue-associated Chymotrypsin-like Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuan-Ping; Nien, Yih-Dar; Garner, Warren L.

    2008-01-01

    The proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by conversion of the 92-kDa precursor into an 82-kDa active form has been observed in chronic wounds, tumor metastasis, and many inflammation-associated diseases, yet the mechanistic pathway to control this process has not been identified. In this report, we show that the massive expression and activation of MMP-9 in skin tissue from patients with chronically unhealed wounds could be reconstituted in vitro with cultured normal human skin by stimulation with transforming growth factor-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. We dissected the mechanistic pathway for TNF-? induced activation of pro-MMP-9 in human skin. We found that proteolytic activation of pro-MMP-9 was mediated by a tissue-associated chymotrypsin-like proteinase, designated here as pro-MMP-9 activator (pM9A). This unidentified activator specifically converted pro-MMP-9 but not pro-MMP-2, another member of the gelatinase family. The tissue-bound pM9A was steadily expressed and not regulated by TNF-?, which indicated that the cytokine-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 might be regulated at the inhibitor level. Indeed, the skin constantly secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at the basal state. TNF-?, but not transforming growth factor-?, down-regulated this inhibitor. The TNF-?-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 was tightly associated with down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in a dose-dependent manner. To establish this linkage, we demonstrate that the recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 could block the activation of pro-MMP-9 by either the intact skin or skin fractions. Thus, these studies suggest a novel regulation for the proteolytic activation of MMP-9 in human tissue, which is mediated by tissue-bound activator and controlled by down-regulation of a specific inhibitor. PMID:12004062

  2. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  3. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  4. Mastectomy Weight and Tissue Expander Volume Predict Necrosis and Increased Costs Associated with Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yalanis, Georgia C.; Nag, Shayoni; Georgek, Jakob R.; Cooney, Carisa M.; Manahan, Michele A.; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired vascular perfusion in tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction leads to mastectomy skin necrosis. We investigated factors and costs associated with skin necrosis in postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Methods: Retrospective review of 169 women with immediate TE placement following mastectomy between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013 was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were collected. Logistic regression analysis on individual variables was performed to determine the effects of tissue expander fill volume and mastectomy specimen weight on skin necrosis. Billing data was obtained to determine the financial burden associated with necrosis. Results: This study included 253 breast reconstructions with immediate TE placement from 169 women. Skin necrosis occurred in 20 flaps for 15 patients (8.9%). Patients with hypertension had 8 times higher odds of skin necrosis [odd ratio (OR), 8.10, P < 0.001]. Patients with TE intraoperative fill volumes >300 cm3 had 10 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 10.66, P =0.010). Volumes >400 cm3 had 15 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 15.56, P = 0.002). Mastectomy specimen weight was correlated with skin necrosis. Specimens >500 g had 10 times higher odds of necrosis and specimens >1000 g had 18 times higher odds of necrosis (OR, 10.03 and OR, 18.43; P =0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Mastectomy skin necrosis was associated with a 50% increased inpatient charge. Conclusion: Mastectomy flap necrosis is associated with HTN, larger TE volumes and mastectomy specimen weights, resulting in increased inpatient charges. Conservative TE volumes should be considered for patients with hypertension and larger mastectomy specimens. PMID:26301139

  5. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sickle cell anemia Urinary tract blockage Sickle cell anemia is a common cause of renal papillary necrosis in children. ... Controlling diabetes or sickle cell anemia may reduce your risk. To ... using medications, including over-the-counter pain relievers.

  6. [An unsual case of an extensive heat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Redi, Th

    2004-12-01

    We report on an unusual case of an extensive heat necrosis of the tibia and its surrounding tissues including the skin after closed IM nailing. The first clinical sign appeared shortly after the procedure as circular skin necrosis over the tibial crest. The severe necrosis of a bone segment, the surrounding soft parts as well as the skin was probably the sequella of reaming of a pathologically altered bone with the tourniquet inflated. Only after a free latissimus dorsi transfer and the resection of the dead bone that was then bridged by a segmental bone transport according to the Ilizarov technique the situation could be salvaged. We concluded that reaming with the tourniquet inflated should never be done, as it can cause severe damage due to abnormal heat generation. PMID:15651167

  7. Nicolau syndrome: an iatrogenic cutaneous necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nischal, Kc; Basavaraj, Hb; Swaroop, Mr; Agrawal, Dp; Sathyanarayana, Bd; Umashankar, Np

    2009-07-01

    Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists. PMID:20808597

  8. [Mediastinal fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Neuville, M; Taill, C; Debray, M-P; Aubier, M; Crestani, B

    2015-03-01

    Epicardial fat necrosis is a rare cause of benign chest pain. Its physiopathological mechanism is unknown. Diagnosis is easily performed through radiological investigations that show a round opacity of fat density limited by a dense pseudo-capsule in the anterior mediastinum, close to the heart. PMID:25725982

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  10. Chin Necrosis as a Consequence of Prone Positioning in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Daniel Lee John; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pressure necrosis of the skin is a rarely reported avoidable complication of prone positioning that can be minimised by active collaboration between care teams. We report a case of pressure necrosis of the chin after prone ventilation in the intensive care setting. Such injuries pose a risk of infection, possible need for surgical intervention, and increased costs to the health care system. Pressure necrosis injuries should be diligently guarded against by the careful selection of support devices, frequent turning, and rigorous skin care to minimise extended external compression, particularly on the face and bony prominences. PMID:25810723

  11. Cerebral radiation necrosis.

    PubMed

    Na, Angelika; Haghigi, Neda; Drummond, Katharine J

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral radiation-induced injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late irreversible radiation necrosis (RN). Cerebral RN is poorly responsive to treatment, is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death. We review the literature regarding cerebral RN after radiotherapy for various brain and head and neck lesions and discuss its clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment. For new enhancing lesions on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, apart from tumor progression or recurrence, RN needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Further studies are required to design chemoradiotherapy protocols that are effective in treating tumors while minimizing risk of RN. Current available treatments for RN, steroid and surgery, only relieve the mass effect. None of the experimental treatments to date have consistently been shown to reverse the pathologic process of RN. PMID:24175987

  12. Skin lumps

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin lumps are any abnormal bumps or swellings on the skin. ... Common causes of skin lumps include: Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and ...

  13. Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  14. Dry skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

  15. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Skin Biopsy ... Preparation The Procedure Safety Results What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  16. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  17. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  19. Ionic skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Keplinger, Christoph; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    Electronic skins (i.e., stretchable sheets of distributed sensors) report signals using electrons, whereas natural skins report signals using ions. Here, ionic conductors are used to create a new type of sensory sheet, called "ionic skin". Ionic skins are highly stretchable, transparent, and biocompatible. They readily measure strains from 1% to 500%, and pressures as low as 1 kPa. PMID:25355528

  20. [Skin lesions and joint involvement in purpura fulminans (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Allouis, M; Catier, P; Bracq, H; Babut, J M

    1980-10-01

    Until recently, purpura fulminans had a very prognosis. It can now be treated and the patient may survive but extensive skin necrosis may lead to septic arthritis. The authors have observed 4 cases of this disease. 3 had to suffer amputation of a lower limb. They describe the type of care recommended in order to limit the extent of the necrosis. PMID:6450996

  1. Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting. PMID:22570780

  2. Programmed necrosis in microbial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Haripriya; Upton, Jason W

    2014-04-01

    Programmed cell death is an important facet of host-pathogen interactions. Although apoptosis has long been implicated as the major form of programmed cell death in host defense, the past decade has seen the emergence of other forms of regulated death, including programmed necrosis. While the molecular mechanisms of programmed necrosis continue to be unveiled, an increasing number of viral and bacterial pathogens induce this form of death in host cells, with important consequences for infection, control, and pathogenesis. Moreover, pathogen strategies to manipulate or utilize this pathway are now being discovered. In this review, we focus on a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens where a role for programmed necrosis is starting to be appreciated. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic details of how the host or the pathogen might appropriate this pathway for its own benefit. PMID:24565922

  3. On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.

    PubMed

    OPIE, E L

    1962-03-01

    Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation. PMID:14482110

  4. Tail tip necrosis in Ontario beef feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Drolia, Helen; Luescher, U. Andrew; Meek, Alan H.; Wilcock, Brian P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were performed to establish the prevalence and importance of tail tip necrosis in the southern Ontario beef feedlot industry and to characterize the gross appearance and histopathology of the condition. In a mail survey, 96% of 71 feedlots with slatted floors, but only 5% of 184 feedlots with solid floors, reported a problem with tail tip necrosis from 1982-1986. Treatments reported included antibiotics, amputation of the tail (therapeutic or preventive), and slaughter. Lameness was associated with tail tip necrosis. A scoring system for severity of necrosis was developed. Repeated inspections revealed that mild lesions were unlikely to progress to more severe stages. Histological alterations such as perivascular edema and hemorrhage, dermal scarring, follicular atrophy, and paucity of leukocytes were compatible with cutaneous ischemia. Of 441 tails inspected at slaughter plants, 34.5% were affected, with 3.4% involving skin lacerations and infection, and 4.3% amputated before slaughter. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17423716

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Squamous cell carcinoma Stasis dermatitis Tattoo removal Tinea versicolor U - W ... of this very serious skin cancer. Learn more. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This skin cancer tends to form on ...

  6. Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess Contact Us Print Resources ...

  7. Skin Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  8. Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch What's your biggest skin worry? Don' ...

  9. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  10. Prediction of post-operative necrosis after mastectomy: A pilot study utilizing optical diffusion imaging spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Flap necrosis and epidermolysis occurs in 18-30% of all mastectomies. Complications may be prevented by intra-operative detection of ischemia. Currently, no technique enables quantitative valuation of mastectomy skin perfusion. Optical Diffusion Imaging Spectroscopy (ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter) measures the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin over a 1 × 1 cm area to obtain a non-invasive measurement of perfusion (StO2). Methods This study evaluates the ability of ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter to predict mastectomy flap necrosis. StO2 measurements were taken at five points before and at completion of dissection in 10 patients. Data collected included: demographics, tumor size, flap length/thickness, co-morbidities, procedure length, and wound complications. Results One patient experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Five patients underwent immediate reconstruction, including the patient with necrosis. Statistically significant factors contributing to necrosis included reduction in medial flap StO2 (p = 0.0189), reduction in inferior flap StO2 (p = 0.003), and flap length (p = 0.009). Conclusion StO2 reductions may be utilized to identify impaired perfusion in mastectomy skin flaps. PMID:19939277

  11. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  12. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: be aware of hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Cacace, Caterina; Meo, Petronilla; Guarneri, Claudio; Cannavo, Serafinella P

    2006-05-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, self-limiting panniculitis that usually occurs in full-term infants as a consequence of perinatal asphyxia. The cutaneous involvement may be associated with metabolic complications such as hypoglycaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, anemia and hypercalcaemia. The delayed onset of hypercalcaemia, 1-6 months after the development of the skin manifestations, imposes a prolonged follow-up to avoid its acute toxic effects on cardiovascular and renal systems and the more durable metastatic calcifications. PMID:16712567

  13. Exploring the prevalence of skin tears and skin properties related to skin tears in elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Minematsu, Takeo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nao; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Tabata, Keiko; Abe, Masatoshi; Murayama, Ryoko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-04-01

    The identification of appropriate skin tear prevention guidelines for the elderly requires clinicians to focus on local risk factors such as structural alterations of the epidermis and dermis related to skin tears. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore the prevalence of skin tears and to explore skin properties related to skin tears in elderly Japanese patients at a long-term medical facility. After doing the prevalence study, 18 participants with skin tears and 18 without were recruited and an evaluation of their skin properties using 20-MHz ultrasonography, skin blotting and also Corneometer CM-825, Skin-pH-meterPH905, VapoMeter, Moisture Meter-D and CutometerMPA580 was undertaken. A total of 410 patients were examined, the median age was 87 years and 73·2% were women. The prevalence of skin tears was 3·9%, and 50% of skin tears occurred on the dorsal forearm. The changes in skin properties associated with skin tears included increased low-echogenic pixels (LEP) by 20-MHz ultrasonography, decreased type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and increased tumour necrosis factor-α by skin blotting. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased dermal LEP, including solar elastosis, may represent a risk factor for skin tears; this indicates that skin tear risk factors might not only represent chronological ageing but also photoageing. PMID:24674027

  14. The incidence of fat necrosis in balloon-based breast brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vallow, Laura; Magalhaes, Wilza; Heckman, Michael G.; Kim, Siyong; Smith, Ashley; Diehl, Nancy N.; McLaughlin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for fat necrosis in high dose-rate (HDR) balloon-based breast brachytherapy (BBB). Material and methods Fifty-four patients were treated postoperatively with HDR-BBB between May 2007 and December 2010. Median age was 71 years (range: 50-88 years). Median tumor size was 1 cm (range: 0.1-2.7 cm). Forty-four had invasive histology; 43% were grade 1, 24% grade 2, and 15% grade 3. The median margin size was 0.7 cm (range: 0.1-1.5 cm). Results With a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range: 0.5-5.2 years), local control was 98% with one in-breast failure, and overall survival was 89%. Fifty percent of patients experienced fat necrosis. Seven patients were symptomatic, with the remainder detected by mammography alone. Two patients required surgical resection with pathology confirming fat necrosis; 1 required i.v. steroids. At 1, 3, and 5 years following treatment, estimated cumulative incidences of fat necrosis were 7.5%, 52.7%, and 60.6%. Breast laterality, location, tumor size, histology, margin size, balloon volume, skin distance, skin dose, and number of dwell positions were not significantly associated with fat necrosis on univariate analysis. Conclusions In this retrospective review of HDR-BBB, we found a 50% incidence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic fat necrosis. Only three patients, however, required intervention. None of the risk factors considered were significantly associated with fat necrosis. Further studies evaluating factors associated with fat necrosis for patients undergoing HDR-BBB are necessary to appropriately assess the risks associated with treatment. PMID:25829934

  15. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePLUS

    ... layers of skin from the donor site (the epidermis) and the layer under the epidermis (the dermis). The donor site can be any ... Orgill DP. Skin graft. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap ...

  17. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  18. Visceral brown fat necrosis in postperinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, T J; Variend, S

    1987-01-01

    Fat necrosis was present in 22 of 400 cases of consecutive postperinatal mortalities investigated to assess the presence and pattern of deep fat necrosis. In just over 50% of the cases of fat necrosis the cause of death was categorised as sudden infant death syndrome, which also showed more severe degrees of necrosis. The mechanism of necrosis may be vascular hypoperfusion, possibly related to shock, and brown adipose tissue, on account of its high metabolic activity and rich capillary plexus, may be particularly vulnerable to infarction. The occurrence of fat necrosis in association with other causes of death did not provide any definite clue as to the nature of the alleged shock. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3654989

  19. Conservatively treated extended tracheal necrosis complicating pharyngolaryngectomy.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Julien; Fournier, Clement; Surmei, Ecaterina; Bellier, Jocelyn; Porte, Henri Lucien

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis is a rare life-threatening phenomenon that most often occurs after thyroid operations or prolonged intubation. Conservative treatment can be one choice in extensive tracheal necrosis. We report the case of a 59-year-old man, with tracheal necrosis that developed after pharyngolaryngectomy, that we treated conservatively using hyperbaric oxygen therapy and antibiotic therapy. The follow-up was assured by tracheobronchoscopy. A year after his discharge, the trachea was totally healed. PMID:25952216

  20. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galts, Ignasi; Gallego, Mara ngeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumad, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  1. [Bitemporal scalp necrosis : a very rare manifestation of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Valesky, E M; Wahle, M; Vranes, S; Wolter, M; Kaufmann, R; Meissner, M

    2012-11-01

    A 71-year-old woman developed progressive spreading of bitemporal scalp necrosis within 4 weeks accompanied by headaches, myalgia of the shoulder girdle and muscle weakness that had started a few months previously. No additional diseases were reported. The suspected temporal giant cell arteritis could be confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Therapy with glucocorticoids led to a rapid resolution of clinical symptoms and was tapered over 18 months. Recovery of the scalp necrosis emerged following second intention healing and split-skin transplantation of necrotic areas after successful wound conditioning. The case study demonstrates a rare and serious complication of temporal arteritis which is often accompanied by a poor prognosis. PMID:22930065

  2. Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  3. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Review. 21 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  6. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. They also have joints that can be ... genetic disorder that causes fragmentation and mineralization of elastic fibers in some tissues) Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma ...

  7. Skin turgor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... decreased tearing )? Tests that may be performed: Blood chemistry (such as a chem-20 ) CBC Urinalysis Intravenous fluids may be needed for severe dehydration. You may need medicines to treat other conditions that affect skin turgor and elasticity.

  8. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It usually takes less than a minute. The freezing may cause some discomfort. Your health care provider ... to pain and infection Scarring, especially if the freezing was prolonged or deeper areas of the skin ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  10. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  11. An unusual cause of toe necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bandawar, Mayur S.; Ansari, Mohammad S.; Behera, Arunanshu; Bhadada, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral vascular disease is a rare feature of pheochromocytoma. This potentially catastrophic but curable tumor should be suspected in combination of distal necrosis with hypertension and palpable pulses. We report such an unusual case of pheochromocytoma presenting as toe necrosis. PMID:23776872

  12. Thymic necrosis in slaughtered Nile crocodiles.

    PubMed

    Penrith, M L; Huchzermeyer, F W

    1993-09-01

    Foci of necrosis with formation of heterophilic granulomas in the medullary region of the thymus were found in apparently normal slaughtered crocodiles from 4 South African crocodile farms. The comparative pathology of these lesions is discussed. From these preliminary results it may be assumed that thymic necrosis occurs commonly in intensively reared slaughter crocodiles. The cause of this condition, however, remains obscure. PMID:8176686

  13. Cutaneous necrosis due to cetrimide application.

    PubMed Central

    August, P J

    1975-01-01

    Reports of necrosis caused by quaternary ammonium compounds, such as cetrimide, are rare. The case is reported of a 77-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital for four months with cutaneous necrosis of the left foot and leg owing to the topical application of cetrimide powder. Images p70-a PMID:1109661

  14. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  15. Molecular mechanisms of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Krautwald, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Linkermann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    It is now clear that apoptosis does not constitute the sole genetically encoded form of cell death. Rather, cells can spontaneously undertake or exogenously be driven into a cell death subroutine that manifests with necrotic features, yet can be inhibited by pharmacological and genetic interventions. As regulated necrosis (RN) plays a major role in both physiological scenarios (e.g., embryonic development) and pathological settings (e.g., ischemic disorders), consistent efforts have been made throughout the last decade toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cell death modality. Contrarily to initial beliefs, RN does not invariably result from the activation of a receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent signaling pathway, but may be ignited by distinct molecular networks. Nowadays, various types of RN have been characterized, including (but not limited to) necroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent RN and parthanatos. Of note, the inhibition of only one of these modules generally exerts limited cytoprotective effects in vivo, underscoring the degree of interconnectivity that characterizes RN. Here, we review the signaling pathways, pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic implications of the major molecular cascades that underlie RN. PMID:24582829

  16. Dermal absorption and skin damage following hydrofluoric acid exposure in an ex vivo human skin model.

    PubMed

    Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-04-25

    The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures. PMID:26930472

  17. Bone marrow necrosis in acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Navari, R M; Carter, J; Hillman, R S

    1983-01-01

    2 patients with premortem marrow necrosis in acute leukemia are discussed. A review of the course of each patient plus those in the literature suggests that premortem marrow necrosis may not be a poor prognostic sign in acute lymphoblastic leukemia but generally precedes a prolonged and fatal pancytopenia in acute myelogenous leukemia. The technetium-99m rhenium sulfur colloid marrow scan was found to be of value in assessing the extent and degree of necrosis of the marrow as well as in documenting and predicting marrow recovery following chemotherapy. PMID:6404098

  18. Transpapillary drainage of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smoczy?ski, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades the strategy of treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed. Endoscopic therapy of patients with symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis has a high rate of efficiency. Here we present a description of a patient with parenchymal limited necrosis of the pancreas and a disruption of the main pancreatic duct. In the treatment, active transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic necrosis (through the major duodenal papilla) was performed and insertion of an endoprosthesis into the main pancreatic duct (through the minor duodenal papilla) was applied, which enabled a bypass over the infiltration and resulted in complete resolution. PMID:26649102

  19. Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Solez, K.; Miller, M.; Quarles, P. A.; Finer, P. M.; Heptinstall, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    To test the thesis that vasoconstriction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis caused by bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA), medullary plasma flow was determined in rats treated with BEA. Medullary blood flow was normal ½ to 1 hour after BEA treatment, and was actually elevated 6 hours after BEA. There was no increase in plasma levels of prostaglandins A and E, which would have been expected if there had been medullary ischemia. Pretreatment with reserpine, which inhibited the development of papillary necrosis, had little effect on medullary plasma flow. These observations do not support the notion that vasoconstriction is the mechanism by which BEA causes papillary necrosis. PMID:4472110

  20. The role of tumor necrosis factor-? in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Salas-Alanis, Julio C

    2013-10-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired immune disorder of the skin characterized by the presence of white depigmented macules. Its immunopathogenesis is not completely understood, but inflammatory alterations in the skin microenvironment, and particularly increased expression of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), are thought to be essential regulators of melanocyte dysfunction and death. In this article we review the evidence that implicates TNF? in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, including studies on serum and tissue levels of TNF?, TNF? gene polymorphisms, in vitro studies, and therapeutic trials using TNF? inhibitors. TNF? emerges as a complex mediator with apparently conflicting roles in vitiligo. PMID:23912226

  1. Management of peristomal tissue necrosis following prepubic urethrostomy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C J; Kulendra, E; Perry, K L; Halfacree, Z J

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the successful management of peristomal tissue necrosis following prepubic urethrostomy in a cat. The novel technique of temporary urethral ligation was used in combination with temporary tube cystostomy and vacuum assisted closure to allow for wound management prior to performing wound closure by utilization of a flank fold skin flap then definitive prepubic urethrostomy. Eleven month follow-up indicated excellent outcome with the cat having returned to normal behaviour apart from having adapted its posture to urinate. PMID:22829103

  2. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis with multiple digital necrosis in viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Mironiuc, A; Comes, Lavinia; Constantinescu, Ioana; Mironiuc, Clara; Bontea, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) associated with viral hepatitis C (VHC) is halfway between classical autoimmune disease and neoplasia. The extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis C are various, their majority being due to mixed cryoglobulinemia. Patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis C often have mixed serum cryoglobulins, but only 5-10% of them will develop clinically manifest cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. CV symptomatology is most frequently obvious at skin level. The clinical manifestation characteristic of CV is purpura. Digital necrosis as the last stage of trophic disorders associated with CV has been rarely described in the literature. All CV types may be complicated by renal impairment. A 10-30% proportion of patients with VHC infection will develop glomerulonephritis. The treatment of cryobulinemic vasculitis associated with viral hepatitis C is focused on the reduction of viral load, the control of vasculitis symptoms using corticoids, plasmapheresis, immunosuppressive drugs, and the reduction of the amount of cryoglobulins acting on B lymphocytes. We present a rare case of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis with multiple digital necrosis associated with viral hepatitis C. PMID:19157277

  3. Endoscopic evaluation of infected pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Prinz, R A; Olen, R

    1991-09-01

    The most severe form of acute pancreatitis is characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma and/or peripancreatic tissue. Secondary infection of this necrotic tissue carries a high mortality because there is little limitation to the spread of this infection in the retroperitoneum. Improvements in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis have been achieved by techniques that allow complete removal of the infected debris. Problems still remain in identifying the extent of necrosis and removing all of it. Intraoperative endoscopy can be used to evaluate tracking of the infected process to other areas of the retroperitoneum. Direct visualization of the path that the necrotizing process has taken to areas of the retroperitoneum that are difficult to reach allows the dissection to be limited if there is no necrosis or expansion to remove all necrotic material completely. The endoscope can also be used to remove necrotic material either by irrigation or by direct debridement. The methodology of this technique is described. PMID:1669403

  4. Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus play an important role in experimental skin infection.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis. PMID:25051890

  5. Cortical necrosis in a renal transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhardt, R.; Growcock, G.; Lasher, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renogram is a well extabished noninvasive method for evaluating and following transplanted kidneys. The examination is useful in distinguishing rejection from acute tubular necrosis as well as demonstrating several less common complications such as vascular occlusion, urinary extravasation, obstruction, and lymphocele. A previously unreported condition involving a transplant kidney (i.e., renal cortical necrosis) is described which was diagnosed with renal scintigraphy in combination with sonography.

  6. Arterial injuries at the elbow carry a high risk of muscle necrosis and warrant urgent revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, AG; Berry, MG; Kirkpatrick, JJR; Lees, VC; McGrouther, DA

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Revascularisation following axial arterial system injury is effective in upper limb salvage but necrosis of muscle, the tissue most sensitive to ischaemia, may still occur. We examined the frequency of necrosis, its related factors and its functional significance. METHODS The clinical findings and operative management of 13 patients with injuries at the elbow referred to 2 plastic surgical hand surgery units over a 30-month period were reviewed. Good outcome was defined as minimal impairment with return to previous occupation, intermediate outcome as moderate impairment with change in occupation and poor outcome as major functional loss preventing work. RESULTS Seven patients injured the brachial and six injured both the radial and ulnar arteries. Concomitant injuries were severe with nerve injuries in 11 and muscle damage in 12 patients. Functional outcome was good in four cases, intermediate in four and poor in five. Muscle necrosis developed in four brachial artery injuries. In all four cases, initial successful revascularisation failed post-operatively. Case review revealed delayed recognition in three cases where pain heralded ischaemia but distal skin circulation and pulses were adequate. Of patients with necrosis, three had a poor outcome and one had an intermediate outcome. CONCLUSIONS The risk of muscle necrosis must be considered when managing these injuries, particularly if initial revascularisation is unsuccessful. Every effort should be made to optimise repair technique and post-operative monitoring. Limb salvage is no longer enough. Fully viable muscle is necessary to restore function and livelihoods. PMID:22391384

  7. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.40.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.00.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  8. Skin lesion aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a skin lesion (sore). ... A needle is put into skin sore or skin abscess , which may contain fluid or pus. The fluid may be examined under a microscope. A sample of ...

  9. Aging Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Use sunscreen that has a high SPF number (15 or higher). It should also protect your skin from both UVA and UVB rays. Experts recommend using sunscreen daily, year-round — especially on your face. If you're out in the sun for a long time, protect your ears and scalp with a hat. For ...

  10. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  11. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  12. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  13. Skin deep.

    PubMed

    Hadgraft, Jonathan

    2004-09-01

    Over the past 30 or so years there has been a considerable advance in our knowledge of the mechanisms of skin permeation. This has largely been brought about by the development of sophisticated biophysical techniques and increased computing powers. The advanced technology has clearly provided indications, at a molecular level, about routes of permeation and how the barrier function can be modulated by excipients with which actives are formulated. This publication reviews some of the advances that have been made and mathematical models that have been constructed to predict percutaneous penetration and transdermal delivery. The models also indicate the various enhancement strategies that can be used in dermal penetration. In the past, it has been difficult to identify precise mechanisms of action of the different classes of enhancer but a combination of appropriate biophysical techniques, mathematical modelling and chemometric analysis can help identify the contributing processes. The models can also be used to indicate rate control in transdermal delivery, whether it is in the applied delivery device or in the skin. PMID:15296956

  14. [Skin-sparing surgical revision in a woman with necrotizing fasciitis in her face].

    PubMed

    ten Voorde, Pia Cajsa; Breiting, Bro; Ebbesen, Liselotte Sabroe

    2015-06-22

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infection which is treated with aggressive debridement, antibiotics, intensive care and hyperbaric oxygen. We present a case where a 66-year-old woman with NF of the face and neck following an eye infection was treated with skin-sparing surgical revision. The affected subcutaneous tissue as well as necrosis around the left eye was removed, but the skin was left untouched. She was reconstructed with a full-skin transplant periorbitally. We suggest using a skin-sparing technique when the skin is unaffected and vital as a means to reduce morbidity. PMID:26099186

  15. Oligodendroglial degeneration in distemper: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed

    Schobesberger, M; Zurbriggen, A; Summerfield, A; Vandevelde, M; Griot, C

    1999-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a multifocal demyelinating disease in dogs. It was previously shown that the initial demyelinating lesions are directly virus induced since a correlation between the occurrence of demyelination and CDV replication in white matter cells was observed. During the course of infection oligodendrocytes undergo distinct morphological alterations, partly due to a restricted CDV infection of these cells, and eventually disappear from the lesions. This phenomenon has been described in vivo as well as in vitro. However, the reason for the morphological alterations and the following oligodendroglial depletion remained unclear. Since virus infection can induce cell death, it was investigated whether apoptosis or necrosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of demyelination in canine distemper. In brain tissue sections from dogs with acute distemper apoptotic cells were not detected within the demyelinating lesions using morphological and biochemical cell death criteria. In chronic distemper, apoptotic cells - presumably inflammatory cells - were seen within the perivascular cuffs. These in vivo findings were correlated to the in vitro situation using CDV-infected primary dog brain cell cultures as well as Vero cells. Infection with culture-adapted CDV lead to massive necrosis but not to apoptosis. After infection with virulent CDV neither apoptosis nor necrosis was a predominant feature in either culture system. These findings suggest that virus-induced demyelination in canine distemper is not the direct consequence of apoptosis or necrosis. It is speculated that another mechanism must be responsible for the observed morphological alterations of oligodendrocytes, ultimately leading to demyelination. PMID:10090676

  16. [Quinine-induced renal bilateral cortical necrosis].

    PubMed

    Leroy, F; Bridoux, F; Abou-Ayache, R; Belmouaz, S; Desport, E; Thierry, A; Bauwens, M; Touchard, G

    2008-06-01

    Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis is a rare cause of renal failure frequently induced by disseminated intravascular coagulation (Dic) following obstetrical complications, sepsis and drugs. We describe a case of Dic with bilateral cortical necrosis after ingestion of only one tablet of quinine. A 41-year-old woman was admitted for severe abdominal pain, melaena, fever and anuria two hours after quinine tablet intake for nocturnal leg cramps. Her medical history included angioneurotic edema caused by chloroquine for malaria prevention. Physical examination was normal. Laboratory data showed acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia without schistocytes and Dic. Platelet antibodies were negative. Ultrasonographic examination showed a complete defect of renal perfusion with permeable renal arteries. Results of abdominal CT scan and MAG3 scintigraphy led to the diagnosis of bilateral renal cortical necrosis. The patient underwent plasma exchanges with fresh frozen plasma which induced rapid resolution of Dic. She remained dependent on chronic hemodialysis. Quinine-induced microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and Dic is a rare described entity. These complications occur typically in quinine-sensitized subjects. The presence of acute renal failure is generally associated with poor prognosis in case of bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Caution is required for the prescription of quinine derivates, which should be avoided in patients experienced on adverse reaction to the drug. PMID:18343736

  17. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  18. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

  19. Internal Heat Necrosis of Potato A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is an internal physiological disorder of potatoes characterized by necrotic patches of parenchymal tissue inside the vascular ring. It has been described in the literature since the early 20th century, albeit under several different names. Atlantic, a popular and high-...

  20. Excitotoxins in neuronal apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, P; Lipton, S A

    1999-06-01

    Neuronal loss is common to many neurodegenerative diseases. Although necrosis is a common histopathologic feature observed in neuropathologic conditions, evidence is increasing that apoptosis can significantly contribute to neuronal demise. The prevalence of either type of cell death, apoptosis or necrosis, and the relevance for the progression of disease is still unclear. The debate on the occurrence and prevalence of one or the other type of death in pathologic conditions such as stroke or neurotoxic injury may in part be resolved by the proposal that different types of cell death within a tissue reflect either partial or complete execution of a common death program. Apoptosis is an active process of cell destruction, characterized morphologically by cell shrinkage, chromatin aggregation with extensive genomic fragmentation, and nuclear pyknosis. In contrast, necrosis is characterized by cell swelling, linked to rapid energy loss, and generalized disruption of ionic and internal homeostasis. This swiftly leads to membrane lysis, release of intracellular constituents that evoke a local inflammatory reaction, edema, and injury to the surrounding tissue. During the past few years, our laboratories have studied the signals and mechanisms responsible for induction or prevention of apoptosis/necrosis in neuronal injury and this is the subject of this review. PMID:10366188

  1. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Giulia; Spagnut, Giulia; Morandi, Francesco; Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a rare fat tissue inflammation of the newborn. Risk factors include cord prolapse, perinatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia, meconium aspiration, and sepsis. When present, hypercalcemia comes with lethargy, hypotonia, irritability, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, and dehydration. Kidney injury must be avoided. SCFN is often completely autoresolutive. PMID:26734138

  2. Acute retinal necrosis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuźmicz, Ewa; Fizia-Orlicz, Anna; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Pomorska, Maria; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Mec-Słomska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare but very severe form of retinitis. In contrast to progressive outer retinal necrosis acute retinal necrosis typically affects immunocompetent individuals. Herpes Simplex and Varicella-zoster viruses play the main role in the development of the disease. We report a case study of a healthy, young male who presented to the ophthalmologist with unilateral visual acuity decrease and eye irritation. The acute retinal necrosis was diagnosed and a therapy was started including both systemic and local anti-viral agents, as well as an oral anticoagulant. Additional systemic steroid therapy was introduced a week later. The regression of retinal inflammatory changes and the improvement of visual acuity were observed. The polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of viral DNA in serum was negative. The IgM antibody assay for potential causal pathogens was negative, but the level of Varicella-zoster virus IgG antibodies was markedly elevated. During the follow-up, the patient developed retinal detachment and pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade was performed. Although the surgery resulted in the successful retinal reattachment, the final visual acuity remained decreased. Six months after the surgery, the eye was free of the intraocular inflammation and the visual acuity slightly improved. PMID:26638546

  3. Bone marrow necrosis complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Macheta, A T; Cinkotai, K I; Love, E M; Geary, C G; Liu Yin, J A

    1991-01-01

    Two women with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase were found to have bone marrow necrosis when severe bone pains and falling blood counts prompted a marrow examination to exclude blast transformation. One patient survived for 12 months following the event without transforming. The second patient died soon after and was found to have widespread extramedullary disease. PMID:1934927

  4. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePLUS

    Skin self-exam means checking your own skin regularly for any abnormal growths or unusual changes. A skin self-exam helps find any suspicious skin problems early. The earlier skin cancer is diagnosed, the better chance you will have ...

  5. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yanina, Irina Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Navolokin, Nikita A; Matveeva, Olga V; Bucharskaya, Alla B; Maslyakova, Galina N; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite. PMID:22612149

  6. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  7. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Gil, L; Irarrazaval-Armendriz, I; Pretel-Irazabal, M

    2013-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease included in the group of autoinflammatory syndromes. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation in different regions of the body. The main clinical manifestations are myalgia, migratory erythematous rash, periorbital edema, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis is reached using gene analysis and prognosis depends on the appearance of amyloidosis secondary to the recurrent episodes of inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and corticosteroids are the most widely used treatments. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of TRAPS, thanks to a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Dermatologists must be aware that the skin manifestations of TRAPS are particularly important, as they are often diagnostic. PMID:23891452

  8. CSD skin test

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease skin test ... cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. After 48 to 72 hours, a health care ... no special preparation. People with dermatitis or other skin irritations should have the test performed on an ...

  9. Skin graft - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The skin covers the entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: extensive wounds burns specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur. The most common ...

  10. Skin layers (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil ... system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external ...

  11. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Identify Skin Conditions About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ... care and the patient-physician partnership. The Skinsight Skin Condition Finder is not intended to diagnose your ...

  12. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

  13. Skin Cancer: Atypical Moles

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Skin Cancer | Atypical Moles What are atypical moles? Atypical moles are skin growths that are usually bigger than ... and that can fade into the skin. Atypical moles can be more than 2 different colors (often ...

  14. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  15. Evaluation of a metalloporphyrin (THPPMnCl) for necrosis-affinity in rat models of necrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Dongjian; Lou, Bin; Peng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoning; Shan, Xin; Jiang, Cuihua; Gao, Meng; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng; Huang, Dejian; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The combination of an (13I)I-labeled necrosis-targeting agent (NTA) with a vascular disrupting agent is a novel and potentially powerful technique for tumor necrosis treatment (TNT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a NTA candidate, THPPMnCl, using (131)I isotope for tracing its biodistribution and necrosis affinity. (131)I-THPPMnCl was intravenously injected in rat models with liver, muscle, and tumor necrosis and myocardial infarction (MI), followed by investigations with macroscopic autoradiography, triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, fluorescence microscopy and H&E stained histology for up to 9 days. (131)I-THPPMnCl displayed a long-term affinity for all types of necrosis and accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system especially in the liver. Autoradiograms and TTC staining showed a good targetability of (131)I-THPPMnCl for MI. These findings indicate the potential of THPPMnCl for non-invasive imaging assessment of necrosis, such as in MI. However, (13I)I-THPPMnCl is unlikely suitable for TNT due to its long-term retention in normal tissues. PMID:25950601

  16. ATP hydrolysis reduces neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in partial-thickness scald burns in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jill; DeLaRosa, Sara; Wu, Jianfeng; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N.; Su, Grace L; Hemmila, Mark; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Cederna, Paul S.; Wang, Stewart C; Xi, Chuanwu; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Extracellular ATP, present in thermally-injured tissue, modulates the inflammatory response and causes significant tissue damage. We hypothesize that neutrophil infiltration and ensuing tissue necrosis would be mitigated by removing ATP-dependent signaling at the burn site. Methods Mice were subjected to 30% total-body- surface-area partial-thickness scald burn by dorsal skin immersion in a water bath at 60°C or 20°C (non-burn controls). In the treatment arm, an ATP hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, was applied directly to the site immediately after injury. Skin was harvested after 24 hours and 5 days for hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E), elastase, and Ki-67 staining. TNF-α and IFN-β expression were measured through qRT-PCR. Results At 24 hours, the amount of neutrophil infiltration was different between the burn and burn + apyrase groups (p<0.001). Necrosis was less extensive in the apyrase group when compared to the burn group at 24 hours and 5 days. TNF-α and IFN-β expression at 24 hours in the apyrase group was lower than in the burn group (p <0.05). However, Ki-67 signaling was not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions Our results support the role of extracellular ATP in neutrophil activity. We demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis at the burn site allays the neutrophil response to thermal injury and reduces tissue necrosis. This decrease in inflammation and tissue necrosis is at least partially due to TNF-α and IFN-β signaling. Apyrase could be used as topical inflammatory regulators to quell the injury caused by inflammation. PMID:23877144

  17. An examination of the potential role of spider digestive proteases as a causative factor in spider bite necrosis.

    PubMed

    Foradori, M J; Keil, L M; Wells, R E; Diem, M; Tillinghast, E K

    2001-10-01

    Tissue necrosis following spider bites is a widespread problem. In the continental United States, the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa), hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis), garden spider (Argiope aurantia) and Chiracanthium species, among others, reportedly cause such lesions. The exact mechanism producing such lesions is controversial. There is evidence for both venom sphingomyelinase and spider digestive collagenases. We have examined the role of spider digestive proteases in spider bite necrosis. The digestive fluid of A. aurantia was assayed for its ability to cleave a variety of connective tissue proteins, including collagen. Having confirmed that the fluid has collagenases, the digestive fluid was injected into the skin of rabbits to observe whether it would cause necrotic lesions. It did not. The data do not support the suggestions that spider digestive collagenases have a primary role in spider bite necrosis. PMID:11574290

  18. Avascular necrosis secondary to postoperative steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Hurel, S J; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-08-01

    Hypothalamic and pituitary tumours may present with vague symptoms owing to excess or lack of hormone production, including diabetes insipidus. Corticosteroids are commonly employed to limit cerebral oedema and at much lower doses to treat secondary hypocorticalism. Continuation of steroids at inappropriately high doses predisposes to the development of avascular necrosis as in the case we describe in a young woman of 34 years. This is a potentially preventable crippling disorder. When prescribing steroids the lowest effective dose should be used. PMID:9337938

  19. Programmed necrosis in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; De Zen, Federica; Weinberg, Joel; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Krautwald, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) had been widely used synonymously to caspase-mediated apoptosis until caspase-independent cell death was described. Identification of necrosis as a regulated process in ischaemic conditions has recently changed our understanding of PCD. At least three pathways of programmed necrosis (PN) have been identified. First, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis causes organ failure following stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Necroptosis can be mediated either by a large intracellular caspase-8-containing signalling complex called the ripoptosome or by the RIP1-/RIP3-containing necroptosome and is controlled by a caspase-8/FLICE inhibitory protein(long) heterodimer at least in the latter case. Second, mitochondrial permeability transition mediates apoptotic or necrotic stimuli and depends on the mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D. The third PN pathway involves the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-calpain axis that contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). Preclinical interference with the PN pathways therefore raises expectations for the future treatment of ischaemic conditions. In this brief review, we aim to summarize the clinically relevant PCD pathways and to transfer the basic science data to settings of AKI. We conclude that pathologists were quite right to refer to ischaemic kidney injury as 'acute tubular necrosis'. PMID:22942173

  20. The biochemical pathology of liver cell necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J. L.; El-Mofty, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    Cell death and necrosis are important reactions of liver cells to injury that play a role in a wide variety of human liver diseases. A review is given of the important facets known about the biochemical basis of toxic liver cell death. Liver cells can withstand a great many specific biochemical and morphologic changes without loss of viability. Disturbances in RNA and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, or release of lysosomal enzymes do not play a primary causative role in cell death. Many previous studies have tended to implicate the plasma membrane and its presumed role in maintaining the proper Ca2+ balance as the primary site of the development of irreversible hepatocyte damage. These studies have generally faced a major difficulty in determining if the observed changes are the cause or an effect of cell death. Galactosamine-induced liver cell injury seems to offer a potentially analyzable model for the experimental analysis of liver cell necrosis. Our studies on the role of plasma membrane injury and associated increases in total cellular calcium are reviewed, and a tentative working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of galactosamine-induced liver cell necrosis is presented. PMID:1180333

  1. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis in photodynamic therapy with a chlorine photosensitizer: experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Bigbov, Elmir N.

    2011-02-01

    A photodynamic therapy experiment on 118 inbred white mice with transplanted Ehrlich's tumor (mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma) is performed to reveal mechanisms of necrosis formation. In 7-10 days the tumor of 1-1.5 cm diameter is formed under skin at the injection point, and PDT procedure is applied. There were used a chlorine type photosensitizer RadachlorineTM and 662 nm wavelength diode laser. The drug is injected by intravenously at the dose of 40 mg/kg; the irradiation is executed in 2-2.5 hours at the surface dose of about 200 J/cm2. Each of the mice had a photochemical reaction in form of destructive changes at the irradiation region with subsequent development of dry coagulation necrosis. After rejection of the necrosis there occurred epithelization of defect tissues in a tumor place. Histological investigations were conducted in different follow-up periods, in 5 and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after irradiation. They included optical microscopy, immune marker analysis, morphometry with measurements of volume density of epithelium, tumor stroma and necroses, vascular bed. The investigations showed that an important role in damaging mechanisms of photodynamic action belongs to hypoxic injuries of tumor mediated by micro vascular disorders and blood circulatory disturbances. The injuries are formed in a few stages: microcirculation angiospasm causing vessel paresis, irreversible stases in capillaries, diapedetic hemorrhages, thromboses, and thrombovasculitis. It is marked mucoid swelling and fibrinoid necrosis of vascular tissue. Progressive vasculitises result in total vessel obliteration and tumor necrosis.

  2. Acute Esophageal Necrosis Presenting With Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Gregory R.; Malik, Zubair; Schey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain and melena developed a palpable, purpuric rash and acute kidney injury. Skin and kidney biopsy confirmed Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse, circumferential, black-appearing mucosa of the esophagus consistent with acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also known as black esophagus. AEN is a very rare cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of AEN associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura or other vasculitis. PMID:26504868

  3. Harms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic diseases: A focused Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Archana; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2013-01-01

    We performed a focused review of risk of harms of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in adult rheumatic diseases. Increased risk of serious infections, tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections has been reported across various studies, with etanercept appearing to have modestly better safety profile in terms of tuberculosis and opportunistic infections and infliximab with higher risk of serious infections. Evidence suggests no increase in risk of cancer with anti-TNF biologics, but there is an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Elderly patients appear to be at increased risk of incident or worsening heart failure with anti-TNF biologic use. PMID:23444956

  4. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  5. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Viral gene expression potentiates reovirus-induced necrosis.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Bradley E; Berger, Angela K; Danthi, Pranav

    2015-10-01

    Infection of some cell types by reovirus evokes a caspase-independent form of cell death resembling necrosis. While reovirus strain T3D induces necrosis much more efficiently than strain T1L, which viral components contribute to this difference is not known. In this study, we identified that the sialic acid binding property of the reovirus ?1 protein affects necrosis efficiency. We found that in addition to sialic acid engagement by the virus particles, viral gene expression, in the form of viral RNA or protein synthesis, is also required for necrosis induction. Our studies reveal that sialic acid does not directly participate in necrosis induction by initiating a signaling pathway. Instead, sialic acid engagement augments necrosis induction indirectly, by increasing reovirus gene expression in each infected cell. Comparison of our results with previous studies suggests that reovirus-induced apoptosis and necrosis are initiated by distinct stages of viral infection. PMID:26226583

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion. PMID:21297902

  8. Comparing Quantitative Values of Two Generations of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography Systems: Can We Predict Necrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Mitchell S.; Rivara, Andrew; Dagum, Alexander B.; Huston, Tara L.; Ganz, Jason C.; Bui, Duc T.; Khan, Sami U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Several devices exist today to assist the intraoperative determination of skin flap perfusion. Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography (LAICGA) has been shown to accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis using quantitative perfusion values. The laser properties of the latest LAICGA device (SPY Elite) differ significantly from its predecessor system (SPY 2001), preventing direct translation of previous published data. The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical relationship of perfusion values between these 2 devices. Methods: Breast reconstruction patients were prospectively enrolled into a clinical trial where skin flap evaluation and excision was based on quantitative SPY Q values previously established in the literature. Initial study patients underwent mastectomy skin flap evaluation using both SPY systems simultaneously. Absolute perfusion unit (APU) values at identical locations on the breast were then compared graphically. Results: 210 data points were identified on the same patients (n = 4) using both SPY systems. A linear relationship (y = 2.9883x + 12.726) was identified with a high level or correlation (R2 = 0.744). Previously published values using SPY 2001 (APU 3.7) provided a value of 23.8 APU on the SPY Elite. In addition, postoperative necrosis in these patients correlated to regions of skin identified with the SPY Elite with APU less than 23.8. Conclusion: Intraoperative comparison of LAICGA systems has provided direct correlation of perfusion values predictive of necrosis that were previously established in the literature. An APU value of 3.7 from the SPY 2001 correlates to a SPY Elite APU value of 23.8. PMID:25525483

  9. Efficacy of antibiotic penetration into pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Komorzycki, K.; Krawczyk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Infection of pancreatic necrosis is the most dangerous complication of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Infection is undoubtedly caused by the endogenous flora of the host. This is why prophylaxis with a broad-spectrum antibiotic is considered an effective procedure. However, two aspects should be taken into consideration when choosing the antibiotic; it should have the spectrum of action consistent with the pathogens and it should penetrate effectively to the necrotic tissue of the pancreas. The aim of the study was to estimate the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam penetration into pancreatic necrosis in patients who received intravenous infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam at a dose of 4.5 g every 8 h for 1421 days, as the prophylaxis in the treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Patients and methods: Necrotic tissue of the pancreas and the inflammatory ascites surrounding the pancreas were derived from 15 patients (male, 10; female, 5; mean age 46 years), who underwent laparatomy due to pancreatic necrosis after treatment for 1421 days. Tissue/fluid samples were investigated for the concentration of the antibiotic by fluoroscopic/spectroscopic methods of registration in an HPLC system. Results: The mean concentration of piperacillin/tazobactam was established as 120 mg/kg (SD34) in the necrotic pancreatic tissue and as 183 mg/kg (SD37) in the inflammatory pancreatic ascites. Conclusions: In patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, the study indicates effective penetration of piperacillin/tazobactam to the necrotic pancreatic tissue and to the inflammatory ascites surrounding the pancreas. PMID:18333238

  10. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  11. Localized Interdental Bone Necrosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K Krishna Mohana; Shankar, B Shiva; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Sudhakar, Jaradoddi; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Restorative dentistry involves use of various intracoronal and intracanal medicaments. Commonly used endodontic medicaments include paraformaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. These agents are caustic and in higher and in inappropriate concentrations can cause immediate damage to the surrounding hard and/or soft tissues. Proper knowledge of such agents and careful use of such intracanal medicaments is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries. This report presented a case of localized alveolar bone necrosis which is an iatrogenic damage occurred because of improper use of intracanal medicaments and improper management of carious tooth structure. Subsequent management of the case is also discussed in this case report. PMID:25214737

  12. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  13. Localized interdental bone necrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Krishna Mohana; Shankar, B Shiva; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Sudhakar, Jaradoddi; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Restorative dentistry involves use of various intracoronal and intracanal medicaments. Commonly used endodontic medicaments include paraformaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. These agents are caustic and in higher and in inappropriate concentrations can cause immediate damage to the surrounding hard and/or soft tissues. Proper knowledge of such agents and careful use of such intracanal medicaments is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries. This report presented a case of localized alveolar bone necrosis which is an iatrogenic damage occurred because of improper use of intracanal medicaments and improper management of carious tooth structure. Subsequent management of the case is also discussed in this case report. PMID:25214737

  14. Effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on formation of coagulative necrosis in goat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqi; Gong, Xiaobo; Hu, Kai; Li, Chongyan; Wang, Zhibiao

    2006-05-01

    The motives of the work are to explore the effect of ribs in HIFU beam path on HIFU ablation goat liver. A model-JC Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapeutic System was used. A 0.75 MHz focused transducer with 150mm aperture and 120mm focal length was used in all experiment. Acoustical power can be adjusted. 30 goats were divided into control group (HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU alone), experiment group 1(HIFU beam through rib cage, HIFU combined with microbubble) and experiment group 2(Ribs in HIFU beam path were surgically removed, HIFU alone). 20 targeted regions at 5cm away from skin surface were applied for creating necrosis with linear scanning of 15mm length using HIFU in 3 groups. All animals were sacrificed two days later and exposed organs were dissected. After obtaining the maximal section, the volumes of the necrotic regions were measured, then to calculate Energy Efficiency Factor (EEF). Researched results showed that Ribs in HIFU beam path affected the formation of coagulative necrosis and enhanced EEF in control group. HIFU combined with microbubble could enhance the formation of coagulative necrosis and decrease EEF.

  15. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  16. Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sivabalasundaram, Vithika; Habal, Flavio; Cherney, David

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple’s procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 μmol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m2). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials. PMID:25133152

  17. Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Sivabalasundaram, Vithika; Habal, Flavio; Cherney, David

    2014-08-16

    We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple's procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 μmol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials. PMID:25133152

  18. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  19. Skin-sparing mastectomy. Oncologic and reconstructive considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G W; Bostwick, J; Styblo, T M; Moore, B; Bried, J T; Murray, D R; Wood, W C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors compared skin-sparing mastectomy and traditional mastectomy both followed by immediate reconstruction in the treatment of breast cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Skin-sparing mastectomy is used increasingly in the treatment of breast cancer to improve the aesthetic results of immediate reconstruction. The oncologic and reconstructive outcomes of this procedure have never been analyzed closely. METHODS: Institutional experience with 435 consecutive patients who underwent total mastectomy and immediate reconstruction from January 1989 through December 1994 was examined. Mastectomies were stratified into skin-sparing (SSM) and non-skin-sparing (non-SSM) types. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-seven SSMs and 188 non-SSMs were performed. The mean follow-up was 41.3 months (SSM, 37.5 months, non-SSM, 48.2 months). Local recurrences from invasive cancer occurred after 4.8% of SSMs versus 9.5% of non-SSMs. Sixty-five percent of patients who underwent SSMs had nothing performed on the opposite breast versus 45% in the group of patients who underwent non-SSM (p = 0.0002). Native skin flap necrosis occurred in 10.7% of patients who underwent SSMs versus 11.2% of patients who underwent non-SSMs. CONCLUSIONS: Skin-sparing mastectomy facilitates immediate breast reconstruction by reducing remedial surgery on the opposite breast. Native skin flap necrosis is not increased over that seen with non-SSM. Skin-sparing mastectomies can be used in the treatment of invasive cancer without compromising local control. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9193184

  20. Photodermatoses in pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Sahni, Kanika; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand

    2013-01-01

    Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. A PubMed search was conducted to summarize currently available information on differences in biology of melanin in dark and light skin and photodermatoses in dark skin. Dark skin is characterised by higher content of melanin, higher eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, lower tyrosinase activity, and more effective distribution of melanin for protection against ultraviolet light. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients with some variation in the spectrum of photodermatoses. Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is the commonest, followed by chronic actinic dermatitis. Pin-point papular and lichenoid variants of PMLE and actinic lichen planus are more frequent in dark skin whereas actinic prurigo, solar urticaria and hydroa vacciniforme are uncommon. Photodermatoses are common in dark skinned patients despite better natural photoprotection. It is proposed that lichenoid photodermatoses may be added to the classification of photodermatoses in dark skin. PMID:23123922

  1. Tc-99m PYP localization in calf muscle necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Virupannavar, S.; Shirazi, P.H.; Khedkar, N.V.; Kaplan, E.

    1984-05-01

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) can localize in an acute myocardial infarct and other extraosseous lesions, including soft tissue necrosis and severe cellular injury A case of Tc-99m PYP uptake in calf muscle necrosis following transfemoral cardiac catheterization is presented. This was incidentally detected on Tc-99m PYP imaging performed for an acute myocardial infarction. Repeat Tc-99m PYP imaging one month later was normal, implying resolution of the ischemic muscle necrosis.

  2. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ultraviolet rays, producing a suntan. Patches of melanin in the ...

  3. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the ... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Early Detection ...

  4. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  5. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronic illnesses such as IBD. PYODERMA VEGETANS and VASCULITIS are other rare skin disorders, believed to be ... become darkened areas of skin as they heal. Vasculitis, which means “inflammation of the blood vessels,” is ...

  6. Tuberculin skin test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... evaluate whether a person has been exposed to tuberculosis. If there has been a prior exposure, antibodies ... in the body. During the skin test, the tuberculosis antigen is injected under the skin and if ...

  7. Polymer photonic sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  9. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  10. Growth on demand: Reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin

    PubMed Central

    Zllner, Alexander M.; Holland, Maria A.; Honda, Kord S.; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. redHere we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. redThis allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part.redTo demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

  11. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    PubMed

    Zllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

  12. Malpractice and avascular necrosis: legal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carter, R M

    1999-01-01

    Every physician, but particularly specialists, have reason to be concerned about medical legal issues. Avascular necrosis has been established as a possible serious complication of steroid treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Two specific Canadian cases illustrating the sequence of medical history, time, expert testimony and legal outcomes are presented. Awards plus costs in the order of $1 million or more were the result of these legal proceedings. The courts stated the major factors in finding liability against doctors were the failure to show the patient had been fully informed of treatment options. There was considerable weight given to expert testimony and the patient recollection of events to support their contentions. Adequate contemporaneous record keeping was absent to contradict evidence of the patients. The judges in both illustrative examples leaned heavily on Supreme Court of Canada guidelines whereby the patient must be informed at all stages of the medical process. PMID:10099819

  13. Eosinophilic Gastritis Presenting as Tissue Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Min; Jang, Jin Seok; Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Jae; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2015-11-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is very rare disorder that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of any definite causes of eosinophilia. It is associated with various clinical gastrointestinal manifestations, and depends on the involved layer and site. We report a case of eosinophilic gastritis presenting with severe necrosis. The symptoms disappeared immediately after beginning steroid treatment, and the eosinophil count decreased to the reference range. The patient showed eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis. It is a unique presentation of eosinophilic gastritis. To the best of our knowledge, no case of eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis has been previously reported in Korea. PMID:26668805

  14. Eosinophilic Gastritis Presenting as Tissue Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yong Min; Jang, Jin Seok; Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Jae; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is very rare disorder that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of any definite causes of eosinophilia. It is associated with various clinical gastrointestinal manifestations, and depends on the involved layer and site. We report a case of eosinophilic gastritis presenting with severe necrosis. The symptoms disappeared immediately after beginning steroid treatment, and the eosinophil count decreased to the reference range. The patient showed eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis. It is a unique presentation of eosinophilic gastritis. To the best of our knowledge, no case of eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis has been previously reported in Korea. PMID:26668805

  15. Adaptive SPECT for Tumor Necrosis Detection

    PubMed Central

    Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Freed, Melanie; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a prototype of an adaptive SPECT system, and we use simulation to objectively assess the systems performance with respect to a conventional, non-adaptive SPECT system. Objective performance assessment is investigated for a clinically relevant task: the detection of tumor necrosis at a known location and in a random lumpy background. The iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to perform image reconstruction. We carried out human observer studies on the reconstructed images and compared the probability of correct detection when the data are generated with the adaptive system as opposed to the non-adaptive system. Task performance is also assessed by using a channelized Hotelling observer, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is the figure of merit for the detection task. Our results show a large performance improvement of adaptive systems versus non-adaptive systems and motivate further research in adaptive medical imaging.

  16. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  17. Microcirculatory Evaluation of the Abdominal Skin in Breast Reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Pripp, Are Hugo; Tindholdt, Tyge Tind

    2016-01-01

    Background: No studies have assessed the perfusion of the undermined abdominal skin in breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. A greater understanding of the procedure’s impact on the perfusion of the abdominal skin can be valuable in predicting areas susceptible to necrosis. Methods: Microcirculatory changes were monitored in the abdominal skin of 20 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Quantitative mapping was performed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging at 7 set intervals. Measurements were taken and recorded within 4 standardized zones covering the skin between the xiphoid process and the upper incisional boundary of the flap (zones 1–4; cranial to caudal). Results: Before commencing surgery, a significantly higher perfusion was registered in zones 3 and 4 when compared with zone 1. After undermining the abdominal skin, the perfusion in zones 1–3 increased significantly. After the abdominal closure, the perfusion dropped in all 4 zones and only the perfusion level in zone 1 remained significantly higher than preoperative mean. Postoperatively, the perfusion of each zone stabilized at a significantly higher level compared with preoperative values. No tissue necrosis was observed in any of the zones. Conclusions: Although perforators are divided during undermining of the abdominal skin, there seems to be a reactive hyperemia that exceeds the blood supply delivered by the perforators. Thus, due to microcirculatory mechanisms, the undermining of the abdomen during the procedure does not seem to present any great risk of tissue necrosis. PMID:27014545

  18. Skin conditions: new drugs for managing skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    New drugs are available for managing several common skin disorders. For psoriasis, topical corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy, but topical vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriene, now have a role. They are as effective as medium-potency topical steroids but without steroid side effects, though they can induce hypercalcemia if the dose exceeds 100 g/week. For more severe cases, methotrexate has been widely used, but other drugs now also are prescribed. They include calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, and more recently, biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. For children and pregnant women, in whom the previously discussed drugs are not appropriate, narrowband UV-B light often is the first-line treatment. For eczema, patients requiring steroid-sparing topical drugs can be treated with calcineurin inhibitors (ie, pimecrolimus or tacrolimus); between the 2, tacrolimus is the first choice for adults and children older than 2 years. When systemic management is needed, oral calcineurin inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine) are appropriate, though oral steroids often are needed for severe cases. The need for systemic management can sometimes be delayed with use of diluted bleach baths. For acne vulgaris, standard treatments with topical benzoyl peroxide and topical or systemic antibiotics are used widely, as are oral contraceptives, but oral isotretinoin is the most effective treatment. PMID:23600334

  19. Warfarin-induced venous limb ischemia/gangrene complicating cancer: a novel and clinically distinct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Cook, Richard J; Sarode, Ravi; Sloane, Debi A; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-07-23

    Venous limb gangrene (VLG) can occur in cancer patients, but the clinical picture and pathogenesis remain uncertain. We identified 10 patients with metastatic cancer (7 pathologically proven) who developed severe venous limb ischemia (phlegmasia/VLG) after initiating treatment of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT); in 8 patients, cancer was not known or suspected at presentation. The patients exhibited a novel, clinically distinct syndrome: warfarin-associated supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR; median, 6.5) at onset of limb ischemia, rising platelet count during heparin anticoagulation, and platelet fall after stopping heparin. Despite supratherapeutic INRs, patient plasma contained markedly elevated thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex levels (indicating uncontrolled thrombin generation) and protein C (PC) depletion; this profile resembles the greatly elevated TAT/PC activity ratios reported in patients with warfarin-associated VLG complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Analyses of vitamin K-dependent factors in 6 cancer patients with available serial plasma samples showed that variations in the INR corresponded most closely with changes in factor VII, with a highly collinear relationship between VII and PC. We conclude that venous limb ischemia/gangrene is explained in some cancer patients by profoundly disturbed procoagulant-anticoagulant balance, whereby warfarin fails to block cancer-associated hypercoagulability while nonetheless contributing to severe PC depletion, manifest as a characteristic supratherapeutic INR caused by parallel severe factor VII depletion. PMID:25979950

  20. Inflammatory papillomatous hyperplasia and epidermal necrosis in a transgenic rat for HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Bryant, Joseph; Fishelevich, Rita; Jones, Odell D.; Deng, April; Eng, Maria L.; Gaspari, Anthony A.; Trujillo, J. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin lesions commonly affect AIDS patients. The pathogenesis of certain dermatologic disorders primarily associated to HIV-1 is unclear, and better forms of therapy for these conditions need to be discovered. Transgenic animal models represent a novel approach for the study of these disorders and for the quest of more effective forms of treatment. Objective Characterize this HIV-1 transgenic rat as a model to study skin diseases related to HIV/AIDS. Methods A transgenic rat was developed, using an HIV-1 construct with deleted gag and pol genes. Morphological and genotypical evaluations were followed by cytokine profile characterization of the lesions. Results We report the characterization of a colony of HIV-1 transgenic rats that developed skin lesions in a frequency of 22.5%. Cutaneous expression of functional HIV-1 transgenes correlated precisely with the severity of the phenotype. In early stages, rats manifested localized areas of xerosis and dispersed papulosquamous lesions. These hyperplastic manifestations were observed in conjunction with an increased epidermal expression of tat protein and a Th1/Th2 profile of cytokines. As the lesions progressed, they formed inflammatory plaques that subsequently ulcerated. Histologically, these lesions displayed a profound lymphocytic infiltrate, epidermal necrosis, and a marked increase of both Th1 and Th2 derived cytokines. Moreover, the presence of circulating IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 was detected. Conclusion This animal model as other HIV-1 transgenic mice described in the past, is not able to fully explain the myriad of skin findings that can occur in HIV-infected humans; however, it represents a potential animal model system for the study of immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:19004620

  1. Atraumatic Pantalar Avascular Necrosis in a Patient With Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Callachand, Fayaz; Milligan, David; Wilson, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 new cases of avascular necrosis are diagnosed each year. We present an unusual case of atraumatic avascular necrosis with widespread hindfoot and midfoot involvement. A 62-year-old female with a history of alcohol dependence and smoking, who had previously been treated for avascular necrosis of the knee, presented with right-sided foot pain and difficulty weightbearing. Imaging studies revealed extensive avascular necrosis of the hindfoot and midfoot, which precluded simple surgical intervention. The patient was followed up for 18months. In the last 8months of the 18-month period, the patient managed her symptoms using an ankle-foot orthosis. A diagnosis of avascular necrosis should be considered in patients with atraumatic foot and ankle pain, especially in the presence of risk factors such as alcohol excess and smoking. PMID:26387059

  2. Prevention of necrosis of adjacent expanded flaps by surgical delay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hainan; Xie, Yun; Xie, Feng; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Zan, Tao; Li, QingFeng

    2014-11-01

    Although expanded flaps have been shown to survive longer than unexpanded flaps, flap necrosis still occurs, particularly when a deep back cut has been made. Overcautious design can avoid necrosis but leads to inefficient usage of the expanded flap. In this study, we tested a surgical delay method to prevent partial necrosis and maximize the use of the expanded flap. Ten patients with 13 expanders were included in this series. The surgical delay was performed 2 weeks before the final flap transfer. The survival of the delayed flaps was compared with that in previous cases without surgical delay. All 13 expanded flaps exhibited complete survival, which was significantly better than the 27.5% partial flap necrosis observed in nondelayed cases. Surgical delay can decrease the risk of necrosis in an expanded flap caused by a back cut and can thus maximize flap use. PMID:23872964

  3. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patients quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  4. Plasma intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in neonates with bowel necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, R; Coakley, J; Murton, L; Campbell, N

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To determine if the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are biochemical markers of bowel necrosis in neonates. METHODS--Plasma ALP isoenzymes were measured in 22 babies with bowel necrosis, histologically confirmed, and in 22 matched controls. The isoenzymes were also measured in 16 infants with signs of necrotising enterocolitis, who recovered without histological confirmation of bowel necrosis. The isoenzymes were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Auxiliary tests for identification included neuraminidase digestion and treatment with monoclonal and polyclonal antiplacental antibodies. RESULTS--Intestinal ALP was detected in 16 infants with bowel necrosis--13 had fetal intestinal ALP (FI-ALP) and three had adult intestinal ALP (AI-ALP). FI-ALP was detected in nine of the controls. In the babies with bowel necrosis intestinal ALP was found over all gestations, but in the controls only in those less than 34 weeks. The percentages of total ALP activity due to intestinal ALP were significantly higher in those with bowel necrosis compared with matched controls (p = 0.028). In babies of all gestations diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of intestinal ALP as a marker of bowel necrosis was 73% and diagnostic specificity 59%. In babies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, diagnostic sensitivity fell to 60% but the test became completely specific. In two babies FI-ALP increased from zero/trace to high activity coincident with the episode of bowel necrosis. In 16 babies with signs of necrotising enterocolitis but unconfirmed bowel necrosis FI-ALP was detected in four. CONCLUSION--Intestinal ALP seems to be released into the circulation in some babies with bowel necrosis, but its detection does not have the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to be a reliable biochemical marker of the condition. Images PMID:8157755

  5. Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Fecal Peritonitis following Ostomy Necrosis and Detachment by Using NPT and Flexi-Seal

    PubMed Central

    Yet???r, Fahri; ?arer, Akgn Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Management of necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis following ostomy in elderly patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report management of frozen Open Abdomen (OA) with colonic fistula following ostomy necrosis and detachment in an elderly patient with comorbid disease and malignancy. 78-year-old woman with high stage rectum carcinoma was admitted to emergency department and underwent operation for severe peritonitis and sigmoid colonic perforation. Loop sigmoidostomy was performed. At postoperative 15th day, she was transferred to our clinic with necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis due to ostomy necrosis and detachment. Enteric effluent was removed from the OA wound by using the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System (FMS) (ConvaTec) and pesser tube in deeply located colonic fistula in conjunction with Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT). Maturation of ostomy was facilitated by using second NPT on ostomy side. After source control, delayed abdominal closure was achieved by skin flap approximation. PMID:26448894

  6. Four energy levels device for skin punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, D.; Ristici, Esofina; Mustata, Marina; Miclos, S.; Rusu, M. I.; Radu, C.; Savu, V.

    2007-03-01

    Generally, the beam distribution in the tissue in interaction with a pulsed laser is defined by optical properties (effective scattering and absorption coefficient). In 2900 nm range, the effective scattering coefficient is much smaller than the absorption coefficient. An Er:YAG skin puncher is presented. Thermal action of a laser beam can be described as one of three types: hyperthermia, coagulation and volatilization, depending on the degree and the duration of tissue heating. We are interested in the volatilization process that means a loss of material. The various constituents of the tissue disappear in smoke at above 100 0C in a relatively short time of around one tenth of a second. At the edges of the volatilization zone there is a region of coagulation necrosis. In presented case of an Er:YAG laser operating in a free generation mode, the mechanical effects can result from explosive vaporization. When the exposure time of the laser is lower than the characteristic time of the thermal diffusion in the tissue, it produces a thermal containment with an accumulation of heat without diffusion and an explosive vaporization of the target. The Er:YAG laser device has the pulse length of about 160 microseconds and four emitted energy levels. This device is used to punch the skin for blood sampling for different kinds of analysis. The front panel of the device has four keys to select the desired energy according to the skin type.

  7. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  8. [Mechanism of resistance to tumor necrosis factor].

    PubMed

    Pfreundschuh, M; Genth, B; Kirchner, H; Scheurich, P; Lindemann, A; Steinmetz, H T; Schaadt, M; Diehl, V

    1989-06-01

    To find clues as to the possible mechanisms of resistance against the cytotoxic activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we developed TNF-resistant and TNF-sensitive subclones of the human cervic carcinoma cell line ME 180 and the mammary carcinoma cell line BT-20. Resistant subclones were selected by gradually increasing the TNF concentration in the culture medium over 4 months or 20 passages. Resistance to TNF was conserved in the absence of TNF after nearly 3 years and less than 100 passages. There were no differences in the number and affinity of TNF receptors between the sensitive and resistant clones. Similarly, SDS-PAGE of cell lysates showed identical bands. Sensitivity to actinomycin D, mitomycin C, and interferon-gamma was the same. No TNF message could be demonstrated in either subclone. As tumors grown in nude mice derived from the sensitive and resistant clones responded equally well to an intratumoral injection of TNF, we conclude that different mechanisms are responsible for sensitivity and resistance to the cytotoxic effect of TNF in vitro and in vivo. PMID:2548141

  9. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  10. Modern skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Ertel, K

    2000-10-01

    The course of development of skin cleansers has been one of continual improvement. Soap-based products, used since antiquity, offered improved cleansing over mechanical methods or water alone but could irritate and dry skin. Bars based on synthetic detergents that offer improved skin compatibility compared with soap have become available over the past several decades. Body washes have been growing in consumer popularity. Some of the first body washes introduced into the market offered a moisturization benefit in addition to mildness. Some second-generation body washes that are now on the market use even more sophisticated formulation schemes, such as coacervate technology, to deliver emulsified petrolatum to the skin during washing, providing mild cleansing and a significant dry skin improvement benefit. Consumer demand and the formulation possibilities provided by new product formats, new technologies, and new ingredients will undoubtedly lead to the delivery of even greater skin benefits in the future. PMID:11059364

  11. Microcoblation: nonablative skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Manoj T; Keller, Gregory S; Pinkosky, Gayla; Feibleman, Cary E; Kelly, James; Man, Daniel; Glenn, Marcia

    2004-02-01

    Microcoblation is the application of a controlled high-energy plasma field to intact aging skin. The treatment is nonablative and yields predictable, reversible histological changes in the epidermis, which result in skin rejuvenation. Recovery time and side effects are minimal. Although the mechanism of action is different, patient satisfaction with microcoblation compares very favorably with microdermabrasion, the traditional method of superficial skin rejuvenation. PMID:15034814

  12. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  13. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals.

  14. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock Itch Scalp Ringworm Body Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor ...

  15. Neuroendocrinology of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A

    2011-01-01

    The concept on the skin neuro-endocrine has been formulated ten years ago, and recent advances in the field further strengthened this role. Thus, skin forms a bidirectional platform for a signal exchange with other peripheral organs, endocrine and immune systems or brain to enable rapid and selective responses to the environment in order to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. In this context, it is not surprising that the function of the skin is tightly regulated by systemic neuro-endocrine system. Skin cells and skin appendages not only respond to neuropeptides, steroids and other regulatory signals, but also actively synthesis variety of hormones. The stress responses within the skin are tightly regulated by locally synthesized factors and their receptor expression. There is growing evidence for alternative splicing playing an important role in stress signaling. Deregulation of the skin neuro-endocrine signaling can lead or/and be a marker of variety of skin diseases. The major problem in this area relates to their detailed mechanisms of crosstalk between skin and brain and between the local and global endocrine as well as immune systems. PMID:21519402

  16. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  17. Great Toe Necrosis Predicts an Unfavorable Limb Salvage Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ichioka, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The initial location of necrosis may affect the limb salvage rate. This study of 130 patients with chronic toe ulcers or gangrene was performed to assess whether the location of initial necrosis in the toes affected limb salvage prognosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the initial necrosis was in the great toe or in other toes. Limb salvage prognosis was determined retrospectively. In the great toe group, the rates of total toe loss and major amputation were 50.0% and 24.4%, respectively. When the initial necrosis was in other toes, these rates were 27.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Great toe necrosis is associated with significantly higher rates of total toe loss (odds ratio = 3.10; P = 0.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.43?6.68) and major amputation (odds ratio = 3.66; P = 0.007; 95% confidence interval, 1.37?9.79). The great toe is supplied by 3 source arteries, whereas the lesser toes are fed by 1 or 2 arteries. Therefore, necrosis initiating from the great toe may reflect the presence of severe vascular disorders. The great toe is also anatomically connected to much of the foot via the tendons. Infection is more likely to spread along these tendons, which may reduce limb prognosis. Thus, the initial location of necrosis may be predictive of limb prognosis. PMID:25426399

  18. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  19. [A histologic variant of autoimmune hepatitis with zonal necrosis].

    PubMed

    Stankovi?, Ivica; Zlatkovi?, Marija; Proki?, Dragan; Plamenac, Pavle

    2002-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis type 1 in a 8-year old girl is described. The diagnosis was established using International Autoimmune hepatitis group scoring system. In addition to characteristic histologic features of autoimmune hepatitis (periportal hepatitis, piecemeal necrosis and rozettes) prominent centrilobular necrosis was discovered. As an isolate finding in autoimmune hepatitis, this type was described only in five cases. In our unique case centrilobular necrosis is a very important parallel finding previously not detected in autoimmune hepatitis. Some experimental studies suggest that cytocins present in inflammatory cell infiltrate in the liver play a pathologic role in autoimmune liver cell damage. PMID:12154504

  20. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcets disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy. PMID:26155327

  1. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

  2. Targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to keratinocytes with a pemphigus monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Lin, Chenyan; Schechter, Norman; Siegel, Don; Yang, Xiaoping; Seykora, John T.; Stanley, John R

    2013-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of using an anti-desmoglein (Dsg) monoclonal antibody, Px44, to deliver a biologically active protein to keratinocytes. Recombinantly produced Px44-green fluorescent protein (GFP) injected into mice and skin organ culture delivered GFP to the cell surface of keratinocytes. We replaced GFP with tumor necrosis factor -related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to produce Px44TRAIL. We chose TRAIL as a biologic model because it inhibits activated lymphocytes and causes apoptosis of hyperproliferative keratinocytes, features of various skin diseases. Px44TRAIL formed a trimer, the biologically active form of TRAIL. Standard assays of TRAIL activity showed that Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of Jurkat cells and inhibited interferon-γ production by activated CD4+ T cells. Enzyme-linked immunoassay with Px44TRAIL showed delivery of TRAIL to Dsg. Immunofluorescence with Px44TRAIL incubated on skin sections and cultured keratinocytes or injected into mouse skin, human organ culture or human xenografts detected TRAIL on keratinocytes. Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of hyperproliferative, but not differentiating, cultured keratinocytes through binding to Dsg3. Foldon, a small trimerization domain, cloned into Px44TRAIL maintained its stability and biological activity at 37° for at least 48 hr. These data suggest that such targeted therapy is feasible and may be useful for hyperproliferative and inflamed skin diseases. PMID:23439393

  3. Autoamplification of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Neels, Jaap G.; Pandey, Manjula; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Samad, Fahumiya

    2006-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is elevated in adipose tissue in obesity and may contribute to the cardiovascular and metabolic risks associated with this condition, the mechanisms leading to elevated TNF-α remain elusive. We hypothesized that autoamplification of TNF-α contributes to the maintenance of elevated TNF-α in obesity. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-α, or injection of TNF-α into C57BL/6J mice, up-regulated TNF-α mRNA in adipocytes and in adipose tissues, respectively. Ob/ob male but not female mice lacking TNF-α receptors showed significantly lower levels of adipose TNF-α mRNA when compared with TNF-α receptor-expressing ob/ob mice. Thus, the lack of endogenous TNF-α signaling reduced adipose TNF-α mRNA in ob/ob male mice. Additionally, hyperinsulinemia potentiated this TNF-α-mediated autoamplification response in adipose tissues and in adipocytes in a synergistic and dose-dependent manner. Studies in which TNF-α was injected into lean mice lacking individual TNF-α receptors indicated that TNF-α autoamplification in adipose tissues was mediated primarily via the p55 TNF-α receptor whereas the p75 TNF-α receptor appeared to augment this response. Finally, TNF-α autoamplification in adipocytes occurred via the protein kinase C signaling pathway and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, TNF-α can positively autoregulate its own biosynthesis in adipose tissue, contributing to the maintenance of elevated TNF-α in obesity. PMID:16436658

  4. Tumor necrosis factor activity of pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Leeper-Woodford, S K; Tobin, B W

    1997-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is involved in the pathogenesis of acute sepsis-induced organ injury and has been implicated as a mediator of metabolic alterations observed during sepsis. Pancreatic islet cell function may be significantly compromised during sepsis or endotoxemia, and sepsis also increases plasma levels of epinephrine, a modifier of islet insulin secretion. We proposed that islets exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produce TNF and that epinephrine attenuates islet secretory activity. We monitored the effects of LPS and epinephrine on TNF and insulin activity of isolated Wistar-Furth rat islets (pancreas digested with collagenase, islets isolated using Ficoll gradients; n = 4 islet populations, each with 632 +/- 11 islets/2.5 ml culture medium). Islets were incubated (37 degrees C, 5% CO2) 3 days. LPS (Escherichia coli, 1 microgram/ml) and epinephrine (14 micrograms/ml) were added to the islets, and incubations were continued for 1-4 h. Glucose (Beckman Glucose Analyzer), insulin (radioimmunoassay), and TNF (L929 cytotoxicity assay) were measured in the islet medium samples at 1- to 4-h time points. In the conditioned medium, glucose decreased (P < 0.05), insulin increased (P < 0.05), and exposure to LPS did not alter these levels [P = not significant (NS)] but did increase TNF activity by 400% (P < 0.05). Epinephrine reduced insulin by 38-43% (P < 0.05) and TNF by 20-25% (P < 0.05) but had no effect on glucose levels (P = NS). We conclude that insulin is secreted from isolated islets and that exposure to LPS acutely increases islet-derived TNF activity, whereas epinephrine modifies TNF and insulin secretion of rat pancreatic islets. PMID:9277398

  5. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA amplified from lesional skin of seropositive dogs.

    PubMed

    Berzina, Inese; Krudewig, Christiane; Silaghi, Cornelia; Matise, Ilze; Ranka, Renate; Müller, Norbert; Welle, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is caused by the rickettsial microorganism Anaplasma phagocytophilum. CGA is typically characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia, lethargy, anorexia, arthropy, and other nonspecific clinical signs. Skin lesions have been described in naturally infected lambs and humans. The pathophysiology of CGA is not entirely clear, and the persistence of the organism after the resolution of clinical signs has been described. The aim of the study was to investigate if A. phagocytophilum can be detected in canine lesional skin biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs with etiologically unclear skin lesions that improved after the treatment with doxycycline. Paraffin-embedded lesional skin biopsies were allocated into separate groups: biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs responsive to treatment with doxycycline (n=12), biopsies from A. phagocytophilum-seronegative dogs (n=2), and biopsies in which skin lesions histopathologically resembled a tick bite (n=10). The serological status of the latter group was unknown. Histology of the seropositive and seronegative dog skin lesions did not indicate an etiology. DNA was extracted, and a conventional PCR for partial 16S rRNA gene was performed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified from 4/12 seropositive dogs' skin biopsies. All sequences were 100% identical to the prototype A. phagocytophilum human strain (GenBank accession number U02521). Anaplasma phagocytophilum was not amplified from the 2 seronegative and 10 suspected tick bite dogs. Serum antibody titers of the PCR-positive dogs ranged from 1:200 to 1:2048. Histopathologically, a mild-to-moderate perivascular to interstitial dermatitis composed of a mixed cellular infiltrate and mild-to-moderate edema was seen in all seropositive dogs. In 8/12 seropositive dogs, vascular changes as vasculopathy, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel walls, and leukocytoclastic changes were observed. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in the skin may be causative for otherwise unexplained skin lesions in seropositive dogs. PMID:24637068

  7. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor agents: a possible therapy for vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yajie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen

    2009-05-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmenting skin disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes in the epidermis. Although the exact aetiology of vitiligo has not yet been established, the abnormal immune responses have been frequently observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, some vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. TNF-alpha is an important pleiotropic cytokine that exerts potent pro-inflammatory effects. There is growing evidence that TNF-alpha plays an important role in the pathomechanism process of some autoimmunity diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Treated with anti-TNF agents infliximab, with the improvement of AS, a patient's vitiligo lesions also faded out. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNF-alpha play an important role in vitiligo. On the one hand, TNF-alpha destroys melanocytes through induction of various apoptotic pathways. On the other hand, TNF-alpha inhibits melanocyte stem cells differentiation. Anti-TNF therapy may be an effective treatment for vitiligo. PMID:19201101

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  9. Treatment of Hyaluronic Acid Filler-Induced Impending Necrosis With Hyaluronidase: Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Biesman, Brian S; Dayan, Steven H; DeLorenzi, Claudio; Lambros, Val S; Nestor, Mark S; Sadick, Neil; Sykes, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Injection-induced necrosis is a rare but dreaded consequence of soft tissue augmentation with filler agents. It usually occurs as a result of injection of filler directly into an artery, but can also result from compression or injury. We provide recommendations on the use of hyaluronidase when vascular compromise is suspected. Consensus recommendations were developed by thorough discussion and debate amongst the authors at a roundtable meeting on Wednesday June 18, 2014 in Las Vegas, NV as well as significant ongoing written and verbal communications amongst the authors in the months prior to journal submission. All authors are experienced tertiary care providers. A prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment with high doses of hyaluronidase (at least 200 U) are critically important. It is not felt necessary to do a skin test in cases of impending necrosis. Some experts recommend dilution with saline to increase dispersion or lidocaine to aid vasodilation. Additional hyaluronidase should be injected if improvement is not seen within 60 minutes. A warm compress also aids vasodilation, and massage has been shown to help. Some experts advocate the use of nitroglycerin paste, although this area is controversial. Introducing an oral aspirin regimen should help prevent further clot formation due to vascular compromise. In our experience, patients who are diagnosed promptly and treated within 24 hours will usually have the best outcomes. PMID:25964629

  10. Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

    2014-04-01

    We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

  11. Skin problems in children.

    PubMed

    Verbov, J L

    1976-09-01

    Common skin problems in 340 children routinely seen during a winter period, included napkin rashes in infants, atopic eczema throughout childrhood, and acne vulgaris in late childhood. Skin infections and psoriasis were also commonly seen. If possible, when topical steroid preparations more potent than hydrocortisone cream BPC are used in children, they should be used sparingly and for short periods only. PMID:135974

  12. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  13. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  14. Tanning and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Farah R; Feldman, Steven R; Williford, Phillip M; Krowchuk, Daniel; Kaur, Mandeep

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is a large and growing problem in the United States. Sun and other ultraviolet (UV) light exposures play a key role in the development of skin cancer. Pediatricians can play an important role in counseling patients and are in a position to help educate children and their families about skin cancer. The purpose of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with the magnitude of the skin cancer problem and the evidence that ultraviolet light exposure, particularly indoor tanning, contributes to this problem. We reviewed the literature on ultraviolet light and skin cancer (based on a MEDLINE search of articles using the headings "ultraviolet light" and "skin cancer") and found that skin cancer is the most rapidly growing cause of cancer deaths in the United State. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for the relationship between UV exposure and nonmelanoma skin cancer and growing evidence for the relationship between indoor tanning and melanoma. We recommend that pediatricians counsel children and their parents about UV protection. Measures such as use of sunscreen and hats for outdoor play, both at home and in school, should be encouraged. PMID:16354251

  15. Sun on Skin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

  16. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well because they have a weakened immune system. Skin that is inflamed or damaged by sunburn, scratching, or other trauma is more likely to become infected. In fact, any break in the skin predisposes a person to infection. Prevention involves keeping ...

  17. Neuropeptides and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Rana; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Neuropeptides (NP) are peptides that are released as chemical messengers from nerve cells. They act either in an endocrine manner, where they reach their target cells via the bloodstream or a paracrine manner, as co-transmitters modulating the function of neurotransmitters. To date approximately 100 different NP have been described in the literature. In recent years, several studies have documented that human skin expresses several functional receptors for NP, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, melanocortins, β-endorphin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide. These receptors modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, proliferation, differentiation, lipogenesis and hormone metabolism in human skin cells. In addition, several NP are directly produced by human skin cells, indicating the complexity of understanding the real functions of NPs in human skin. In this review we address the possible effects of neuropeptides on the pathogenesis of aged skin. PMID:25436744

  18. Toe Necrosis, Etiologies and Management, aCase Series

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdelfatah Abou; Newman, Mackenzie; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Toe necrosis may have vast different etiologies. These include ischemia, embolus, and others. (1) The most common etiology is ischemia. It is a reduction in blood supply to a viable tissue that can lead to susceptibility to infection and tissue death. Peripheral ischemia, which is rooted in the lower limbs, is a major risk factor for toe necrosis because the basal metabolic requirements of tissue are not being sufficiently met. As a result, pain, ulcers, and gangrene commonly occur. (2) Other causes of direct and indirect toe necrosis and related lower limb gangrene include mechanical trauma, infectious, pharmacological sensitivity, cancer, blue toe syndrome, and other granulomatous diseases, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We present a case series of toes necrosis which resulted from different etiologies and their management. PMID:26199887

  19. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  20. Cerebral necrosis following irradiation and chemotherapy for metastatic choriocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pratt, R A; Di Chiro, G; Weed, J C

    1977-03-01

    A case of cerebral necrosis following radiation and chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic cerebral choriocarcinoma is reported. Computed tomography (EMI Scan) demonstrated evolution and enlargement of the necrotic lesion. This focus was surgically excised and histology is presented. The possible enhancement of radiation necrosis by chemotherapy is noted, but the continued need for simultaneous use of radiation and chemotherapy is recognized and discussed. PMID:557845

  1. Necrosis of the penis with multiple vessel atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Dae; Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Young-Joo

    2014-04-01

    Penile necrosis is a very rare complication because of its rich collateral supply. Conservative management is apt to be ineffective; thus penectomy is usually performed. We present a case of penile necrosis and claudication of both legs with multiple atherosclerosis in a type II diabetes mellitus patient who was successfully treated with angioplasty, penoplasty, and additional intracavernous injections of prostaglandin E1. The treatment resulted in relief of the leg pain and healing of the penile ischemic lesions. PMID:24872955

  2. Necrosis of the Penis with Multiple Vessel Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Dae; Huh, Jung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Penile necrosis is a very rare complication because of its rich collateral supply. Conservative management is apt to be ineffective; thus penectomy is usually performed. We present a case of penile necrosis and claudication of both legs with multiple atherosclerosis in a type II diabetes mellitus patient who was successfully treated with angioplasty, penoplasty, and additional intracavernous injections of prostaglandin E1. The treatment resulted in relief of the leg pain and healing of the penile ischemic lesions. PMID:24872955

  3. Skin smoothing surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the scar tissue off down to normal, healthy skin. The healing tissue is treated with ointments (such ... The skin may be treated with ointment and a wet or waxy dressing. After surgery, your skin will be ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  5. An experimental neurovascular island skin flap for the study of the delay phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Finseth, F; Cutting, C

    1978-03-01

    We present an experimental neurovascular island skin flap. It is a consistent, reproducible model which produces a definite pattern of surviving skin flap area versus skin flap necrosis. There is a constant, anatomically definable nerve and vascular supply to the flap. This model permits independent experimental manipulation of the neural, arterial, and venous supply to the skin. It is useful, therefore, for the study of the vascular mechanisms of the skin microcirculation. We also demonstrated that increased flap survival can be produced by a delay involving denervation alone (leaving the vascular supply intact) or by devascularization alone (leaving the nerve supply intact). We conclude that both the adrenergic denervation and the ischemia contribute to the production of the delay phenomenon. We suggest that sustained vasodilation--vascular smooth muscle relaxation--is the vascular mechanism that accounts for the delay phenomenon. PMID:146882

  6. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  7. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  8. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

  9. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  10. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  11. Skin Cancer in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.; Bellew, Susun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma among the Caucasian population have increased 3 to 8 percent annually. Although Asians display relative protection from basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, incidence rates of these nonmelanoma skin cancers have been increasing over the past three decades. With changing demographics and a steady rise in the minority population in the United States, there is an increased need for further studies of cutaneous malignancies within Asian and other ethnic populations. This article reviews nonmelanoma skin cancers in the Asian population with an insight into contributing factors, such as skin type, occupation, cultural practices, and genetic components. PMID:20729955

  12. Skin Diseases in Horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-08-01

    Skin disease in horses is a common and potentially challenging clinical problem. Information pertaining to skin disease is lacking in horses when compared with that in other companion animal species. Certainly, both horse-specific and location-specific patterns are present, but these can often be confounded by other factors. There are many possible ways in which to organize skin disease; in this article, they are organized based loosely on their most common clinical feature. Space limits the number of conditions that can be described here, and those chosen were seen relatively frequently in a multiinstitutional study of equine biopsies. PMID:26037605

  13. Cardiolipin plays a role in KCN-induced necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tsesin, Natalia; Khalfin, Boris; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2014-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique anionic, dimeric phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is essential for the function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. While the role of cardiolipin in apoptosis is well established, its involvement in necrosis is enigmatic. In the present study, KCN-induced necrosis in U937 cells was used as an experimental model to assess the role of CL in necrosis. KCN addition to U937 cells induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, while the antioxidants inhibited necrosis, indicating that ROS play a role in KCN-induced cell death. Further, CL oxidation was confirmed by the monomer green fluorescence of 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) and by TLC. Utilizing the red fluorescence of the dimeric NAO, redistribution of CL in mitochondrial membrane during necrosis was revealed. We also showed that the catalytic activity of purified adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase complex, known to be modulated by cardiolipin, decreased following KCN treatment. All these events occurred at an early phase of the necrotic process prior to rupture of the cell membrane. Furthermore, CL-deficient HeLa cells were found to be resistant to KCN-induced necrosis as compared with the wild type cells. We suggest that KCN, an effective reversible inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase and thereby of the respiratory chain leads to ROS increase, which in turn oxidizes CL (amongst other membrane phospholipids) and leads to mitochondrial membrane lipid reorganization and loss of CL symmetry. Finally, the resistance of CL-deficient cells to necrosis further supports the notion that CL, which undergoes oxidation during necrotic cell death, is an integral part of the milieu of events taking place in mitochondria leading to membrane disorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24995676

  14. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dry air smoking feeling stress losing sweat and oil glands (common with age). Dry skin also can be caused by health problems, such as diabetes or kidney disease. Using too much soap, antiperspirant, or perfume and taking hot baths ...

  16. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as: Not drinking enough liquids Spending too much time in the sun or sun tanning Being in very dry air Smoking Feeling stress Losing sweat and oil glands, which is common with age Dry skin ...

  17. Components of skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... protects the underlying skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance ... the body to receive stimulation from the outside environment and experience pressure, pain, and temperature. Small blood ...

  18. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  19. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  20. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  1. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Tests or procedures that examine the skin ... and is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are ...

  2. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Tests or procedures that examine the skin ... and is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are ...

  3. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  4. Skin Tag (Acrochordon)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin Conditions References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1863-1864. New York: Mosby, 2003. Freedberg, Irwin ... Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . 6 th ed, pp. 767, 993-994, 1827. New York: McGraw-Hill, ...

  5. Skin diseases in musicians.

    PubMed

    Crépy, Marie-Noelle

    2015-10-01

    Instrumental musicians are a risk group for skin diseases. A systematic review was performed on Pubmed database and in the musical literature. Most publications on dermatoses in musicians are case reports. The exact prevalence of skin diseases in musicians is unknown but high rates have been reported. The most at-risk musicians are percussionists, string and wind instrumentalists. Repeated physical trauma is a frequent cause of skin conditions in musicians (callosities, fiddler's neck syndrome…). The allergens most often reported in musicians' allergic contact dermatitis are metals (nickel, dichromate), exotic woods and cane reed components, colophony and propolis. The key preventive measures are early management of the skin disease, specific tests and avoidance of the causative allergens, together with better adjustment of playing techniques to reduce trauma. PMID:25905552

  6. Skin manifestations in CDG.

    PubMed

    Rymen, D; Jaeken, J

    2014-09-01

    The group of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) has expanded tremendously since its first description in 1980, with around 70 distinct disorders described to date. A great phenotypic variability exists, ranging from multisystem disease to single organ involvement. Skin manifestations, although inconsistently present, are part of this broad clinical spectrum. Indeed, the presence of inverted nipples, fat pads and orange peel skin in a patient with developmental delay are considered as a hallmark of CDG, particularly seen in PMM2 deficiency. However, over the years many more dermatological findings have been observed (e.g., ichthyosis, cutis laxa, tumoral calcinosis…). In this review we will discuss the variety of skin manifestations reported in CDG. Moreover, we will explore the possible mechanisms that link a certain glycosylation deficiency to its skin phenotype. PMID:24554337

  7. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  9. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  10. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against ... Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ...

  11. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  12. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  13. Bovine ischaemic teat necrosis: a further potential role for digital dermatitis treponemes.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Carter, S D; Stewart, J P; Amin, D M; Blowey, R W; Evans, N J

    2016-01-16

    A recent outbreak of ischaemic teat necrosis (ITN) on mainland UK has resulted in large economic losses for dairy farmers. Typical cases start as an area of dry, thickened and encrusted skin on the medial aspect of the base of the teat, where the teat joins the udder, often with a fetid odour. The erosion spreads down the teat, often causing intense irritation, which in turn leads to more severely affected animals removing the entire teat. Due to the severity of ITN and the substantial economic costs to the industry, analyses were undertaken to ascertain if an infectious agent might be involved in the pathology. The study has considered a role for digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes in the aetiopathogenesis of ITN because, as well as being the prime bacteria associated with infectious lameness, they have been associated with a number of emerging skin diseases of cattle, including udder lesions. A high association between presence of DD-associated treponemes and incidence of ITN (19/22), compared with absence in the control population is reported. Furthermore, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of treponeme isolates supports the hypothesis that the identified treponemes are similar or identical to those isolated from classical foot DD lesions in cattle (and sheep). Further studies are required to allow effective targeted prevention measures and/or treatments to be developed. PMID:26743503

  14. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Blockers in Psoriatic Disease. Therapeutic Options in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Addimanda, Olga; Possemato, Niccol; Caruso, Andrea; Pipitone, Nicol; Salvarani, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting peripheral and axial joints, usually associated with psoriasis (PsO) and involving various systems and organs (eye inflammation, such as uveitis; and involvement of nail and enthesis), and it usually requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is overexpressed in psoriatic synovium and skin plaques and its selective inhibition by anti-TNF-? agents has been demonstrated to reduce TNF-? levels in the articular environment, reversing the synovial hyperproliferative phenotype. Studies performed on anti-TNF-? agents in PsA demonstrated that they are able to reduce neutrophil and macrophage infiltration as well as vascular cell adhesion protein 1 expression with ensuing synovial thickness normalization. The efficacy of anti-TNF-? agents for all PsA manifestations (peripheral arthritis, axial involvement, enthesopathy, and skin disease) suggests that anti-TNF-? efficacy might be related to the ability to influence angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, reduce synovial inflammation, and slow radiological disease progression. This review describes the role of anti-TNF-? in each manifestation of PsA. PMID:26523063

  15. Selected environmental skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Perpall, A

    1992-05-01

    The acute development of an irritating rash often results in a patient presenting to the Emergency Department instead of scheduling an office visit. This rash is frequently the result of the patient's interaction with the environment. Consequently, it is important that emergency physicians become more familiar with environmentally induced skin disorders. Sunburn and poison ivy are examples of these types of disorders. These and less common environmentally related skin disorders are reviewed. PMID:1559479

  16. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  17. [Photoaging of a skin].

    PubMed

    Galus, Ryszard; Zandecki, ?ukasz; Antiszko, Marek; Borowska, Katarzyna; Zabielski, Stanis?aw

    2007-06-01

    Photoaging is a skin aging caused by long-term exposure to the ultraviolet radiations of the sun. Ultraviolet activates activating protein-1 and generate reactive oxygen species which play a substantial role in collagen degradation. Clinically, photoaged skin appears as a coarse with deep wrinkles. Presently there are available several agents to reverse the photodamage. There is conclusive evidence that synthetic vitamin A derivatives are the most effective in the treatment of photoaging. Erythema and scaling may be experienced initially. PMID:17874634

  18. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  19. Pregnancy and skin.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J; Chaudhari, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  20. Skin pigmentation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A

    2001-10-01

    The highest incidences of cancer are found in the skin, but endogenous pigmentation is associated with markedly reduced risk. Agents that enhance skin pigmentation have the potential to reduce both photodamage and skin cancer incidence. The purpose of this review is to evaluate agents that have the potential to increase skin pigmentation. These include topically applied substances that simulate natural pigmentation: dihydroxyacetone and melanins; and substances that stimulate the natural pigmentation process: psoralens with UVA (PUVA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), L-tyrosine, L-Dopa, lysosomotropic agents, diacylglycerols, thymidine dinucleotides, DNA fragments, melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) analogs, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), nitric oxide donors, and bicyclic monoterpene (BMT) diols. These agents are compared with regards to efficacy when administered to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes, animal skin, and human skin. In addition, mechanisms of action are reviewed since these may reveal issues related to both efficacy and safety. Both dihydroxyacetone and topically applied melanins are presently available to the consumer, and both of these have been shown to provide some photoprotection. Of the pigmentation stimulators, only PUVA and MSH analogs have been tested extensively on humans, but there are concerns about the safety and side effects of both. At least some of the remaining pigmentation stimulators under development have the potential to safely induce a photoprotective tan. PMID:11684462

  1. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A. . E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  2. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  3. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from nkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  4. Thyroid hormone action on skin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name myxedema refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure. PMID:22110782

  5. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin What causes aging skin What causes our skin to age? Sun protection essential: Dermatologists agree that ... on our skin. 11 ways to reduce premature skin aging The sun plays a major role in ...

  6. [Femur head necrosis and bone marrow edema syndrome in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kramer, J; Hofmann, S; Engel, A; Leder, K; Neuhold, A; Imhof, H

    1993-08-01

    MR examinations were performed in 9 patients suffering from severe pain of the hip during the third trimenon without any relief after birth. Pathologic signal changes could be observed in 11 hips (oedema in the region of the femoral head and neck (n = 8); avascular necrosis of the femoral head surrounded by bone marrow oedema (n = 3)). In 7 hips a relatively rapid decrease of the oedema following core decompression was demonstrated. Focal necrosis, however, did not show any changes. In two patients, treated conservatively, markedly delayed healing was evident. MR imaging is the modality of choice for early diagnosis as well as follow-up of therapy of the bone marrow oedema syndrome or avascular necrosis and can be performed already during pregnancy. PMID:8353257

  7. Flap Necrosis after Palatoplasty in Patients with Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Palatal necrosis after palatoplasty in patients with cleft palate is a rare but significant problem encountered by any cleft surgeon. Few studies have addressed this disastrous complication and the prevalence of this problem remains unknown. Failure of a palatal flap may be attributed to different factors like kinking or section of the pedicle, anatomical variations, tension, vascular thrombosis, type of cleft, used surgical technique, surgeon's experience, infection, and malnutrition. Palatal flap necrosis can be prevented through identification of the risk factors and a careful surgical planning should be done before any palatoplasty. Management of severe fistulas observed as a consequence of palatal flap necrosis is a big challenge for any cleft surgeon. Different techniques as facial artery flaps, tongue flaps, and microvascular flaps have been described with this purpose. This review article discusses the current status of this serious complication in patients with cleft palate. PMID:26273624

  8. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin absorption coefficient of human skin of various pigmentation and races will be presented.

  9. Hepatic zonal degeneration and necrosis in Reye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E; Ishak, K G

    1976-03-01

    Seven pediatric cases with hepatic peripheral zonal degeneration or necrosis in the liver, or both, were studied. From the standpoint of clinicopathological features, these cases fit best into the spectrum of Reye syndrome. Exogenous toxins, such as phosphorus and drugs, could not be implicated as principal causative factors in any of the cases. In the context of Reye syndrome, fatty acids would seem to have been the toxins most likely responsible for the pathogenesis of the peripheral zonal degeneration and necrosis in the liver. PMID:803201

  10. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

    2013-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as "black esophagus" or "acute necrotizing esophagitis", is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

  11. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Lahbabi, Mounia; Ibrahimi, Adil; Aqodad, Nouredine

    2013-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as black esophagus or acute necrotizing esophagitis, is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting appearing oesophagus. Contrary to the caustic oesophagitis whose treatment is often surgical, treatment of the acute necrositing oesophagitis is primarily medical. The prognosis for patients who develop acute necrotizing oesophagitis is generally poor. We report a new case of acute necrotizing oesophagitis and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:23717723

  12. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  13. A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Bressler, V.

    1963-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious pancreatic necrosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) has been experimentally authenticated for the first time in the western United States. The cutthroat trout represents a new host. Brook trout fin tissue culture inoculated with bacteria-free filtrate from the diseased fish tissue showed marked degenerative changes after 24 hours. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), kokanee (O. nerka), and silver salmon (O. kisutch) were not susceptible to the virus when inoculated. Histologically, extensive pancreatic necrosis was observed in the original and experimental materials, but striated muscle hyalinization was detected only in the original material.

  14. Possible Mechanism of Liver Necrosis Caused by Aromatic Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Bernard B.; Reid, Watson D.; Cho, Arthur K.; Sipes, Glenn; Krishna, Gopal; Gillette, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Treatment of rats with phenobarbital, which stimulates the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver, potentiates hepatic necrosis elicited by bromobenzene and a number of other chemically inert halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Radioautographic studies indicate that [14C]bromobenzene is covalently bound at the sites of necrosis. From these results, it is inferred that the hepatotoxic effects of the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by chemically active metabolites formed in hepatocytes. In accord with this view, a number of aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons are converted by microsomes in vitro to active intermediates which form covalent complexes with glutathione (GSH). Images PMID:4395686

  15. Estradiol modulates tumor necrosis factor-induced endothelial inflammation: role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-01-01

    The sex hormone estradiol (E(2)) appears to mediate both anti-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory effects in premenopausal women, suggesting a complex immunomodulatory role. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Alterations at the TNF receptors (TNFRs) and their downstream signaling/transcriptional pathways can affect inflammatory responses. Given this background, we hypothesized that chronic E(2) exposure would alter endothelial inflammatory response involving modulation at the levels of TNFRs and signaling pathways. HUVECs were used as the model system. Pre-treatment with E(2) did not significantly alter TNF-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory molecules ICAM-1 (3-6 times) and VCAM-1 (5-7 times). However, pharmacological inhibition of transcriptional pathways suggested a partial shift from NF-?B (from 97 to 64%) towards the JNK/AP-1 pathway in ICAM-1 upregulation on E(2) treatment. In contrast, VCAM-1 expression remained NF-?B dependent in both control (?96%) and E(2) treated (?85%) cells. The pro-inflammatory TNF effects were mediated by TNFR1. Interestingly, E(2) pre-treatment increased TNFR2 levels in these cells. Concomitant TNFR2 activation (but not TNFR1 activation alone) led to the shift towards JNK/AP-1-mediated ICAM-1 upregulation in E(2)-treated cells, suggesting the effects of chronic E(2) to be dependent on TNFR2 signaling. PMID:23095497

  16. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  17. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  18. Surfactants and the skin.

    PubMed

    Dykes, P

    1998-02-01

    The skin surface is the interface between us, the organism, and the outside world. When we clean the skin we remove not only the bacteria, dirt and grease which have accumulated, but also part of our natural barrier - the stratum corneum. Corneocytes, both singly and in clumps, are released from the skin surface by the action of detergents and mechanical stimulation. So too are the lipids and proteins which make up the intercorneocyte region of the stratum corneum. The analysis of the types and amounts of materials released by a standard scrub procedure may prove useful in the selection of surfactants with particular properties. Changes in the physical properties of the skin occur after washing. For example, changes in skin surface pH and transepidermal water loss (a sensitive index of barrier function) are easily demonstrable. Excessive exposure to surfactants results in repeated damage to the stratum corneum which can in turn lead to an irritant dermatitis. Individual susceptibility to irritant dermatitis varies and this may be demonstrated using a simple patch test technique. This test is a way of potentially increasing the sensitivity of human based assays such as the soap chamber test by preselection of subjects. Alternatively it may be possible to use measurements of function such as transepidermal water loss or laser Doppler blood flow as an index of damage rather than conventional cutaneous irritancy. These approaches may help in the search for the ideal of a non-irritant cleanser. PMID:18505489

  19. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  20. [Cytokines and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1995-01-01

    Many skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis are characterised by a chronic inflammatory skin condition. In this respect they resemble other chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, ulcerous colitis and Crohn's disease. A persistent accumulation, predominantly of T-lymphocytes constitutes the central pathophysiological feature of such diseases. The past 15-20 years have witnessed the characterisation of an extensive series of peptides known as cytokines. These are soluble, relatively low molecular weight peptides which at low concentrations mediate regulation of cellular receptors, new phenotype expression, secretion and migration. Many cytokines have been found to be present in conjunction with skin diseases, and it is suggested that they are involved in the development of inflammation. PMID:7892122

  1. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  2. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  3. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  4. [Skin diseases with photosensitivity].

    PubMed

    Amblard, P; Leccia, M T

    1992-06-01

    Skin diseases associated with photosensitivity are numerous and may be divided into three main groups: photo-aggravated dermatoses, genophotodermatoses and metabolic photodermatoses. Photo-aggravated dermatoses are autonomous skin diseases in which exposure to sunlight may make the disease worse or precipitate its onset and/or its progressiveness; this group includes lupus erythematosus, autoimmune bullous diseases, acantolytic dyskeratoses, acne vulgaris, rosacea and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. To these must be added photosensitive forms of autonomous dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, herpes labialis, erythema multiforme, granuloma and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Genophotodermatoses are genodermatoses which are made photosensitive by a recognized or as yet unidentified deficiency of the natural photoprotection system. In this group are albinism, vitiligo, xeroderma pigmentosum and poikiloderma. Metabolic photodermatoses are diseases in which photosensitization reactions, often revealing, are due to the accumulation in the skin of an endogenous chromophore as a result of a congenital (porphyria) or acquired (pellagra) enzymatic disorder. PMID:1529248

  5. Transparent active skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Yong; An, Kuang Jun; Kang, Junmo; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Toan, Nguyen Canh; Kim, Baek Chul; Chung, Jin Ah; Hong, Byung Hee; Choi, Jaeboong; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a transparent and stretchable dielectric elastomer actuator(DEA). The device, called "active skin" is under development as a new means of human interfaces. The active skin consists of elastomeric films sandwiched between compliant patterned electrodes. Thus, depending on the properties of the elastomer or electrodes, it is possible to realize a wide variety of implementations as transducers. As a critical issue of the transparent active skin, transparency in the electrode including that of the substrate is challenging, which has not been solved yet. In this paper, a compliant, transparent and highly conductive electrode layer on the elastomeric film by using graphene is presented. The fabrication method of graphene electrodes dedicated to the elastomeric materials is addressed and its compatibility to the existing materials is discussed. Also, preliminary implementations on the embossed actuator are given to validate the proposed idea.

  6. The recent progress of the mechanism and regulation of tumor necrosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Chen, Lirong

    2016-02-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the complex inducing and regulating mechanism in necrosis progress, the prognostic value of tumor necrosis has been reported. It is generally recognized that necrosis is associated with many process involving severe hypoxia, inflammatory responses and angiogenesis, all of which contribute to promote tumor growth and poor prognosis. In addition to local hypoxia, regulation by RIP kinase and the conversion from apoptosis to necrosis can result in necrosis also. Recent studies showed necrosis can be a histopathologic characteristic for special molecular phenotype of CRC. A novel and attractive complementary treatment, tumor necrosis therapy, using radiolabelled compounds avid for necrosis has emerged. However, the complicated regulatory mechanisms of tumor necrosis were rarely reported in CRC, and we collected and reviewed these effect and relevance in CRC. PMID:26094047

  7. [Radiotherapy and skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Calitchi, E; Kirova, Y; Le Bourgeois, J P

    1998-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilovoltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi's sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. PMID:9868400

  8. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  9. The TopClosure 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

  10. Topical application of valrubicin has a beneficial effect on developing skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine M; Rosada, Cecilia; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Laugesen, Ina G; de Dark, Elisabeth; Dam, Tomas N; Stenderup, Karin

    2010-08-01

    Valrubicin is a second generation anthracycline characterized by an excellent safety profile presenting no skin toxicity or necrosis upon contact. In its current liquid formulation (Valstar; Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA), it is approved solely for the treatment of bladder cancer. Recently, valrubicin was incorporated in a cream formulation rendering this drug available for topical application. The cytostatic property of valrubicin can, thus, be employed for treating hyperproliferative skin diseases as was recently described for psoriasis. In the present study, the effect of topical application of valrubicin was investigated in skin tumor development; we hypothesized that valrubicin may be employed in treating actinic keratosis, a hyperproliferative skin condition that may transform into malignancy. A two-stage chemical mouse skin carcinogenesis model that represents the multistage etiology of human skin cancer-from developing papillomas to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was used. Moreover, two human skin SCC cell lines: DJM-1 and HSC-1 were cultured, to further investigate the effect of valrubicin in vitro. Cell viability was assessed by adenosine triphosphate presence, proliferation as proliferative cell nuclear antigen expression and apoptosis as cytokeratin 18 cleavage, caspase activation, poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose-polymerase cleavage and bax and bcl-2 regulation. Valrubicin significantly inhibited tumor formation in the mouse skin carcinogenesis model and significantly decreased cell viability of the cultured human skin SCC cells. In both mouse skin and SCC cells, proliferation was significantly decreased. Apoptosis was significantly increased in SCC cells but unchanged in the treated mouse skin at study completion. This study demonstrated that topical application of valrubicin has a beneficial effect in treating developing skin tumors. PMID:20554745

  11. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  12. STABILITY OF INTERNAL HEAT NECROSIS IN TETRAPLOID X DIPLOID POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a severe physiological disorder of tubers, characterized by brown spots that first appear towards the apical end of the tuber parenchyma, although most of the parenchyma tissue is involved in severe cases. 'Atlantic' is the predominant potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) c...

  13. Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr. )

    1989-11-01

    We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads.

  14. Necrosis targeted combinational theragnostic approach to treat cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yun; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Wei; Gao, Meng; Li, Yue; Wang, Junhu; Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Ziping; Jiang, Xiao; Yao, Nan; Wang, Xiaoning; Fang, Zhijun; Yin, Zhiqi; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Residual cancer cells and subsequent tumor relapse is an obstacle for curative cancer treatment. Tumor necrosis therapy (TNT) has recently been developed to cause residual tumor regression or destruction. Here, we exploited the avidity of the sennidin A (SA) tracer and radioiodinated SA (131I-SA) to necrotic tumors in order to further empower TNT. We showed high uptake and prolonged retention of SA in necrotic tumors and a quick clearance in other non-targeted tissues including the liver. On SPECT-CT images, tumor mass appeared persistently as a hotspot. Based on the prominent targetability of 131I-SA to the tumor necrosis, we designed a combinational theragnostic modality. The vascular disrupting agent (VDA) combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) was used to cause massive tumor necrosis, which formed the target of 131I-SA that subsequently killed the residual tumor cells by cross-fire irradiation of beta particles. Consequently, 131I-SA combined with CA4P significantly inhibited tumor growth, extended tumor doubling time and prolonged mean animal survival. In conclusion, 131I-SA in combination with necrosis inducing drugs/therapies may generate synergetic tumoricidal effects on solid malignancies by means of primary debulking and secondary cleansing process. PMID:24931286

  15. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA

  16. Serratia marcescens Necrotizing Fasciitis Presenting as Bilateral Breast Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Tayyab; Moore, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an extremely rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis. We report the first case of necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall due to infection with S. marcescens that initially manifested as bilateral breast necrosis. The patient had a fulminant course leading to death within 72 h of presentation. Literature pertinent to S. marcescens-mediated necrotizing fasciitis is also reviewed. PMID:22837315

  17. Functional and structural evaluation of the vasculature of skin flaps after ischemia and reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marzella, L.; Jesudass, R.R.; Manson, P.N.; Myers, R.A.; Bulkley, G.B.

    1988-05-01

    Free radicals and other toxic oxygen species play a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic organ damage. The abdominal skin flap has been used as a model to study the effects of superoxide dismutase on the survival of ischemic skin. We have evaluated the evolution of functional and structural injury to the vasculature after ischemic injury in superoxide dismutase-treated and control skin flaps. Ischemia was induced by creating abdominal skin flaps and occluding either the venous or both the venous and arterial blood supplies. Superoxide dismutase was administered immediately after the occlusion was released. At 1 hour of reflow, erythrocyte stasis, platelet deposition, neutrophil adherence, and injury to the endothelium of the large vessels and of the microvasculature were evident. The blood flow in the ischemic skin was only 3 percent of normal. Superoxide dismutase caused no change in the ultrastructure of the vasculature and a marginal decrease in vascular permeability in the ischemic skin at 1 hour of reflow. Increased fluorescent staining of the skin was evident after 24 hours of reflow in the superoxide dismutase-treated flaps. These findings indicate that injury to vascular endothelium by ischemia and reperfusion plays a role in the evolution of skin necrosis.

  18. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  19. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  20. Polymeric membrane dressings for radiotherapy-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainline treatments for cancer. One of the side effects associated with radiotherapy includes skin problems, which range from mild (dull erythema and tightening of the skin) to severe (moist desquamation resulting in open wounds that can be very painful associated with sloughy and, in some severe cases, necrosis). The increased use of advanced radical treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT), can also result in a higher number of patients experiencing skin reactions. It is estimated that approximately 87% of patients will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction (Harris et al, 2011) An evaluation was undertaken in 20 patients with head and neck cancer following a prescribed treatment of radiotherapy to compare a polymeric membrane dressing (PolyMem) against the standard treatment. The standard treatment consisted of topical aqueous cream at the start of radiotherapy with the addition of paraffin gauze when moist desquamation occurred. A bespoke evaluation form was completed for a period of 4 weeks or until healed. Patients were asked to complete both qualitative descriptions and numerical scores of pain for symptoms and procedural pain. Analgesia and sleep patterns were logged and, in addition, free text diaries were provided for up to 4 weeks. Common themes were identified and qualitative data analysed. PMID:24851807

  1. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  2. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  3. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gloves clean and dry. WASH and dry your hands before putting on gloves. CLEAN off the outside of your gloves before ... your gloves when you take them off. DISCARD gloves with holes, tears, or worn areas. Using a hand washing station 3 Keep skin clean Wash with ...

  4. Immunopathology of skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Maheshwari, V; Trivedi, I; Kalam, A

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 +/- 1030.43 mg%) and IgM (232.12 +/- 136.98 mg%) was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61+/- 77.35 mg% and 66.88 +/- 6.59 mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P< 0.00 1) in various skin lesions (40.49+/-23.29) when compared with controls (17.68+/- 3.21), but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 +/- 4.28). Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders. PMID:17664758

  5. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  6. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hnel, Kai H.; Cornelissen, Christian; Lscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte

    2013-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23531535

  7. The Role of the Skin Barrier in Occupational Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Bosco, Joanna; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are the second most common occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is the most frequent OSD, and comprises irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. There are many endogenous and exogenous factors which affect the development of OCD, including age, sex, ethnicity, atopic skin diathesis, certain occupations and environmental factors. One of the most important contributing causes is skin barrier dysfunction. The skin provides a first-line defense from environmental assaults and incorporates physical, chemical and biological protection. Skin barrier disturbance plays a crucial role in various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis, ICD and ACD. Genetic factors, such as filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, and external factors, such as skin irritants interfering with stratum corneum structure and composition, may lead to abnormalities in skin barrier function and increased vulnerability to skin diseases. FLG encodes the cornified envelope protein, filaggrin, which is involved in skin barrier function. FLG mutation is associated with the development of OCD. High-risk occupations for OCD include health care workers, hairdressers and construction workers. There are often multiple contributing causes to OCD, as workers are exposed to both irritants and allergens. AD is also associated with skin barrier disruption and plays an important role in OCD. ICD often precedes and facilitates the development of ACD, with impairment of the skin barrier contributing to the concurrence of ICD and ACD in many workers with OCD. PMID:26844905

  8. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  9. A new method for skin color enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  10. Improved electrodes for skin contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, J. G.; Lattanzi, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Design is described of thick, flexible electrodes with appropriate metal surfaces which prevent unnecessary skin motion. Electrodes provide sufficient radial pressure directed toward body surface to depress skin a noticeable portion of its normal resilient thickness.

  11. Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin cancer appears in many shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This is a very common type of ... lip; skin on the lip can get thick Squamous cell carcinoma . These patients all have forms of squamous cell ...

  12. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...

  13. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... against all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin ... go out. back to top Protect the Eyes Sunlight reflecting off snow, sand, or water further increases ...

  14. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as tinea versicolor) Pityriasis alba Vitiligo Certain medicines Skin condition called idiopathic guttate hyomelanosis ... surgery, or phototherapy, depending on the type of skin condition you have. Bleaching creams can help lighten dark ...

  15. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24300178

  16. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPAR? expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPAR? deficiency (PPAR?-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) expression in wounds of PPAR?-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-? reversed the healing deficit in PPAR?-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-? in PPAR?-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-? by PPAR?-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPAR?-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPAR? agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-? expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPAR?-KO mice. Therefore, PPAR? has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing. PMID:25590807

  17. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  18. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on ... skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous cell carcinoma are confined to the skin and do not ...

  19. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  20. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePLUS

    A skin or mucosal culture may be done along with this test. Other studies are often done on a skin sample to determine if cancer is present. Viral skin lesions like herpes simplex are examined by other tests or a viral culture.

  1. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Susan K

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:17234230

  2. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the

  3. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  4. Physiological skin changes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kelly H

    2015-03-01

    Physicians may often mistake normal physiological skin changes in pregnancy for pathologic changes, so being able to recognize the skin manifestations unique to pregnancy is of the utmost importance to avoid unnecessary testing and stress for the obstetric patient. Most physiological skin changes will resolve postpartum, so reassurance and expectant management is indicated in almost all cases. PMID:25517755

  5. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  6. Radon exposure of the skin: I. Biological effects.

    PubMed

    Charles, M W

    2007-09-01

    Radon progeny can plate out on skin and give rise to exposure of the superficial epidermis from alpha emitters Po-218 (7.7 MeV, range approximately 66 microm) and Po-214 (6 MeV, range approximately 44 microm). Dose rates from beta/gamma emitters Pb-214 and Bi-214 are low and only predominate at depths in excess of the alpha range. This paper reviews the evidence for a causal link between exposure from radon and its progeny, and deterministic and stochastic biological effects in human skin. Radiation induced skin effects such as ulceration and dermal atrophy, which require irradiation of the dermis, are ruled out for alpha irradiation from radon progeny because the target cells are considerably deeper than the range of alpha particles. They have not been observed in man or animals. Effects such as erythema and acute epidermal necrosis have been observed in a few cases of very high dose alpha particle exposures in man and after acute high dose exposure in animals from low energy beta radiations with similar depth doses to radon progeny. The required skin surface absorbed doses are in excess of 100 Gy. Such effects would require extremely high levels of radon progeny. They would involve quite exceptional circumstances, way outside the normal range of radon exposures in man. There is no definitive identification of the target cells for skin cancer induction in animals or man. The stem cells in the basal layer which maintain the epidermis are the most plausible contenders for target cells. The majority of these cells are near the end of the range of radon progeny alpha particles, even on the thinnest body sites. The nominal depth of these cells, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is 70 microm. There is evidence however that some irradiation of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is also necessary for skin cancer induction. Alpha irradiation of rodent skin that is restricted to the epidermis does not produce skin cancer. Accelerator generated high energy helium and heavy ions can produce skin cancer in rodents at high doses, but only if they penetrate deep into the dermis. The risk figures for radiation induced skin cancer in man recommended by the ICRP in 1990 are based largely on x and beta irradiated cohorts, but few data exist below absorbed doses of about 1 Gy. The only plausible finding of alpha-radiation induced skin cancer in man is restricted to one study in Czech uranium miners. There is no evidence in other uranium miners and the Czech study has a number of shortcomings. This review concludes that the overall balance of evidence is against causality of radon progeny exposure and skin cancer induction. Of particular relevance is the finding in animal studies that radiation exposure of cells which are deeper than the inter-follicular epidermis is necessary to elicit skin cancer. In spite of this conclusion, a follow-on paper evaluates the attributable risk of radon to skin cancer in the UK on the basis that target cells for skin cancer induction are the cells in the basal layer of the inter-follicular epidermis-since this is the conservative assumption made by international bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general radiological protection purposes. PMID:17768326

  7. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... self-care; Full thickness skin graft - self-care; Partial-dermal skin graft - self-care; FTSG - self-care; ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal ...

  8. Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

  9. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  10. Newborn skin care.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jonathan A

    2013-02-01

    Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from individual anecdotal experience or cultural tradition, rather than evidence-based or pathomechanistically derived data. While research in this area has historically been limited, it is increasing in scope and volume, and recent work has shed light on the changes experienced by the cutaneous organ during this period of transition. This increased understanding has driven new recommendations in skin care protocols for newborn infants and neonates. PMID:23419756

  11. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea.

  12. Flies With Skin Blisters.

    PubMed

    Simons, Matias

    2015-08-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) belongs to a family of genetic conditions that cause the skin to be fragile and to blister easily. Although most of the genes involved are known, the molecular mechanisms underlying keratin aggregation remain obscure. In this issue of the Journal, Bohnekamp et al. report on a novel EBS model that is based on the de novo formation of keratin filaments in "keratin null flies." PMID:26174537

  13. Nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, David A; Miller, Stanley J

    2009-08-01

    This article provides readers with a comprehensive review of the evaluation and management of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Treatment recommendations are heavily based on the most recent guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Merkel cell carcinoma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans are also discussed. After reviewing this article, readers should be equipped with a better understanding of these entities and the current recommendations for their management. PMID:19698913

  14. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC. PMID:22557848

  15. Acute retinal necrosis following intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex) implant.

    PubMed

    Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Eren, Mustafa; Yolcu, Umit; Sobaci, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman undergoing azathioprine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis developed acute retinal necrosis a month after intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex ) implantation for posterior uveitis in the left eye. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was detected in the anterior chamber and vitreous samples on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Retinal detachment occurred despite systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy. Favorable structural and functional outcomes were achieved after retinal surgery with silicone oil. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute retinal necrosis following placement of an Ozurdex implant. Physicians practicing Ozurdex implantations should be aware of this unusual but devastating complication. Extra caution and frequent follow-up are required in all immunocompromised patients receiving Ozurdex implantation. PMID:25945535

  16. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  17. Facial necrosis after endovascular Onyx-18 embolization for epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Grandhi, Ramesh; Panczykowski, David; Zwagerman, Nathan T.; Gehris, Robin; Villasenor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Grandinetti, Lisa; Horowitz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evolution in techniques and equipment has expanded the role, effectiveness, and safety of endovascular transarterial embolization for the treatment of severe epistaxis. Risks from this treatment approach include major ischemic complications. To date, there have been only a few reports of soft tissue necrosis following endovascular embolization for severe epistaxis; none involve the use of Onyx-18. Case Description: We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis that was refractory to medical and surgical management, which lead to endovascular intervention and embolization with Onyx-18. The patient subsequently developed nasal ala and facial necrosis as a result of the procedure. Conclusion: We report the use of Onyx-18 for the endovascular embolization of a patient with severe epistaxis and subsequent complications. In cases of severe epistaxis that warrant intervention in the form of embolization, ischemic complications are rare; however, ischemic complications may be unavoidable and should factor into the discussion regarding procedural risks. PMID:23956938

  18. Quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, M G; Sun, X M; Brown, D; Snowden, R T; Cohen, G M

    1993-01-01

    Apoptosis and necrosis are two important mechanisms of cell death. Several methods have recently been described for quantifying apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. We report a novel method for the quantification and separation of viable normal and apoptotic cells. We have applied this method both to immature rat thymocytes treated with a variety of agents and to a murine haemopoetic cell line after withdrawal of a growth factor. The cells were incubated with two dyes which give fluorescent complexes when bound to DNA, the bis-benzimidazole, Hoechst 33342, and propidium iodide. Three populations were identified and characterized. On excitation with UV radiation, dead cells fluoresced red due to the uptake of propidium iodide whereas apoptotic cells fluoresced bright blue; normal cells showed low blue, low red fluorescence. In this paper, we demonstrate how this method may be used to help to distinguish between cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:8369130

  19. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

  20. Diagnosis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, M.; Swartz, B.E.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Gee, M.; Blahd, W.H. )

    1990-04-01

    A 27-year-old man developed delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy to an arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging with technetium 99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and positron emission tomographic scanning with fludeoxyglucose F 18 aided in his evaluation. Significant improvement of his neurologic deficits resulted from corticosteroid therapy. Clinical resolution was corroborated by serial computed tomographic scans demonstrating regression of the abnormality (a mass lesion). Various facets of radiation injury are discussed, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy.

  1. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  2. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  3. Cation dyshomeostasis and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the Fleckenstein hypothesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Brian J.; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing loss of cardiomyocytes to apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways contributes to the progressive nature of heart failure. The pathophysiological origins of necrotic cell loss relate to the neurohormonal activation that accompanies acute and chronic stressor states and which includes effector hormones of the adrenergic nervous system. Fifty years ago, Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers hypothesized the hyperadrenergic state, which accompanies such stressors, causes cardiomyocyte necrosis based on catecholamine-initiated excessive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation (EICA), and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading in particular, in which the ensuing dysfunction and structural degeneration of these organelles leads to necrosis. In recent years, two downstream factors have been identified which, together with EICA, constitute a signal–transducer–effector pathway: (i) mitochondria-based induction of oxidative stress, in which the rate of reactive oxygen metabolite generation exceeds their rate of detoxification by endogenous antioxidant defences; and (ii) the opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) followed by organellar swelling and degeneration. The pathogenesis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes is likely related to this pathway. Other factors which can account for cytotoxicity in stressor states include: hypokalaemia; ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia with resultant elevations in parathyroid hormone serving as a potent mediator of EICA; and hypozincaemia with hyposelenaemia, which compromise antioxidant defences. Herein, we revisit the Fleckenstein hypothesis of EICA in leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and the central role played by mitochondria. PMID:21398641

  4. Acriflavine-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Ezzatollah; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Attar, Farnoosh

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic, fungicide, and effective agent against parasitic infections, inducing petite mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and kinetoplast loss in Trypanosomidae. Here we showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis in the yeast Candida utilis. Cells were cultured in minimal medium, with 1.5% ethanol as substrate, in the presence of 30-180 micromol/L acriflavine. Fluorescence measurements showed a linear concentration-dependence flux of the drug into the cells. Acriflavine induced a decrease in cell number, an increase in trypan blue-positive cells, and a decrease in cell viability. Cells cultured in the presence of acriflavine showed an alteration in their respiratory control ratio and a decrease in their cytochrome content. Fluorescence microscopy, after acridine orange staining, revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in cultures conducted in the presence of acriflavine. Electron microscopy of cells grown in the presence of acriflavine showed apoptotic cells exhibiting chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic lysis, but reasonably well-preserved mitochondria, whereas necrotic cells showed no distinctive intracellular organelles. Data showed that acriflavine caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, acriflavine induced oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling. Generally, apoptosis is considered to be mediated either by a change in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release or by plasma membrane death receptor activation. The outer mitochondrial membrane permeability to cytochrome c, with efflux of protons to the cytosol and cytoplasmic acidification, produced a collapse in the electrochemical proton gradient, a decrease in ATP synthesis, and subsequent cytolysis leading to apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:19723067

  5. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    KAMAL, DIANA; TR?ISTARU, RODICA; KAMAL, C.K.; ALEXANDRU, D.O.; MOGOANT?, L.; GRECU, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment.

  6. Autophagy protects C. elegans against necrosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Dai, Li-Li; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a conserved pathway that delivers intracellular materials into lysosomes for degradation, is involved in development, aging, and a variety of diseases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays a protective role against infectious diseases by diminishing intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is involved in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. P. aeruginosa infection induces autophagy via a conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Intriguingly, impairment of autophagy does not influence the intestinal accumulation of P. aeruginosa, but instead induces intestinal necrosis. Inhibition of necrosis results in the survival of autophagy-deficient worms after P. aeruginosa infection. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role for autophagy in protection against necrosis triggered by pathogenic bacteria in C. elegans and implicate that such a function of autophagy may be conserved through the inflammatory response in diverse organisms. PMID:25114220

  7. Autophagy protects C. elegans against necrosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Dai, Li-Li; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-08-26

    Autophagy, a conserved pathway that delivers intracellular materials into lysosomes for degradation, is involved in development, aging, and a variety of diseases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays a protective role against infectious diseases by diminishing intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is involved in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. P. aeruginosa infection induces autophagy via a conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Intriguingly, impairment of autophagy does not influence the intestinal accumulation of P. aeruginosa, but instead induces intestinal necrosis. Inhibition of necrosis results in the survival of autophagy-deficient worms after P. aeruginosa infection. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role for autophagy in protection against necrosis triggered by pathogenic bacteria in C. elegans and implicate that such a function of autophagy may be conserved through the inflammatory response in diverse organisms. PMID:25114220

  8. Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA in skin lesions from cattle suspected to have pseudo-lumpy skin disease.

    PubMed

    d'Offay, Jean M; Floyd, James G; Eberle, Richard; Saliki, Jerry T; Brock, Kenny V; D'Andrea, George H; McMillan, Kenneth L

    2003-05-15

    Beef cattle from a herd in north Alabama were examined because of an outbreak of nonfatal skin disease characterized by discrete circumscribed areas of inflammation that developed on the skin from the neck to the hips. Areas of inflammation, which tended to be superficial, underwent necrosis and scabbed over. The scabs eventually dropped off leaving discrete, round, whitish, hairless lesions that were 1.2 to 2.5 cm diameter. Because clinical signs were consistent with those expected with pseudo-lumpy skin disease (PLSD) caused by bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BHV-2), samples from 16 representative animals were submitted for BHV-2 testing. All 16 animals were seropositive for BHV-2, but the virus could not be isolated from skin biopsy specimens or buffy coat samples. Results of a polymerase chain reaction assay incorporating primers designed to amplify 2 DNA sequences from BHV-2 were positive for 3 of the 10 cattle, suggesting that skin lesions in these cattle were a result of PLSD. Our findings suggest that PLSD may be more common and widespread in the United States than suggested by the frequency with which BHV-2 has been isolated from cattle with PLSD-like skin lesions. PMID:12762387

  9. A Case of Sarcoidosis Associated With AntiTumor Necrosis Factor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanazay, Cigdem; Kokturk, Nurdan; Turktas, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves the lungs but can affect many organs or tissues in the body, such as the lymphatic system, skin, eyes, and liver. Typical histopathological lesions are noncaseating granulomas in the affected organ or tissue. Indications, type of treatment, and duration of sarcoidosis treatment is currently debated. Despite studies showing that antitumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) treatment can successfully be used in refractory sarcoidosis, there are some case reports regarding the development of sarcoidosis with these agents. There have been reports of 47 anti-TNF-associated cases of sarcoidosis until 2012. The patient is a 54-year-old Caucasian male. During routine examinations of the patient who had been followed for psoriasis vulgaris for 20 years and who had been on several anti-TNF regimens thereafter, new pulmonary pathologies due to sarcoidosis were detected. We present here a case of sarcoidosis that developed after infliximab treatment and showed obvious radiologic regression with discontinuation of treatment. During anti-TNF treatment, it should be kept in mind that autoimmune and granulomatous diseases may develop and particular care should be given to patient follow-ups. PMID:26425632

  10. The intriguing biology of the tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily: players, rules and the games

    PubMed Central

    Hehlgans, Thomas; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)/tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily are critically involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the immune system. The biological functions of this system encompass beneficial and protective effects in inflammation and host defence as well as a crucial role in organogenesis. At the same time, members of this superfamily are responsible for host damaging effects in sepsis, cachexia, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent progress in the immunbiology of the TNF/TNFR superfamily focusing on results obtained from animal studies using gene targeted mice. The different modes of signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune organ development as well as host defence are reviewed. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that demonstrate a therapeutic potential by targeting individual receptors or ligands for the treatment of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases are discussed. PMID:15819693

  11. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-04-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  12. Exploring Theranostic Potentials of Radioiodinated Hypericin in Rodent Necrosis Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Yu, Jie; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present animal experiments were conducted to evaluate radioiodinated Hypericin (Hyp) for its regional distribution as well as theranostic potentials. Materials and Methods: Rat models of reperfused liver infarction (RLI) and hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) were surgically induced. R1 models received Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) intravenously at 10 mg/kg 24 h prior to radioiodinated Hyp. Three groups of 6 rats each containing 3 RLI and 3 R1 models received iv injections of 123I-Hyp at 37, 74, and 185 MBq/kg respectively and followed by 0.1 ml of 1% Evans blue solution were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 48 hour post injection immediately after in vivo examination of MRI and planar gamma scintigraphy. Besides, two groups of 6 R1 models that received either 300 MBq/kg of 131I-Hyp or vehicle intravenously were examined using MRI to compare tumor growth for 12 days. Autoradiography, gamma counting, and histopathology were performed for postmortem verifications and quantification. Results: Necrosis as seen in vivo on contrast-enhanced MRI corresponded well with the hot spots on planar scintigraphy. Autoradiography and gamma counting revealed intense accumulation of 123I-Hyp in necrotic liver (3.94 ± 1.60, 5.38 ± 1.04, and 6.03 ± 2.09 %ID/g ± SD) and necrotic tumor (4.27 ± 0.76, 5.57 ± 0.76, and 5.68 ± 1.33 %ID/g ± SD) relative to normal liver (1.76 ± 0.54, 0.41 ± 0.18, and 0.16 ± 0.07 %ID/g ± SD), with a high necrosis-to-liver ratio of 2.3, 14.0, and 37.0 at 4, 24 and 48 h respectively. Tumor volumes in R1 models that received 131I-Hyp and vehicle changed from 0.45 ± 0.09, and 0.47 ± 0.12 cm3 (p > 0.05) on day 0 to1.32 ± 0.76 and 3.63 ± 0.72 cm3 (p < 0.001) on day 12, with the corresponding necrosis ratios from 73 ± 12 %, and 76 ± 17 % to 47 ± 18% and 17 ± 13 % (p < 0.01), and with the tumor DT of 7.3 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Radioiodinated Hyp as a necrosis avid tracer appears promising for non-invasive imaging diagnosis of necrosis-related pathologies. Its prominent targetability to necrosis allows targeted radiotherapy for malignancies on top of a prior necrosis-inducing treatment. PMID:23139728

  13. Identification of dirty necrosis in colorectal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianhuang; Jiang, Weizhong; Yang, Yinghong; Chen, Zhifen; Feng, Changyin; Li, Hongsheng; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-06-01

    Dirty necrosis within glandular lumina is often considered as a characteristic of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that is a diagnostically useful feature of CRCs with DNA microsatellite instability (MSI). Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is based on the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence signals, was used to identify dirty necrosis. Our results demonstrated that MPM has the ability to exhibit the microstructure of dirty necrosis and the signal intensity as well as an emission spectrum that can help to differentiate dirty necrosis from cancer cells. These findings indicate that MPM may be helpful in distinguishing MSI colorectal carcinoma via the identification of dirty necrosis.

  14. Comparative Genomic Profiling of Synovium Versus Skin Lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Belasco, Jennifer; Louie, James S; Gulati, Nicholas; Wei, Nathan; Nograles, Kristine; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Krueger, James G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To our knowledge, there is no broad genomic analysis comparing skin and synovium in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Also, there is little understanding of the relative levels of cytokines and chemokines in skin and synovium. The purpose of this study was to better define inflammatory pathways in paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue in patients with PsA. Methods We conducted a comprehensive analysis of cytokine and chemokine activation and genes representative of the inflammatory processes in PsA. Paired PsA synovial tissue and skin samples were obtained from 12 patients on the same day. Gene expression studies were performed using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Confirmatory quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on selected transcripts. Cell populations were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results Globally, gene expression in PsA synovium was more closely related to gene expression in PsA skin than to gene expression in synovium in other forms of arthritis. However, PsA gene expression patterns in skin and synovium were clearly distinct, showing a stronger interleukin-17 (IL-17) gene signature in skin than in synovium and more equivalent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-? gene signatures in both tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive molecular comparison of paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue samples in PsA. Our results support clinical trial data showing that PsA skin and joint disease are similarly responsive to TNF antagonists, while IL-17 antagonists have better results in PsA skin than in PsA joints. Genes selectively expressed in PsA synovium might direct future therapies for PsA. PMID:25512250

  15. Simplified technique without skin flap for the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implant

    PubMed Central

    Bovo, R

    2008-01-01

    Summary Aim of this report is to present a new surgical technique for the BAHA system implant and to discuss the operational techniques and complications related to this type of surgery. The common technique for the positioning of the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA, Cochlear Limited, Englewood, CO, USA) titanium implant into the temporal bone is based on the use of either a free or a pedunculated skin flap. Reported complications of this type of surgery include skin flap necrosis with healing by second intention, infection of the flap, skin growth over the abutment, failure of osseointegration and implant extrusion. In order to reduce the incidence of these problems, different types of surgery have already been presented over the years. Herewith, a new technique is proposed for implanting a BAHA screw in the temporal bone, that is simple, rapid to perform, and does not require the use of a flap. This technique appears to offer two main advantages: i) the speeding up of the procedure; ii) the low risk of complications, such as infection and necrosis, within the skin surrounding the implant. PMID:19186455

  16. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  17. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bont, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. PMID:21570537

  18. Practical applications of skin biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Thacker, J G; Stalnecker, M C; Allaire, P E; Edgerton, M T; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1977-04-01

    The biomechanical properties of skin have an important influence on plastic surgical decisions. They aid the surgeon in planning elective incisions, excisions, or scar revisions. They provide insight into the most appropriate method of coverage of skin defects as well as the design of an artificial skin substitute. Skin biomechanics can, in part, be characterized in vivo by either a skin extensiometer or by studying the deformation of skin defects. These methods indicate the magnitude and directional orientation of skin tensions which are dependent partly on the mechanical characteristics of the dermal fibers and partly on the pattern in which they are woven. The tensions to which the skin are subjected can be classified as either static or dynamic in origin. Static skin tensions are the natural tensions existing in skin. The magnitude of static tensions varies between individuals, at different sites in the same person, and in different directions in many sites. The dynamic tensions are caused by a combination of forces which are associated with joint movement, mimetic and other voluntary muscle activity, and gravity. Knowledge of these tensions allows the surgeon to align the operative site in the direction of maximal tension and to approximate the wound with the least amount of tension. As a consequence of this, the scar healing between the cut edges of the wound should be narrow and inconspicuous. PMID:856528

  19. Uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization for post-partum hemorrhage: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Poujade, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Pierre Franois; Davitian, Carine; Amate, Pascale; Chatel, Paul; Khater, Carine; Aflak, Nizar; Vilgrain, Valrie; Luton, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Uterine necrosis is one of the rarest complications following pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). With the increasing incidence of cesarean section and abnormal placental localization (placenta previa) or placental invasion (placenta accreta/increta/percreta), more and more cases of uterine necrosis after embolization are being diagnosed and reported. Pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy, and surgical management includes hysterectomy. We performed a Medline database query following the first description of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization (between January 1985 and January 2013). Medical subheading search words were the following: "uterine necrosis"; "embolization"; "postpartum hemorrhage". Seventeen citations reporting at least one case of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization for PPH were included, with a total of 19 cases. This literature review discusses the etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization, and guidelines are detailed. The mean time interval between pelvic embolization and diagnosis of uterine necrosis was 21 days (range 9-730). The main symptoms of uterine necrosis were fever, abdominal pain, menorrhagia and leukorrhea. Surgical management included total hysterectomy (n=15, 78%) or subtotal hysterectomy (n=2, 10%) and partial cystectomy with excision of the necrotic portion in three cases of associated bladder necrosis (15%). Uterine necrosis was partial in four cases (21%). Regarding the pathophysiology, four factors may be involved in uterine necrosis: the size and nature of the embolizing agent, the presence of the anastomotic vascular system and the embolization technique itself with the use of free flow embolization. PMID:23932304

  20. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in Europe in the next decades. PMID:25207363

  1. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  2. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  3. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  4. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  5. Low temperature skin treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.

    Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

  6. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Slim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  7. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-?B, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25004886

  8. Adverse drug reactions and organ damage: The skin.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Angelo V; Borghi, Alessandro; Cugno, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are frequent, affecting 2-3% of hospitalized patients and in one twentieth of them are potentially life-threatening. Almost any pharmacologic agent can induce skin reactions, and certain drug classes, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antiepileptics, have drug eruption rates ranging from 1% to 5%. Cutaneous drug reactions recognize several different pathomechanisms: some skin manifestations are immune-mediated like allergic reactions while others are the result of non immunological causes such as cumulative toxicity, photosensitivity, interaction with other drugs or different metabolic pathways. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be classified into two groups: common non-severe and rare life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Non-severe reactions are often exanthematous or urticarial whereas life-threatening reactions typically present with skin detachment or necrosis of large areas of the body and mucous membrane involvement, as in the Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the signs and symptoms of all cutaneous adverse drug reactions thought to be due to drugs and immediately discontinue drugs that are not essential. Short cycles of systemic corticosteroids in combination with antihistamines may be necessary for widespread exanthematous rashes, while more aggressive corticosteroid regimens or intravenous immunoglobulins associated with supportive treatment should be used for patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. PMID:26674736

  9. Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries. PMID:23162239

  10. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  11. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  12. Measuring skin while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

    1995-12-31

    A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

  13. Fetal skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Edward P; Longaker, Michael T; Lorenz, H Peter

    2009-01-01

    The developing fetus has the ability to heal wounds by regenerating normal epidermis and dermis with restoration of the extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture, strength, and function. In contrast, adult wounds heal with fibrosis and scar. Scar tissue remains weaker than normal skin with an altered ECM composition. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanism of fetal wound healing remains largely unknown. We do know that early in gestation, fetal skin is developing at a rapid pace and the ECM is a loose network facilitating cellular migration. Wounding in this unique environment triggers a complex cascade of tightly controlled events culminating in a scarless wound phenotype of fine reticular collagen and abundant hyaluronic acid. Comparison between postnatal and fetal wound healing has revealed differences in inflammatory response, cellular mediators, cytokines, growth factors, and ECM modulators. Investigation into cell signaling pathways and transcription factors has demonstrated differences in secondary messenger phosphorylation patterns and homeobox gene expression. Further research may reveal novel genes essential to scarless repair that can be manipulated in the adult wound and thus ameliorate scar. PMID:19803418

  14. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy. PMID:23135075

  15. Fernblock, a nutriceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin. PMID:22272084

  16. Cocaine hepatotoxicity: a study on the pathogenesis of periportal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Powell, C J; Charles, S J; Mullervy, J

    1994-12-01

    Cocaine is reported to produce either periportal or mid-zonal necrosis in mice pretreated with the enzyme inducer phenobarbitone (James et al. 1987; Powell et al. 1991; Charles & Powell 1992). Dose-response and time course experiments were performed in phenobarbitone treated male DBA/2Ha mice to study the pathogenesis of this unusual cocaine induced lesion. An increase in the dose of cocaine from 60 to 90 or 120 mg/kg produced more extensive and severe periportal and linking portal damage and elevated plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in a dose dependent manner. Scattered hepatocyte degeneration began at the edge of the periportal region and was detectable by electron microscopy within 30 minutes of administration of 60 mg/kg of cocaine, with conspicuous disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum being one of the earliest changes. Significant elevations of plasma AST and ALT were observed 3 hours after cocaine administration and were sustained for 12 hours, at which time progressive hepatocyte damage had developed into a network of confluent necrosis at the periphery of the periportal region. The rapidity of organelle derangement and subsequent cell death, and absence of any effect on total cytochrome P-450 or FAD-mono-oxygenase levels, appear to distinguish this periportal lesion from previous reports of cocaine induced centrilobular necrosis in non-enzyme induced mice, suggesting that the two types of damage may develop by different mechanisms. The observation that periportal lesions commence at the periphery of the periportal area, progressing portalwards with increasing dose and time, offers an explanation for the previously conflicting reports of cocaine induced mid-zonal and/or periportal lesions in phenobarbitone treated mice. PMID:7734331

  17. Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

  18. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100?M)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  19. Nitrate patch prevents steroid-related bone necrosis.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Wolf; Beckmann, Rainer; Kasch, Richard; Pufe, Melanie; Knobe, Matthias; Kweider, Nisreen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Tingart, Markus; Pufe, Thomas; Kadyrov, Mahmed

    2011-10-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a common complication with disabling effect for young patients after high-dose corticosteroid treatment. We could show that steroids have a vasoconstrictive effect on lateral epiphyseal arteries of the femoral head which could lead to ischemia and subsequent necrosis. In this study we investigated the preventive effect of a nitrate patch on steroid-related bone necrosis in a rabbit model. New Zealand White rabbits (male; 3-4.5 kg bodyweight) were injected with 20 mg/kg bodyweight methylprednisolone (GC group; n = 6). Control animals (n = 6) were treated with phosphate-buffered saline. A third group (GC + N; n = 6) additionally received a nitrate patch (0.675 mg/day). Four weeks after i.m. methylprednisolone injection the animals were sacrificed. For histology and immunohistochemistry, tissue samples were fixed in 3% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, dewaxed, and stained with Ladewig. For quantification of empty lacunae, a histologic sign of FHN, histomorphometry was performed. Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase of empty lacunae in glucocorticoid-treated animals compared to controls and GC + N-treated animals. No significant difference in empty lacunae count was detected between the GC + N group and controls. HE staining revealed the different osteocyte amount in the GC versus GC and nitrate patch-treated groups. This study demonstrates an increased number of empty osteocyte lacunae representing a pathologic feature of osteonecrosis, in the GC group. Less empty lacunae were counted in the GC animals after additional treatment with a nitrate patch. This finding suggests that nitrate co-treatment has the potential to prevent steroid-associated FHN. PMID:21469180

  20. Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

    2006-01-01

    The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

  1. Lipid oxidation in the skin.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and exerts several physiological functions such as a protective barrier against moisture loss and noxious agents including ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidation of skin may impair such functions and induce skin disorders including photoaging and skin cancer. Skin surface lipids, a mixture of sebaceous and epidermal lipids, have unique species and fatty acid profile. The major unsaturated lipids are squalene, sebaleic aicd, linoleic acid, and cholesterol. Singlet oxygen and ozone as well as free radicals and enzymes are important oxidants for skin lipids. Squalene is the major target for singlet oxygen, giving rise to twelve regio-isomeric squalene hydroperoxides. Ultraviolet radiation activates lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, inducing specific enzymatic oxidation of lipids. Free radical mediated lipid peroxidation gives multiple oxidation products. Lipid oxidation products produced by these mechanisms are observed in human skin and induce various skin diseases, but in contrast to plasma and other tissues, identification and quantitative measurement of lipid oxidation products in skin are scarce and should be the subjects of future studies. PMID:25312699

  2. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  3. The future of skin metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

  4. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors – state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawińska, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

  5. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Krnig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula; Burger, Dieter; Langer, Mathias; Timme-Bronsert, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Seemann, Wolfgang-Schultze

    2015-09-01

    Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG) can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence. PMID:26793538

  6. Renal papillary necrosis following emergency department treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Witting, M D

    1996-01-01

    New medications have lessened the need for narcotic medications in the acute treatment of migraine. Some of these new medications include parenteral dihydroergotamine (DHE), sumatriptan, and ketorolac. Treatment failures still occur, though, and some cases necessitate adding a second agent to one that has been ineffective. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who suffered renal papillary necrosis 12 days after receiving parenteral DHE, sumatriptan, and ketorolac for treatment of a severe migraine headache. There were no signs of an adverse drug reaction at the time of his emergency department visit. The case illustrates a potential hazard of this combination in the acute treatment of migraine. PMID:8782036

  7. Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Presenting as Cortical Laminar Necrosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Mun; Roh, Sook Young

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia. PMID:23482893

  8. Avascular necrosis in a patient with hip pain.

    PubMed

    Sabadis, Sebastian; Gattie, Eric; Cleland, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The patient was a 64-year-old man who was referred to a physical therapist 3 weeks following a right L3 hemilaminectomy and an L3-4 facetectomy. At the time of the initial evaluation, the patient was ambulating with a rolling walker due to low back and anterolateral right hip pain, as well as a giving-way sensation of the right hip with weight bearing. The patient was referred to his surgeon, where radiographs revealed collapse/dissolution of the femoral head that was consistent with avascular necrosis. PMID:26027745

  9. Calcified myocardial necrosis in pediatric patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Stenzel, Werner; Martin, Hubert; Heppner, Frank L; Guddat, Saskia S; Tsokos, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report three autopsy cases of wide-spread myocardial necrosis with calcification in pediatric patients after temporary generalized hypoxia and initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but subsequent in-hospital death. Autopsy and histological workup in all three cases showed multiple circumscribed calcified and necrotic areas in progressive stages of organization within the myocardium. We conclude that these macro- and microscopic autopsy features appear to be related to reperfusion injuries in children as a consequence of hypoxic-ischemic changes occurring in the peri- and postresuscitation period. PMID:23264200

  10. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Genevay, Muriel; Abrassart, Sophie; Schwitzguébel, Adrien Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described. PMID:26380138

  11. Identification of brain tissue necrosis by MRI: validation by histomorphometry.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Michael; Blau, Cornelia; Reinl, Herbert; Breidt, Jrg; Gersonde, Klaus; Baethmann, Alexander; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2004-06-01

    The volume of an experimental necrotic lesion of the cortex expands up to 400% of its initial size within the first 24 h after the insult. Lesion expansion, a clinically well known phenomenon, is often accompanied by perifocal brain edema and consequently difficult to image and to analyze by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore we aimed to validate a T(2)-weighted spin echo sequence upon its ability to distinguish necrotic from edematous brain tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per group) were subjected to a cortical freezing lesion leading to immediate tissue necrosis with subsequent perifocal vasogenic brain edema. Immediately and 4, 12, and 24 h after the lesion the maximal area of necrosis was quantified longitudinally by coronal T(2)-weighted spin echo MRI-scans. After the last scan, animals were sacrificed for direct comparison of the lesion area obtained by MRI and histomorphometry. In parallel groups of animals, lesion expansion was quantified by histology. The acquired T(2)-maps clearly distinguish the cortical necrosis from perifocal edema and healthy brain. Focal freezing led to a cortical lesion of 5.24 +/- 0.36 mm(2) immediately after trauma (0 h; 100%) which expanded progressively to a maximum of 6.82 +/- 0.34 mm(2) after 24 h (131%; *p < 0.01 vs. 0 h). Lesion expansion quantified by histology was almost identical (132% within 24 h). Histological assessment resulted in smaller absolute lesion areas compared to MRI, most likely due to shrinking during tissue processing (4.72 +/- 0.26 mm(2) vs. 6.82 +/- 0.34 mm(2), p < 0.01). The current study shows that necrotic brain tissue can be distinguished from surrounding brain edema by T(2)-mapping. The technique is sensitive enough to detect small changes in necrosis expansion in vivo as validated by histology. The presented technique may be a useful future tool for the non-invasive identification of necrotic brain tissue following brain injury (e. g., from trauma or ischemia). PMID:15253801

  12. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula; Burger, Dieter; Langer, Mathias; Timme-Bronsert, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Seemann, Wolfgang-Schultze

    2015-01-01

    Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG) can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence. PMID:26793538

  13. Ischemia Modified Albumin Can Predict Necrosis at Incarcerated Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Kadio?lu, Hseyin; Bozkurt, Sleyman; Ferlengez, Ekrem; Memm?, Naim; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; ?pe, Gkhan; Mslmano?lu, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the predictive effect of IMA in incarcerated hernias. Methods. Three groups (n = 7) of rats were operated. Group I aimed to mimic incarceration, group II aimed the strangulation, and group III was the sham group. IMA and LDH measurements were made. Results. IMA levels were significantly higher in strangulation mimicking group and IMA levels were normal at postoperative 6th hour in incarceration mimicking group. LDH levels were significantly higher in both incarceration and strangulation mimicking groups. Conclusion. IMA seems to be an effective marker in incarcerated hernias to predict necrosis. But we need further studies to generalise this hypothesis. PMID:24379518

  14. Trophic Skin Ulceration of Leprosy: Skin and Serum Zinc Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Oon, Beng Bee; Khong, Kit Yew; Greaves, Malcolm W.; Plummer, Valerie M.

    1974-01-01

    Skin and serum zinc measurements have been made in patients with leprosy with and without trophic skin ulceration and in several other groups. Serum zinc concentrations were decreased in leprosy irrespective of the presence or absence of skin ulceration. Serum zinc concentrations in leprosy were also unrelated to smears positive for Mycobacterium leprae and to the clinical type of leprosy. Since a decrease of the serum zinc was also found in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and pulmonary tuberculosis it seems likely that the decreased serum zinc in leprosy is a nonspecific metabolic consequence of chronic skin and internal disease. The mean skin zinc concentration in leprosy did not differ significantly from the corresponding value in control subjects, the lack of agreement between serum and skin concentrations being possibly related to the presence of nonexchangeable keratin-bound zinc in skin. Though the clinical significance of lowered serum zinc concentrations in leprosy is uncertain therapeutic trials of zinc treatment in leprosy with trophic skin ulceration seem justifiable. PMID:4601207

  15. Coriander Alleviates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Contact Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.51%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  16. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  17. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  18. [Bovine udder skin (BUS): testing of skin compatibility and skin protection].

    PubMed

    Pittermann, Wolfgang F; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    New concepts of the horny layer as a metabolically active part of the epidermal permeability barrier elicited a re-evaluation of conventional mechanisms of occupational skin protection. Both skin protection products and noxae must penetrate the horny layer of the skin to be effective. The isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS) model reflects the natural penetration pattern; hence skin irritation, penetration and absorption can be investigated simultaneously. Using whole skin biopsies the degree of irritation in untreated (control), treated and pre-treated skin is measured by assessing the irritancy (PGE2-concentration) and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) after the exposure period of 0.5 h, 1.0 h and 5.0 h. Two types of skin protection studies were reported. One was a laboratory study using the water-soluble sodiumlaurylsulphate (10%, 15%) as noxa. The other study was initiated by a severely skin irritating water-soluble coolant (approx. 5%). This well documented case occurred in a metal working plant. In both studies different degrees of protective potential against the model noxae SLS and the coolant could be observed. PMID:16688383

  19. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults. PMID:19723070

  20. Superoxide anions produced by Streptococcus pyogenes group A-stimulated keratinocytes are responsible for cellular necrosis and bacterial growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Elodie; Grange, Philippe A; Ollagnier, Guillaume; Crickx, Etienne; Elie, Laetitia; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Weill, Bernard; Plainvert, Cline; Poyart, Claire; Batteux, Frdric; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a major skin pathogen and interacts with keratinocytes in cutaneous tissues. GAS can cause diverse suppurative and inflammatory infections, such as cellulitis, a common acute bacterial dermo-hypodermitis with a high morbidity. Bacterial isolation yields from the lesions are low despite the strong local inflammation observed, raising numerous questions about the pathogenesis of the infection. Using an invitro model of GAS-infected keratinocytes, we show that the major ROS produced is the superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]), and that its production is time- and dose-dependent. Using specific modulators of ROS production, we show that [Formula: see text] is mainly synthesized by the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidase. Superoxide anion production leads to keratinocyte necrosis but incomplete inhibition of GAS growth, suggesting that GAS may be partially resistant to the oxidative burst. In conclusion, GAS-stimulated keratinocytes are able to develop an innate immune response based on the production of ROS. This local immune response limits GAS development and induces keratinocyte cell death, resulting in the skin lesions observed in patients with cellulitis. PMID:26621818

  1. Verrucous carcinoma of skin.

    PubMed

    Klima, M; Kurtis, B; Jordan, P H

    1980-04-01

    Five different cases of verrucous proliferative lesions of skin are described and discussed. One of each developed in a chronic ulcer on a heel, in a scar on a lower leg, and on the penis, and two appeared in the region of the buttock in relation to chronic inflammatory sinuses. All these lesions showed morphological and clinical features of verrucous carcinoma which are described. It has been concluded that the variously named verrucous lesions in the literature (epithelioma cuniculatum, florid papillomatosis, giant cutaneous papilloma and papillomatosis cutis carcinoides), as well as our five cases represent a verrucous carcinoma which is a particular type of squamous cell carcinoma. This tumor develops typically in moist areas which are frequently sites of chronic inflammation. Despite the favorable prognosis, it is a potentially invasive tumor. PMID:7372883

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Signaling in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, Narayanan; Patial, Sonika

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) was cloned over 2 decades ago and its identification in part led to the discovery of a super family of tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) and their receptors. TNFα signals through two transmembrane receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, and regulates a number of critical cell functions including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. Macrophages are the major producers of TNFα and interestingly are also highly responsive to TNFα. Aberrant TNFα production and TNF receptor signaling have been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, sepsis, diabetes, and obesity. TNFα has been shown to play a pivotal role in orchestrating the cytokine cascade in many inflammatory diseases and because of this role as a “master-regulator” of inflammatory cytokine production, it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for a number of diseases. Indeed anti-TNFα drugs are now licensed for treating certain inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we discuss the discovery of TNFα and its actions especially in regulating macrophage biology. Given its importance in several human diseases, we also briefly discuss the role of anti-TNFα therapeutics in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:21133840

  3. [Avascular necrosis of the jaw bone after bisphosphonate therapy].

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Binyamin; Levy, Yaacov; Kleinman, Shlomi; Better, Hadar; Kahn, Adi; Shtabsky, Alexander; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2005-08-01

    Bisphosphonates have an antiosteolytic effect by the inhibition of osteoclastic action. Although the exact mode of action is not completely understood, major progress on both the cellular and molecular levels has been made in recent years. Bisphosphonates alleviate pain and reduce complications, such as pathologic fractures, or hypercalcemia. Dental and periodontal research has shown great interest in clinical applications of bisphosphonates' antiosteolytic and antiosteoclastic traits, since they can be applied to counteract bone loss in chronic periodontitis. Investigations have associated avascular necrosis events in the jawbones with bisphosphonate therapy. Maxillary and mandibular osteonecrotic foci accompanied by pain, inconvenience and purulent exudates were incidentally found in patients who were taking pamidronate (Aredia), zolendronate (Zometa) and even alendronate (Fosalan). Our institutional database search over the past year yielded ten patients who were admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, due to an osteonecrotic bone lesion coupled with a prior history of bisphosphonate therapy. All these patients also had a recent dental extraction. They were all treated according to the osteomyelitis protocol, and their response to therapy varied from several weeks to many months, with some cases requiring repeat surgical intervention (curettage or sequestrectomy). This article strives to alert on the possible linkage between drug therapy using bisphosphonates and the serious event of avascular jawbone necrosis. The important role of the oral surgeon in following up on this group of patients should not be underestimated. PMID:16146148

  4. Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López-Ruiz, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. “Gas-bloat” syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Gossypol Induces Necrosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Enbing; Tang, Haiping; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic aldehyde extracted from plants and is known to be an antitumor agent to induce cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, multiple myeloma cells were treated with gossypol, which resulted in an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell necrosis. Quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins between untreated and gossypol-treated cells. Proteomic analysis identified 4330 proteins, in which 202 proteins are upregulated and 383 proteins are downregulated in gossypol-treated cells as compared to the untreated cells. Importantly, proteomic and western blot analysis showed that apoptosis regulators BAK and Bax were upregulated in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that Bcl-2 associated death pathway was activated. Similarly, gossypol also induced upregulations of DNA mismatch repair proteins and DNA replication licensing factor, suggesting that gossypol caused significant DNA damage. Furthermore, upregulations of HLA class I and class II histocompatibility antigens and beta-2-microglobulin were observed in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that gossypol has a novel function to activate cellular immune responses. Our data demonstrate that the execution of necrosis is a complex process involving ROS, DNA damage, and Bcl-2 family proteins. Gossypol-activated immune responses are a potential new approach for multiple myeloma chemotherapy. PMID:25197664

  6. Acrylonitrile-induced gastric mucosal necrosis: role of gastric glutathione.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, B I; Boor, P J; Ahmed, A E

    1985-02-01

    Acrylonitrile [vinyl cyanide (VCN)] induces acute hemorrhagic focal superficial gastric mucosal necrosis or gastric erosions. In this report the authors have studied the mechanism of the VCN-induced gastric erosions. VCN-induced gastric lesions are coupled with a marked decrease of gastric reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration. Pretreatment of rats with various metabolic modulators (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and GSH) before VCN demonstrated that there is an inverse and highly significant correlation between gastric GSH concentration and the VCN-induced gastric erosions. Pretreatment of rats with sulfhydryl-containing compounds protected against the VCN-induced gastric necrosis and blocked the VCN-induced gastric GSH depletion. Furthermore, pretreatment of rats with atropine, which blocks muscarinic receptors, protected rats against the VCN-induced gastric erosions. The working hypothesis is that depletion and/or inactivation of critical endogenous sulfhydryl groups causes configurational changes of cholinergic receptors and increases agonist binding affinity, which, among other actions, leads to the causation of gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:3968646

  7. Harnessing of Programmed Necrosis for Fighting against Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Sik; Park, Seung Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy has long been considered as one of useful strategies for cancer treatment. It is primarily based on the apoptosis that can selectively kill cancer cells. However, cancer cells can progressively develop an acquired resistance to apoptotic cell death, rendering refractory to chemo- and radiotherapies. Although the mechanism by which cells attained resistance to drug remains to be clarified, it might be caused by either pumping out of them or interfering with apoptotic signal cascades in response to cancer drugs. In case that cancer cells are defective in some part of apoptotic machinery by repeated exposure to anticancer drugs, alternative cell death mechanistically distinct from apoptosis could be adopted to remove cancer cells refractory to apoptosis-inducing agents. This review will mainly deal with harnessing of necrotic cell death, specifically, programmed necrosis and practical uses. Here, we begin with various defects of apoptotic death machinery in cancer cells, and then provide new perspective on programmed necrosis as an alternative anticancer approach. PMID:25009696

  8. Porphyrin-laser photodynamic induction of focal brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroop, W.G.; Battles, E.J.; Townsend, J.J.; Schaefer, D.C.; Baringer, J.R.; Straight, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    A noninvasive photodynamic method has been developed to produce focal brain necrosis using porphyrin activated in vivo with laser light. After peripheral injection of the photosensitive porphyrin derivative, Photofrin I, mice were irradiated on the posterior lateral aspect of the head through the intact depilated scalp with 632 nm argon-dye laser light. Animals were studied at one, two and seven days after irradiation. Blood-brain barrier damage was detected by the intravenous injection of Evans blue, horseradish peroxidase and heterologous immunoglobulins. At one and two days after irradiation, the lesions were characterized by extravasation of immunoglobulin and Evans blue, and by edema, ischemia and infiltration by monocytes. On the seventh day after irradiation, the lesion was smaller than it had been two days after irradiation, and had reactive changes at its edges and coagulative necrosis at its center. Extravasation of Evans blue and immunoglobulin was markedly reduced by the seventh day after irradiation, but uptake of horseradish peroxidase by macrophages located at the periphery of the lesion was evident.

  9. A novel approach for inguinal lymph node dissection without inguinal skin incision for invasive extramammary Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Teramoto, Yukiko; Yeh, Yu-Wen; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-11-01

    Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for skin cancer is associated with a high incidence of wound complications. The traditional skin approaches are associated with a high risk of wound/flap necrosis of the inguinal skin, which leads to wound dehiscence and wound infection. We report a novel approach for ILND without inguinal skin incision for patients with invasive extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) to minimize the wound complications inherent in conventional ILND. We totally performed this procedure in 3 patients with invasive EMPD with inguinal nodal metastases. No patient had complications, including flap necrosis, wound dehiscence, or wound infection. Our novel surgical approach would retain the vascular supply because there was no inguinal skin incision, preventing postoperative wound complications. In addition, ILND was easily performed with satisfactory exposure of the surgical field. However, the number of patients was small and the follow-up period was short. Further evaluation of a larger case series with longer follow-up is essential to investigate the effect, safety, and indications for this novel approach. PMID:26088165

  10. Dorsal skin necrosis secondary to a solar-induced thermal burn in a brown-coated dachshund.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Julia P; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Fowlkes, Natalie; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat. PMID:26933270

  11. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis-like Reaction With Severe Satellite Cell Necrosis Associated With Nivolumab in a Patient With Ipilimumab Refractory Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Namrata; Briscoe, Karen; Fernandez Penas, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Nivolumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody to PD-1, which has shown improved overall and progression-free survival. Across studies of nivolumab, grade 3 or 4 rash has been noted in <1% of patients. We present a case report of patient with metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab through expanded access program, who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ours is the first case report, reporting grade 4 skin toxicity associated with nivolumab. A 64-year-old female presented with widespread maculopapular skin rash with bullae and areas of skin detachment after receiving 2 doses of nivolumab for ipilimumab refractory metastatic melanoma (BRAF wild-type). She was initially treated with prednisone, which was soon changed to methyprednisone followed by immunoglobulin with minimal response to the rash. After discussion with Dermatology, she was given cyclosporine and high-dose prednisone with gradual but significant improvement in her rash. Her skin biopsy showed interface dermatitis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermoepidermal junction and apoptotic keratinocytes with focal areas of complete necrosis of the epidermis with minimal infiltrate. PMID:26938948

  12. Effects of magnesium deficiency--more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Weir, Christopher; Alfraji, Sumaya; Grice, Jeff; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2014-10-01

    Dead Sea and magnesium salt therapy are two of the oldest forms of treatment for skin disease and several other disorders, supported by a body of largely anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review possible pathways for penetration of magnesium ions through the epidermis to reach the circulation, in turn replenishing cellular magnesium levels. We also discuss mechanisms for intercellular movement of magnesium ions and possible mechanisms for the interaction between magnesium ions and inflammatory mediators. Upon addition of magnesium ions in vitro, the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and nuclear factor ?? (NF??) is down regulated. Dysregulation of these and other inflammatory mediators has been linked to several inflammatory disorders, including asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuroinflammation. PMID:24928863

  13. Bacterial skin infections: management of common streptococcal and stapylococcal lesions.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, J A; Parish, L C

    1982-10-01

    Skin infection occurs in any age-group, sex, and race but is particularly common in children. It is usually minor, but may indicate underlying systemic disease or may lead to systemic infection. Streptococci and staphylococci are common causes. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci account for the majority of streptococcal infections in man. Infection most often involves the lower extremities and produces spreading erythema and necrosis but little purulence. Staphylococcal infections most commonly involve the face, the hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts being the initial sites. Lesions appear as bullae and pustules with a narrow rim of erythema. Intense cellulitis surrounding the lesions usually points to a virulent, penicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus. Treatment of both types of infection consists of cleansing with antibacterial agents, removal of crusts, application of warm compresses, and use of topical or systemic antibiotics, depending on the severity of the infection and the type of pyoderma involved. PMID:7122351

  14. Autoinflammation: From monogenic syndromes to common skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien V; Cowen, Edward W; Leslie, Kieron S

    2013-05-01

    Autoinflammation is characterized by aberrant regulation of the innate immune system and often manifests as periodic fevers and systemic inflammation involving multiple organs, including the skin. Mutations leading to abnormal behavior or activity of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß)-processing inflammasome complex have been found in several rare autoinflammatory syndromes, for which anticytokine therapy such as IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibition may be effective. It is becoming clear that features of autoinflammation also affect common dermatoses, some of which were previously thought to be solely autoimmune in origin (eg, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus). Recognizing the pathogenetic role of autoinflammation can open up new avenues for the targeted treatment of complex, inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23453357

  15. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  16. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  17. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  18. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  19. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  20. Rheological behaviour of reconstructed skin.

    PubMed

    Pailler-Mattei, C; Laquièze, L; Debret, R; Tupin, S; Aimond, G; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

    2014-09-01

    Reconstructed skins have been developed to replace skin when the integrity of tissue has been compromised following severe injury, and to provide alternative methods validating the innocuousness and effectiveness of dermatological and cosmetic products. However the functional properties of tissue substitutes have not been well characterised, mainly since mechanical measurement devices have not been designed to test cell culture materials in vitro. From the mechanical standpoint, reconstructed skin is a heterogeneous multi-layer viscoelastic material. To characterise the time-dependent behaviour of reconstructed skin, spherical indentation load-relaxation tests were performed with a specific original device adapted to measure small soft tissue samples. Load-relaxation indentation tests were performed on a standard reconstructed skin model and on sub-components of the reconstructed skin (3D-scaffold alone and dermal equivalent). Generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models are proposed for analysing the mechanical behaviour of each biological tissue. The results indicated a modification of the rheological behaviour of the samples tested as a function of their biological structure. The 3D-scaffold was modelled using the one-branch Maxwell model, while the dermis equivalent and the reconstructed skin were modeled using a one-branch and a two-branch Kelvin-Voigt model, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that skin cells contribute to global mechanical behaviour through an increase of the instantaneous relaxation function, while the 3D-scaffold alone influences the mechanical response of long relaxation times. PMID:24956159

  1. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flgel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin. PMID:24946740

  2. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  3. Effects of vinpocetine on random skin flap survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xiao, Tao; Sen-Min, Wu; Ding-Sheng, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The effect of vinpocetine on flap survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in this study. The McFarlane flap model was established in 20 rats and evaluated within two groups. Postoperative celiac injection was given for 7 days in the two groups: vinpocetine was applied in Group 1, and the same volume of saline was applied in Group 2. Flap necrosis was measured on day 7 by cellophane in all groups. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemical methods on tissue samples taken after 7 days of injections. SOD and MDA contents were examined according to the Kit (reagent instructions). Vinpocetine significantly reduced necrosis area in Group 1 (p < 0.05). VEGF expression and SOD contents were significantly increased in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p < 0.01), whereas MDA level was reduced (p < 0.05). This experimental study demonstrates that vinpocetine improves survival of random skin flaps, promotes neovascularization, and increases VEGF expression. Meanwhile, vinpocetine has a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving SOD vitality and decreasing MDA value. PMID:23588551

  4. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  5. Skin cancer chemoprevention by ?-santalol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-santalol, a naturally occurring terpenoid, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on both 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin cancer development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice, and UVB-induced skin cancer developments in SKH-1 hairless mice in a concentration-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that ?-santalol could be effective against skin carcinogenesis through both induction of apoptosis via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential and cytochrome c release in A431 cells, and inhibition of cell growth via induction of G2/M phase arrest in both A431 cells and melanoma UACC-62 cells by altering multiple cell cycle regulatory proteins and complexes. This review summarizes the chemopreventive effects and molecular mechanisms of ?-santalol on skin cancer development in both animal models and skin cancer cell lines. PMID:21196411

  6. Rapid Local Expression of Interleukin-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Gamma Interferon after Cutaneous Francisella tularensis Infection in Tularemia-Immune Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Stephan; Sunnemark, Dan; Bucht, Anders; Sjstedt, Anders

    1999-01-01

    Francisella tularensis LVS is an effective live vaccine strain used for cutaneous vaccination against tularemia in man. In mice, injection of LVS causes invasive disease and subsequent development of immunity that is characterized by effective control of otherwise lethal doses of the organism. In the present investigation, it is shown that LVS-immune mice controlled an intradermal infection much more effectively than did naive mice; bacterial counts in skin samples were 1.5 to 2.0 log10 lower 24 h after injection and 6 log10 lower 72 h after injection in immune mice. Moreover, in contrast to naive mice, no bacteria were demonstrated in samples from livers and spleens of immune mice. By immunohistochemistry, skin samples from immune mice showed an intense staining for interleukin-12 (IL-12) and a moderate staining for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) at 24 h postinoculation, after which staining for both cytokines faded. In naive mice, the staining for IL-12 was weak at all time points and no staining for TNF-? was observed. No staining for gamma interferon (IFN-?) was observed in any group before 72 h. At that time point, skin samples from immune mice showed moderate staining and skin samples from naive mice showed weak staining. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed an induction of mRNA of the three cytokines in the skin within the first day after injection. A quantitative analysis demonstrated higher IFN-? and TNF-? mRNA levels in immune mice at 24 h postinoculation. In conclusion, immunization with F. tularensis LVS conferred a capability to respond to cutaneous reinfection, with rapid local expression of IL-12, TNF-?, and IFN-?, and this expression was paralleled by containment and mitigation of the infection. The cytokine response may be part of a local barrier function of the skin, important to host protection against tularemia. PMID:10085019

  7. Skin ultrastructure in senile lentigo.

    PubMed

    Noblesse, E; Nizard, C; Cario-Andr, M; Lepreux, S; Pain, C; Schnebert, S; Taeb, A; Kurfurst, R

    2006-01-01

    Senile lentigo is a common component of photoaged skin. It is characterized by hyperpigmented macules which affect chronically irradiated skin mostly after the age of 50. This study was undertaken to assess the morphology of senile lentigo on the dorsum of the hands. A systematic comparison between lesional and perilesional skin using histology and transmission electron microscopy was done to determine whether melanocytes or keratinocytes are affected in the evolution of lesions and which tissue structure is modified. The histology study showed that lesional skin is characterized by a hyperpigmented basal layer and an elongation of the rete ridges, which seem to drive deeply into the dermis. The epidermis contained clusters of keratinocytes, which retained and accumulated the melanin pigment. Electron microscopy studies showed important modifications in the lesional skin ultrastructure in comparison with perilesional skin. In melanocytes from perilesional and lesional skin, we observed normal size melanosomes at all stages of maturation in the cytoplasm and in migration within dendrites. No pigment accumulation was observed. However, the morphology of melanocytes in lesional skin revealed an activated status with numerous mitochondria and a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, which could reflect intense protein synthesis. In basal keratinocytes from lesional skin, we observed numerous melanosome complexes called polymelanosomes, which formed massive caps on the nuclei. Observations in colored semi-thin sections also revealed perturbed structures in the basal layer region, which could explain the skin perturbation. Indeed, we observed keratinocytes that presented important microinvaginations and pendulum melanocytes, which sank into the dermis, beneath the basal layer of keratinocytes. These cell modifications seemed to be due to a perturbation of the dermal-epidermal junction, which appeared disorganized and disrupted and could directly disturb the basal support of the cells. PMID:16685148

  8. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  9. Preliminary experiences on diode laser welding of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, Umberto M.; Borgognoni, L.; Martini, L.; Chiarugi, C.; Gori, F.; Pini, Roberto; Toncelli, F.; Vanni, U.

    1994-12-01

    Dye enhanced laser welding has been recently proposed for skin closures to exploit the advantages of laser procedure (possible reduction of scar formation, no inflammatory reaction). In this preliminary study we used the diode laser-assisted technique to perform welding of rats' skin. In the pilot phase of the study we investigated the effect of the interaction between diode laser radiation and 20 full thickness skin wounds, performed on the shaved backs of 10 Wistar rats, using laser power in the range of 200 - 150 mW and, as the photoenhancing chromophore, Indocyanine Cardio-green (ICG) dye saturated solution in plasma. Ten wounds were sutured with 4.0 nylon thread, to provide a comparison with the traditional procedure. Wounds' samples were explanted on day 3 and 7 after the treatment, for histological evaluation. Clinical examination on the same days showed a high percentage of wounds dehiscence and presence of scales and crusts. Histologic examination demonstrated evidence of thermal injury and a heightened inflammation, superior to that of suture closures. In the second phase of the study, a lower laser power (150 - 80 mW), ICG-plasma-non saturated solution (ICG-sol) and ICG-plasma-saturated-sodium hyaluronate gel (ICG-gel), were used. Six wounds were filled with ICG-sol and six with ICG-gel, then irradiated at 150, 120 and 80 mW. Postoperative explants were performed on day 3 and 7. Clinical and histological results from this group were satisfactory: we recorded only one case of dehiscence, well healed wounds, no epidermal necrosis and a mild inflammatory reaction, reduced respect to that of traditional closure. We characterized the optimum range of parameters of diode laser-assisted technique to achieve an effective skin welding and the corresponding clinical and histologic pattern was described.

  10. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  11. Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

  12. Euro Skin Bank: large scale skin-banking in Europe based on glycerol-preservation of donor skin.

    PubMed

    de Backere, A C

    1994-01-01

    Although skin banking has been well developed through the years as a means of providing sufficient skin which is instantly accessible to the burn patient, the methods of preservation and the scale on which various institutions bank skin vary considerably. In 1984, the Dutch National Skin Bank started using glycerol as a preservant for skin allografts. Since then there has been a marked increase in both the volume of glycerol skin grafts applied and the area over which these have been distributed. The procedure and organizational aspects of the Euro Skin Bank, as our own institution is now called, and its current method of skin preservation are described. PMID:8198742

  13. Usefulness of rat skin as a substitute for human skin in the in vitro skin permeation study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yoko; Terasaka, Shuichi; Sakurai, Takanobu; Furuya, Atsushi; Urano, Hidetoshi; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are broadly used in preclinical studies for drug development, so a lot of information for the rats can be obtained especially from pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and toxicological studies. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether SD rat skin can be used to predict human skin permeability. In vitro permeation studies of the three model drugs, nicorandil, isosorbide dinitrate, and flurbiprofen, through human skin and SD rat skin were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeation rates of the three model drugs through human skin and SD rat skin were determined, and their variations were evaluated. The inter-individual variations in SD rat skin permeability of the three model drugs were much lower than that in human skin permeability, although the permeation rates of the three model drugs through the SD rat skin were about twice those through human skin. In addition, no difference in the skin permeability coefficients of the three model drugs was obtained between fresh SD rat skin and frozen SD rat skin. The markedly smaller variation in the permeability through SD rat skin compared with that through human skin indicated that in vitro permeation studies using SD rat skin would be especially useful for evaluating differences in the skin permeability of the three model drugs as well as for predicting human skin permeability. PMID:21791877

  14. Acute retinal necrosis as a late sequela of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Theodore H; Mandava, Naresh

    2007-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common infection that occasionally presents with destructive lesions. Two of the most feared presentations of HSV are encephalitis and acute retinal necrosis. Although there are numerous reports of acute retinal necrosis presenting after HSV-2 infection in children, it has been rarely reported in children after HSV-1 infection. Herein we report a child who developed acute retinal necrosis 17 months after HSV-1 encephalitis. PMID:17512230

  15. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the talus by bone scintigraphy. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shafa, M.H.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Rost, R.C.; Nyquist, S.R.

    1983-02-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very useful technique for detection of aseptic necrosis. We have used this diagnostic tool in a patient to detect aseptic necrosis of the talus, a common complication stemming from foot injuries. The scintigraphic pattern is rather typical and antedates any other radiographic changes. This technique appears to be very useful for diagnosis and follow-up of aseptic necrosis occurring during talar injuries.

  16. Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.

  17. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  18. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 may play important roles in symptom development and may be crucial for virulence, necrosis-inducing activity, or cell death during infection by P. capsici. PMID:24886309

  19. Localized radiation necrosis model in mouse brain using proton ion beams.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Takata, Takushi; Takai, Nobuhiko; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Kume, Kyo; Toho, Taichiro; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Brain radiation necrosis is the most serious late adverse event that occurs after 6 months following radiation therapy. Effective treatment for this irreversible brain necrosis has not been established yet. This study tries to establish brain radiation necrosis mouse model using proton or helium beam. The right cerebral hemispheres of C57BL/6J mouse brains were irradiated at doses of 40, 50, 60 Gy with charged particles. In 60 Gy group, brain necrosis that recapitulates human disease was detected after 8 months. PMID:26260449

  20. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Villamarn, Antonio; Bermdez, Roberto; Quiroga, Mara Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of cellular and organismal responses. Its main function, as a potent pro-inflammatory mediator, has been demonstrated in numerous teleost species and there are many reports on the modulation of TNF? gene expression under pathological conditions. Nevertheless, there is still scarce knowledge about the tissue distribution and type of cells that express this cytokine in fish species, which would help to further investigate its biological activities. These studies are hampered by the lack of molecular markers for teleost that hinder the development of morphological techniques, like immunohistochemistry. The aim of this work was to develop an immunohistochemical technique for the detection of TNF? in paraffin-embedded organs from healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), an economically-important marine fish species. A commercial anti-human TNF? antibody, whose specificity was confirmed by western blot analysis, was used. Immunoreactive cells were observed in higher numbers in the lymphohematopoietic organs, kidney, spleen and thymus, although TNF?-positive cells were also present in the digestive tract, liver, heart, gills and skin. Similarly to non-fish species, monocytes/macrophages appeared to be the main producers of this cytokine; nevertheless, the presence of immunoreactive rodlet cells in different tissues was also reported. The nature and distribution of the labeled cells appeared to be related with a strategic localization for defense response to antigenic challenge. The relative abundance of TNF?-positive cells in the lymphohematopoietic organs also suggests that this cytokine may have a broader role in the normal physiology of those organs. The immunohistochemical technique allowed the in-situ characterization of TNF? expression, representing a valid tool to investigate the immune response of turbot. PMID:25957885

  1. [Cancer in arthritis patients after anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dreyer L; Mellemkjaer L; Hetland ML

    2009-02-09

    INTRODUCTION: The use of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is increasing in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathy, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. It is being debated whether treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases with anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased cancer incidence.MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive study of cancer cases among 3,688 patients with rheumatic diseases who received anti-TNF therapy was performed. The patients were identified in the nationwide database DANBIO and had a total number of treatment years of 6,092 years. All cancer cases were identified and the cancer diagnoses were subsequently confirmed by medical record review.RESULTS: A total of 30 cancers in 28 of 3,688 patients were registered in the DANBIO after initiation of anti-TNF therapy in the period from October 2000 to June 2007. Among these six men and 20 women had RA, and two men had Morbus Becterew. The following cancer types were observed: malignant lymphoma 2 (7%), lung 4 (13%), plicae vocalis 2 (7%), breast 4 (13%), pancreatic 3 (10%), colorectal 2 (7%), prostate 1 (3%), malignant melanoma 3 (10%) and non-melanoma skin cancer 9 (30%).CONCLUSION: In our descriptive study from the nationwide database DANBIO, a total of 30 cancers were observed in 3,688 patients with rheumatic diseases within a cumulated period of treatment with anti-TNF of 6,092 years. Follow-up for anti-rheumatic and adverse effects in patients in the DANBIO database will continue. Future studies must reveal whether anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased cancer risk. Planned Danish studies will include relevant control groups and adjustment for confounders.

  2. The Effect of Enoxaparin and Clopidogrel on Survival of Random Skin Flap in Rat Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; S Forootan, Kamal; S Jalali, Seyed Ziaaddin; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Pedram, Mir Sepehr

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Necrosis of skin flaps is considered as an important complication in reconstructive surgery. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular weight heparin, clopidogrel and their combination to improve the flap survival. METHODS Forty male, adult Sprague-Dawlay rats were divided randomly into 4 groups. Standard rectangular, distally based dorsal random pattern skin flap was elevated. To prevent the graft effect, a sterile sheet was put under the flap. No pharmacological agent was administered for the control group. In group 2, single subcutaneous dose of enoxaparin (3.2 mg/kg) was immediately administrated after surgery. In group 3, clopidogrel (25 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days. In group 4, both enoxaparin and clopidogrel were administrated. The rats were evaluated on post-operative day 7 for viable and necrotic portions of flaps. RESULTS The mean and SD of necrosis was 17.79+2.5 cm in the control group, 16.203.1 cm in low-molecular weight heparin, 15.25+3.8 cm in combined therapy group and 13.69+2.7 cm in clopidogrel group. Clopidogrel was the only pharmaceutical agent that produced a significant increase in the flap survival area. CONCLUSION Clopidogrel may be an effective pharmaceutical agent that significantly increases viability of random skin flaps in rats, but low-molecular weight heparin and their combination did not have any significant beneficial effects. PMID:25734046

  3. Non-injection-site necrotic skin lesions complicating postoperative heparin thromboprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tassava, Twylla; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2015-08-01

    The patient case we present is a definite case of HIT from both clinical and serological perspectives. The 4Ts score was eventually 8/8 (maximum) based upon thrombocytopenia (88% platelet count fall to nadir of 58 109/L), appropriate timing (onset on Day 5 post-intraoperative UFH exposure), thrombosis (right lower limb DVTs, skin necrosis, anaphylactoid reaction to IV heparin, right hallux ischemic necrosis), and no plausible alternative explanation for thrombocytopenia. In addition, the patient had a strong positive SRA and PF4-dependent ELISA. Although necrotizing skin lesions distant from heparin injection sites are not a common consequence of HIT, their occurrence in this patientalong with previous supportive literature [11-13]indicate that these lesions should be considered rare manifestations of HIT. Moreover, the distinct localization of the unusual necrotic skin rash to the right limb suggests that a low flow state due to the arterial obstruction or perhaps even as a result of an underlying venous thrombus, both of which were present in our patient, could play a key pathophysiological role in predisposing to this unusual complication of HIT. PMID:25808584

  4. Effects of superoxide dismutase and allopurinol on the survival of acute island skin flaps.

    PubMed Central

    Im, M J; Manson, P N; Bulkley, G B; Hoopes, J E

    1985-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that oxygen-derived free radicals are important mediators of tissue injury following ischemia (total venous occlusion) and reperfusion in small (3 cm X 6 cm) island skin flaps in rats. In this study, we evaluated extension of this concept to regional ischemia in large (8 cm X 8 cm) acute island skin flaps which were constructed to exceed their sole blood supply via unilateral inferior epigastric vessels. Under normal (control) circumstances, a significant portion of the flap would undergo necrosis at the periphery, mimicking the corresponding clinical situation. Blocking the generation of superoxide radicals from xanthine oxidase with a single dose of allopurinol prior to flap elevation significantly improved the area of flap viability from 34 +/- 12% to 57 +/- 6% (p less than 0.01) in the random portion of the flap, contralateral to the source of blood supply. Similarly, the detoxification of superoxide radicals with a single dose of superoxide dismutase improved viability from 41 +/- 6% to 58 +/- 7% (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when either of these agents were administered 60 minutes after flap elevation. These findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals play an important role in the development of tissue necrosis in the critical transition zone between well-vascularized and devascularized skin. PMID:3977440

  5. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessire, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects. PMID:23615881

  6. Skin cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common and recognizable of all cancers. The human dermis can turn malignant due to excessive solar exposure and chronic injury, with the influence of genetic risk and inherited pigmentation. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in lighter pigmented individuals, spreads locally, and usually appears pearly and often ulcerative. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in darker pigmented people, metastasizes to lymph nodes 2-5 percent of the time, appears often scaly, smooth, nodular, ulcerative, or even pigmented. Malignant melanoma accounts for 2 percent of skin cancers, but for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. All three can mimic each other. Solar or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is the most common carcinogen; however, any chronic irritant can increase the risk, and efforts to avoid such exposure is apropos. Though not yet absolutely proven, skin cancer research strongly supports the following statements: sunscreen is protective, tanning devices are causative, and the routine screening of high-risk individuals is preventative. Authorities strongly recommend avoiding excess sun and UV light, using sunscreen, and keeping a watchful eye for unusual skin lesions. PMID:25985614

  7. Mediation of mouse natural cytotoxic activity by tumour necrosis factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortaldo, John R.; Mason, Llewellyn H.; Mathieson, Bonnie J.; Liang, Shu-Mei; Flick, David A.; Herberman, Ronald B.

    1986-06-01

    Natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in the mouse has been associated with two types of effector cells, the natural killer (NK) cell and the natural cytotoxic (NC) cell, which seem to differ with regard to their patterns of target selectivity, cell surface characteristics and susceptibility to regulatory factors1. During studies on the mechanism of action of cytotoxic molecules, it became evident that WEHI-164, the prototype NC target cell, was highly susceptible to direct lysis by both human and mouse recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that NC, but not NK activity mediated by normal splenocytes, is abrogated by rabbit antibodies to recombinant and natural TNF, respectively. Thus, the cell-mediated activity defined as NC is due to release of TNF by normal spleen cells and does not represent a unique natural effector mechanism.

  8. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, K; Inoue, M; Ishida, S; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, S; Katsura, H

    2001-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome (PORN) is a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and the majority of the described cases were related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a patient who is HIV negative with nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone use for 4 months who showed clinical features of PORN. Low CD4 counts and lymphocytopenia suggested immunosuppression. In the left eye, tractional retinal detachment at the posterior pole followed by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment developed. In addition to intravenous administration of acyclovir, vitreous surgeries including stripping of the posterior hyaloid and silicone-oil tamponade were successfully performed to repair the retinal detachment in the left eye and to prevent it in the right eye. PMID:11195746

  9. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. PMID:25846017

  10. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-? therapy in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Sobrin, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reported use in 2001 of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agent, infliximab, for the treatment of uveitis, several new anti-TNF-? agents have emerged for the treatment of refractory noninfectious uveitides, although their use remains off-label in the US. These agents have demonstrated remarkable clinical antiinflammatory efficacy and a potential immunoregulatory role in selected uveitis patients, but it is currently unclear whether they can modify the natural history of disease. We review the rationale and clinical indications for this therapy, the differences between agents, how to manage dosing and intervals, and how to screen for and identify potential side effects. We also present a summary of the science behind the use of anti-TNF-? agents in ocular inflammation and the evidence for their efficacy. PMID:26164735

  11. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Neuroinflammation and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) molecules play an important role in the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Several TNF superfamily molecules are known to control alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and immunity. Development of transgenic and gene knockout animals, and monoclonal antibodies against TNFSF molecules have increased our understanding of individual receptorligand interactions, and their intracellular signaling during homeostasis and neuroinflammation. A strong clinical association has been observed between TNFSF members and CNS autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis and also in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, they are promising targets for alternative therapeutic options to control autoimmunity. Although, TNFSF ligands are widely distributed and have diverse functions, we have restricted the discussions in this review to TNFSF receptorligand interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26257732

  12. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    PubMed

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-07-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse. PMID:26213697

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha concentration in severely asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M N; el-Nawawy, A A; el-Nazar, S Y; Abdel-Rahman, G M

    2000-01-01

    We assessed tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations in 80 asthmatic children, 26 with severe asthma in early-phase reaction, 26 with severe asthma in late-phase reaction, 28 with severe asthma controlled in between attacks with oral prednisone and 20 matched control children. TNF-alpha was measured in patients' plasma and in a supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated (LPS) peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. TNF-alpha concentrations in plasma and the supernatant of LPS-stimulated cells were positively correlated and the concentration also correlated positively with the time lapse between the start of the asthma attack and the time of blood sampling. TNF-alpha concentration was significantly higher in the late-phase reaction group compared to the other groups, indicating a need to counteract its release and/or effects early in asthma patients. PMID:11556034

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  15. An Extraordinary Manifestation of Nodular Cystic Fat Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Mansur, A Tulin; Ozker, Emre; Demiralay, Ebru

    2016-03-01

    Nodular cystic fat necrosis (NCFN) is characterized by mobile subcutaneous nodules composed of necrotic adipocytes encapsulated by fibrous tissue. The classical presentation of NCFN is solitary or multiple, up to 40, discrete nodules scattered usually on the extremities or trunk. Here, the authors present an elderly woman who developed an unusual and striking clinical picture of NCFN, two months after a fall. The patient had a large indurated plaque and subcutaneous nodule with superposing necrotic ulcers. During debridement of the ulcers, nearly 100 small nodules popped up freely along with a brownish discharge. Deep in the ulcer, the authors discovered a dislocated nail that belongs to an old hip prosthesis. Histopathological findings of the nodules were compatible with NCFN. PMID:26894780

  16. Brain radiation necrosis following treatment of an esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neurocytoma).

    PubMed

    Baron, S H

    1979-02-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant nasal tumor which may be difficult to diagnose. Once diagnosed, selection of treatment may be a dilemma. Some advocate preoperative radiation and surgery; others, surgery and postoperative radiation if needed. A case that developed brain necrosis from postoperative radiation is presented. It is felt that the possibility exists that the patient might still be living with tumor had irradiation not been given. This is a plea for the conservative approach to treatment. The author agrees with John S. Lewis that it is unwise to use all modalities at once as there is no definite evidence that any one method of treatment or a combination of surgery and irradiation will alter the prognosis. The paper stresses the brain hazards of irradiation. PMID:423661

  17. Ultrastructure and Sequential Development of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moss, L. Howard; Gravell, Maneth

    1969-01-01

    The morphology and sequential development of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, a pathogen of trouts, were studied by electron microscopy. Mature virions were seen in the cytoplasm of infected cells incubated at 24 C as early as 6 hr after infection. These virions were hexagonal in profile and approximately 55 nm in diameter. Generally between 8 to 10 hr after infection, virus crystals of various sizes were occasionally observed. Although virus replication did not appear to be confined to a particular cytoplasmic locus, mature virions were sometimes seen in association with unidentified tubular structures approximately 45 nm in outside diameter. Negative stains of virus revealed unenveloped icosahedra approximately 65 nm in diameter with probably 92 capsomeres. Contrary to a previous communication which reported IPN virus to have picornavirus-like morphology, we found it to morphologically resemble members of the reovirus group. Images PMID:5772492

  18. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  19. Antiviral selection in the management of acute retinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patrick MK; Hooper, Claire Y; Lightman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal antiviral regimen in the management of acute retinal necrosis, a disease caused by herpetic viruses with devastating consequences for the eye. The current gold standard is based on retrospective case series. Because the incidence of disease is low, few well-designed, randomized trials have evaluated treatment dosage and duration. Newer oral antiviral agents are emerging as alternatives to high-dose intravenous acyclovir, avoiding the need for inpatient intravenous treatment. Drug resistance is uncommon but may also be difficult to identify. Antiviral drugs have few side effects, but special attention needs to be paid to patients who have underlying renal disease, are pregnant or are immunocompromised. PMID:20169044

  20. Mechanisms of coagulative necrosis in malignant epithelial tumors (Review)

    PubMed Central

    CARUSO, ROSARIO A.; BRANCA, GIOVANNI; FEDELE, FRANCESCO; IRATO, ELEONORA; FINOCCHIARO, GIUSEPPE; PARISI, ANTONIO; IENI, ANTONIO

    2014-01-01

    Histological tumor necrosis (TN) has been reported to indicate a poor prognosis for different human cancers. It is generally accepted that TN results from chronic ischemic injury due to rapid tumor growth. However, whether insufficient tumor vascularization and inadequate tumor cell oxygenation are the only factors causing TN remains controversial. Mitotic catastrophe is considered to occur as a result of dysregulated/failed mitosis, leading to cell death. We hypothesize that mitotic catastrophe, induced by hypoxic stress, may lead to the TN which is observed in high grade carcinomas. The current review describes the morphological features of TN in malignant epithelial tumors. In addition, evidence regarding the involvement of mitotic catastrophe in the induction of TN in human carcinomas is discussed. PMID:25202341

  1. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  2. Poultry Femoral Head Separation and Necrosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Packialakshmi, B; Rath, N C; Huff, W E; Huff, G R

    2015-09-01

    Femoral head separation (FHS) is a degenerative skeletal problem in fast-growing poultry wherein the growth plate of the proximal femur separates from its articular cartilage. At its early phase, FHS may remain asymptomatic but lead to epiphyseal breakage, infection, and femoral head necrosis (FHN). Healthy femoral head is viewed as a positive trait for genetic selection. However, the etiology of FHS is poorly understood for use in noninvasive diagnosis and genetic selection. Focal cell death and atrophic changes are likely associated with separation of tissues and necrotic changes. Fibrotic thickening of the articular surface can also impair free movement of the proximal epiphysis in the acetabulum, leading to FHS, under strain. The major limitation to understanding the pathophysiology of FHN is the lack of suitable experimental models and biomarkers to diagnose the problem. In this review, we discuss the possible etiologic factors, anatomic features of the chicken femoral head, biomarkers, and molecular mechanisms relevant to FHN. PMID:26478152

  3. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models of FLG deficiency. PMID:26844893

  4. Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A

    2008-04-01

    Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

  5. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Eduardo G; Rancati, Alberto O

    2015-12-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  6. Tumours of the skin*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, E.; Frese, K.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. ImagesFig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 49Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48 PMID:4547652

  7. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  8. Skin-sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto O.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  9. [Virus in sheep's skin].

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M

    2005-04-01

    In a double sense, the ovine gamma herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) is a virus in sheep's skin. Not only is it present world wide in all sheep breeds but also it causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in cattle pigs, elk, and bison. OvHV-2 cannot be propagated in cell culture. Therefore, new results from OvHV-2 research are based on molecular techniques and may be summarized as follows. OvHV-2 is transmitted by respiratory routes as well as by sexual intercourse. Lambs are infected within the first few months of life. Leucocytes, primarily latently infected lymphocytes, are responsible for disseminating the virus over the entire organism. On rare occasions, virus particles could be visualized by electron microscopy in explanted lymphocyte cultures. Structural antigens were detected by immunohistology in M-cells of diseased rabbits. Immunologically and cell biologically active genes have been detected on the viral genome.The products arising from those are thought to fine balance, the number of latently infected cells in sheep and to keep them alive without causing harm. Thus, it seems that this balance has been found through co-evolution, favoring both virus and natural host. In contrast, other host species that were exclude from the process of co-evolution, are bound to fall from MCF. PMID:15861922

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Lymphotoxin Production in Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Claudia; Jones, David B.; Morrison, Kendall; Schlüter, Carsten; Feist, Werner; Ulmer, Artur J.; Arnoldi, Jörg; Matthes, Jesco; Diamantstein, Tibor; Flad, Hans-D.; Gerdes, Johannes

    1990-01-01

    It is likely that the characteristic histologic features of Hodgkin's disease reflect cytokine production by the tumor cell population. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and lymphotoxin (tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-β]) are important inflammatory mediators with wide-ranging effects within the lymphoreticular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate TNF-α and lymphotoxin production in the Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines L428 and L540. At the product level, both cytokines could be demonstrated by immunostaining with specific monoclonal antibodies. TNF-α could be demonstrated by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture supernatants from both cell lines as well as in cell lysates of L428 and L540 cells. Cytotoxic activity could be achieved only in L428 supernatants. This cytotoxic activity could not be blocked by the addition of a polyclonal antibody against TNF-α, but was partially inhibited with the monoclonal antibody against lymphotoxin. Synthesis of TNF-α and lymphotoxin in both L428 and L540 was confirmed by demonstrating the intracellular-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) using specific cDNA clones in Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization studies with the TNF-α cDNA probe gave positive hybridization signals in L428 and in L540. These results demonstrate the transcription, translation, and export of TNF-α and lymphotoxin in cultured Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines. In addition, results of preliminary experiments are presented in which we demonstrate Reed-Sternberg cells positive for TNF-α protein and mRNA in different Hodgkin's disease tissue biopsies, indicating that, at least for TNF-α, our cell line data are relevant to the neoplastic population present in Hodgkin's disease tissue. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:2386200

  11. The Usefulness of Leukosan SkinLink for Simple Facial Laceration Repair in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Choi, Jaehoon; Jung, Woonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Repair of facial laceration in the emergency department can pose a number of difficulties. Children can be uncooperative, but adults can also be if they have sustained head trauma or are intoxicated. Leukosan SkinLink consists of topical adhesive and adhesive tape that can be applied easily to long or tense wounds. In this study, the authors compared conventional suturing with Leukosan SkinLink for facial laceration patients in the emergency department. Methods The prospective study was carried out from March 2013 to September 2013 with linear facial laceration patients visiting the emergency department. Exclusion criteria were open fractures, joint injuries, skin defects, hairy skin, and mucosa. The author used Leukosan SkinLink for skin closure in the experimental group and used conventional suturing in the control group. The scar evaluation using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) along with satisfaction scores, procedure times, and complications were compared. Results A total of 77 patients (30 in the control group and 47 in the experimental group) participated and underwent follow-up for 6 months postoperatively. The scar assessment using the POSAS and the satisfaction score in both groups were similar. The average procedure time in the experimental group was shorter. In the control group, there were four cases of wound dehiscence, two of infection, and one of skin necrosis, whereas four cases of wound dehiscence and one allergic reaction occurred in the experimental group. Conclusions With a simple application technique, Leukosan SkinLink is a new effective method for facial laceration repair especially useful for children and uncooperative adults. PMID:26217563

  12. Evaluation of Presurgical Skin Preparation Agents in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    Philips, Blythe H; Crim, Marcus J; Hankenson, F Claire; Steffen, Earl K; Klein, Peter S; Brice, Angela K; Carty, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the routine collection of oocytes from African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) for use in research, few studies have evaluated methods for preparing their skin for surgery. We evaluated 3 skin preparatory agents by examining their antibacterial efficacy and the gross and microscopic appearance of Xenopus skin after exposure. Frogs (n = 14) were sedated and treated (contact time, 10 min) with 0.9% sterile NaCl on one-half of the ventrum and with 0.5% povidone-iodine or 0.75% chlorhexidine on the other half. Bacterial cultures were obtained before and after skin treatment; bacteria were identified by mass spectrometry. To assess inflammation and degenerative changes, the incision sites were photographed and biopsied at 0, 1, and 7 d after surgery. We isolated at least 22 genera of bacteria from the skin of our frog population (mean SE, 5.21 0.82 genera per frog). Iodine (2.00 0.44 genera) and chlorhexidine (0.29 0.76 genera) both had greater antimicrobial activity than did saline. Skin erythema did not correlate with treatment group. Histologic evidence of epidermal degeneration and necrosis was greater on days 1 and 7 after chlorhexidine treatment than after iodine or saline. In addition, frogs treated with chlorhexidine had a higher incidence of clinical illness associated with the exposure site. In summary, although chlorhexidine has adequate antimicrobial activity against organisms on X. laevis skin, it leads to skin damage and subsequent clinical complications. We therefore do not recommend chlorhexidine as a preoperative preparation agent in Xenopus. PMID:26632790

  13. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  14. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  15. [Non-irritating skin protector].

    PubMed

    Gago Fornells, Manuel; Garca Gonzlez, R Fernando; Gaztelu Valds, Victoriana

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the authors describe the multiple uses a non irritating cutaneous protector has as an effective tool against the aggressions which peri-lesion skin and other at risk skins suffer when they are subject to constant and direct contact with secretions and liquids resulting from the use of dressings based on wet cures, or systems of continence related to ostomias, or in those patients who suffer mixed incontinence where diaper rash makes it difficult to maintain and care for the skin. PMID:14508934

  16. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

  17. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jrg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rhl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticleskin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  18. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  19. Intertrigo and secondary skin infections.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Kinney, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Intertrigo is a superficial inflammatory dermatitis occurring on two closely opposed skin surfaces as a result of moisture, friction, and lack of ventilation. Bodily secretions, including perspiration, urine, and feces, often exacerbate skin inflammation. Physical examination of skin folds reveals regions of erythema with peripheral scaling. Excessive friction and inflammation can cause skin breakdown and create an entry point for secondary fungal and bacterial infections, such as Candida, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Candidal intertrigo is commonly diagnosed clinically, based on the characteristic appearance of satellite lesions. Diagnosis may be confirmed using a potassium hydroxide preparation. Resistant cases require oral fluconazole therapy. Bacterial superinfections may be identified with bacterial culture or Wood lamp examination. Fungal lesions are treated with topical nystatin, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, oxiconazole, or econazole. Secondary streptococcal infections are treated with topical mupirocin or oral penicillin. Corynebacterium infections are treated with oral erythromycin. PMID:24695603

  20. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sun damage to the body is caused by invisible ultraviolet (UV) radia- tion. People recognize sunburn as ... uncovered skin, especially your lips, nose, ears, neck, hands, and feet. • Apply sunscreen 15 minutes before going ...

  2. Taking Care of Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ears! Your face needs attention, especially as you enter puberty and the skin on your face gets ... to the doctor or the emergency department. A deep cut might need stitches to heal properly. Instead ...

  3. Vitamin D and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Erin M; Elmets, Craig A; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D signaling plays a key role in many important processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, immune regulation, hormone secretion and skeletal health. Furthermore, vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects via an unknown signaling mechanism involving the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in several diseases and cancer types, including skin cancer. With over 3.5 million new diagnoses in 2 million patients annually, skin cancer is the most common cancer type in the United States. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25378147

  4. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... That means the radiation penetrates only a short distance below the surface. Treatment may be given with ... skin with a treatment called brachytherapy, meaning ‘short-distance’ treatment. POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS The side effects you ...

  5. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  6. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  7. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  8. Use of lanthanum to detect changes in the permeability barrier of rat skin after dermal exposure to organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Mattie, D.R.; McDougal, J.N.; Chase, M.R.; Hixson, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Occupational dermal exposures to organic solvents are of importance due to local effects in the skin and systematic toxicity if penetration occurs through the skin. Repeated or prolonged contact with organic solvents have been shown to penetrate the skin; little information is available however, concerning effects on the barrier properties of skin after dermal exposure to solvents. This investigation examines the ultrastructural changes in rat skin after exposure of 3 organic chemicals and to correlate changes with the location of an electron-dense tracer, lanthanum, which is normally excluded by the permeability barrier in the stratum corneum. Male rats were exposed for 24 h to sterile saline, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PERC), or toluene using dermal-exposure cells developed in this laboratory. Rat skin exposed to saline for 24 h appeared normal. Rat skin exposed to neat TCE, PERC or toluene for 24 h caused acute, coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and upper 1/2 to 1/3 of the dermis.

  9. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Survival of the salmonid viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV) in ozonated, chlorinated, and Untreated waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Smith, Cathy A.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three water types at 10 C for the fish pathogenic viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV). In phosphate-buffered, distilled water (PBDW) an ozone dose of 0.01?mg/L for 30 or 60?s inactivated IHNV or IPNV, respectively, suspended at a tissue culture 50% infective dose (TCID50) of 104105/mL. In hard (120?mg/L as CaCO3) and soft water (30?mg/L) lake waters, an ozone application rate of 70?mg?h?1?L?1for 10?min destroyed IHNV. IPNV inactivation in hard water required 90?mg?O3?h?1?L?1for 10?min but only a 30-s contact time in soft water. The IPNV was also somewhat more resistant to chlorine. In PBDW, a residual of 0.1?mg/L with contact times of 30 and 60?s, respectively, destroyed IHNV and IPNV. In soft lake water IHNV was destroyed within 5?min at 0.5?mg/L, while in hard water a 10-min contact time was required. For IPNV disinfection in soft water, 0.2?mg/L for 10?min was sufficient but this chlorine residual had essentially no effect on IPNV in hard water. Increasing this dose to 0.7?mg/L destroyed IPNV in hard water within 2?min. In untreated waters, IPNV was stable for at least 8?wk in either distilled, soft, or hard lake waters. However, IHNV survived only about 2?wk in distilled and 7?wk in the soft or hard lake waters. We suggest the serious consideration of ozone as a fish disease control agent.Key words: ozone, chlorine disinfection, fish pathogens, viruses

  11. Evaluation of topically applied copper(II) oxide nanoparticle cytotoxicity in human skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Dror; Soroka, Yoram; Ma'or, Zeev; Oron, Miriam; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Brggre, Franois Menahem; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hai, Noam; Milner, Yoram

    2013-02-01

    The increasing use of nano-sized materials in our environment, and in many consumer products, dictates new safety concerns. In particular, adequate experimental models are needed to evaluate skin toxicity of metal oxide ions, commonly found in cosmetic and dermatologic preparations. We have addressed the biological effects of topically applied copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in human skin organ cultures, using light and electron microscopy, and biochemical tests. Nanoparticles were more toxic than micro-sized particles, and their effects were stronger when supplied in growth medium than in topical application. Still topically applied CuO nanoparticles induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and necrosis, especially in epidermis deprived of its protective cornea. Since nanoparticle penetration was not seen, we propose that they may adhere to skin surface, react with the local acidic environment, and generate soluble ions that make their way to inner sites. This work illustrates the abilities of skin organ culture to evaluate the biological effects of topically-applied materials on skin in vitro. PMID:22954531

  12. Viral nerve necrosis in hatchery-produced fry of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer: sequential microscopic analysis of histopathology.

    PubMed

    Azad, I S; Shekhar, M S; Thirunavukkarasu, A R; Jithendran, K P

    2006-12-14

    We studied the natural progression of viral nerve necrosis (VNN) in larvae of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer Bloch from 0 to 40 days post-hatch (dph). The hatchlings were reared in the vicinity of a confirmed nodavirus-affected older batch. Using light and electron microscopy (EM), we made a sequential analysis of histopathological manifestations in nerve tissue and other organs. There were no changes from the day of hatching until 4 dph. Larvae at 4 dph had viral particles in the intramuscular spaces underlying the skin, but the nerve cells of the brain were normal. The first signs of necrosis of the brain cells were observed at 6 dph. EM observations revealed characteristic membrane-bound viral particles measuring 30 nm in the cytoplasm of nerve cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Histological samples of fry examined when group mortalities reached 20 to 35% revealed highly vacuolated brains, empty nerve cell cytoplasm and viral particles in the intercellular spaces. Viral particles occurred extensively in the intramuscular spaces and the epidermal layers. These observations were corroborated by positive immunostaining of the virus-rich intramuscular spaces. EM studies also revealed progressive necrotic changes in the cells harboring the virus. Results emphasize the need to maintain hygiene in the hatchery environment and to develop strategies for prevention of disease spread among cohabiting seabass and other susceptible fish larvae. Intramuscular localization of the nodavirus in both preclinical healthy-looking and post-clinical moribund larvae suggests that virus neutralization strategies during larval development could be effective in controlling VNN-associated mortalities. PMID:17260831

  13. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hls, A; Vierktter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  14. Photoprotective properties of skin melanin.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2002-04-01

    Melanins are a ubiquitous class of biological pigments, which play an important role in the photoprotection of skin. Recent advances in the chemistry of melanins have demonstrated their diversity. The various types of melanin show different physico-chemical properties, suggesting that their photobiological properties are not unique. In this review, the implications of melanin diversity for the natural photoprotection of skin are discussed. PMID:11966725

  15. Allogenic skin: transplant or dressing?

    PubMed

    Burd, Andrew; Lam, P K; Lau, Henry

    2002-06-01

    The use of biological dressings is an established aspect of contemporary burns care. The type and source of these biological materials can give rise to both legal and ethical issues. This paper looks at these issues in relation to allogenic skin. It is argued, from a medical perspective, that non-viable allogenic skin, cannot be transplanted and so should therefore be classified both medically and legally as a dressing. PMID:12052374

  16. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  17. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  18. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  19. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  20. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...