These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast: Case report Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast: Case report Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast: Case report Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast: Case report Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT Warfarin-induced necrosis of the breast is an unusual complication of warfarin therapy. Since its first description in 1943, up to 36 cases have been reported in the English literature. Close association between inherited or functional deficiency of protein C and S and warfarin therapy is frequently reported. A characteristic patient is an obese middle-aged female receiving

Khalid K

2

Terlipressin-Induced Ischemic Skin Necrosis: A Rare Association  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Drug-iduced skin necrosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Skin graft Specialty: Surgery Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: Terlipressin is a synthetic vasopressin analogue that is used in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices and hepatorenal syndrome in patients with cirrhosis. Serious ischemic adverse events, such as skin necrosis involving the extremities, scrotum, trunk, and abdominal skin, are rarely observed. In the literature to date, 20 cases that developed ischemic skin necrosis due to terlipressin usage have been reported. Case Report: We report a patient with extensive skin necrosis on the infusion site of the right forearm and hand, which developed after the use terlipressin used to treat bleeding oesophageal varices in a 65-year-old man with cirrhosis. Conclusions: Although rare, ischemic complications of terlipressin do occur. PMID:25360696

Coskun, Banu Demet Ozel; Karaman, Ahmet; Gorkem, Hasan; Bugday, Irfan; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursad; Senel, Fatma

2014-01-01

3

[Skin necrosis resulting from the extravasation of intravenous injections].  

PubMed

Extravasation is the diffusion of a product injected intravenously into the perivascular or subcutaneous spaces. Skin necrosis of iatrogenic origin can be observed for example with a subcutaneous perfusion of solution containing potassium chloride or the extravasation of 30% hypertonic glucose serum. Whenever a product is injected, the administration route for which the product has obtained marketing authorisation must be respected and a perfusion time of at least 4 to 5 hours per litre of solution perfused must be observed. PMID:23115921

Ikhefoulma, Soumaya; Mahiou, Abelhamid; Perillat, Isabelle

2012-09-01

4

Skin Necrosis Associated with Thromboprophylaxis after Total Knee Replacement  

PubMed Central

Thromboprophylaxis are routinely given to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients after total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (fractioned heparin) is effective in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The predicable effect of LMWH has popularized it for routine clinical use. Although LMWH has lesser complication rate, compared to unfractioned heparin (UFH), sporadic clinical complication has been reported. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to use of LMWH tinzaparin used for routine thromboprophylaxis after total knee replacement. PMID:24804131

Karuppiah, S. V.; Johnstone, A. J.

2014-01-01

5

Use of drug therapy to manage acute cutaneous necrosis of the skin.  

PubMed

Acute cutaneous necrosis is defined as a sudden onset of gangrenous skin changes in the skin, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The following diseases are included in this discussion: coumadin necrosis, heparin necrosis, brown recluse spider bite, necrotizing fasciitis, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, calciphylaxis, clotting abnormalities and embolic phenomena. The importance of early diagnosis, early distinction and early drug therapy or drug withdrawal must match the diagnosis for maximal preservation of the skin and underlying tissue. PMID:20514791

Wallace, Jill S; Hall, John C

2010-04-01

6

Post clubfoot release skin necrosis: a preventable disaster.  

PubMed

Complications of pedal wounds closed primarily after release of neglected cases of club foot are well known in literature. We treated a 12-year-old boy presenting with widespread necrosis involving medial aspect of foot after release of neglected talipes equinovarus. Such widespread necrosis is even known to end up in amputations and permanent disabilities. In our case, the foot was successfully salvaged by resorting to dedicated wound care, multiple debridements, use of topical negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure - VAC), and skin grafting. Various means to prevent such adverse events are also presented. The aim of publishing this case is to stress the need to:Take proper measures preoperatively in neglected club feet to decrease the impact of deformity.To be aware of various different flaps and methods of closure as mentioned in literature and to reaffirm the fact that primary closures done under tension are bound to fail and end up in disasters.To be patient and use the modern concepts of wound management like topical negative pressure if such unfortunate complications do occur and thereby attempt to salvage the feet. PMID:21526037

Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Aithan, Bandar

2011-01-01

7

Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification Is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D  

E-print Network

Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification Is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D Paul A. Price, Samuel A. Faus, Matthew K. Williamson Abstract--The present studies demonstrate that growth and vitamin D. The second set of experiments examined the possible synergy between vitamin D and Warfarin in artery

Price, Paul A.

8

Chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated central-line dressings and necrosis in complicated skin disorder patients.  

PubMed

Although chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) disks have been shown to help reduce the incidence of central line-associated blood stream infections, their use can result in local skin necrosis. The effects of CHG disks on patients with complex skin pathology have not been studied. We report 6 cases of dermal necrosis associated with Biopatch (Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ) CHG disks in adults with complex skin pathology including those with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, burns, and anasarca. All patients had a CHG disk placed at a central venous catheter insertion site. Age range was from 21 to 84 years. Discovery of the reaction ranged from 4 to 14 days after disk placement. Resultant skin erosions required 2 to 10 weeks to reepithelialize. Complicated skin disorder patients represent a rare subset of the critically ill who appear prone to CHG disk necrosis. Continuous contact of CHG under occlusive dressings is speculated to predispose Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, and burn patients to local chemical injury secondary to loss of the epithelial tissue barrier, decreased cohesion of the epidermal-dermal junction, and increased tissue permeability. In these patients, the risk of placing the CHG disk may present more risk than using alternative antimicrobial dressings. PMID:25035049

Wall, Jennifer B; Divito, Sherrie J; Talbot, Simon G

2014-12-01

9

Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management  

PubMed Central

Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD) used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL) was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required. PMID:24883277

Lee, Ji Hwan; Chang, Choong Hyun; Park, Chan Heun

2014-01-01

10

New advances in the mesenchymal stem cells therapy against skin flaps necrosis  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotential cells that reside within the bone marrow, can be induced to differentiate into various cells, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, vascular endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell types. MSCs are being widely studied as potential cell therapy agents due to their angiogenic properties, which have been well established by in vitro and in vivo researches. Within this context, MSCs therapy appears to hold substantial promise, particularly in the treatment of conditions involving skin grafts, pedicle flaps, as well as free flaps described in literatures. The purpose of this review is to report the new advances and mechanisms underlying MSCs therapy against skin flaps necrosis.

Zhang, Fu-Gui; Tang, Xiu-Fa

2014-01-01

11

Ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy and skin necrosis caused by vascular embolization after hyaluronic acid filler injection: a case report.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid filler injection is widely used for soft tissue augmentation. However, there can be disastrous complications by direct vascular embolization. We present a case of ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy and skin necrosis after hyaluronic acid filler injection on glabellar.blepharoptosis, exotropia and diplopia developed suddenly after the injection, and skin necrosis gradually occurred. Symptoms and signs of oculomotor nerve palsy continuously improved with steroid therapy. Skin defects healed with minimal scars through intensive wound care.Percutaneous filler injection of periorbital areas should be performed carefully by experienced surgeons, and the possibility of embolization should be considered promptly if symptoms develop. PMID:23203244

Kwon, Seung Gee; Hong, Jong Won; Roh, Tai Suk; Kim, Young Seok; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Soo

2013-10-01

12

Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis. PMID:24533203

Shah, Manzoor A.; Roppolo, Michael W.

2012-01-01

13

Levamisole-Contaminated Cocaine: An Emergent Cause of Vasculitis and Skin Necrosis  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of cocaine adulterated with levamisole-induced vasculitis is increasing and physicians should be aware of this unique entity. There have been many reports of cutaneous vasculitis syndrome caused by cocaine which is contaminated with levamisole. Levamisole was used as an antihelminth drug and later was rescinded from use in humans due to adverse effects. Through this paper, we will report a 39-year-old crack cocaine user who presented with purpuric rash and skin necrosis of his ear lobes. Levamisole-induced vasculitis syndrome was suspected. A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, opiates, and marijuana. Blood work revealed positive titres of ANA and p-ANCA, as well as anti-cardiolipin antibody. Biopsy taken from the left ear showed focal acute inflammation, chronic inflammation with thrombus formation, and extravasated blood cells. Treatment was primarily supportive with wound care. PMID:24778656

Mobarakai, Neville

2014-01-01

14

Levamisole-contaminated cocaine: an emergent cause of vasculitis and skin necrosis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cocaine adulterated with levamisole-induced vasculitis is increasing and physicians should be aware of this unique entity. There have been many reports of cutaneous vasculitis syndrome caused by cocaine which is contaminated with levamisole. Levamisole was used as an antihelminth drug and later was rescinded from use in humans due to adverse effects. Through this paper, we will report a 39-year-old crack cocaine user who presented with purpuric rash and skin necrosis of his ear lobes. Levamisole-induced vasculitis syndrome was suspected. A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, opiates, and marijuana. Blood work revealed positive titres of ANA and p-ANCA, as well as anti-cardiolipin antibody. Biopsy taken from the left ear showed focal acute inflammation, chronic inflammation with thrombus formation, and extravasated blood cells. Treatment was primarily supportive with wound care. PMID:24778656

Souied, Osama; Baydoun, Hassan; Ghandour, Zahraa; Mobarakai, Neville

2014-01-01

15

Reconstruction of cubital fossa skin necrosis with radial collateral artery perforator-based propeller flap (RCAP).  

PubMed

In recent years, perforator flaps have become an indispensable tool for the reconstruction process. Most recently, "propeller" perforator flaps allow each perforator vessels to become a flap donor site. Once the perforator of interest is identified by acoustic Doppler, the cutaneous or fascio-cutaneous island is designed and then customized according to the principle of "perforasome". So, the flap can be rotated such a propeller, up to 180°. Ideally the donor site is self-closing, otherwise it can be grafted at the same time. Through a skin necrosis secondary to a contrast medium extravasation of the cubital fossa in a 47-year-old man, we describe the use of propeller perforator flap based on a perforator of the radial collateral artery (RCAP). The perforator was identified preoperatively by acoustic Doppler then the flap was adapted bespoke to cover the loss of substance. Ultimately, the result was very satisfying. Well experienced for lower-extremity reconstruction, perforator-based propeller flap are still few reported for upper limb. It is likely that in the future, propeller flap supersede in many indication not only free flaps and locoregional flaps but also, leaving no room for uncertainties of the vascular network, the classic random flaps. PMID:23891106

Chaput, B; Gandolfi, S; Ho Quoc, C; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L

2014-02-01

16

Are there specific haemostatic abnormalities in children surviving septic shock with purpura and having skin necrosis or limb ischaemia that need skin grafts or limb amputations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10% of children surviving septic shock with purpura have skin necrosis or limb ischaemia (SNLI.). Among 44 children\\u000a consecutively admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit, 35 (80%) survived, 6 of them (17%) developed SNLI (defined as\\u000a the need of a surgical procedure). Two timed haemostasis measurements included the determination of coagulation factors, protein\\u000a C (PC), protein S

R. Cremer; F. Leclerc; B. Jude; A. Sadik; S. Leteurtre; C. Fourier; A. Martinot; J. F. Diependaele

1999-01-01

17

Effects of heparin fractions on the prevention of skin necrosis resulting from adriamycin extravasation: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Extravasation of a chemotherapeutic agent is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients. Full-thickness skin necrosis often occurs after extravasation. Alternative approaches to treatment are local wound care, elevation, and hypothermia. It was shown that heparin prevents skin necrosis. In this experimental study, the effects of heparin fractions on the prevention of skin necrosis were compared by applying an extravasation model of Adriamycin in rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250 to 300 g were used. A total of 0.3 ml doxorubicin hydrochloride was administered subcutaneously to all rats. Ten minutes later, in the control group (group I), 1 ml normal saline was administered subcutaneously. In the first experimental group (group II), 100 U per day heparin sodium was administered in a volume of 1 ml subcutaneously. In the second experimental group (group III), nadroparin calcium (5 anti-Xa U per kilogram per day) was administered. In the third and last experimental group (group IV), dalteparin sodium (5 anti-Xa U per kilogram per day) was administered. All drugs were administered for 2 weeks. Necrotic areas were measured 4 weeks later. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test. Heparin fractions caused a decreased ulcer rate and size than controls ( < 0.05). There was no superiority among heparin fractions. The authors think that low-molecular weight heparins are preferred, considering the higher risk of bleeding with unfractionated heparin. PMID:12351979

Askar, Ibrahim; Erbas, M Kemal; Gurlek, Ali

2002-09-01

18

Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin  

PubMed Central

Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Biro, Tamas; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf

2013-01-01

19

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in calciphylaxis-induced skin necrosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old white woman on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 2 years developed calciphylaxis-induced necrotic skin lesions over both lower extremities. Despite subtotal parathyroidectomy and other conventional measures, skin lesions continued to worsen. Mapping of transcutaneous oxygen pressure showed markedly low values in involved areas. Skin ulcers completely healed after 38 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The results in our case indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be useful in the treatment of skin ulcers secondary to calciphylaxis. PMID:8203373

Vassa, N; Twardowski, Z J; Campbell, J

1994-06-01

20

Amelioration of doxorubicin-induced skin necrosis in mice by butylated hydroxytoluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-induced skin ulcers was investigated in mice. The skin lesions produced by a single intradermal (ID) injection of doxorubicin (0.05 mg; 1 mg\\/ml) reached maximum size between 5 and 10 days after injection of ADR. Different concentrations of BHT were administered by different routes and at different times in relation to

J. Patrick Daugherty; Atul Khurana

1985-01-01

21

Galactorrhoea causing severe skin breakdown and nipple necrosis following breast reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galactorrhoea is a relatively common condition but has rarely been reported following breast reduction surgery. Literature review has revealed only four cases. We present a case of galactorrhoea following breast reduction surgery carried out 10 weeks following childbirth, and 3 weeks following cessation of breast-feeding. This resulted in severe skin and areola tissue breakdown. Four operations were subsequently performed to

M. Bentley; S. Ghali; O. A. Asplund

2004-01-01

22

Blockade of Thrombospondin-1-CD47 Interactions Prevents Necrosis of Full Thickness Skin Grafts  

PubMed Central

Thrombospondin-1 is a potent physiologic regulator of nitric oxide driven blood flow and angiogenesis. This regulation requires the cell receptor CD47. In a murine model of skin graft survival we demonstrate that endogenous thrombospondin-1 limits graft survival via CD47 and targeting CD47 with antibodies or suppressing CD47 with a morpholino oligonucleotide enhances graft survival by blocking this pathway. Background Skin graft survival and healing requires rapid restoration of blood flow to the avascular graft. Failure or delay in the process of graft vascularization is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. One of the primary regulators of blood flow and vessel growth is nitric oxide (NO). The secreted protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) limits NO-stimulated blood flow and growth and composite tissue survival to ischemia. We herein demonstrate a role for TSP1 in regulating full thickness skin graft survival. Methods and Results Full thickness skin grafts (FTSG) consistently fail in wild type C57 Bl/6 mice but survive in mice lacking TSP1 or its receptor CD47. Ablation of the TSP1 receptor CD36, however, did not improve FTSG survival. Remarkably, wild type FTSG survived on TSP1 null or CD47 null mice, indicating that TSP1 expression in the wound bed is the primary determinant of graft survival. FTSG survival in wild type mice could be moderately improved by increasing NO flux, but graft survival was increased significantly through antibody blocking of TSP1 binding to CD47 or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide suppression of CD47. Conclusions TSP1 through CD47 limits skin graft survival. Blocking TSP1 binding or suppressing CD47 expression drastically increased graft survival. The therapeutic applications of this approach could include burn patients and the broader group of people requiring grafts or tissue flaps for closure and reconstruction of complex wounds of diverse etiologies. PMID:18156939

Isenberg, Jeff S; Pappan, Loretta K.; Romeo, Martin J; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Wink, David A.; Frazier, William A.; Roberts, David D

2008-01-01

23

Targeted expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL in skin protects mice against chemical carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Gene ablation studies have revealed that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, Apo2L, TNFSF10) plays a crucial role in tumor surveillance, as TRAIL-deficient mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to different types of tumorigenesis. In contrast, possible tumor-protective effect of increased levels of endogenous TRAIL expression in vivo has not been assessed yet. Such models will provide important information about the efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies and potential toxicity in specific tissues. Methods To this aim, we engineered transgenic mice selectively expressing TRAIL in the skin and subjected these mice to a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol that generated benign and preneoplastic lesions. We were therefore able to study the effect of increased TRAIL expression at the early steps of skin tumorigenesis. Results Our results showed a delay of tumor appearance in TRAIL expressing mice compared to their wild-type littermates. More importantly, the number of tumors observed in transgenic animals was significantly lower than in the control animals, and the lesions observed were mostly benign. Interestingly, Wnt/?-catenin signaling differed between tumors of wild-type and TRAIL transgenics. Conclusion Altogether, these data reveal that, at least in this model, TRAIL is able on its own to act on pre-transformed cells, and reduce their tumorigenic potential. PMID:21463519

2011-01-01

24

Ca2+ responses to interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Possible implications for Reye syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Elevated concentrations of cytokines were found in the plasma of patients acutely ill with Reye syndrome (RS) but not in control subjects or recovered RS patients. To determine whether this disorder involves a genetically determined abnormal response to cytokines, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 on intracellular free Ca2+ were compared in cultured skin fibroblasts from control subjects and patients with RS. IL-1 and TNF caused rapid, transient, and concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic free Ca2+. The peak cytosolic free Ca2+ was greater and occurred at higher concentrations of IL-1 and TNF in patient cells than in cells from age-matched controls. In control cells, the Ca2+ transient diminished sharply with increasing amounts of IL-1 or TNF above the maximum stimulatory concentration. In contrast, in patient fibroblast this bell-shaped curve of concentration dependency was much less apparent. Bradykinin-stimulated Ca2+ transients were similar in the two groups and did not exhibit the bell-shaped concentration dependency. Thus, plasma cytokine levels are elevated in RS patients and the Ca2+ response to cytokines is increased in cells derived from these patients. We propose that the increased response reflects a genetic defect in cytokine receptor-modulated signal transduction. PMID:1847937

Corkey, B E; Geschwind, J F; Deeney, J T; Hale, D E; Douglas, S D; Kilpatrick, L

1991-01-01

25

Comparison of skin necrosis in rats by using a new microneedle electrocautery, standard-size needle electrocautery, and the Shaw hemostatic scalpel.  

PubMed

"Microneedle" electrocautery was compared against the standard-size needle electrocautery and the Shaw hemostatic scalpel to determine the differences in tissue necrosis when used as a cutting instrument. Incisions were made on the dorsal skin of anesthetized white rats using each of the three devices with the no. 15 scalpel as control. The specimens were submitted for histological evaluation. The microneedle caused less necrosis than the standard-size needle electrocautery (0.18 vs 0.27 mm, p < 0.01) and less necrosis than the Shaw hemostatic scalpel set at 220 degrees F (0.18 vs 0.25 mm, p < 0.05). The microneedle electrocautery was also found to be an instrument that causes very little tissue distortion during fine dissection and helps to minimize blood loss in craniofacial and neurosurgical operations. PMID:8215134

Farnworth, T K; Beals, S P; Manwaring, K H; Trepeta, R W

1993-08-01

26

Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer  

PubMed Central

A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

2012-01-01

27

Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: An extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and cartilage  

PubMed Central

Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a relatively new entity in people who use cocaine. We describe a 44-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use who presented with a complaint of a painful rash of 2-3 month’s duration on her extremities, cheeks, nose, and earlobes. She had not experienced fever, weight loss, alopecia, dry eyes, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, or arthralgia. Examination revealed tender purpuric eruptions with central necrosis on her nose, cheeks, earlobes, and extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed neutropenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of lupus anticoagulant, low complement component 3 (C3), and presence of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was positive for levamisole. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and small vessel thrombosis. Necrotic lesions of the nose led to its self-amputation. Large bullae on the lower extremities ruptured, leading to wound infection and extensive necrosis that required multiple surgical debridements. When necrosis progressed despite debridement, bilateral above-knee amputation of the legs was performed. Once new lesions stopped appearing, the patient was discharged home. Two months later, she had a recurrence related to cocaine use. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of levamisole-induced vasculitis that required above-knee amputation. PMID:23186390

2012-01-01

28

Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: an extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and cartilage.  

PubMed

Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a relatively new entity in people who use cocaine. We describe a 44-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use who presented with a complaint of a painful rash of 2-3 month's duration on her extremities, cheeks, nose, and earlobes. She had not experienced fever, weight loss, alopecia, dry eyes, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, or arthralgia. Examination revealed tender purpuric eruptions with central necrosis on her nose, cheeks, earlobes, and extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed neutropenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of lupus anticoagulant, low complement component 3 (C3), and presence of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was positive for levamisole. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and small vessel thrombosis. Necrotic lesions of the nose led to its self-amputation. Large bullae on the lower extremities ruptured, leading to wound infection and extensive necrosis that required multiple surgical debridements. When necrosis progressed despite debridement, bilateral above-knee amputation of the legs was performed. Once new lesions stopped appearing, the patient was discharged home. Two months later, she had a recurrence related to cocaine use. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of levamisole-induced vasculitis that required above-knee amputation. PMID:23186390

Arora, Natasha Purai; Jain, Tania; Bhanot, Ravinder; Natesan, Suganthini Krishnan

2012-01-01

29

Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Death Receptors DR4 and DR5 in Human Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.  

PubMed

: Death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) are cell surface receptors that when activated by their ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis in most cancer cells but not in normal cells. Currently, it remains unclear whether DR4 and DR5 are involved in immune surveillance against nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DR4 and DR5 in NMSC and relate the results to the established clinicopathologic prognostic factors. This study was conducted on about 80 skin specimens from patients with NMSC (40 basal cell carcinoma and 40 squamous cell carcinoma) and diagnosed and confirmed by biopsy. Immunohistochemical analysis for DR4 and DR5 was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of skin tissues using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. Significant expression of both DR4 and DR5 was observed in NMSC cases. There was statistically significant association between DR4 and DR5 expression in squamous cell carcinoma and each of tumor site and lymph node metastasis. There was statistically significant association between DR4 expression in basal cell carcinoma and histopathologic subtypes (high expression in nodular type) and between DR5 expression and tumor site (high expression in sun-exposed area). In conclusion, expression of TRAIL receptors that mediate extrinsic apoptotic pathway in NMSC may be suggestive of a reassessment of the suitability of TRAIL-based strategy in future NMSC therapies. PMID:24212133

Omran, Ola M; Ata, Hesham S

2014-09-01

30

Adenovirus-mediated transforming growth factor-? ameliorates ischemic necrosis of epigastric skin flaps in a rat model 1, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGene therapy has been recently introduced as a novel approach to treat ischemic tissues by using the angiogenic potential of certain growth factors. We investigated the effect of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy with transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) delivered into the subdermal space to treat ischemically challenged epigastric skin flaps in a rat model.

Georg M. Huemer; Maziar Shafighi; Romed Meirer; Paul Debagge; Hildegunde Piza-Katzer; Raffi Gurunluoglu

2004-01-01

31

Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ex vivo human skin has been used extensively for cosmeceutical and drug delivery studies, transplantable skin allografts, or skin flaps. However, it has a half-life of a few days due to ischemic necrosis. Traditional methods of assessing viability can be time-consuming and provide limited metabolic information. Using multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging (MPT-FLIM) we assess ischemic necrosis of ex vivo skin by NAD(P)H autofluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime. Ex vivo skin is stored in the presence and absence of nutrient media (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium) at -20, 4, and 37 °C and room temperature over a 7-day time course to establish different rates of metabolic deterioration. At higher temperatures we observe a decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, higher image noise, and a significant increase in the average fluorescence lifetime (?m) from ~1000 to 2000 ps. Additionally, significant distortions in NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime histograms correspond to the reduction in autofluorescence. Skin kept at 4 °C, with or without media, showed the least change. Our findings suggest that MPT-FLIM enables useful noninvasive optical biopsies to monitor the metabolic state and deterioration of human skin for research and clinical purposes.

Sanchez, Washington Y.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington H.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.

2010-07-01

32

Caffeic acid reduces cutaneous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), IL-6 and IL-1? levels and ameliorates skin edema in acute and chronic model of cutaneous inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of CA in skin inflammation are only partially understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CA on acute and chronic skin inflammation in mice and the effect of CA in keratinocytes in vitro. The results showed that topical treatment with CA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema in a dose-dependent manner, leading to substantial reductions in skin thickness and tissue weight, neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase activity, and various histopathological indicators. The CA treatment also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? at the application site, and the TNF-? production, the TNF-?-induced IL-6 and IL-1? production, and TNF-?-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation in human keratinocytes in vitro. Furthermore, CA was effective at reducing inflammatory damage induced by chronic TPA exposure. These results demonstrate that CA has anti-inflammatory activities in both acute and chronic contact dermatitis models via blockade of the mRNA and protein synthesis of these cytokines and neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase activity, and can target inflammatory mediators specifically in the keratinocytes. Taken together, the present results suggest that CA might be a therapeutic agent against inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:24583856

Zhang, Mengjun; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Li; Li, Bin; Guo, Jiawei; Guan, Xiao; Han, Qingjuan; Zhang, Huijing

2014-01-01

33

Neonatal scalp haematoma and necrosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Birth trauma after prolonged deliveries and instrument-assisted extractions can result in skin lesions and reduced viability of the scalp. In these instances, scalp swellings and haematomas are often also seen. The classification and inter-relationship between these conditions might not, however, always be clear. This report describes three cases of neonates with scalp swellings and necrosis. Nomenclature, underlying causes, work up, treatment options, and outcomes are presented and discussed. The first case consisted of a newborn with a subgaleal haematoma and occipital pressure necrosis that healed by secondary intention. In the second case, an infected scalp haematoma led to scarring and alopecia that required secondary reconstruction with tissue expansion. The third neonate suffered from a subgaleal haematoma and a scalp lesion that required split skin grafting and secondary reconstruction with tissue expansion. PMID:23647608

Schönmeyr, Björn; Becker, Magnus; Svensson, Henry

2014-12-01

34

Hyperglycemia increases susceptibility to ischemic necrosis.  

PubMed

Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.). In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:23509730

Lévigne, D; Tobalem, M; Modarressi, A; Pittet-Cuénod, B

2013-01-01

35

Involvement of the Proinflammatory Cytokines Tumor Necrosis Factor-a, IL1b, and IL6 But Not IL8 in the Development of Heat Hyperalgesia: Effects on Heat-Evoked Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Release from Rat Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia in many in vivo models. The rat skin model was used to investigate the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on the basal and heat- evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from nocicep- tors in vitro. In contrast to the excitatory effects of cytokines observed in vivo, none of

A. Opree; M. Kress

2000-01-01

36

Large necrosis: a rare complication of medial thighplasty.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can have bariatric surgery. Weight loss causes excess skin on the body, including the thighs. This leads to difficulty walking and psychological disorders such as devalued self-image. Medial thighplasty is an intervention to reduce excess skin and fat in the thighs. The main complications are scar migration, scar infection, hematoma, lymphedema, gaping vulva, and, rarely, skin necrosis. We describe a case of flap necrosis after a reoperation of medial thighplasty. Treatment included debridement of necrotic tissue and healing of the wound by secondary intention (vacuum-assisted closure and dressings with calcium alginate). Complete healing was achieved in 4 months. As the patient refused any new procedure, skin grafting was not performed. The aesthetic results of plastic surgery procedures are often imperfect. Patients should be clearly prepared and informed about the results expected from the operation. Surgeons should know contraindications for reoperation. PMID:21607533

Bertheuil, N; Aillet, S; Heusse, J L; Flecher, E; Watier, E

2012-02-01

37

A comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test in refractory inflammatory disease patients screened for latent tuberculosis prior to the initiation of a first tumor necrosis factor ? inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with TNF? inhibitors increases risk of reactivating a latent tuberculosis\\\\infection (LTBI). Therefore screening,\\u000a prior to therapy with TNF? inhibitors, has been recommended, even in low-endemic areas such as well-developed Western Europe\\u000a countries. We evaluated interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), as opposed to tuberculin skin test (TST), for detection of\\u000a LTBI in refractory inflammatory disease patients prior to the initiation of

Arjan J. Kwakernaak; Pieternella M. Houtman; Jan F. L. Weel; Johanna P. L. Spoorenberg; Tim L. T. A. Jansen

2011-01-01

38

Sagging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

39

Necrosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis was long regarded as an accidental cell death process resulting from overwhelming cellular injury such as chemical\\u000a or physical disruption of the plasma membrane. Such a definition, however, proved to be inapplicable to many necrotic scenarios.\\u000a The discovery that genetic manipulation of several proteins either protected or enhanced necrotic cell death argued in favor\\u000a of a regulated and hence

Tobias Eisenberg; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez; Sabrina Büttner; Nektarios Tavernarakis; Frank Madeo

2010-01-01

40

Ischemic Edema and Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal studies have substantially added to our understanding of the creation and development of vasogenic edema and necrosis\\u000a after stroke onset. T2 has emerged as the most commonly applied MR parameter to study this aspect of infarct evolution in\\u000a animal as well as in human stroke (Warach 2001). Although MRI monitoring of vasogenic edema is possible, there are still open

Susanne Wegener; Mathias Hoehn; Tobias Back

41

Cutaneous necrosis from calcific uremic arteriolopathy.  

PubMed

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis) is an uncommon complication of chronic renal failure that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 16 patients (13 female) who presented between 1985 and 1996. All patients developed painful livido reticularis that progressed to cutaneous necrosis and ulceration (11 cases on the proximal extremities and five cases on the distal extremities). Two patients with predominately distal leg disease survived; the cause of death in the other 14 patients was sepsis (six patients), withdrawal from dialysis (three), cardiac arrest (three), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (two). Mesenteric ischemia from intestinal vascular calcification occurred in two cases. Clinical factors identified included the use of warfarin therapy in seven cases and significant weight loss (>10% body weight) in seven cases in the 6 months preceding the development of calcific uremic arteriolopathy. Skin pathology was studied in 12 cases, with all showing calcific panniculitis and small vessel calcification. Electron microscopic spectral analysis of the mineral content of the calcific lesions in the subcutaneous tissue showed only calcium and phosphorous. In two cases, substitution of low molecular weight heparin for warfarin therapy resulted in clinical improvement. Current theories of pathogenesis and treatment are reviewed. This study confirms the high morbidity and mortality of calcific uremic arteriolopathy producing ischemic tissue necrosis while drawing attention to significant weight loss and warfarin therapy as risk factors for the development of ischemic tissue necrosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy warrants further study. PMID:9740153

Coates, T; Kirkland, G S; Dymock, R B; Murphy, B F; Brealey, J K; Mathew, T H; Disney, A P

1998-09-01

42

Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star

1989-01-01

43

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

44

Design of a thermal diffusion sensor for noninvasive assessment of skin surface perfusion and endothelial dysfunction  

E-print Network

The skin microcirculation performs a range of vital functions, such as maintaining nutritional perfusion to the tissues and overall thermoregulation. Not only does impairment to the skin blood supply lead to tissue necrosis ...

Li, Vivian V. (Vivian Victoria)

2008-01-01

45

An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

46

Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric

1998-01-01

47

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

48

Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

1993-01-01

49

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. Learn more. Rare types of skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) This skin cancer is rare. It ... cell carcinoma (BCC) Melanoma Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) Sebaceous carcinoma Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) Related ...

50

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

51

Skin optics.  

PubMed

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking. PMID:2606488

van Gemert, M J; Jacques, S L; Sterenborg, H J; Star, W M

1989-12-01

52

Tumor necrosis factor-a antagonist-induced psoriasis: yet another paradox in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic use of tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) antagonists has added a highly effective treatment in the field of inflammatory\\u000a musculoskeletal, skin, and bowel diseases. Most of the side effects of these very potential agents, like infections or skin\\u000a reactions, were predictable; the development of psoriatic lesions was not, as they are very successfully used to treat psoriasis\\u000a and

Spyros Aslanidis; Athina Pyrpasopoulou; Stella Douma; Areti Triantafyllou

2008-01-01

53

Massive breast necrosis after extravasation of a full anthracycline cycle.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman with invasive breast cancer was referred for adjuvant chemotherapy after undergoing breast conservative therapy and axillary dissection. A port was inserted in the contralateral subclavian vein and epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was the treatment of choice. After the first cycle, the patient was sent home. The following day, she reported rapidly developing redness and pain in the right breast and diagnosis of epirubicin extravasation was made. She was hospitalised, the port was surgically removed and approximately two-thirds of the breast underwent tissue necrosis. The necrotic tissue was resected and a skin graft was harvested from the thigh. She was offered DIEP-flap reconstruction 8 months later. There were no complications, except for marginal necrosis of the flap. Necrosectomy was performed and resolved through an advancement flap. PMID:24142568

Vasconcelos, Ines; Schoenegg, Winfried

2013-01-01

54

Skin Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, a doctor or surgeon takes a sample of a lump, a sore, ... exactly what it is. Doctors may order skin biopsies to help diagnose or monitor possible health problems ...

55

Skin Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Biopsy, Skin A A A Using a small tool similar to an apple corer, a punch biopsy can be used to remove a small area ... for review and diagnosis. Procedure Overview A skin biopsy, where a physician removes a small sample of ...

56

Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

2014-01-01

57

An approach to repair of radiation necrosis of chest wall and mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chest wall reconstruction following radiation no longer need be a protracted sequence of multiple stage tissue transfer with potential necrosis of the flap at each step. Muscle flaps with or without the overlying skin provide very reliable and effective methods of single-stage repair. For the anterior chest the latissimus dorsi, the rectus abdominis, and pectoralis muscles are the choices with

William Sando; M. J. Jurkiewicz

1986-01-01

58

Temporal arteritis presenting with tongue necrosis.  

PubMed

Spontaneous glossodynia is uncommon and glossodynia progressing to necrosis is especially rare. Although the commonest cause of lingual necrosis is giant cell arteritis, only a few cases of a new diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, clinically presenting with isolated lingual necrosis, have been reported. PMID:23166175

Kumarasinghe, Anuttara Panchali; Hepburn, Alastair; Reuther, William John; Pratt, Clive

2012-01-01

59

The biochemistry of neuronal necrosis: rogue biology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When stressed beyond their tolerance, cells undergo necrosis, an acute, non-apoptotic form of cell death. Necrosis is crucial to the damage that injury and disease inflict on the nervous system. Recent discoveries have shed light onto the molecular requirements for necrosis, and provide new evidence that, as is the case for apoptosis, the mechanisms of necrotic cell death are conserved

Popi Syntichaki; Nektarios Tavernarakis

2003-01-01

60

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

, blood vessels near the surface of the skin, called capillaries (CAP-uh-ler-ees), enlarge to let the warm blood cool down. Your skin will also produce sweat from sweat glands when you get too warm. The sweat injure it (like using sharp tools, working in the yard, or playing a sport). Cuts, bumps, and scrapes

Baker, Chris I.

61

Viral modulation of programmed necrosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Apoptosis and programmed necrosis balance each other as alternate first line host defense pathways against which viruses have evolved countermeasures. Intrinsic apoptosis, the critical programmed cell death pathway that removes excess cells during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, follows a caspase cascade triggered at mitochondria and modulated by virus-encoded anti-apoptotic B cell leukemia (BCL)2-like suppressors. Extrinsic apoptosis controlled by caspase 8 arose during evolution to trigger executioner caspases directly, circumventing viral suppressors of intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptosis and providing the selective pressure for viruses to acquire caspase 8 suppressors. Programmed necrosis likely evolved most recently as a “trap door” adaptation to extrinsic apoptosis. Receptor interacting protein (RIP)3 kinase (also called RIPK3) becomes active when either caspase 8 activity or polyubiquitylation of RIP1 is compromised. This evolutionary dialogue implicates caspase 8 as “supersensor” alternatively activating and suppressing cell death pathways. PMID:23773332

Kaiser, William J.; Upton, Jason W.; Mocarski, Edward S.

2013-01-01

62

Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

63

Mature Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

64

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

65

Hyperelastic skin  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperelastic skin is most often seen in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

66

Skin lumps  

MedlinePLUS

... and roll easily under the fingers (such as lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and ...

67

Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;

2005-03-10

68

Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat’ precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days), 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days), and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day) was given for 4 months. Results At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN. PMID:24932179

Pikkel, Yoav Y.; Pikkel, Joseph

2014-01-01

69

Reconstruction of soft tissue necrosis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia.  

PubMed

Cryoglobulinaemia is an uncommon immunological disorder that can lead to extensive areas of skin and soft-tissue necrosis. The reconstructive surgeon may be faced with the wound complications of cryoglobulinaemia but there are few case reports in the literature to help guide the reconstructive approach. Moreover, the literature suggests that these wounds are refractory to conventional wound care principles and routine reconstructive practices, and can signify a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cryoglobulinaemia leading to severe bilateral lower limb ulceration with necrosis extending through subcutaneous tissues and muscle to the level of bone. Faced with the possibility of above knee amputation, these wounds with exposed bone denuded of periosteum were successfully reconstructed with the dermal regeneration template Pelnac® (Gunze Corp., Kyoto, Japan) and secondary split skin grafting. As far as we are aware, this is the first case reported in the literature where reconstruction was successful, disease remission was achieved, and significant morbidity or mortality did not ensue. We discuss caveats to the reconstruction of soft tissue loss secondary to cryoglobulinaemia, and highlight the multimodal approach to treatment. PMID:24755034

Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Maitz, Peter K M

2014-08-01

70

Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.

2002-01-01

71

Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... dry skin — which is more common as you age — but they can't turn back time. Prescription creams, chemical peels, laser treatments, Botox, and other cosmetic procedures are being used to treat sun spots, wrinkles, and other signs of aging. But ...

72

Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille

1996-01-01

73

Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

74

Children's Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and facts Prevention and care Children's skin care Children's skin care Daily skin care for toddlers Use ... Protection Factor (SPF) of 30 or higher. If child is prone to skin irritation or allergic reactions, ...

75

Skin Allergy Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

76

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

77

Skin Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The skin is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The thickness of the layers varies with different\\u000a anatomical regions. The epidermis is thickest on the palm and soles, and very thin on the eyelids, while the dermis is thickest\\u000a on the back. Keratinocytes are the main component of the epidermis. Melanocytes are the cells located in the

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

78

Time-lapse imaging of necrosis.  

PubMed

The processes of dying are as tightly regulated as those of growth and proliferation. Recent work into the molecular pathways that regulate and execute cell death have uncovered a plethora of signalling cascades that lead to distinct modes of cell death, including "apoptosis," "necrosis," "autophagic cell death," and "mitotic catastrophe." Given that cells can readily switch from one form of death to another, it is vital to carefully monitor the form of death under investigation. Particularly, end-point techniques are intrinsically unsuitable for assessing apoptosis versus necrosis, as they cannot reconstruct the sequence of events that have led to cell death. Since apoptotic cells frequently undergo secondary necrosis under in vitro culture conditions, novel methods relying on high-throughput time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy have been developed. Here we describe the use of this technique to reliably distinguish necrosis from apoptosis and secondary necrosis. PMID:23733566

Wållberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Meier, Pascal

2013-01-01

79

The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)

2009-01-01

80

Reversible parainfectious bilateral "striatal necrosis".  

PubMed

Bilateral striatal necrosis is usually associated with either endogenous or exogenous toxins, and with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. We describe two patients with acute bilateral striatal clinical syndrome and magnetic resonance signal changes who made a complete clinical and radiologic recovery within 3 months. After an uneventful pregnancy, normal birth, and normal development, both boys presented at ages 3 and 5 years, respectively, after a viral illness with slurring of speech, bradykinesia, and an extrapyramidal movement disorder. On examination, both manifested bilateral cog wheel rigidity, with a broad-based gait and flexor plantar response. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging in both children indicated bilateral, symmetric, high signal changes in the lentiform nucleus, predominately in the putamen, with sparing of the globus pallidi bilaterally. The brain parenchyma was otherwise normal. Neurometabolic investigations produced normal results in both patients. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but could be immune-mediated. Both children, at 3-year and 1-year follow-ups, respectively, are doing well neurologically and academically. Our patients demonstrate that abnormal imaging findings during acute stages do not preclude good clinical and radiologic recovery. PMID:22196494

Nandish, Shalini; Khan, Rafeh; Connolly, Daniel J; Rittey, Christopher D; Mordekar, Santosh R

2012-01-01

81

Coexistent tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic fever syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 32-year-old Caucasian woman had periodic fevers, skin disease, polyarthralgia and hypermobile joints that were consistent\\u000a with tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic fever syndrome confirmed with a finding of R92Q missense mutation\\u000a of the TNFRSFA1 gene with Ehlers–Danlos hypermobility type syndrome. They are both autosomal dominant disorders, and their\\u000a coexistence suggests that they could share some phenotypic features that may

Qingping Yao; Lan Zhou; Kenneth J. Tomecki

82

Asymptomatic syphilitic massive necrosis of the spleen in late syphilis.  

PubMed

The varieties of luetic clinical variants are countless in nature. In this regard, an autopsy case of a 72-year-old homeless man who accidentally succumbed to carbon-monoxide poisoning is here presented and reviewed. The autopsy revealed the highly unusual finding of asymptomatic syphilitic necrosis of spleen followed by luetic mesaortitis, a solitary skin gumma, and syphilitic arthritis. The spleen was 8×4×3 cm in size; the capsule was completely calcified and firm, 3 to 5?mm thick. Only in the region of the hilus was a small part of preserved tissue found. After puncturing the capsule, a brown-yellowish pus-like mass was found which filled the entire space inside. When reviewing the relevant literature, this case and its finding of pan splenic necrosis accompanied by a calcified capsule seem to be unique in nature. In terms of the final diagnosis, a Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay confirmed it to be syphilis. Since it was a late stage of the disease, it is estimated that it may have been present for more than 20 or 30 years in the deceased. PMID:23970621

Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukmirovic, Filip; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag

2013-11-01

83

Cortical necrosis in a renal transplant  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renogram is a well extabished noninvasive method for evaluating and following transplanted kidneys. The examination is useful in distinguishing rejection from acute tubular necrosis as well as demonstrating several less common complications such as vascular occlusion, urinary extravasation, obstruction, and lymphocele. A previously unreported condition involving a transplant kidney (i.e., renal cortical necrosis) is described which was diagnosed with renal scintigraphy in combination with sonography.

Blumhardt, R.; Growcock, G.; Lasher, J.C.

1983-07-01

84

SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2010-05-26

85

Functional characterization of drug-induced experimental papillary necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional characterization of drug-induced experimental papillary necrosis. The functional expression of papillary necrosis was investigated with a model of drug-induced papillary necrosis. Bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA) administration to rats uniformly resulted in the development of papillary necrosis. All studies were performed 24 hours after BEA administration with the exception of the electrolyte balance studies, which were performed during the 72 hours

Jose A L Arruda; Sandra Sabatini; Pradeep K Mehta; Brijnandan Sodhi; Robert Baranowski

1979-01-01

86

Healthy Skin Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin ... and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your risk ...

87

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

88

Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections  

PubMed Central

Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2?cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1?cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis of fat necrosis is MRI.Histological confirmation of fat necrosis is important.Appropriate management of localised fat necrosis is surgical excision, with avoidance of further insulin injections into the affected area.

Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

2014-01-01

89

Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

2012-05-01

90

Pig as an experimental model for the study of snake venom induced local tissue necrosis.  

PubMed

Local tissue necrosis due to snake envenoming has resulted in considerable chronic disability. Specific antivenom, though highly useful in systemic poisoning, is not very effective in preventing the local tissue damages which occur within minutes of envenomation. Most of the studies on local tissue necrosis have been done in rodents whose skin structures are significantly different from human skin structure. In this study, pig, which is similar to human in this respect, was used as an experimental model for the study of local tissue damage caused by snake venom. An intradermal (i.d.) injection of Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) venom induced induration and hemorrhage at the same injection site, the areas of which could be estimated at 30-45 min and at 4h after injection, respectively. Both the hemorrhage and induration were dose-dependent and a total of 24 data points of each assay per pig could be obtained. Catheterization of the jugular vein for gentle serial blood collection could be performed without any hematologic sequelae. Venom injected subcutaneously induced myonecrosis as demonstrated by the increment of serum creatine kinase (CK) level which peaked at 23 h. Furthermore, biopsies at varying distances and depths around the venom injection sites could be made within seconds of injection to study the pathological changes caused by snake venom. These results demonstrated that pig should be a useful animal model for the quantitation, pathogenesis and wound healing studies of snake venom induced local tissue necrosis, and for the search for effective treatment modality. PMID:19101581

Imkhieo, Srisurat; Nakthong, Chowalit; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sirimujalin, Rungtiva; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

2009-03-01

91

Skin manifestations of drug allergy  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

2011-01-01

92

Comparative study of 1,064-nm laser-induced skin burn and thermal skin burn.  

PubMed

Infrared lasers are widely used in medicine, industry, and other fields. While science, medicine, and the society in general have benefited from the many practical uses of lasers, they also have inherent safety issues. Although several procedures have been put forward to protect the skin from non-specific laser-induced damage, individuals receiving laser therapy or researchers who use laser are still at risk for skin damage. This study aims to understand the interaction between laser and the skin, and to investigate the differences between the skin damage caused by 1,064-nm laser and common thermal burns. Skin lesions on Wistar rats were induced by a 1,064-nm CW laser at a maximum output of 40 W and by a copper brass bar attached to an HQ soldering iron. Histological sections of the lesions and the process of wound healing were evaluated. The widths of the epidermal necrosis and dermal denaturalization of each lesion were measured. To observe wound healing, the epithelial gap and wound gap were measured. Masson's trichrome and picrosirius red staining were also used to assess lesions and wound healing. The thermal damage induced by laser intensified significantly in both horizontal dimension and in vertical depth with increased duration of irradiation. Ten days after wounding, the dermal injuries induced by laser were more severe. Compared with the laser-induced skin damage, the skin burn induced by an HQ soldering iron did not show a similar development or increased in severity with the passage of time. The results of this study showed the pattern of skin damage induced by laser irradiation and a heated brass bar. This study also highlighted the difference between laser irradiation and thermal burn in terms of skin damage and wound healing, and offers insight for further treatment. PMID:23559275

Zhang, Yi-Ming; Ruan, Jing; Xiao, Rong; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yue-Sheng

2013-01-01

93

Cutaneous necrosis from calcific uremic arteriolopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis) is an uncommon complication of chronic renal failure that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 16 patients (13 female) who presented between 1985 and 1996. All patients developed painful livido reticularis that progressed to cutaneous necrosis and ulceration (11 cases on the proximal extremities and five cases on the distal extremities). Two patients

T Coates; GS Kirkland; RB Dymock; BF Murphy; JK Brealey; TH Mathew; AP Disney

1998-01-01

94

Alveolar bone necrosis and spontaneous tooth exfoliation in an HIV-seropositive subject with herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster in the distribution of the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve is characterized by painful vesicular eruptions of the skin and oral mucosa in the distribution of the affected nerves. Oral complications may occur, including post-herpetic neuralgia, devitalization of teeth, abnormal development of permanent teeth, root resorption and periapical lesions. In cases where necrosis of the alveolar bony process occur it may be preceded or accompanied by spontaneous exfoliation of teeth. This usually follows the resolution of the acute phase of HZ and is more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than in HIV-seronegative subjects. A case of HZ of the trigeminal nerve in an HIV-seropositive subject, with complications of necrosis of alveolar bony process, external root resorption and tooth exfoliation is presented and the literature of HIV-associated HZ is reviewed. PMID:18561810

Feller, L; Wood, N H; Raubenheimer, E J; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2008-03-01

95

An examination of the potential role of spider digestive proteases as a causative factor in spider bite necrosis.  

PubMed

Tissue necrosis following spider bites is a widespread problem. In the continental United States, the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa), hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis), garden spider (Argiope aurantia) and Chiracanthium species, among others, reportedly cause such lesions. The exact mechanism producing such lesions is controversial. There is evidence for both venom sphingomyelinase and spider digestive collagenases. We have examined the role of spider digestive proteases in spider bite necrosis. The digestive fluid of A. aurantia was assayed for its ability to cleave a variety of connective tissue proteins, including collagen. Having confirmed that the fluid has collagenases, the digestive fluid was injected into the skin of rabbits to observe whether it would cause necrotic lesions. It did not. The data do not support the suggestions that spider digestive collagenases have a primary role in spider bite necrosis. PMID:11574290

Foradori, M J; Keil, L M; Wells, R E; Diem, M; Tillinghast, E K

2001-10-01

96

The Skin Deep Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâÂÂfrom the sunâÂÂs ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS;)

2010-05-26

97

Coexistent tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old Caucasian woman had periodic fevers, skin disease, polyarthralgia and hypermobile joints that were consistent with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome confirmed with a finding of R92Q missense mutation of the TNFRSFA1 gene with Ehlers-Danlos hypermobility type syndrome. They are both autosomal dominant disorders, and their coexistence suggests that they could share some phenotypic features that may require special consideration in management. Conceivably, they could share common gene mutations although no such data are available. PMID:21785959

Yao, Qingping; Zhou, Lan; Tomecki, Kenneth J

2012-07-01

98

Aseptic necrosis of the capitate bone in two gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseptic necrosis of the capitate bone is a rare disease, except in the scaphoid bone and the lunate bone. This report describes an aseptic necrosis of the bone in two gymnasts. In both cases, the necrosis probably resulted from dorsiflexion compression injury in gymnastics. In an attempt to enable these patients to continue athlet ics, partial resection and drilling were

S. Murakami; H. Nakajima

1984-01-01

99

Development and Validation of Human Psoriatic Skin Equivalents  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease driven by aberrant interactions between the epithelium and the immune system. Anti-psoriatic drugs can therefore target either the keratinocytes or the immunocytes. Here we sought to develop an in vitro reconstructed skin model that would display the molecular characteristics of psoriatic epidermis in a controlled manner, allowing the screening of anti-psoriatic drugs and providing a model in which to study the biology of this disease. Human skin equivalents generated from normal human adult keratinocytes after air exposure and stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor displayed the correct morphological and molecular characteristics of normal human epidermis whereas the psoriasis-associated proteins, hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, and CK16, were absent. Skin equivalents generated from foreskin keratinocytes were clearly abnormal both morphologically and with respect to gene expression. When normal skin equivalents derived from adult keratinocytes were stimulated with psoriasis-associated cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-22] or combinations thereof, strong expression of hBD-2, SKALP/elafin, CK16, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? was induced as shown by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Retinoic acid but not cyclosporin A was found to inhibit cytokine-induced gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results illustrate the potential of this disease model to study the molecular pathology and pharmacological intervention in vitro. PMID:18669614

Tjabringa, Geuranne; Bergers, Mieke; van Rens, Desiree; de Boer, Roelie; Lamme, Evert; Schalkwijk, Joost

2008-01-01

100

Studying Our Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigative activities enabling students to explore the many purposes of our skin can create meaningful understanding of its functions. These activities can also help children construct an understanding of the skin as an always present but constantly ch

Sunal, Cynthia S.; Walters, Jeffrey J.

1999-11-01

101

Caring for Tattooed Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Education and quality care AAD professional education Clinical guidelines PQRS State melanoma reporting Appropriate use criteria MOC ... scarring or developing a skin disease such as psoriasis. Injuring the skin by tattooing it can trigger ...

102

Squamous cell skin cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

103

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Ask the Experts Early Detection ... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Early Detection Mohs Surgery Videos ...

104

Hormones and the Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... available; hair is returning to its normal growth cycle. Menopause Skin care changes Thinning of the skin with loss of elasticity and increased sensitivity due to lower levels of estrogen . Treatment options include prescription retinoids or over-the- ...

105

Keeping Your Skin Healthy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... epidermis is the outermost layer. It contains a substance called keratin that helps waterproof the skin. The ... middle layer of the skin. It contains a substance called collagen for strength, blood vessels for nutrition, ...

106

Examine Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

107

Idiopathic incus necrosis: Analysis of 4 cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with idiopathic incus necrosis who have conductive hearing loss and an intact ear drum. The study included four patients (3 women and 1 man; the ages of the patients were 22, 31, 35, and 56 years, respectively) with unilateral conductive hearing loss, no history of chronic serous otitis media, an intact ear drum, normal middle ear mucosa, and necrosis of the long processes of the incus. On preoperative pure tone audiometry, air-bone gaps were 24, 25, 38, and 33 dB. Bilateral tympanometry and temporal bone computed tomography results were normal. All 4 patients underwent an exploratory tympanotomy. During the operation, the mucosa of the middle ear was normal, with a mobile stapes foot plate and malleus. No evidence of any granulation tissue was found; however, necrosis of the incus long processes was seen. For ossicular reconstruction, we used tragal cartilage between the incus and the stapes in 1 patient; in the other 3 patients, glass ionomer bone cement was used (an interposition cartilage graft also was used in the patients who received the glass ionomer bone cement). In all patients, air-bone gaps under 20 dB were established in the first year after surgery. In the ossicular disorders within the middle ear, the incus is the most commonly affected ossicle. While, the most common cause of these disorders is chronic otitis media, it may be idiopathic rarely. Several ossicular reconstruction techniques have been used to repair incudostapedial discontinuity. PMID:23460219

Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail; Akdogan, Volkan; Avci, Suat; Ozluoglu, Levent

2013-02-01

108

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

109

Genetic control of necrosis - another type of programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

Necrosis has been thought to be an accidental or uncontrolled type of cell death rather than programmed. Recent studies from diverse organisms show that necrosis follows a stereotypical series of cellular and molecular events: swelling of organelles, increases in reactive oxygen species and cytoplasmic calcium, a decrease in ATP, activation of calpain and cathepsin proteases, and finally rupture of organelles and the plasma membrane. Genetic and chemical manipulations demonstrate that necrosis can be inhibited, indicating that necrosis can indeed be controlled and follows a specific “program.” This review highlights recent findings from C. elegans, yeast, Dictyostelium, Drosophila, and mammals that collectively provide evidence for conserved mechanisms of necrosis. PMID:20889324

McCall, Kimberly

2010-01-01

110

A Case of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors-induced Pustular Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? agents promise better disease control for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis resistant to classical disease-modifying treatments. Etanercept, a recombinant human TNF receptor fusion protein, is used to treat a variety of TNF-?-mediated diseases by inhibiting the biological activity of TNF-?. We experienced a case of pustular psoriasis in a 32-year-old man during anti-TNF-? therapy with etanercept. He had a history of ankylosing spondylitis for 2 years. Two years after treatment of etanercept, erythematous pustules developed on his palms and soles. He had no previous history of pustular psoriasis. The skin lesion improved as the etanercept therapy was stopped, but pustular skin eruption recurred as adalimumab, a different TNF-? inhibitor, was administered to manage his ankylosing spondylitis. Several TNF-? inhibitors have different molecular structures, but these inhibitors might have a similar potency to induce pustular psoriasis from this case. PMID:20548918

Park, Jae-Jeong

2010-01-01

111

Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.  

PubMed

Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts, arteries, bladders, intestines, ureters, muscles, and nerves. PMID:23623569

Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

2013-12-01

112

Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R. [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

1994-07-01

113

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

114

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule1 Suppression in Skin by Topical Delivery of AntiSense Oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We topically applied 20 nucleotide phosphorothioate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide in a cream formulation. It effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-?-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human skin transplanted on severe compromised immunodeficient mice. The effects were concentration dependent, sequence specific, and resulted from reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels in the skin. Intravenous administration of the drug

Rahul C. Mehta; Kimberly K. Stecker; Scott R. Cooper; Michael V. Templin; Yali J. Tsai; Thomas P. Condon; C. Frank Bennett; Gregory E. Hardee

2000-01-01

115

Skin conditions: new drugs for managing skin disorders.  

PubMed

New drugs are available for managing several common skin disorders. For psoriasis, topical corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy, but topical vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriene, now have a role. They are as effective as medium-potency topical steroids but without steroid side effects, though they can induce hypercalcemia if the dose exceeds 100 g/week. For more severe cases, methotrexate has been widely used, but other drugs now also are prescribed. They include calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, and more recently, biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. For children and pregnant women, in whom the previously discussed drugs are not appropriate, narrowband UV-B light often is the first-line treatment. For eczema, patients requiring steroid-sparing topical drugs can be treated with calcineurin inhibitors (ie, pimecrolimus or tacrolimus); between the 2, tacrolimus is the first choice for adults and children older than 2 years. When systemic management is needed, oral calcineurin inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine) are appropriate, though oral steroids often are needed for severe cases. The need for systemic management can sometimes be delayed with use of diluted bleach baths. For acne vulgaris, standard treatments with topical benzoyl peroxide and topical or systemic antibiotics are used widely, as are oral contraceptives, but oral isotretinoin is the most effective treatment. PMID:23600334

Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

2013-04-01

116

Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis

1972-01-01

117

Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver  

PubMed Central

Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

118

Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

1996-04-01

119

Activated Langerhans Cells Release Tumor Necrosis Factor,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Langerhans cell act as antigen presenting cells in immune reactions in the skin. What other roles they may play in inflammation are less well defined. We have tested whether these cells can produce TNF-alpha, an important mediator of inflammation. Resting...

J. W. Larrick, T. Shi, V. Morhenn, Y. L. Chiang

1988-01-01

120

The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

2012-01-01

121

Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis.  

PubMed

We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple's procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 ?mol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials. PMID:25133152

Sivabalasundaram, Vithika; Habal, Flavio; Cherney, David

2014-08-16

122

Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-03-14

123

Fungal Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock Itch Scalp Ringworm Body Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor ...

124

Uterine necrosis after uterine artery embolization for leiomyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:A potential complication of uterine artery embolization is diffuse uterine necrosis.CASE:A woman with a large uterine leiomyoma underwent elective uterine artery embolization and 2 months later developed diffuse uterine necrosis requiring exploratory laparotomy, total hysterectomy, and left salpingo-oophorectomy.CONCLUSION:Although elective uterine artery embolization is a procedure with a low reported rate of complications, diffuse uterine necrosis can occur.

Claire D. Godfrey; Edward A. Zbella

2001-01-01

125

Mechanisms Involved in the Induction of Human Endothelial Cell Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and unstimulated and activated neutrophils (PMNs) on endothelial cell (EC) necrosis were studied using the cultured human EC line (ECV-304) and human PMNsin vitro.LPS and TNF alone or their combination failed to induce EC necrosis. Activated PMNs, as evidenced by augmentations in CD11b expression and respiratory burst,

Jiang Huai Wang; H. Paul Redmond; R. William G. Watson; Susan Duggan; Julie McCarthy; Mary Barry; David Bouchier-Hayes

1996-01-01

126

Severe Hepatic Necrosis Associated with Methyldopa  

PubMed Central

Family physicians should carefully follow their patients receiving methyldopa for liver toxicity. Methyldopa is commonly used in treating hypertension and its hepatotoxic potential is frequently overlooked. This point is illustrated in the following case report involving a 45-year-old black female. The patient had been receiving oral methyldopa for 7.5 months prior to hospitalization for control of severe hypertension. Methyldopa was discontinued on her second hospital day when her liver tests were found to be abnormal. She developed progressive liver failure and lapsed into hepatic coma. Subsequently, her liver biopsy showed severe hepatic necrosis. She slowly improved with medical management. Her liver tests returned to normal; she resumed work and at 14 months follow up her liver biopsy showed no evidence of chronic active liver disease. Monitoring for methyldopa toxicity as outlined in this article could have prevented this costly and near lethal side effect. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21289717

Cameron, Ian A.; Achord, James L.; Bartee, Harry

1981-01-01

127

Intracrinology and The Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin, the largest organ in the human body, is composed of a series of androgen-sensitive components that all express the steroidogenic enzymes required to transform dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In fact, in post-menopausal women, all sex steroids made in the skin are from adrenal steroid precursors, especially DHEA. Secretion of this precursor steroid by the adrenals decreases progressively

Fernand Labrie; Van Luu-The; Claude Labrie; Georges Pelletier; Mohamed El-Alfy

2000-01-01

128

The skin microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate

Elizabeth A. Grice; Julia A. Segre

2011-01-01

129

[Skin photophysics and colors].  

PubMed

The optical properties of skin and of chromophores orientate and absorbe light. The resulting skin colour can be assessed by visual inspection or by objective methods. Spectrophotometry, tristimulus colorimetry and computerized image analysis are well codified methods. Epidermal melanisation is detected with great sensitivity under ultraviolet light illumination. PMID:15909553

Piérard, G E; Uhoda, E

2005-01-01

130

Screening for skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to

Mark Helfand; Susan M Mahon; Karen B Eden; Paul S Frame; C. Tracy Orleans

2001-01-01

131

Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

132

You and Your Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The You and Your Skin interactive was developed by Science NetLinks with funding from Neutrogena as part of the Skin Deep project. This resource provides an introduction to the basic structure of the skin, information about how the skin protects us, and some information on how to care for the skin. There are four main sections to the resource: Function, Anatomy, Protection, and Care. When you click on one of the main sections, you'll be taken to an enlarged view of that section, which contains several subsections represented by the highlighted ring around the circle. Roll your mouse over the ring to see the subsections. To go to one of the subsections, simply click on it. To move from one of the main sections to another, simply click on one of the red arrows found by the ring.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2006-04-30

133

Skin biopsy and psoriasis.  

PubMed

A total of 33 skin biopsies were sent to Bangladesh institute of health Science (BIHS) hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka by Consultant skin for histopathological diagnosis between a period of one year and three months. Out of these 33 skin biopsies histopathological diagnosis of psoriasis was made for 13(39.39%), chronic non specific dermatitis (eczema) in 4(12.12%), lichenoid lesion 4(12.12%). Ashy dermatosis 3(9.09%), Nevus 2(6.06%) and corn, hemangioma, prurigo simplex, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), dermatofibroma, 1(3.03%) each. The main presenting feature of these patients were erythematous, prurituc, silvery, scale, plaques or papules for a period between 2 months to 15 years. It is evident from the present study that among different skin lesions sent for histological diagnosis, Psoriasis is common skin pathology in dermatological practice. PMID:20639826

Rahman, M T; Monami, N S; Ferdousi, S; Tahmin, T

2010-07-01

134

Skinning Mesh Animations  

E-print Network

We extend approaches for skinning characters to the general setting of skinning deformable mesh animations. We provide an automatic algorithm for generating progressive skinning approximations, that is particularly efficient for pseudo-articulated motions. Our contributions include the use of nonparametric mean shift clustering of high-dimensional mesh rotation sequences to automatically identify statistically relevant bones, and robust least squares methods to determine bone transformations, bone-vertex influence sets, and vertex weight values. We use a low-rank data reduction model defined in the undeformed mesh configuration to provide progressive convergence with a fixed number of bones. We show that the resulting skinned animations enable efficient hardware rendering, rest pose editing, and deformable collision detection. Finally, we present numerous examples where skins were automatically generated using a single set of parameter values.

Doug L. James; Christopher D. Twigg

2005-01-01

135

Mom and Baby Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...

136

Gram stain of skin lesion  

MedlinePLUS

Skin lesion gram stain ... a glass slide. A series of different colored stains is applied to the sample. A laboratory team ... test. For information on risks related to the removal of a skin sample, see skin lesion biopsy .

137

6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

138

Necrosis following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the pinna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Radiation therapy is often the preferred modality of treatment for carcinoma of the pinna because it avoids the cosmetic defect of surgery. However, radiation oncologists are sometimes reluctant to irradiate the ear because of the risk of subsequent necrosis. The goal of this study was to establish the long-term disease control and necrosis rates following irradiation of the external

C. R. R. Hayter; K. H. Y. Lee; P. A. Groome; M. D. Brundage

1996-01-01

139

Molecular mechanisms of liver injury: apoptosis or necrosis.  

PubMed

Hepatic apoptosis is thought of as a prevalent mechanism in most forms of liver injury. However, the role of hepatic apoptosis is often intermixed with the cellular necrosis. It remains unknown how apoptosis is relevant to the progression of the liver injury. This review summarizes the characteristics of both hepatic apoptosis and necrosis in pathogenesis of liver diseases. Apoptosis and necrosis represent alternative outcomes of different etiology during liver injury. Apoptosis is a main mode of cell death in chronic viral hepatitis, but is intermingled with necrosis in cholestatic livers. Necrosis is the principal type of liver cell killing in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Anti-apoptosis as a strategy is beneficial to liver repair response. Therapeutic options of liver disease depend on the understanding toward pathogenic mechanisms of different etiology. PMID:24867271

Wang, Kewei

2014-10-01

140

The Ontogeny of Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

2014-01-01

141

Skin and antioxidants.  

PubMed

It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants. PMID:23384037

Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

2013-04-01

142

Archaea on human skin.  

PubMed

The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2013-01-01

143

Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis is a challenging complication of end-stage renal disease, with an unknown underlying mechanism. Several risk factors have been identified, such as hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, low serum albumin levels, and history of warfarin therapy. This article presents a case of calciphylaxis provoked by reintroduction of warfarin therapy, introducing the possibility of direct induction. PMID:23966800

Saifan, Chadi; Saad, Marc; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

2013-01-01

144

Evaluation of the Effect of Sildenafil and Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Combination Treatment on Skin Flap Survival in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Distal ischemic necrosis of surgical flaps remains a challenging problem for the reconstructive surgeon. Recent studies have\\u000a shown that either sildenafil or vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) treatment significantly improves ischemic skin flap\\u000a viability. In this study, the effect of the combination of sildenafil and VEGF165 was evaluated on a rat skin flap model using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and

John W. Tsai; Farhan S. Ayubi; Kristopher L. Hart; Dale A. Baur; Mary A. Parham; Jay K. Moon; Raymond Vazquez; Arthur B. Chasen; Zhuo Zhang; Jose M. Pizarro

2008-01-01

145

MMP-2 and MMP-9 are elevated in spinal cord and skin in a mouse model of ALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to clarify the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) as a possible link between neurodegeneration and skin pathology in ALS by determination of gelatinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 in spinal cord and skin of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. To elucidate mechanisms influencing MMPs, markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8OH2?dG)) as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor

Lubin Fang; Marko Teuchert; Friederike Huber-Abel; Dagmar Schattauer; Corinna Hendrich; Johannes Dorst; Heinz Zettlmeissel; Meinhard Wlaschek; Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek; Tamara Kapfer; Hayrettin Tumani; Albert C. Ludolph; Johannes Brettschneider

2010-01-01

146

A Novel Model of Human Skin Pressure Ulcers in Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pressure ulcers are a prevalent health problem in today's society. The shortage of suitable animal models limits our understanding and our ability to develop new therapies. This study aims to report on the development of a novel and reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model in mice. Material and Methods Male non-obese, diabetic, severe combined immunodeficiency mice (n?=?22) were engrafted with human skin. A full-thickness skin graft was placed onto 4×3 cm wounds created on the dorsal skin of the mice. Two groups with permanent grafts were studied after 60 days. The control group (n?=?6) was focused on the process of engraftment. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment, histological analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. The pressure ulcer group (n?=?12) was created using a compression device. A pressure of 150 mmHg for 8 h, with a total of three cycles of compression-release was exerted. Evaluations were conducted with photographic assessment and histological analysis. Results Skin grafts in the control group took successfully, as shown by visual assessment, FISH techniques and histological analysis. Pressure ulcers in the second group showed full-thickness skin loss with damage and necrosis of all the epidermal and dermal layers (ulcer stage III) in all cases. Complete repair occurred after 40 days. Conclusions An inexpensive, reproducible human skin pressure ulcer model has been developed. This novel model will facilitate the development of new clinically relevant therapeutic strategies that can be tested directly on human skin. PMID:25310568

Maldonado, Andres A.; Cristobal, Lara; Martin-Lopez, Javier; Mallen, Mar; Garcia-Honduvilla, Natalio; Bujan, Julia

2014-01-01

147

Skin Problems in Construction  

MedlinePLUS

... all known as contact dermatitis. Also, pitch and coal tar can cause skin cancer. What You Can ... cement or other harsh materials. (Pitch, asphalt, and coal tar can be especially harmful if you are ...

148

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

149

Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

1955-01-01

150

Skin Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . Basal cells : Round cells under the squamous cells. ... in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma skin cancer and are ...

151

Skin Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... The most common types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma , which forms in the squamous cells and basal cell carcinoma , which forms in the basal cells. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are also called nonmelanoma ...

152

Designing building skins  

E-print Network

This thesis involves framing criteria and discerning issues to be considered in the design of building skins in an urban environment. The 'information age' has paradoxically seen the demise of the facade as an important ...

Desai, Arjun

1992-01-01

153

Bleeding into the skin  

MedlinePLUS

... a health care provider. Redness of the skin (erythema) should not be mistaken for bleeding. Areas of ... you press on the area. The redness of erythema decreases when you apply pressure to it and ...

154

Layers of the Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... involved in the immune system in the skin), Merkel cells and sensory nerves. The epidermis layer itself is ... spots. Melanoma develops when melanocytes undergo malignant transformation. Merkel cells, which are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin, are ...

155

Tumor necrosis factor in the heart.  

PubMed

The heart is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-producing organ. Both myocardial macrophages and cardiac myocytes themselves synthesize TNF. Accumulating evidence indicates that myocardial TNF is an autocrine contributor to myocardial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death in ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis, chronic heart failure, viral myocarditis, and cardiac allograft rejection. Indeed, locally (vs. systemically) produced TNF contributes to postischemic myocardial dysfunction via direct depression of contractility and induction of myocyte apoptosis. Lipopolysaccharide or ischemia-reperfusion activates myocardial P38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor kappa B, which lead to TNF production. TNF depresses myocardial function by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and NO-independent (sphingosine dependent) mechanisms. TNF activation of TNF receptor 1 or Fas may induce cardiac myocyte apoptosis. MAP kinases and TNF transcription factors are feasible targets for anti-TNF (i.e., cardioprotective) strategies. Endogenous anti-inflammatory ligands, which trigger the gp130 signaling cascade, heat shock proteins, and TNF-binding proteins, also control TNF production and activity. Thus modulation of TNF in cardiovascular disease represents a realistic goal for clinical medicine. PMID:9530222

Meldrum, D R

1998-03-01

156

Nonmelanoma skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Therapy for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) does not end with treatment of the initial lesion\\u000a because almost 50% of patients with one nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) develop another NMSC in the next 5 years. An integrated\\u000a program of skin cancer awareness, sun protection, and prophylactic approaches is critical. The risk profile of the tumor

Tri H. Nguyen; Diana Quynh-Dao Ho

2002-01-01

157

Common Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

Ho, Vincent C.

1992-01-01

158

Nicotinamide and the skin.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

2014-08-01

159

Participation of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor in the responses of the sympathetic nervous system during lipopolysaccharide-induced fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional sympathetic responses during fevers induced by an exogenous pyrogen, lipopolysaccharide, and by two endogenous pyrogens, interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), were compared in urethane-anesthetized rabbits. Rectal temperature (Tre), ear skin temperature (Tear) as an index for cutaneous sympathetic activity, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) representing visceral efferents, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were

Takeshi Saigusa

1990-01-01

160

An Endotoxin-Induced Factor Distinct From Interleukin1 and Tumour Necrosis Factor a Produced by the THP1 Human Macrophage Line Stimulates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Infiltration In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria induce vigorous inflammatory reactions. Our pre- vious work showed that rabbit macrophages (Mo) incubated with endotoxin produce a 45,000 dalton protein that recruited polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) into the skin of rabbits. This factor was separated from interleukln-i (IL-i) but could not be unequiv- ocally distinguished from rabbit tumour necrosis factor (TNFa). Here we have examined the

Pal Megyeri; Thomas B. Issekutz; Andrew C. lssekutz

161

MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 10. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN  

E-print Network

-melanoma skin cancer, in women and 2.6% in men (Table 10.1). The average number of new cases diagnosed each year.8% % of all new cancer cases excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 4.1% 2.6% 4.3% 2.6% 3.6% 2.5% average numberMELANOMA OF THE SKIN 85 10. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 10.1. SUMMARY Melanoma of the skin was the seventh

Paxton, Anthony T.

162

Periorbital Necrotising Fasciitis after Minor Skin Trauma  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a fatal and rare disease, mainly located in extremity and body. Due to the good blood supply, the occurrence of this infective disease of skin and subcutaneous tissue/fascia is much rarer in the head and neck region. In this study, we represent periorbital necrotizing fasciitis case in a patient with normal immune system. The patient applied the emergency clinic with the complaints of swelling and redness on the left eye. It was found out that a skin incision occurred at 2?cm below the left eye with razor blade 2 days ago. After taking swab culture sample, patient was started on parenteral Vancomycin + Ampicillin-Sulbactam treatment. It was observed that necrosis spread within hours and an emergent deep surgical debridement was performed. Following the debridement, it was observed that periorbital edema began to regress prominently on the 1st day of the treatment. Treatment was carried on with daily wound care and parenteral antibiotherapy. The patient was discharged from the hospital with slightly cosmetic defect. PMID:25309766

Gunel, Ceren; Ery?lmaz, Aylin; Basal, Yesim; Toka, Ali

2014-01-01

163

Periorbital necrotising fasciitis after minor skin trauma.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a fatal and rare disease, mainly located in extremity and body. Due to the good blood supply, the occurrence of this infective disease of skin and subcutaneous tissue/fascia is much rarer in the head and neck region. In this study, we represent periorbital necrotizing fasciitis case in a patient with normal immune system. The patient applied the emergency clinic with the complaints of swelling and redness on the left eye. It was found out that a skin incision occurred at 2?cm below the left eye with razor blade 2 days ago. After taking swab culture sample, patient was started on parenteral Vancomycin + Ampicillin-Sulbactam treatment. It was observed that necrosis spread within hours and an emergent deep surgical debridement was performed. Following the debridement, it was observed that periorbital edema began to regress prominently on the 1st day of the treatment. Treatment was carried on with daily wound care and parenteral antibiotherapy. The patient was discharged from the hospital with slightly cosmetic defect. PMID:25309766

Günel, Ceren; Ery?lmaz, Aylin; Ba?al, Ye?im; Toka, Ali

2014-01-01

164

Thyroid hormone action on skin  

PubMed Central

The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure. PMID:22110782

2011-01-01

165

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

166

Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2013-11-01

167

Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.  

PubMed

We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

2014-04-01

168

Platelets support a protective immune response to LCMV by preventing splenic necrosis  

PubMed Central

Severe arenaviral infections in humans are characterized by clinical findings common to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, skin and internal organ hemorrhages, high viral replication, splenic necrosis, and death. Host responses, rather than direct damage by the arenaviral replication, account for most of the observed pathology, but it is not known what protective roles platelets may have in each of the manifestations. To address this issue in an animal model, we compared nondepleted (100%), partially depleted (15%), and profoundly (< 2.5%) platelet-depletedmice infected with the mouse arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Here, we describe that systemic bleedings and death were seen only in those animals receiving the stronger depletion treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the nonhemorrhagic but partially platelet-depleted mice were unable to control the viral replication because of generalized splenic necrosis, affecting innate and adaptive immune cells. These data suggest that, by their supportive roles in hemostasis, platelets may be preventing the severe pathology observed in human arenaviral infections. PMID:22566603

Loria, Gilbert David; Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Moseley, Nelson B.; Rucavado, Alexandra

2013-01-01

169

Viability of adult rat skin following 13 Mev proton irradiation  

E-print Network

most affected by 10 Mev protons, epithelial hyperplasia being most prevalent. Harris observed skin effects starting at 200 rad with tumor formation. Scar- ring from ulceration and necrosis of the dermis was seen at 1000 rad. Involvement of epidermis...-Ringer phosphate solution free of calcium and magnesium. The solution was compounded in the laboratory using: 1) 500 ml. of 0. 9% NaCl (commercial source), 2) 0. 23gms: of KC1 dissolved in 20 ml. of distilled H20 and 3) 0. 71 mg. of Na2HPO (anhydrous) dissolved...

Caraway, Bobby Lamar

2012-06-07

170

Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, instrumentation, materials and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30415e

Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

2012-05-01

171

Biophysical studies of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.  

PubMed Central

The molecular weight of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) has been determined by analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering. The sedimentation coefficient of the virus was found to be 435S. The average value for molecular weight is (55 +/- 7) x 106. The virus genome consists of two segments of double-stranded RNA (molecular weights, 2.5 x 106 and 2.3 x 106), which represents 8.7% of the virion mass. The capsid protein moiety of IPNV consists of four species of polypeptides, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The number of molecules of each polypeptide in the virion has been determined. There are 22 molecules of the internal polypeptide alpha (molecular weight, 90,000), 544 molecules of the outer capsid polypeptide beta (molecular weight, 57,000), and 550 and 122 molecules, respectively, of the internal polypeptides gamma1 (molecular weight, 29,000) and gamma2 (molecular weight, 27,000). IPNV top component contains only the beta polypeptide species, and its molecular weight is estimated to be 31 x 106. The hydrodynamic diameter and electron microscopic diameter (calculated by catalase crystal-calibrated electron microscopy) of IPNV was compared with those of reovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus. Due to the swelling of the outer capsid, reovirus particles were found to be much larger when hydrated (96-nm diameter) than when dehydrated (76-nm diameter), having a large water content content and low average density. In contrast, IPNV particles are more rigid, having nearly the same average diameter under hydrous (64 nm) as under anhydrous conditions (59.3 nm). Encephalomyocarditis virus has a very low water content and does not shrink at all when prepared for electron microscopy. Images PMID:558343

Dobos, P; Hallett, R; Kells, D T; Sorensen, O; Rowe, D

1977-01-01

172

Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

2014-01-01

173

Cytokine expression patterns distinguish HIV associated skin diseases.  

PubMed

AIDS is known to cause a shift of cytokines in the periphery. However, predominant cytokines in skin of patients with HIV-associated skin diseases have not been clearly defined. We hypothesized that there are distinct cytokine profiles that distinguish among the different clinical manifestations of AIDS-related skin diseases. To test this hypothesis, lesional and non-lesional skin was biopsied from 53 HIV+ patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), psoriasis, and pruritus due to eosinophilic folliculitis, and from HIV negative controls with psoriasis or KS prior to therapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10. HIV positive individuals included 10 with psoriasis, 14 with pruritus, and 15 with Kaposi's sarcoma. HIV negative controls included 12 with psoriasis and two with KS. Semi-quantitative analysis of cytokine staining was confirmed by optical density using a digital imaging system on four representative skin sections from each disease. Optical density analyses were conducted using ANOVA and t-tests. We found that epidermis overlying HIV+ Kaposi's sarcoma was hyperproliferative and was highest in IP-10, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 (P=0.0001). HIV+ pruritus was significantly highest in TNF-alpha (P=0.0001) staining. HIV+ psoriasis represented an intermediate state for all four cytokines. Normal skin adjacent to lesions showed the same relative patterns, with lower intensities. Skin diseases seen frequently in the setting of HIV and immunodeficiency have relatively distinct levels and patterns of cytokine expression that may reflect immune dysfunction, reactivity to HIV and to opportunistic infections. PMID:11016855

Breuer-McHam, J N; Ledbetter, L S; Sarris, A H; Duvic, M

2000-10-01

174

Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  

PubMed

Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

2013-04-01

175

Neuronal necrosis and spreading death in a Drosophila genetic model  

PubMed Central

Brain ischemia often results in neuronal necrosis, which may spread death to neighboring cells. However, the molecular events of neuronal necrosis and the mechanisms of this spreading death are poorly understood due to the limited genetic tools available for deciphering complicated responses in mammalian brains. Here, we engineered a Drosophila model of necrosis in a sub-population of neurons by expressing a leaky cation channel in the Drosophila eye. Expression of this channel caused necrosis in defined neurons as well as extensive spreading of cell death. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated, caspase-independent apoptosis was the primary mechanism of cell death in neurons, while caspase-dependent apoptosis was primarily involved in non-neuronal cell death. Furthermore, the JNK activation in surrounding neurons was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Eiger (Drosophila tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)) released from necrotic neurons. Because the Eiger/ROS/JNK signaling was also required for cell death induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress, our fly model of spreading death may be similar to brain ischemia in mammals. We performed large-scale genetic screens to search for novel genes functioning in necrosis and/or spreading death, from which we identified several classes of genes. Among them, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) had been reported as a promising drug target for stroke treatment with undefined mechanisms. Our data indicate that ROCK and the related trafficking pathway genes regulate neuronal necrosis. We propose the suppression of the function of the trafficking system, ROS and cytokines, such as TNF?, as translational applications targeting necrosis and spreading death. PMID:23846225

Yang, Y; Hou, L; Li, Y; Ni, J; Liu, L

2013-01-01

176

Mutation, purification and chemical studies on the tobacco necrosis virus  

E-print Network

MUTATION, PURIFICATION AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE TOBACCO NECROSIS VIRUS A Dissertation By William D. Hockaday, Jr* Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January _____ 1957 (month) (year) Major Subject Plant Physiology and Pathology MUTATION, PURIFICATION AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE TOBACCO NECROSIS VIRUS A Dissertation By William D* Hockaday, ?Jr...

Hockaday, William Don

2013-10-04

177

[Uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Radiologic embolization of the uterine arteries is increasingly used to treat severe postpartum hemorrhage, as an alternative to surgical procedures. Guidelines have been published in order to standardize the indications as well as the technique. An important objective was to limit severe complications such as uterine necrosis. We report a case of a uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony on a uterus with fibroids. This complication occurred despite the use of the recommended technique. PMID:22342505

Belghiti, J; Tassin, M; Raiffort, C; Zappa, M; Poujade, O; Bout, H; Mandelbrot, L

2014-02-01

178

Cellular and molecular pathways to myocardial necrosis and replacement fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrosis is a fundamental component of the adverse structural remodeling of myocardium present in the failing heart. Replacement\\u000a fibrosis appears at sites of previous cardiomyocyte necrosis to preserve the structural integrity of the myocardium, but not\\u000a without adverse functional consequences. The extensive nature of this microscopic scarring suggests cardiomyocyte necrosis\\u000a is widespread and the loss of these contractile elements, combined

Malay S. Gandhi; German Kamalov; Atta U. Shahbaz; Syamal K. Bhattacharya; Robert A. Ahokas; Yao Sun; Ivan C. Gerling; Karl T. Weber

2011-01-01

179

Strategies for targeting tumour necrosis factor in IBD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in mediating the inflammation of inflammatory bowel disease, in particular, Crohn's disease. Strategies aimed at reducing tumour necrosis factor in patients with inflammatory bowel disease include the mouse\\/human chimeric monoclonal antibody infliximab, the humanized monoclonal antibody CDP571, the human soluble TNF p55 receptor onercept, the human monoclonal antibody D2E7 (adalimumab), the anti-TNF

William J Sandborn

2003-01-01

180

Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

1989-01-01

181

Smoking and skin disease.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

2010-06-01

182

[Characteristics of aging skin].  

PubMed

The change in the population's age structure in most industrial countries, as in Germany, requires geriatric medicine to play an increasingly important role. Dermatology also has to meet the new challenges by expert discussion and ethical considerations. The physiological aging process is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and causes a variety of morphological and functional alterations in the skin. Those alterations are the cause for an increasing prevalence of many dermatoses. Infections, wound healing disorders, inflammatory diseases, tumors and associated paraneoplastic syndromes are of particular importance. The structural and functional characteristics of aging skin in combination with the reduced mobility and declining cognitive abilities in elder patients require specific recommendations for skin protection as well as qualified advice about topical and systemic use of medications. PMID:25231590

Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wohlrab, A

2014-10-01

183

Update on skin allergy.  

PubMed

Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers. PMID:25283085

Schlapbach, C; Simon, D

2014-12-01

184

Sprayed skin turbine component  

DOEpatents

Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

Allen, David B

2013-06-04

185

Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between serum transaminase levels and the extent of paracetamol-induced liver necrosis has been investigated in the rat. Three methods of histological quantitation were used to assess of necrosis--arbitrary grading, point counting, and the image-analysis computer. Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three methods and all were found to be reproducible. A close correlation was found between the extent of hepatic necrosis and the serum ASAT and ALAT 24 hours after a large dose (4 g/kg) of paracetamol. Likewise, the mean grade of necrosis correlated reasonably well with the serum enzyme levels in the recovery phase at 36 and 72 hours, although the transaminase level for a given degree of necrosis was considerably lower at 72 hours than at 24 hours. These findings suggest that serum transaminase levels gives a reliable indication of the severity of hepatic necrosis if the time of ingestion of the paracetamol is known and taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1205274

Dixon, M F; Fulker, M J; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J; Losowsky, M S

1975-01-01

186

Characterization of hyaluronan and TSG-6 in skin scarring: differential distribution in keloid scars, normal scars and unscarred skin  

PubMed Central

Background Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with increased synthesis during tissue repair. Tumour necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is known to catalyze the covalent transfer of heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) from inter-?-inhibitor (I?I) onto HA, and resultant HC•HA complexes have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes related to remodelling and inflammation. Objective The aims of this study were to determine the expression of HA, TSG-6 and the I?I polypeptides in unscarred skin, normal scars and keloid scars. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of unscarred skin, normal scars and keloid scars were prepared from patient samples collected during scar revision surgery. Haematoxylin and eosin, as well as immunofluorescent staining for HA, TSG-6 and the three polypeptide chains of I?I (i.e. HC1, HC2 and bikunin) were performed. Results All skin types stained positive for TSG-6, HC1, HC2 and bikunin, associated with keratinocytes, fibroblasts and skin appendages all in close proximity to HA. Keloid lesions showed altered HA organization patterns compared with unscarred skin and normal scars. TSG-6 staining was significantly more intense in the epidermis compared with the dermis of all sample types. There was a significant reduction in TSG-6 levels within keloid lesions compared with the dermis of unscarred skin (P = 0.017). Conclusion TSG-6 is expressed in unscarred skin, where its close association with HA and I?I could give rise to TSG-6-mediated HC•HA formation within this tissue. A reduction in the beneficial effects of TSG-6, caused by diminished protein levels in keloid lesions, could contribute to this abnormal scarring process. PMID:20642475

Tan, KT; McGrouther, DA; Day, AJ; Milner, CM; Bayat, A

2011-01-01

187

Autoimmune blistering skin diseases.  

PubMed

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion of the clinical presentation, incidence, differential diagnosis and management of the commonly encountered autoimmune blistering skin diseases, some of which include pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. PMID:10830686

Cotell, S; Robinson, N D; Chan, L S

2000-05-01

188

Skin surface shock wave.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the Skin Surface Shock Wave which is generated after we impart an impulsive force to human skin. The force is given by an air jet during 200 [ms]. The basic behavior of shock wave is measured by a high speed camera with the frame rate of 2000 [Hz]. Through the experiment, we found an interesting behavior where there exists a remarkable difference between young and elder subjects especially during the recovery phase, while there is nearly no difference between two during the force imparting phase. PMID:17946225

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Makoto

2006-01-01

189

[Radiotherapy and skin tumors].  

PubMed

Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilovoltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi's sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. PMID:9868400

Calitchi, E; Kirova, Y; Le Bourgeois, J P

1998-01-01

190

Skin connective tissue and ageing.  

PubMed

Collagen atrophy is a major factor in skin ageing. A strong correlation exists between skin collagen loss and oestrogen deficiency caused by the menopause. Skin ageing is associated with a progressive increase in extensibility and a reduction in elasticity. With increasing age, the skin also becomes more fragile and susceptible to trauma, leading to more lacerations and bruising. Furthermore, wound healing is impaired in older women. Oestrogen use after the menopause increases collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity, and it decreases the likelihood of senile dry skin. Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to help make informed recommendations about postmenopausal oestrogen use and its role in preventing skin ageing. PMID:23850161

Calleja-Agius, Jean; Brincat, Mark; Borg, Marika

2013-10-01

191

Ethnic skin: Overview of structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial variability in skin function is an area in which data often conflict. Understanding and quantifying racial differences in skin function are important for skin care and the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. A key feature that characterizes race is skin color: Is deeply pigmented skin different from fair skin in terms of responses to chemical and environmental insults?

Enzo Berardesca; Howard Maibach

2003-01-01

192

Skin Cancer: Need for Skin Exam Increases with Age  

MedlinePLUS

... an earlier stage than other doctors. Dermatologists Treat Sun-Damaged Skin, Too Seeing a dermatologist for a ... how to treat skin damage caused by the sun. If you are bothered by age spots, deep ...

193

The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  

PubMed

The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

2012-07-01

194

Immunity and skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

1981-01-01

195

Dermatology procedures: skin biopsy.  

PubMed

The procedures used most often for office-based skin biopsies are two types of shave biopsies, punch biopsy, and elliptical biopsy performed with a scalpel. Tangential shave biopsy is superficial and best suited to small, raised, benign lesions. Saucerization shave biopsy is deeper and is used for excisional biopsy of atypical nevi, for squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and as initial biopsy for suspected melanoma. Punch biopsy also removes deeper tissue and can be used to excise or sample a variety of lesions, including pigmented nevi. Elliptical biopsy using a scalpel is reserved for larger lesions not amenable to shave or punch biopsies. It is not necessary to discontinue anticoagulants before office-based skin biopsy is performed or to administer topical or systemic antibiotics. When sutures are used for wound closure, it is important for the sutures to have appropriate tensile strength. Multifilament sutures should be avoided in areas prone to infection, such as the feet. An important complication of skin biopsy is the development of hypertrophic and keloid scars, which are more common among patients with dark skin. Injection of triamcinolone or verapamil into a maturing scar can minimize the possibility of hypertrophic and keloid scars. PMID:25373033

Nguyen, Tam

2014-11-01

196

Autoimmune blistering skin diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion

Stephanie Cotell; Neha D Robinson; Lawrence S Chan

2000-01-01

197

Skin Cancer Prevention Study  

Cancer.gov

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.

198

Learning about Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... skin cancer are found in South Africa and Australia, areas that receive high amounts of UV radiation. About 10 percent of all patients with melanoma have family members who also have had the disease. Research suggests that a mutation in the CDKN2 gene ...

199

Human Skin Fungal Diversity  

PubMed Central

Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

2013-01-01

200

Effect of side-stream smoking on random-pattern skin flap survival in rats.  

PubMed

The secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke is being considered evil, and damage caused by this passive exposure has been proven by several studies. To investigate the effects of sidestream smoke exposure on random-pattern skin flap survival, 20 female rats were separated into 2 groups: group A (n = 10) was exposed 6 weeks to the smoke from the burning cigarette (passive smoking) and group B (n = 10) was the control group. After 6 weeks of exposition, a dorsal McFarlane flap of 4 × 10 cm was performed in all rats. Two weeks after this procedure, the ratio of necrotic and total areas was calculated using computer programs. The median area of necrosis in group A was 29.5%, significantly higher than that in group B with 17.5% (P < 0.024). In conclusion, this study suggests increased risk of random-pattern skin flap necrosis after sidestream exposure to cigarette smoke. PMID:24322641

Gazzalle, Anajara; Teixeira, Lourenço Frigeri; Pellizzari, Alice Cardoso; Cocolichio, Fernanda; Zampieri, Juliana Tonietto; Rauber, Daniel; Pezzin, Luíse S; Zago, Vanessa D; Braga-Silva, Jefferson Luis

2014-04-01

201

Skin ulcer caused by venous extravasation of heroin.  

PubMed

The accidental leakage of the compound, in this case heroin, from the veins where it is injected, causes the formation of tissue lesions. Similar mechanisms lead to progressive tissue necrosis, which, if not immediately treated, results in the loss of the relevant function. A 57-year-old man presented a skin lesion on the posterior region of the left forearm with extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous layer involving the underlying muscle planes, caused by a venous extravasation of heroin that he reports having injected himself. The wound size is 15 × 10 cm; it had a sanious, fibrinous, secreting and smelly bottom. In this period, the patient was subjected to daily focused dressing before debridement of the lesion through a collagenase plus hyaluronic acid ointment: Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical, Abano, Italy). The therapeutic choice was rewarded with a complete resolution of the wound through a non-invasive technique and over a short period. Avoiding the hospitalisation of the patient achieved a reduction of risks for him and of the costs for the National Health Service (NHS). The Bionect Start®; (FIDIA Pharmaceutical) as well as allowing the healing of the wound also decreased significantly the pain felt by the patient, the amount of exudate and the bad smell improving in a non-negligible way his quality of life. PMID:23107007

Onesti, Maria G; Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Massera, Diego; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolo

2014-08-01

202

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... skin cancer appears in many shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) This is a very common type of ... lip; skin on the lip can get thick Squamous cell carcinoma . These patients all have forms of squamous cell ...

203

Management of a traumatically avulsed skin-flap on the dorsum of the foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt is common for traumatologists to see avulsion injuries with resulting composite skin flaps. Simply reattaching the avulsed flap by suturing it back into its bed may result in ischemic necrosis of the distal portion of the flap.Case reportThe authors present a case in which an extensive avulsion injury of the dorsum of the foot with amputation of the fourth

Georg M. Huemer; Thomas Schoeller; Karin M. Dunst; Christian Rainer

2004-01-01

204

Targeting of human interleukin-12B by small hairpin RNAs in xenografted psoriatic skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that shows as erythematous and scaly lesions. The pathogenesis of psoriasis\\u000a is driven by a dysregulation of the immune system which leads to an altered cytokine production. Proinflammatory cytokines\\u000a that are up-regulated in psoriasis include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-23 for which\\u000a monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for

Rasmus O Bak; Karin Stenderup; Cecilia Rosada; Line B Petersen; Brian Moldt; Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen; Maria Jakobsen; Søren Kamp; Thomas G Jensen; Tomas N Dam; Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen

2011-01-01

205

Urticaria and angiedema-like skin reactions in a patient treated with adalimumab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific inhibition of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha has resulted in significant clinical and laboratory improvement\\u000a of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of Th1 phenotype. Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein of two p75 soluble\\u000a receptors, while infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody. Both have been considered to be immunogenic and cause various\\u000a immune-mediated skin reactions. On the other

S. N. Nikas; P. V. Voulgari; A. A. Drosos

2007-01-01

206

Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.  

PubMed Central

The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

Majno, G.; Joris, I.

1995-01-01

207

Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Gilmour, Susan K. [Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 (United States)], E-mail: gilmours@mlhs.org

2007-11-01

208

Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

209

Neuroendocrine System of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin

Andrzej Slominski

2005-01-01

210

Skin Cancers of the Feet  

MedlinePLUS

... resemble non-cancerous skin tumors or benign ulcers. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on ... skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous cell carcinoma are confined to the skin and do not ...

211

Determination of skin repigmentation progression.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe an image processing scheme to analyze and determine areas of skin that have undergone repigmentation in particular, during the treatment of vitiligo. In vitiligo cases, areas of skin become pale or white due to the lack of skin pigment called melanin. Vitiligo treatment causes skin repigmentation resulting in a normal skin color. However, it is difficult to determine and quantify the amount of repigmentation visually during treatment because the repigmentation progress is slow and moreover changes in skin color can only be discerned over a longer time frame typically 6 months. Here, we develop a digital image analysis scheme that can identify and determine vitiligo skin areas and repigmentation progression on a shorter time period. The technique is based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis which converts the RGB skin image into a skin image that represent skin areas due to melanin and haemoglobin only, followed by segmentation process. Vitiligo skin lesions are identified as skin areas that lack melanin (non-melanin areas). In the initial studies of 4 patients, the method has been able to quantify repigmentation in vitiligo lesion. Hence it is now possible to determine repigmentation progression objectively and treatment efficacy on a shorter time cycle. PMID:18002737

Nugroho, Hermawan; Fadzil, M H Ahmad; Yap, V V; Norashikin, S; Suraiya, H H

2007-01-01

212

AT NORTHWESTERN SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE "Through the Skin Cancer Institute, we are endeavoring to reverse the growing incidence of all forms of skin cancer by contributing breakthroughs and innovations

Engman, David M.

213

The Great Ephemeral Tattooed Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is always and already a serietl of planes which signify race, gender, age and such. Tattooing creates a new surface of potential significance upon the body. Tattooing can call into question concepts of volition in reference to the power to inscribe and define one's subjectivity through one's own skin, and the social defining of the subject. Skin is

Patricia MacCoatlack

2006-01-01

214

From human skin to Nano-Skin: an experimental study on human skin temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human state in human–machine systems should be monitored to improve system performance. In monitoring it is preferable to use physiological cues such as skin temperature. The sensing capabilities of human skin were analyzed. The sensing system of human skin was modeled, and inspired the design of a Nano-Skin for physiological measurement in dynamic human–machine contact for human state recognition.

Hongjie Leng; Yingzi Lin

2011-01-01

215

Sunburn Cell Formation, Dendritic Cell Migration, and Immunomodulatory Factor Production After Solar-Simulated Irradiation of Sunscreen-Treated Human Skin Explants In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using human skin explants, we investigated the effects of two different sunscreen preparations containing a chemical UVB filter alone [sun protection factor (SPF) 5.2] or UVA+UVB filter [SPF 6.2] on sunburn cell formation, dendritic cell (DC) migration, CD86- and CD1a-positive cell number, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the skin after irradiation

Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Josef Smolle; Andrea Roschger; Dirk Strunk; Martin Hubmer; Christine Hoffmann; Franz Quehenberger; Michael Horn; Helmut Kerl; Peter Wolf

2004-01-01

216

Primary Renal Angiosarcoma with Extensive Necrosis: A Difficult Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Angiosarcoma of the kidney is an exceedingly rare and aggressive neoplasm. Very few cases have been reported in the English literature to date. We report a case of primary renal angiosarcoma with extensive necrosis and discuss its diagnostic difficulties. An 86-year-old male presented with a 12?cm necrotic renal mass and multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules. A CT guided renal biopsy revealed extensive necrosis and few vascular channels lined by malignant endothelial cells. Diagnosis was given on a morphologic base and proven by an immunohistochemical study. Primary renal angiosarcoma should be included among the differential diagnosis of necrotic renal lesions. PMID:25133004

Parikh, Jignesh G.

2014-01-01

217

Minimally invasive intervention for infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Infected necrosis is the main indication for invasive intervention in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The 2013 IAP/APA guidelines state that percutaneous catheter drainage should be the first step in the treatment of infected necrosis. In 50-65% of patients, additional necrosectomy is required after catheter drainage, which was traditionally done by open necrosectomy. Driven by the perceived lower complication rate, there is an increasing trend toward minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy. The authors present an overview of current minimally invasive treatment options for necrotizing pancreatitis and review recent developments in clinical studies. PMID:25122506

Hollemans, Robbert A; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J; Bollen, Thomas L; Timmer, Robin; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

2014-11-01

218

Histopathologic changes of the eyelid skin following trichloroacetic acid chemical peel.  

PubMed

The use of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a periorbital and eyelid peel for skin rejuvenation is gaining significant acceptance among oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologists, and other surgery groups. In spite of the current enthusiasm, there remain potentially serious complications resulting from any periorbital peel. Cases of cicatricial ectropion have been reported in phenol-peeled patients, and lower eyelid ectropion has reportedly occurred in patients undergoing deep eyelid peel in conjunction with a blepharoplasty (1,2). To avoid this complication, it is necessary to better understand the depth of the wound produced by different strengths and combinations of peeling agents applied to living eyelid tissue and, more important, to determine the concentrations of TCA that are likely to lead to cicatricial ectropion when applied in a consistent fashion. We chose upper-eyelid skin because it is easier to obtain for histopathologic study than lower-eyelid skin and, in our experience, is more sensitive to hypertrophic changes after chemical peeling or carbon dioxide laser resurfacing. We applied TCA to the preseptal skin of 10 patients 48 h before standard upper-eyelid blepharoplasty. The acid was applied to produce a "frost," using varying concentrations of acid, ranging from 20 to 50%. The treated skin removed at the time of blepharoplasty was reviewed in a masked fashion by a dermatopathologist to determine the depth of necrosis. We found that superficial peels with necrosis involving 30% of the epidermis were produced by the lowest-concentration combination of TCA applied (20% followed by 0%). As the strength increased, so did the depth of peel. The combination of 50% followed by a second application of 50% produced the deepest peel, with necrosis into the papillary dermis. This finding would indicate that the chance of developing cicatricial ectropion with any of the tested combinations of TCA should be very remote. PMID:9513236

Dailey, R A; Gray, J F; Rubin, M G; Hildebrand, P L; Swanson, N A; Wobig, J L; Wilson, D J; Speelman, P

1998-01-01

219

The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger

1999-01-01

220

Tumor necrosis factor blockade and the risk of viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers are widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Many studies have demonstrated an increased risk of opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and fungal infection in patients treated with TNF blockers, which is thought to be related to the primary role of TNF both in host defense and in the immune response.

Daniel H. Solomon; Seo Young Kim

2010-01-01

221

Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

2003-01-01

222

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

Marion Man-Ying Chan

1995-01-01

223

Tongue swelling and necrosis after brain tumor surgery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of tongue necrosis due to intraoperative pressure injury. A laryngeal mask airway with adhesive electrodes was inserted into the oropharynx, over an endotracheal tube, to facilitate glossopharyngeal nerve monitoring during craniotomy for a cerebellopontine angle tumor. The case, mechanisms of injury, and modifications to our current practice are discussed. PMID:23559991

Nimjee, Shahid M.; Wright, David R.; Agrawal, Abhishek; McDonagh, David L.; Husain, Aatif M.; Britz, Gavin W.

2012-01-01

224

Secondary necrosis: The natural outcome of the complete apoptotic program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant definition of apoptosis considers that the elimination of the apoptosing cell is by heterolytic degradation following phagocytosis by an assisting scavenger (efferocytosis). However, an alternative and largely underestimated outcome of apoptosis is secondary necrosis, an autolytic process of cell disintegration with release of cell components that occurs when there is no intervention of scavengers and the full apoptotic

Manuel T. Silva

2010-01-01

225

Molecular mechanisms that differentiate apoptosis from programmed necrosis.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death is physiological when disposing of senescent, dysfunctional, or redundant cells, but pathological if these cells cannot be replaced. Mitochondria help determine cell fate as "gatekeepers" of apoptosis and effectors of cell necrosis. Apoptosis was first described 40 years ago this year. Cell suicide (or the less emotionally charged "programmed cell death") impacts organism development, normal organ homeostasis, and degenerative (too much cell death) or metaplastic (too little cell death) diseases. The components of apoptosis signaling through mitochondrial targeted Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of the caspase cascade and its downstream proteases and nucleases are well described. More recently, we have realized that there is a parallel cell death pathway, programmed necrosis, in which calcium cross-talk between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria causes mitochondrial depolarization, reversal of electron flow through the electron transport chain, and ATP depletion. Since apoptosis and programmed necrosis signaling can occur concurrently in a suicidal cell and are difficult to distinguish using conventional techniques, their relative roles in disease are still being researched and debated. Here, the different molecular mechanisms, effects, and pathophysiological implications of apoptosis and programmed necrosis are reviewed as they relate to heart failure and diabetes mediated by the Bcl-2 family protein, Nix. PMID:23222994

Dorn, Gerald W

2013-02-01

226

The effects of chronic papillary necrosis on acid excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete papillary necrosis in rats can be induced within 1 month following a single injection of 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA) (50 mg, i.v.). Utilizing a combination of clearance and balance techniques the effects of complete absence of the papilla was examined as regards urinary acidification, whole kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR), single nephron GFR, and morphology. Whole kidney GFR was not

Sandra Sabatini; Venkateswararao Alla; Allen Wilson; Manuel Cruz-Soto; April White; Neil A. Kurtzman; Jose A. L. Arruda

1982-01-01

227

The stubborn hip: Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To highlight the unusually indolent course of avascular necrosis in this patient, the risk factors of which chiropractors should be aware, the necessity of and means to an early diagnosis, the limitations of plain film radiographs, as well as the current medical treatments. Clinical Features: A 27-year-old male professional soccer player had a tight and achy right hip for

Jason A. Pajaczkowski

2003-01-01

228

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-? inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-? drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described. PMID:19681709

Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.

2012-01-01

229

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

230

Exploring Theranostic Potentials of Radioiodinated Hypericin in Rodent Necrosis Models  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present animal experiments were conducted to evaluate radioiodinated Hypericin (Hyp) for its regional distribution as well as theranostic potentials. Materials and Methods: Rat models of reperfused liver infarction (RLI) and hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma (R1) were surgically induced. R1 models received Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) intravenously at 10 mg/kg 24 h prior to radioiodinated Hyp. Three groups of 6 rats each containing 3 RLI and 3 R1 models received iv injections of 123I-Hyp at 37, 74, and 185 MBq/kg respectively and followed by 0.1 ml of 1% Evans blue solution were sacrificed at 4, 24 and 48 hour post injection immediately after in vivo examination of MRI and planar gamma scintigraphy. Besides, two groups of 6 R1 models that received either 300 MBq/kg of 131I-Hyp or vehicle intravenously were examined using MRI to compare tumor growth for 12 days. Autoradiography, gamma counting, and histopathology were performed for postmortem verifications and quantification. Results: Necrosis as seen in vivo on contrast-enhanced MRI corresponded well with the hot spots on planar scintigraphy. Autoradiography and gamma counting revealed intense accumulation of 123I-Hyp in necrotic liver (3.94 ± 1.60, 5.38 ± 1.04, and 6.03 ± 2.09 %ID/g ± SD) and necrotic tumor (4.27 ± 0.76, 5.57 ± 0.76, and 5.68 ± 1.33 %ID/g ± SD) relative to normal liver (1.76 ± 0.54, 0.41 ± 0.18, and 0.16 ± 0.07 %ID/g ± SD), with a high necrosis-to-liver ratio of 2.3, 14.0, and 37.0 at 4, 24 and 48 h respectively. Tumor volumes in R1 models that received 131I-Hyp and vehicle changed from 0.45 ± 0.09, and 0.47 ± 0.12 cm3 (p > 0.05) on day 0 to1.32 ± 0.76 and 3.63 ± 0.72 cm3 (p < 0.001) on day 12, with the corresponding necrosis ratios from 73 ± 12 %, and 76 ± 17 % to 47 ± 18% and 17 ± 13 % (p < 0.01), and with the tumor DT of 7.3 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Radioiodinated Hyp as a necrosis avid tracer appears promising for non-invasive imaging diagnosis of necrosis-related pathologies. Its prominent targetability to necrosis allows targeted radiotherapy for malignancies on top of a prior necrosis-inducing treatment. PMID:23139728

Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Yu, Jie; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Himmelreich, Uwe; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

2012-01-01

231

Low temperature skin treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.

232

Equine skin transplants  

E-print Network

EQUINE SKIN TRANSPLANTS A Thesis By CHARLES LEROY BOYD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER. OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine... and Surgery EQUINE SK1N TRANSPLANTS A Thesis By CHARLES LEROY BOYD Approved as to style and content by: 'rman of C rnmittee) ( ead of Department) I i /, (Member) /t J z:s g '. A 2 (Member) (Member (Member) May 1967 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author...

Boyd, Charles Leroy

2012-06-07

233

Skin Care: Acne  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students are asked to think about what they already know about how the body changes as people age. More specifically, they are asked to talk about acne and what they consider to be the most effective ways of treating it and preventing its spread. Using online resources, they discover that there are many misconceptions about the exact causes and best treatments for acne. After completing the lesson, they have a good understanding of how to prevent and treat acne, and take care of their skin in general.

Science Netlinks;

2005-02-14

234

The most recent advances in pathophysiology and management of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): personal experience and literature review.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor-receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of long-lasting fever and inflammation in different regions of the body, as musculo-skeletal system, skin, gastrointestinal tube, serosal membranes and eye. Inflammatory attacks usually start in the pediatric age with initial corticosteroid-responsiveness. Most reported cases of TRAPS involve patients of European ancestry and diagnosis can be formulated by the combination of genetic analysis and a compatible phenotype. Its prognosis is strictly dependent on the appearance of amyloidosis, secondary to uncontrolled relapsing inflammation. Thanks to a better understanding of its pathogenesis, the disease is now managed with anti-interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists, rather than corticosteroids or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. The aim of this review is to describe the current understanding and advances of TRAPS genetic basis, pathogenesis and management options by integrating the most recent data in the medical literature. PMID:23899820

Magnotti, Flora; Vitale, Antonio; Rigante, Donato; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Cimaz, Rolando; Muscari, Isabella; Granados Afonso de Faria, Atila; Frediani, Bruno; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cantarini, Luca

2013-01-01

235

Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography.  

PubMed

Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion. PMID:24343434

Coutts, Louise V; Miller, Naomi R; Harland, Christopher C; Bamber, Jeffrey C

2013-12-01

236

Characterization of innate lymphoid cells in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterize the ILCs in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in the skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3-negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in the blood of psoriasis patients compared with healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients. More than 50% of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, indicating their potential for skin homing. Analysis of skin tissue revealed a significantly increased frequency of total ILCs in the skin compared with blood. Moreover, the frequency of NKp44+ ILC3 was significantly increased in non-lesional psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. A detailed time course of a psoriasis patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor showed a close association between therapeutic response, decrease in inflammatory skin lesions, and decrease of circulating NKp44+ ILC3. Overall, data from this initial observational study suggest a potential role for NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:24352038

Villanova, Federica; Flutter, Barry; Tosi, Isabella; Grys, Katarzyna; Sreeneebus, Hemawtee; Perera, Gayathri K; Chapman, Anna; Smith, Catherine H; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

2014-04-01

237

[Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].  

PubMed

There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

2012-01-01

238

Tumor necrosis factor-? in cardiovascular biology and the potential role for anti-tumor necrosis factor-? therapy in heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the heart has been extensively studied over the last 15 years. Collectively, these studies have demonstrated that TNF-? has both diverse and potentially conflicting roles in cardiac function and pathology. These include beneficial effects, such as cardioprotection against ischemia, myocarditis, and pressure overload, as well as potentially adverse effects, such as

Michael N. Sack

2002-01-01

239

Dry skin in older adults.  

PubMed

Dry skin is a common problem in the older individual due to physiological changes of the aging process as well as chronic health conditions. Dry skin can worsen if management is inappropriate or lacking. Nursing management of dry skin in the elderly is comprehensive including applying topical products to replenish lipids and reduce water loss, maintaining or increasing fluid intake, limiting sun exposure, and reducing symptoms of chronic illnesses. PMID:21601313

Hurlow, Jennifer; Bliss, Donna Zimmaro

2011-01-01

240

Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.  

PubMed

Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-?B, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25004886

Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

2014-01-01

241

Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.  

PubMed

Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

2013-11-01

242

The future of skin metagenomics.  

PubMed

Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. PMID:24361423

Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

2014-01-01

243

Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

2006-01-01

244

Variations in Human Skin Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students examine their skin types, similarities, differences, etc. and discuss the social implications of each group. They also examine the factors that influence variations in skin color in greater depth. The class is separated into groups and work on presentations, designed to foster peer-teaching with guidance from the instructor. The presentations to be worked on by the students are: Modern Human Variation: Overview, Skin Color Adaptation, and A new Light on Skin Color. All of the resources needed for the students presentations are included. Following each presentation, tips for review and discussion of the learning objectives are given.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-09-09

245

Hospital celebrates skin to skin contact to raise awareness.  

PubMed

NEONATAL nurses at Birmingham's City Hospital have been celebrating the benefits of skin to skin contact with premature babies. They held a week of celebrations in the unit last month, in which they promoted the kangaroo care technique and breastfeeding to parents. PMID:23988055

2013-06-01

246

Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

247

Characteristics of the Aging Skin  

PubMed Central

Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

2013-01-01

248

Efficacy of short novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infection  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacy of two novel short antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides (RR and RRIKA) was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infection. RR (2%) and RRIKA (2%) significantly reduced the bacterial counts and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-6, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA 300-0114 skin lesions. Furthermore, the combined therapy of RRIKA (1%) and lysostaphin (0.5%) had significantly higher antistaphylococcal and anti-inflammatory activity compared to monotherapy. This study supports the potential use of these peptides for topical treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. PMID:25378910

Mohamed, Mohamed F; Seleem, Mohamed N

2014-01-01

249

Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

2013-01-01

250

The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-01-01

251

TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR IS A SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION FACTOR FOR HUMAN MYELOMA CELLS1  

E-print Network

1 TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR IS A SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION FACTOR FOR HUMAN MYELOMA CELLS1 MICHEL Keywords: multiple myeloma, apoptosis, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6. Running title: TNF that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) is also a survival factor for myeloma cell lines, although less potent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Mutational Analysis and NMR studies of the Death Domain of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1  

E-print Network

contributed equally to this work. Abbreviations used: DD, death domain; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptorMutational Analysis and NMR studies of the Death Domain of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 02140, USA Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) death domain (DD) is the intracellular functional

Powers, Robert

253

Role of urinary concentrating ability in the generation of toxic papillary necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of urinary concentrating ability in the generation of toxic papillary necrosis. We studied the pathogenesis of chemically induced papillary necrosis in six groups of rats. Papillary necrosis was produced by a single injection of 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA), 50 mg, i.v.; the animals were followed for 7 to 10 days after the administration of the compound. Following BEA, heterozygous Brattleboro

Sandra Sabatini; Subbarayudu Koppera; José Manaligod; Jose A L Arruda; Neil A Kurtzman

1983-01-01

254

Neuroimmunology of Stress: Skin Takes Center Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like few other organs, the skin is continuously exposed to multiple exogenous and endogenous stressors. Superimposed on this is the impact of psychological stress on skin physiology and pathology. Here, we review the “brain–skin connection,” which may underlie inflammatory skin diseases triggered or aggravated by stress, and we summarize relevant general principles of skin neuroimmunology and neuroendocrinology. Specifically, we portray

Petra C Arck; Andrzej Slominski; Theoharis C Theoharides; Eva M J Peters; Ralf Paus

2006-01-01

255

Large Necrosis: A Rare Complication of Medial Thighplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can have bariatric\\u000a surgery. Weight loss causes excess skin on the body, including the thighs. This leads to difficulty walking and psychological\\u000a disorders such as devalued self-image. Medial thighplasty is an intervention to reduce excess skin and fat in the thighs.\\u000a The main

N. Bertheuil; S. Aillet; J. L. Heusse; E. Flecher; E. Watier

256

Facial necrosis after endovascular Onyx-18 embolization for epistaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Evolution in techniques and equipment has expanded the role, effectiveness, and safety of endovascular transarterial embolization for the treatment of severe epistaxis. Risks from this treatment approach include major ischemic complications. To date, there have been only a few reports of soft tissue necrosis following endovascular embolization for severe epistaxis; none involve the use of Onyx-18. Case Description: We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis that was refractory to medical and surgical management, which lead to endovascular intervention and embolization with Onyx-18. The patient subsequently developed nasal ala and facial necrosis as a result of the procedure. Conclusion: We report the use of Onyx-18 for the endovascular embolization of a patient with severe epistaxis and subsequent complications. In cases of severe epistaxis that warrant intervention in the form of embolization, ischemic complications are rare; however, ischemic complications may be unavoidable and should factor into the discussion regarding procedural risks. PMID:23956938

Grandhi, Ramesh; Panczykowski, David; Zwagerman, Nathan T.; Gehris, Robin; Villasenor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Grandinetti, Lisa; Horowitz, Michael

2013-01-01

257

Inflammatory response and neuronal necrosis in rats with cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

In the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic injury, inflammation primarily occurs in the infarct and peripheral zones. In the ischemic zone, neurons undergo necrosis and apoptosis, and a large number of reactive microglia are present. In the present study, we investigated the pathological changes in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neuronal necrosis appeared 12 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the peak of neuronal apoptosis appeared 4 to 6 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Inflammatory cytokines and microglia play a role in damage and repair after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Serum intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were positively correlated with the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These findings indicate that intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 may be involved in blood-brain barrier injury, microglial activation, and neuronal apoptosis. Inhibiting blood-brain barrier leakage may alleviate neuronal injury following ischemia.

Wu, Lingfeng; Zhang, Kunnan; Hu, Guozhu; Yan, Haiyu; Xie, Chen; Wu, Xiaomu

2014-01-01

258

Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types  

PubMed Central

The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

2014-01-01

259

Rheological behaviour of reconstructed skin.  

PubMed

Reconstructed skins have been developed to replace skin when the integrity of tissue has been compromised following severe injury, and to provide alternative methods validating the innocuousness and effectiveness of dermatological and cosmetic products. However the functional properties of tissue substitutes have not been well characterised, mainly since mechanical measurement devices have not been designed to test cell culture materials in vitro. From the mechanical standpoint, reconstructed skin is a heterogeneous multi-layer viscoelastic material. To characterise the time-dependent behaviour of reconstructed skin, spherical indentation load-relaxation tests were performed with a specific original device adapted to measure small soft tissue samples. Load-relaxation indentation tests were performed on a standard reconstructed skin model and on sub-components of the reconstructed skin (3D-scaffold alone and dermal equivalent). Generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models are proposed for analysing the mechanical behaviour of each biological tissue. The results indicated a modification of the rheological behaviour of the samples tested as a function of their biological structure. The 3D-scaffold was modelled using the one-branch Maxwell model, while the dermis equivalent and the reconstructed skin were modeled using a one-branch and a two-branch Kelvin-Voigt model, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that skin cells contribute to global mechanical behaviour through an increase of the instantaneous relaxation function, while the 3D-scaffold alone influences the mechanical response of long relaxation times. PMID:24956159

Pailler-Mattei, C; Laquièze, L; Debret, R; Tupin, S; Aimond, G; Sommer, P; Zahouani, H

2014-09-01

260

Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Other common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and cryosurgery. Squamous cell carcinoma:This is the second most common type of skin cancer. These cancers also begin in the epidermis. Radiation therapy can be used to treat squamous cell cancers that start on the skin and ...

261

Skin Diseases in the Tropics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

Mahe, Antoine; And Others

1994-01-01

262

Treatment Options for Photodamaged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodamage of the skin can be a detriment to physical and psychological health with a consequent negative impact on both personal and professional life. Medical treatments for photodamaged skin include topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) as well as moisturizers, chemical peels, dermabrasion, ? hydroxy acids and cosmetic surgery. Of these treatment options, only tretinoin has been subjected to large-scale, controlled studies

Christopher E. M. Griffiths

1997-01-01

263

Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

2014-01-01

264

Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

265

Overexpressed HIF-2? in Endothelial Cells Promotes Vascularization and Improves Random Pattern Skin Flap Survival  

PubMed Central

Background: The local skin flap procedure is very useful for reconstruction. However, flap necrosis caused by circulatory failure can occur at its distal portion. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in endothelial cells (ECs) help to maintain ECs and promote vascularization, and HIF-2? is abundantly expressed in ECs. However, the mechanisms of action of HIF-2? in ECs are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of overexpression of HIF-2? in ECs on skin flap survival. Methods: A random pattern skin flap (1.0 × 3.0 cm) was elevated on the dorsum of transgenic mice (Tg mice) with EC-specific HIF-2? conditional overexpression and wild-type littermate control mice (n = 6). Flap survival was evaluated on postoperative day 7. Tissue samples from the skin flaps were harvested and analyzed using Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Results: The HIF-2? mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the Tg mice when compared with control mice. Tg mice had significantly increased skin flap survival areas (72.0% ± 2.7%) when compared with wild-type mice (45.7% ± 1.1%). Moreover, histological examination revealed an increase in the subcutaneous blood vessel counts in the Tg mice. Conclusions: Specific overexpression of HIF-2? in ECs promoted vascularization and enhanced skin flap survival in vivo in a mouse model. PMID:25289325

Morimoto, Atsushi; Imanishi, Masaki; Shioi, Go; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Takaku, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Nakanishi, Hideki; Tamaki, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

266

HEMORRHAGES IN SKIN LESIONS OF GUINEA PIGS FOLLOWING INTRAVASCULAR INJECTION OF TOXINS (SHWARTZMAN PHENOMENON).  

PubMed

1. Filtrates from B. coli, B. typhosus, or meningococci injected into the skin of guinea pigs do not produce visible inflammation. When these injections are followed by intravascular injections of the same material, hemorrhages do not occur in the skin. 2. Guinea pigs sensitized to horse serum react with redness and edema to 0.1 or 0.01 cc. of horse serum injected into the skin, and subsequent intravascular injection of typhoid filtrate does not produce hemorrhage at the site of the reaction to horse serum. 3. When guinea pigs are injected into the skin with diphtheria toxin and these injections are followed by intravascular injection of filtrates from B. typhosus, hemorrhage occurs in the skin at the site of the reaction to diphtheria toxin. 4. When silver nitrate is injected into the skin of guinea pigs, redness, edema, and necrosis follow, and in a few guinea pigs small areas of hemorrhage can also be noticed. About half of the guinea pigs that have received an intravascular injection of typhoid filtrate react with hemorrhage at the site of the injection of silver nitrate. PMID:19870330

Freund, J

1934-11-30

267

Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-08-01

268

(+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor ?/interferon ?-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells.  

PubMed

Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?)/interferon ? (IFN-?)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-?/IFN-?-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-?/IFN-?-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Furthermore, we showed that PKC? and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-?/IFN-?-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking I?B? degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-?/IFN-?-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKC? and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD. PMID:24704449

Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook

2014-05-01

269

Labial necrosis after uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Uterine artery embolization is increasingly used as an alternative to myomectomy, hysterectomy, and medical treatment for the management of symptomatic leiomyomata.CASE:A woman with an 18-week-size fibroid uterus who underwent uterine artery embolization developed a 3-cm, exquisitely tender, hypopigmented, necrotic-appearing area on the right labium minus. Spontaneous resolution occurred over 4 weeks.CONCLUSION:Labial necrosis is a possible complication of uterine artery embolization

Thomas J Yeagley; Jay Goldberg; Thomas A Klein; Joseph Bonn

2002-01-01

270

Numerical studies on alternative therapies for femoral head necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical investigations with regard to the subtrochanteric fracture risk induced by three alternative methods for the treatment\\u000a of femoral head necrosis are outlined in this presentation. The traditional core decompression technique will be compared\\u000a with minimal invasive multiple low diameter drillings and the implantation of an innovative tantalum implant. With emphasis\\u000a to the newly introduced computational strategies and modeling approaches,

André Lutz; Udo Nackenhorst; Gabriela von Lewinski; Henning Windhagen; Thilo Floerkemeier

271

Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis.  

PubMed

Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

Adams, Ian P; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

2014-01-01

272

PEGylated polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles as tumor necrosis factor-? carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find an effective carrier for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-? (rHuTNF-?). The influence of solvent systems containing poly(methoxy-polyethyleneglycol cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate) (PEGylated PHDCA) on the biological activity of rHuTNF-? was investigated. The PEGylated PHDCA nanoparticles loading rHuTNF-? were prepared with the double emulsion method. The influence of main experimental factors on the entrapment efficiency

Ya-Ping Li; Yuan-Ying Pei; Zhao-Hui Zhou; Xian-Ying Zhang; Zhou-Hui Gu; Jian Ding; Jian-Jun Zhou; Xiu-Jian Gao

2001-01-01

273

Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

2014-01-01

274

Avascular necrosis of bone in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to delineate the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-infected patients with pain in large joints were prospectively screened. Patients had radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of their affected joints. Serum lipids, anticardiolipin antibody levels (IgG, IgM), and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed on all patients who had radiographic

Marcia F Blacksin; Patricia C Kloser; Jocelyn Simon

1999-01-01

275

Radiological assessment of necrosis in glioblastoma: variability and prognostic value  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, we found that the extent of necrosis was the only radiological feature which correlated significantly\\u000a with survival in patients with glioblastoma. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the variability and prognostic value of\\u000a the extent of the necrotic area as seen on contrast-enhanced MRI and CT in a larger series. We studied 72 patients

A. Pierallini; M. Bonamini; P. Pantano; F. Palmeggiani; M. Raguso; M. F. Osti; G. Anaveri; L. Bozzao

1998-01-01

276

Polymorphism in Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes Associated with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a severe and debilitating form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-oL. Analysis of TNF polymorphisms in Venezuelan ACL patients and endemic unaffected controls demonstrates a high relative risk (RR) of 7.5 (P <0.001) of MCL disease

Maira Cabrera; Marie-Anne Shaw; Claire Sharpies; Hazel Williams; Marianella Castes; Jacinto Convit; Jenefer M. Blackwell

277

Digital imaging of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new method for quantitative analysis of erythema and pigmentation of the human skin using of the skin surface image. The erythema and pigmentation indices as well as the polarization degree of backscattered light are applied as the visualization parameters. The comparative analysis of the quality of various types of images is performed. Quality of reconstructed images was estimated in terms of image contrast. It is shown that the skin image contrast for the case of the erythema index as visualization parameter as well as the image contrast for the case of the pigmentation index as visualization parameter exceed at least in three times the similar values for the conventional color image or R, G, B image components. Maximum value of the contrast can be achieved in the case of using the polarization degree as the visualization parameter. The reported method of skin imaging can be used as an objective tool for diagnostics of the skin diseases.

Dolotov, Leonid E.; Kiseleva, Irina A.; Sinichkin, Yury P.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.

2003-09-01

278

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.  

PubMed

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

279

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

280

Non-thermic skin affections.  

PubMed

The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate. PMID:11191420

Broz, L; Kripner, J

2000-01-01

281

Progressive striatal necrosis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background We report a case of childhood onset, generalized dystonia due to slowly progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies. This clinical phenotype has not been previously associated with NMDA receptor autoimmunity. Case presentation An eighteen year old man presented with a history of childhood-onset, progressive generalized dystonia. Clinical examination revealed a pure generalized dystonia with no cognitive or other neurological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral high T2 signal striatal lesions, which were slowly progressive over a period of nine years. New parts of the lesion showed restricted water diffusion suggesting cytotoxic oedema. Positron emission tomography of the brain showed frontal hypermetabolism and cerebellar hypometabolism. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in the patient’s serum and cerebrospinal fluid. There was no neoplasia or preceding infection or vaccination. Conclusion This is the first report of chronic progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of disease associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies and suggest that these should be included in the work-up of dystonia with striatal necrosis. PMID:23725534

2013-01-01

282

Interferon-?-Induced Necrosis: An Antitumor Biotherapeutic Perspective  

PubMed Central

Interferon (IFN)-?—like the well-known antitumor biotherapeutic IFN-?—is a powerful antiproliferative and immune modulatory cytokine, but mixed results from clinical trials, together with issues of systemic toxicity, have dampened enthusiasm for its use in the treatment of cancer. We suggest that at least 2 factors reduce the antitumor efficacy of IFN-?: (1) poorly understood survival mechanisms that protect most tumor cells from IFN-?-induced direct cytotoxicity, and (2) the short half-life of IFN-? in serum. In this review, we outline avenues to overcome both these limitations. First, we have identified the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as a protective mechanism against IFN-?-induced necrosis, and disabling NF-?B allows IFN-? to trigger RIP1 kinase-dependent programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) in otherwise resistant cells. Second, we propose that fusing IFN-? to tumor-specific antibodies will stabilize IFN-? in serum and target this cytokine to tumor cells. We expect that such IFN-?–antibody chimeras (called immunocytokines), when combined with agents that neutralize tumor-intrinsic survival signals such as NF-?B, will exert potent tumoricidal activity with minimized systemic side effects. Although this review will focus on exploiting IFN-?-induced necrosis for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, these approaches are also directly applicable to several human cancers in which IFNs have shown therapeutic potential. PMID:23570383

Adams, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

283

A new surgical procedure for phallic reconstruction in partial penis necrosis: penile elongation in combination with glanuloplasty.  

PubMed

The radial forearm flap transfer has proved to be the standard technique in penile reconstruction. However, this operation still leads to a residual scar on the forearm. In the reconstruction of partial penis necrosis, achieving a desirable appearance and functional recovery while minimizing donor-site damage remains an unsolved problem. In this study, we report our experience using penile elongation combined with glanuloplasty to rebuild the partially necrotic penis.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 33 patients with partial penis necrosis after microwave thermotherapy (not from our hospital) from December 2008 to May 2012 was conducted at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital. These patients, with an age range from 20 to 36 years, first underwent a scrotal skin flap transfer to cover residual cavernosum. The penis was simultaneously elongated at the proximal end. Six months later, all patients received glanuloplasty using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene that was implanted at the distal end of transferred scrotal skin flap to create the neoglans.Anthropometric measurements of preoperative and postoperative penile length were performed with an average follow-up period of 28 months. The mean extended penile length average was 2.57 cm, ranging from 3.16 to 5.73 cm. Patients' satisfaction rate was 88%. In addition, preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed for objective and subjective assessment of outcome parameters such as appearance of neophallus, urination, and erogenous sensation. Most importantly, the rebuilt penis postoperatively showed almost normal shape and restoration of basic physiologic function in most of the patients, with an acceptable complication rate. These preliminary results may provide a useful strategy for the reconstruction of a partially necrotic penis using a novel, simple, and effective approach. PMID:24835865

Xiao, Kaiyan; Cheng, Kaixiang; Song, Nan

2014-06-01

284

Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

2013-01-01

285

Effects of magnesium deficiency - More than skin deep.  

PubMed

Dead Sea and magnesium salt therapy are two of the oldest forms of treatment for skin disease and several other disorders, supported by a body of largely anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review possible pathways for penetration of magnesium ions through the epidermis to reach the circulation, in turn replenishing cellular magnesium levels. We also discuss mechanisms for intercellular movement of magnesium ions and possible mechanisms for the interaction between magnesium ions and inflammatory mediators. Upon addition of magnesium ions in vitro, the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and nuclear factor ?? (NF??) is down regulated. Dysregulation of these and other inflammatory mediators has been linked to several inflammatory disorders, including asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuroinflammation. PMID:24928863

Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Weir, Christopher; Alfraji, Sumaya; Grice, Jeff; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

2014-10-01

286

Autoinflammation: From monogenic syndromes to common skin diseases.  

PubMed

Autoinflammation is characterized by aberrant regulation of the innate immune system and often manifests as periodic fevers and systemic inflammation involving multiple organs, including the skin. Mutations leading to abnormal behavior or activity of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß)-processing inflammasome complex have been found in several rare autoinflammatory syndromes, for which anticytokine therapy such as IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibition may be effective. It is becoming clear that features of autoinflammation also affect common dermatoses, some of which were previously thought to be solely autoimmune in origin (eg, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus). Recognizing the pathogenetic role of autoinflammation can open up new avenues for the targeted treatment of complex, inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23453357

Nguyen, Tien V; Cowen, Edward W; Leslie, Kieron S

2013-05-01

287

Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

2010-07-01

288

Effects of vinpocetine on random skin flap survival in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of vinpocetine on flap survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in this study. The McFarlane flap model was established in 20 rats and evaluated within two groups. Postoperative celiac injection was given for 7 days in the two groups: vinpocetine was applied in Group 1, and the same volume of saline was applied in Group 2. Flap necrosis was measured on day 7 by cellophane in all groups. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemical methods on tissue samples taken after 7 days of injections. SOD and MDA contents were examined according to the Kit (reagent instructions). Vinpocetine significantly reduced necrosis area in Group 1 (p < 0.05). VEGF expression and SOD contents were significantly increased in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p < 0.01), whereas MDA level was reduced (p < 0.05). This experimental study demonstrates that vinpocetine improves survival of random skin flaps, promotes neovascularization, and increases VEGF expression. Meanwhile, vinpocetine has a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving SOD vitality and decreasing MDA value. PMID:23588551

Xiao-Xiao, Tao; Sen-Min, Wu; Ding-Sheng, Lin

2013-07-01

289

CT features in uterine necrosis of unknown cause: a case report.  

PubMed

Uterine necrosis is a rare life-threatening condition known to be related to cesarean section, endometritis or uterine artery embolization. We present a case of uterine necrosis not preceded by common causative factors, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) in a 64-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome. A gas-filled, nonenhancing uterus was noted, diagnostic of uterine necrosis. At laparotomy, a nonvital uterus was removed. Imaging findings of uterine necrosis have sparsely been reported and mostly focus on magnetic resonance imaging technique. In this report, we describe the CT findings of uterine necrosis. PMID:24735683

Melenhorst, Marleen; Hehenkamp, Wouter; de Heer, Koen; Berger, Ferco

2014-01-01

290

Treating Acne in Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... decolorize skin. Topical acne medications for skin of color. Clinical studies show that some topical medications, such ... safely and effectively treat acne in skin of color without the drying effects when used properly. Topical ...

291

Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses  

E-print Network

Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)

2012-01-01

292

A Second Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Gene Product can Shed a Naturally Occurring Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated from the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937 that is capable of inhibiting both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. Protein sequencing has verified that it is distinct from a previously described TNF inhibitor that is a soluble fragment of a TNF receptor molecule (TNFrI). The cDNA sequence of this second TNF inhibitor

Tadahiko Kohno; Michael T. Brewer; Susan L. Baker; Phillip E. Schwartz; Michael W. King; Karin K. Hale; Charles H. Squires; Robert C. Thompson; James L. Vannice

1990-01-01

293

Skin and glucocorticoids: effects of local skin glucocorticoid impairment on skin homeostasis.  

PubMed

The role of skin as a de novo source of glucocorticoids and the importance of cutaneous glucocorticoidogenesis as a homeostatic mechanism in human skin is highlighted by Slominski et al. in a recently published issue. Impairment of glucocorticoidogenesis through noxious stimuli, such as UVB, can explain pathophysiology of skin diseases (e.g. rosacea). In addition to keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts, cutaneous adnexes also play a significant role as targets and sources of glucocorticoids, because they express most of the enzymes required for steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoids are also involved in the pathogenesis of acne lesions, affecting sebum production in vivo and in vitro. Certain steroidogenic enzymes, such as 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, are upregulated in acne lesions. On this background, the paper by Slominski et al. provides further insights into dermatoendocrinology, with emphasis on the importance of an impairment of the skin's own hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-like axis in the pathophysiology of several skin diseases. PMID:25056134

Nikolakis, Georgios; Zouboulis, Christos C

2014-11-01

294

Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes  

PubMed Central

The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

2009-01-01

295

Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?  

E-print Network

The Good Source of Vitamin D Mood Enhancer The Bad Premature Skin Aging Cararacts Skin Cancer ** http://www.skincancer.org/understanding-uva-and-uvb.html #12;What is skin cancer? http://www.skincancer.org/understanding-uva-and-uvb.html http://www.medical-look.com/diseases_images/Skin-diseases1.jpg #12;How common is skin cancer? 1 out of 3 cancers = skin cancer 1 10 million and counting 1 20

Goldman, Steven A.

296

Skin biothermomechanics for medical treatments.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic heating, such as microwave, radiofrequency, and laser etc., is widely used in medical treatments. Recent advances in these technologies resulted in remarkable developments of thermal treatments for a multitude of diseases and injuries involving skin tissue. The comprehension of heat transfer and related thermomechanics in skin tissue during these treatments is thus of great importance, and can contribute to the further developments of these medical applications. Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary, involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics, and physiology. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process, heat-induced mechanical response, as well as the associated pain level, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. In this paper, numerical simulation with the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature, burn damage, and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue subjected to various thermal treatments. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage, but a large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; for laser heating, the peak temperature is higher for lasers with shorter wavelengths, but the peak is closer to the skin surface; the thermal stress due to laser and microwave heating is mainly limited to the top epidermis layer due to the exponential decrease of heat generation along skin depth; the thin (and commonly overlooked) stratum corneum layer dominates the thermomechanical response of skin tissue. PMID:19627782

Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A

2008-04-01

297

Lyme borreliosis and skin.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

2013-05-01

298

Lyme Borreliosis and Skin  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

2013-01-01

299

Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) care, respiratory control, and thermoregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and\\/or hypoxemia. Methods: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, 725-1890 g]) had three 2-hour recordings of breathing movements, nasal

Bettina Bohnhorst; Tim Heyne; Corinna S. Peter; Christian F. Poets

2001-01-01

300

The Human Skin Microbiome in Health and Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human skin, as the largest organ of the human body, protects the underlying tissues and plays an important role as a front-line\\u000a defense system against external environmental changes and invading pathogens. It is colonized by a unique and complex microbial\\u000a ecosystem, including bacteria, fungi, and bacteriophages, some of which could become pathogenic under certain circumstances.\\u000a The skin microbiota is

Huiying Li

301

Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.  

PubMed

The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

2014-01-01

302

Sun Safety: Save Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Articulos en Espanol Sun Safety: Save Your Skin (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Feed Read this article In this Consumer Update video, FDA Dermatologist Jane Liedtka, M.D., and FDA ...

303

[Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the Western industrialized countries with about 300 million affected patients worldwide. The hyperglycemic state of diabetes mellitus leads to changes in practically every cell type and organ of the human body. Skin changes are considered the most common manifestations of diabetes mellitus. As skin changes can manifest before onset of diabetes mellitus they may have a diagnostic relevance. Other changes and diseases of the skin develop during the course of diabetes mellitus and may be associated with complications in internal organs or may occur as an adverse effect of antidiabetic therapy. In particular the presence of the diabetic foot syndrome is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality of diabetes patients as well as with markedly elevated direct and indirect costs for the health care system. In this article the most common skin diseases of patients with diabetes mellitus as well as their pathophysiology and current treatment are reviewed. PMID:25262886

Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus

2014-10-01

304

Tropical Travel and Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

305

Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

306

Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma  

MedlinePLUS

... of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma . Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the cells ... seldom spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma also rarely spreads, but it does so more ...

307

General Information about Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... not spread to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma Enlarge A skin cancer lesion that looks raised ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma may include the ...

308

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Skin Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

309

Sun Safety: Save Your Skin!  

MedlinePLUS

... who work outdoors need to take precautions, too. SUN SAFETY Save Your Skin! 2 / FDA Consumer Health ... may increase sun sensitivity. Reduce Time in the Sun It’s important to limit sun exposure between 10 ...

310

Scaly-skinned Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

311

Strategies for targeting tumour necrosis factor in IBD.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in mediating the inflammation of inflammatory bowel disease, in particular, Crohn's disease. Strategies aimed at reducing tumour necrosis factor in patients with inflammatory bowel disease include the mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody infliximab, the humanized monoclonal antibody CDP571, the human soluble TNF p55 receptor onercept, the human monoclonal antibody D2E7 (adalimumab), the anti-TNF human antibody Fab' fragment-polyethelene glycol (PEG) conjugate CDP870, and the small molecules thalidomide and CNI-1493 (MAP-kinase inhibitor). Infliximab is effective for treating active Crohn's disease, maintaining remission, closing fistulas, maintaining fistula closure, and treating ankylosing spondylitis. Infliximab is also being investigated for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Side-effects occurring in patients treated with infliximab include human anti-chimeric antibodies, infusion reactions, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, formation of autoantibodies, and, in rare circumstances, drug-induced lupus and serious infections, including tuberculosis. CDP571 is effective for treating active Crohn's disease, steroid sparing, and possibly for closing fistulas and maintaining remission. Side-effects occurring in patients treated with CDP571 include anti-idiotype antibodies, infusion reactions and the formation of autoantibodies. A controlled trial of etanercept in patients with Crohn's disease was negative. Pilot studies with onercept, thalidomide, and CNI-1493 have suggested benefit for Crohn's disease. There are no published data on the efficacy of adalimumab (D2E7) or CDP870 for either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumour necrosis factor therapies are effective for the treatment of Crohn's disease and are being investigated for ulcerative colitis. PMID:12617886

Sandborn, William J

2003-02-01

312

Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

2014-01-01

313

Cocaine hepatotoxicity: a study on the pathogenesis of periportal necrosis.  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is reported to produce either periportal or mid-zonal necrosis in mice pretreated with the enzyme inducer phenobarbitone (James et al. 1987; Powell et al. 1991; Charles & Powell 1992). Dose-response and time course experiments were performed in phenobarbitone treated male DBA/2Ha mice to study the pathogenesis of this unusual cocaine induced lesion. An increase in the dose of cocaine from 60 to 90 or 120 mg/kg produced more extensive and severe periportal and linking portal damage and elevated plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in a dose dependent manner. Scattered hepatocyte degeneration began at the edge of the periportal region and was detectable by electron microscopy within 30 minutes of administration of 60 mg/kg of cocaine, with conspicuous disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum being one of the earliest changes. Significant elevations of plasma AST and ALT were observed 3 hours after cocaine administration and were sustained for 12 hours, at which time progressive hepatocyte damage had developed into a network of confluent necrosis at the periphery of the periportal region. The rapidity of organelle derangement and subsequent cell death, and absence of any effect on total cytochrome P-450 or FAD-mono-oxygenase levels, appear to distinguish this periportal lesion from previous reports of cocaine induced centrilobular necrosis in non-enzyme induced mice, suggesting that the two types of damage may develop by different mechanisms. The observation that periportal lesions commence at the periphery of the periportal area, progressing portalwards with increasing dose and time, offers an explanation for the previously conflicting reports of cocaine induced mid-zonal and/or periportal lesions in phenobarbitone treated mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7734331

Powell, C. J.; Charles, S. J.; Mullervy, J.

1994-01-01

314

Clinical manifestation of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis.  

PubMed

Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material and Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19-55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40-60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment - 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to intravenous formulations in patients with self-limiting ARN. Retinitis is associated with the risk of encephalitis. PMID:25356955

Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgo?, Joanna; K?cik, Dariusz

2014-01-01

315

Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study  

PubMed Central

A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio. In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability. Images PMID:14449812

Hughes, J. P. W.; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H.; Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A.

1962-01-01

316

Skin: Behavior and Health Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science;)

2006-09-07

317

Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions Involving Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside\\u000a immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions\\u000a appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely\\u000a skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may

Oliver Hausmann; Benno Schnyder; Werner J. Pichler

318

Neural network diagnosis of avascular necrosis from magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have explored the use of artificial neural networks to diagnose avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head from magnetic resonance images. We have developed multi-layer perceptron networks, trained with conjugate gradient optimization, which diagnose AVN from single sagittal images of the femoral head with 100% accuracy on the training data and 97% accuracy on test data. These networks use only the raw image as input (with minimal preprocessing to average the images down to 32 X 32 size and to scale the input data values) and learn to extract their own features for the diagnosis decision. Various experiments with these networks are described.

Manduca, Armando; Christy, Paul S.; Ehman, Richard L.

1993-09-01

319

The role of endoscopy in the management of pancreatic necrosis.  

PubMed

The management of acute pancreatitis has seen many advances over the past three decades. Attempts to improve care have led to new definitions, classification systems, and treatment strategies. Despite those efforts, considerable morbidity and mortality result from complications of severe acute pancreatitis. Much attention has been given to new ways to treat these complications, including inflammatory pancreatic fluid collections and associated infections. Endoscopy has become one of the established modalities for the treatment of these complications in many expert centers. This chapter will specifically address the role of endoscopy in the management of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25113041

Lewis, Aaron; Partridge, Brett; Haluszka, Oleh

2014-09-01

320

Skin cancer epidemiology: research needs.  

PubMed

The basis data currently being used to estimate and evaluate the dose-response relationship of UV-B and skin cancer are from a 6-month survey for four areas that participated in the TNCS, 1971-1972. Although most investigators from various fields of interest outside of cancer research, i.e. aviation, environmental ecology, physics, chemistry, and photobiology, etc., may admit an association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and UV-B exists, they point out that 1) the epidemiologic data currently available are too sparse and lack certain detail, such as exposure patterns and skin types, and 2) more data of this type are needed over a broad geographical range to allow for more precise measurements of the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion. They argue that the present relationships could change drastically with the addition even of a few more points (geographical locations) and that location-specific and demographic factors should be evaluated. Therefore, these data need to be updated and expanded to include more locations over a longer study period. The National Cancer Institute and the Environmental Protection Agency undertook a special skin cancer study from June 1, 1977 to May 31, 1978. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) in various population groups within the United States, and 2) to ascertain and measure epidemiologic factors that may contribute toward the excess risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in specific population groups. PMID:753973

Scotto, J; Fears, T R

1978-12-01

321

Microvascular function in skin windows.  

PubMed Central

The dermal microvasculature is an integral component of skin windows. However, in spite of the obvious dependence of the skin window model on vascular function, its almost exclusive application has been the study of leukocyte function and recovery of the cellular components of inflammatory exudates. In the studies reported here, skin window chambers were employed for assessment of function of the underlying microvasculature in rats given intravenous infusions of Evans blue dye or colloidal carbon. Increased vascular permeability was documented by photometric measurement of Evans blue dye, and vascular labeling of dermal vessels with colloidal carbon was assessed histologically. Zymosan-activated serum elicited accumulation of both leukocytes and Evans blue dye in chamber fluid overlying skin windows, confirming the responsiveness of the preparations. With serotonin as a model vasoactive substance, both increased vascular permeability and vascular labeling were directly related to serotonin concentration in the chamber fluid. It is estimated that plasma exudates were distributed as approximately 10% in the fluid and 90% in the dermis. Finally, serotonin-induced exudates recovered from the 0.3-ml chambers were estimated to be up to 3 microliter of plasma based on Evans blue dye measurement or up to 70 micrograms of protein based on Lowry assay. Thus, soluble components of skin window exudates were recovered for examination, and the dermal microvasculature was shown to be an important functional component of the skin window model that was directly accessible for study. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:3548407

Humphrey, D. M.; Cavanaugh, C.

1987-01-01

322

Circadian variation of skin reactivity and allergy skin tests.  

PubMed

Previous investigations of the circadian variation in skin reactivity suggested that results of skin tests obtained in the afternoon could vary from the results obtained in the early morning and therefore could result in a differing assessment of patient sensitivity. To determine whether this was a practical concern in the normal clinical setting, we studied 20 adults and 20 children who had skin prick tests positive (3+ or more) to short ragweed. These patients were skin tested in duplicate at 8 AM and at 4 PM with fivefold serial dilutions of short ragweed extracts (1:20 to 1:12,500, wt/vol) and of histamine hydrochloride (10 to 0.016 mg/ml). Areas of wheal and flare were recorded and measured by computed planimetry. In addition, results were also read according to a conventional scoring system. Mean wheal and erythema areas with ragweed and histamine at each dilution were compared between morning and their corresponding evening values. Although there was a trend for the morning means to be larger than evening means, no significant differences between the two sessions were observed at any dilution. Mean morning skin index scores, as calculated from the combined mean wheal and erythema areas, were larger than mean evening scores for ragweed and histamine, but the differences were not of a degree to be clinically important. This observation was also true for conventional scores. Comparing the results from the two groups of children who had their first set of skin tests performed either in the morning or afternoon session indicated that there was no evidence of a refractory state of the skin during the second test sessions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2732409

Vichyanond, P; Nelson, H S

1989-06-01

323

Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy in breast cancer patients: 15-year experience.  

PubMed

Skin and nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy (SNSM) and primary reconstruction have been popular for breast cancer treatment in the last decade. An advantage of the SNSM technique is the removal of all breast tissue as a radical surgical procedure while preserving native breast integrity, nipple-areola complex (NAC), and submammary fold. This retrospective 15-year clinical study analyzes medical records from our breast surgery database collected at our department between 1997 and 2012. A total number of 3757 patients were treated for breast cancer; 411 (10.9%) patients had a skin-sparing mastectomy with the median (range) length follow-up of 63 months. This is the longest follow-up for SNSM in breast cancer patients; 3.7% of patients who underwent SNSM developed disease local recurrence, whereas occult NAC involvement with cancer occurred in 7.7% and local recurrence in the NAC in 1.2%. Partial necrosis of the NAC developed in 9.4% and total necrosis in 0.7% of operated breasts. All disease recurrences occurred in the first 10 years of the follow-up period. Local recurrence developed as first recurrence event has longer median cancer-specific survival time of 70 months than those with only distant metastases with 50 months and locoregional plus distant metastases with 35.5 months. The "Omega" pattern incision combines an oncological radical procedure with a lower incidence of skin flap necrosis. Patients reconstructed with autologous tissue were the group most satisfied. SNSM is an oncological safe procedure for breast cancer treatment with low recurrence in properly selected patients. PMID:24378808

Stanec, Zdenko; Zic, Rado; Budi, Sre?ko; Stanec, Sanda; Milanovi?, Rudolf; Vlaj?i?, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Rudman, Franjo; Marti?, Krešimir; Held, Rebeka; Božo, Gorjanc

2014-11-01

324

A study of the postburned restored skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of restored skin (RS) resulting from healing of partial skin thickness burns was analyzed. Comparisons within symmetric skin areas were performed between RS and healthy undamaged skin (HS), using spectrophotometry, in 118 subjects, 64 males, 54 females with an age range of 1–70 years. A total of 379 samples were analyzed. The CIE-1976 color system was adopted where

D do A. Carvalho; U Mariani; D de S. Gomez; R Gemperli; M. C Ferreira

1999-01-01

325

Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction  

E-print Network

Shark Denticles Shark Skin Drag Reduction Shark Skin Drag Reduction Amy Lang1 , Maria Laura Riblets; Shark denticles; Shark skin separation control Definition The scales, or denticles, on fast-swimming sharks have evolved two mechanisms for controlling the boundary layer flow over the skin surface leading

Motta, Philip J.

326

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating

Bo Runeman

2008-01-01

327

Skin temperature response during cycle ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic exercise has among other things an effect on core body temperature, skin bloodflow and skin temperature. The skin through vasodilatation is used to transfer metabolic heat from the core to the external environment preventing a rise in body temperature that would be harmful to body organs. The purpose of the study was to characterize the regional skin temperature response

T. J. Malkinson

2002-01-01

328

[MPC0910112] Visiderm Skin Scanner Analysis  

E-print Network

cause squamous cell cancer that is believed to cause up to 20% of skin cancer deaths. ACKNOWLEDGMENT of either wellness or skin cancer. 2) The responsibility for follow-up on skin damage and to obtain further, including skin cancer. 5) Even if my results today do not indicate sun damage, this does not mean that I do

New Mexico, University of

329

Skin cancer and solar UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin.

F. R. de Gruijl

1999-01-01

330

Recognising the signs of skin cancer.  

PubMed

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with about 100,000 cases reported each year (UK Skin Cancer Working Party, 2001). There are three main types of skin cancer, which can be divided into two categories: non-melanoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) and melanoma skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and accounts for about 80 per cent of all skin cancers. Malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, accounting for about five per cent of all skin cancers. However, it has a high mortality rate because of its aggressive nature (Krige et al, 1991). PMID:13677122

Godsell, Gill

331

Proteomic Analysis of Gossypol Induces Necrosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells  

PubMed Central

Gossypol is a phenolic aldehyde extracted from plants and is known to be an antitumor agent to induce cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, multiple myeloma cells were treated with gossypol, which resulted in an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell necrosis. Quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins between untreated and gossypol-treated cells. Proteomic analysis identified 4330 proteins, in which 202 proteins are upregulated and 383 proteins are downregulated in gossypol-treated cells as compared to the untreated cells. Importantly, proteomic and western blot analysis showed that apoptosis regulators BAK and Bax were upregulated in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that Bcl-2 associated death pathway was activated. Similarly, gossypol also induced upregulations of DNA mismatch repair proteins and DNA replication licensing factor, suggesting that gossypol caused significant DNA damage. Furthermore, upregulations of HLA class I and class II histocompatibility antigens and beta-2-microglobulin were observed in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that gossypol has a novel function to activate cellular immune responses. Our data demonstrate that the execution of necrosis is a complex process involving ROS, DNA damage, and Bcl-2 family proteins. Gossypol-activated immune responses are a potential new approach for multiple myeloma chemotherapy. PMID:25197664

Tian, Enbing; Tang, Haiping; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Qingtao

2014-01-01

332

Serine racemase: a key player in apoptosis and necrosis.  

PubMed

A fine balance between cell survival and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. However, an excess of cell death can occur following trauma, exposure to neurotoxins or alcohol, and some developmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) support synaptic plasticity and survival of many neuronal populations whereas inappropriate activation may promote various forms of cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis representing the two extremes of a continuum of cell death processes both "in vitro" and "in vivo." Hence, by identifying the switches controlling pro-survival vs. apoptosis and apoptosis vs. pro-excitotoxic outcome of NMDAR stimulation, NMDAR modulators could be developed that selectively block the cell death enhancing pro-survival signaling or synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDAR. Among these modulators, a role is emerging for the enzyme serine racemase (SR) that synthesizes D-serine, a key co-agonist with glutamate at NMDAR. This review summarizes the experimental evidence from "in vitro" neuronal cultures-with special emphasis on cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)-and "in vivo" models of neurodegeneration, where the dual role of the SR/D-serine pathway as a master regulator of apoptosis and the apoptosis-necrosis shift will be discussed. PMID:24795622

Canu, Nadia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pollegioni, Loredano

2014-01-01

333

Experimental renal papillary necrosis in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).  

PubMed

Sequential light microscopic and ultrastructural examination of kidneys from male and light microscopic examination of female Mongolian gerbils given 250 mg 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA)/kg body weight ip were performed. In addition, male Mongolian gerbils were treated with both BEA and ip injections of either water, dimethyl sulfoxide, piperonyl butoxide, or reserpine. Light microscopic renal lesions in male Mongolian gerbils progressed from congestion of the vasa recta of the proximal inner medulla at 6 hr post-treatment to total renal papillary necrosis (RPN) at 24 hr post-treatment. There was no sex difference in sensitivity to BEA. Ultrastructural alterations in male gerbils were restricted to the vasa recta. Vascular lesions of endothelial swelling and pericapillary edema in the vasa recta of the proximal inner medulla was observed 2 hr post-treatment and progressed to occlusion by platelets adherent to exposed basement membranes at 6 hr post-treatment. Diuresis induced by injections of saline and injections of dimethyl sulfoxide or piperonyl butoxide did not affect the development of BEA-induced RPN. Reserpine slowed the development of BEA-induced RPN by its vasodilatory effect on the renal vasculature, not by blocking the endothelial toxicity of BEA. RPN induced by BEA in the Mongolian gerbil is apparently an ischemic necrosis of the inner medulla that develops secondary to endothelial damage of the vasa recta. PMID:1295065

Wolf, D C; Carlton, W W; Turek, J J

1992-01-01

334

Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus§  

PubMed Central

Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced lupus (ATIL) represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Most cases of ATIL are caused by infliximab, followed by etanercept and adalimumab. Symptoms can range from common, mild cutaneous lesions to rare, serious pleural or pericardial effusions, deep venous thrombosis, life-threatening pneumonitis, and neuritis. Constitutional symptoms often present in association with positive autoantibody serology. Diagnosis can be considered if there is a temporal relationship between symptoms and anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF- ?) therapy and at least one serologic and one non-serologic American College of Rheumatology criteria. Since it is contraindicated to use anti-TNF-? drugs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, it is recommended to perform a thorough immunological screening in any patient with polyarthritis to assure accurate diagnosis. In addition, prior to anti- TNF therapy, baseline immunological investigations (including antinuclear antibodies) should be performed, and there should be close follow up to assess the development of lupus manifestations. The main approach in the treatment of ATIL is withdrawal of the offending drug. Traditional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents may be required to achieve full resolution of lupus symptoms. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of ATIL. PMID:23198006

Almoallim, Hani; Al-Ghamdi, Yahya; Almaghrabi, Haneen; Alyasi, Omnia

2012-01-01

335

Gastric necrosis: A late complication of nissen fundoplication  

PubMed Central

Gastric necrosis is a rare condition because of the rich blood supply and the extensive submucosal vascular network of the stomach. “Gas-bloat” syndrome is a well known Nissen fundoplication postoperative complication. It may cause severe gastric dilatation, but very rarely an ischemic compromise of the organ. Other factors, such as gastric outlet obstruction, may concur to cause an intraluminal pressure enough to blockade venous return and ultimately arterial blood supply and oxygen deliver, leading to ischaemia. We report a case of a 63-year-old women, who presented a total gastric necrosis following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and a pyloric phytobezoar which was the trigger event. No preexisting gastric motility disorders were present by the time of surgery, as demonstrated in the preoperative barium swallow, thus a poor mastication (patient needed no dentures) of a high fiber meal (cabbage) may have been predisposing factors for the development of a bezoar in an otherwise healthy women at the onset of old age. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed and patient was discharged home after a 7-d hospital stay with no immediate complications. We also discuss some technical aspects of the procedure that might be important to reduce the incidence of this complication. PMID:25276288

Salinas, Javier; Georgiev, Tihomir; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Lopez-Ruiz, Elena; Rodriguez-Montes, Jose Antonio

2014-01-01

336

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  

PubMed

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo

2008-01-01

337

NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER  

E-print Network

NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 21 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3.1. SUMMARY Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC their cancer diagnosis. Table 3.1 Summary information for non-melanoma skin cancer in Ireland, 1995-melanoma skin cancer cases in Ireland, 1995-2007, by sex females males 3.2. INTERNATIONAL VARIATIONS

Paxton, Anthony T.

338

Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin  

PubMed Central

The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be used. This article reflects on the following topics: topical retinoids, peels, botulinum neurotoxin, soft tissue fillers, lasers, topical and systemic endocrinological therapies, and phytohormones. A thorough knowledge of the properties (benefits, limitations, and complications) of the expanding array of possibilities for rejuvenation of the skin is essential for any physician treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18047257

Sator, Paul G

2006-01-01

339

Brain Abscess Formation in Radiation Necrosis of the Temporal Lobe Following Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?Background. Radiation necrosis is a known complication following radiation therapy for extracranial as well as intracranial tumours.\\u000a However, brain abscess formation in radiation necrosis has not been reported in the literature. We report the clinical data\\u000a of 6 patients suffering from this condition.\\u000a \\u000a ?Method. Twenty-eight patients with radiation necrosis of the temporal lobe following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were\\u000a treated

K.-M. Cheng; C.-M. Chan; Y.-T. Fu; L.-C. Ho; Y.-W. Tsang; M.-K. Lee; Y.-L. Cheung; C.-K. Law

2000-01-01

340

Acute retinal necrosis as a late sequela of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis in a child.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common infection that occasionally presents with destructive lesions. Two of the most feared presentations of HSV are encephalitis and acute retinal necrosis. Although there are numerous reports of acute retinal necrosis presenting after HSV-2 infection in children, it has been rarely reported in children after HSV-1 infection. Herein we report a child who developed acute retinal necrosis 17 months after HSV-1 encephalitis. PMID:17512230

Curtis, Theodore H; Mandava, Naresh

2007-10-01

341

Protection against a lethal dose of endotoxin by an inhibitor of tumour necrosis factor processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

TUMOUR necrosis factor (tumour necrosis factor-alpha\\/cachectin) plays a critical role in certain physiological defensive responses but causes severe damage to the host organism when produced in excess1. There are two forms of tumour necrosis factor, a type II membrane protein of relative molecular mass 26,000 (26K) and a soluble, 17K form generated from the cell-bound protein by proteolytic cleavage2,3. The

Kendall M. Mohler; Paul R. Sleath; Jeffrey N. Fitzner; Douglas Pat Cerretti; Mark Alderson; Suresh S. Kerwar; Dauphine S. Torranee; Carol Otten-Evans; Teresa Greenstreet; Kumudini Weerawarna; Shirley R. Kronheim; Melissa Petersen; Mary Gerhart; Carl J. Kozlosky; Carl J. March; Roy A. Black

1994-01-01

342

Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

2006-02-01

343

Total hip arthroplasty in secondary systemic lupus erythematosus femoral head avascular necrosis.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disease with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations and a variable course. Lupus is marked by both humoral and cellular immunologic abnormalities, including multiple auto-antibodies especially anti DNA antibodies. Epidemiology - female predominance, occurring usually between second and fourth decade of life, more frequently in hispanic and black patients. Family predominance has been noticed. Provocative agents - ultraviolet light, viral infections, drugs and situational stresses. Pathogenesis - pathological features can affect a large spectrum of internal organs and systems - osteoarticulary injuries, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, digestive system lesions. Musculo skeletal abnormalities include migratory arthritis, effusion and stiffness in small and large joints. Articular erosions are uncommon. Skeletal abnormalities include osteopenia and osteonecrosis, due to two pathological mechanisms: vasculitis and long term corticotherapy. Fifteen to twenty percent of SLE patients are affected by femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAN). Diagnosis rests on clinical signs - hip pain, limited range of motion, walking with a limp.; radiological findings - best grouped in Arlet-Ficat standing system; MRI - high sensitivity, especially in infraradiological stages. Treatment - in incipient stages core decompression represents the best therapeutical option. In advanced, arthritis stages, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the standart treatment. Three implant types are available: bipolar, uncemented and cemented. An increased number of cotyloidites occurred after bipolar implants. Emphasised osteopenia and excessive bleeding represent contraindications for uncemented implants. Considering all of this, cemented implants are considered, the right choice, methacrylate cement providing strong and durable fixation of THA implants to bone. No meaningful differences were observed in postoperative functional recovery between LSE patients and other etiology FHAN patients. PMID:17966453

Orban, H; Cîrstoiu, C; Adam, R

2007-01-01

344

Knockout of Endothelial Cell-Derived Endothelin-1 Attenuates Skin Fibrosis but Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET)-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-?, CTGF and TGF-? was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach. PMID:24853267

Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Aoi, Jun; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-01-01

345

Systemic FasL and TRAIL Neutralisation Reduce Leishmaniasis Induced Skin Ulceration  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah

2010-01-01

346

Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

Tasew, Geremew; Nylén, Susanne; Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah; Chiodi, Francesca; Eidsmo, Liv

2010-01-01

347

THE ROLE OF AFFERENT LYMPHATICS IN THE REJECTION OF SKIN HOMOGRAFTS  

PubMed Central

Experiments have been carried out on guinea pigs of two isogenic strains to elucidate the role of afferent lymphatic vessels in the rejection of orthotopic skin homografts. Graft beds were prepared in partially isolated skin flaps with an intact sustaining vascular "umbilical cord" in which a lymphatic connection with the host could be retained or abolished at will. In the absence of demonstrable lymphatic connections between flap and host, intra-flap homografts long outlived similar grafts transplanted to conventional sites in intact skin and, rather than being specifically rejected, died as a consequence of ischemic necrosis of the flap. When lymphatic drainage was retained, intra-flap homografts were rejected in the usual manner. Hosts of long-term intra-flap homografts did not develop sensitivity, as evidenced by the "first set" type rejection of subsequent test grafts, or by the long-term survival of a second skin graft transplanted to a new flap raised on the opposite side of the host's body. Intra-flap skin homografts were rejected if (a) the hosts had been presensitized, (b) they were grafted concomitantly with a skin homograft placed in a conventional site, or inoculated with a suspension of donor lymphoid cells, or (c) if the lymphatic drainage was restored by reimplantation of the hitherto partially isolated flap to an appropriate vascular bed. These findings and others indicate that an intact lymphatic drainage in its bed is essential for an orthotopic skin homograft to sensitize its host. Various experiments were carried out in which intra-flap homografts were used as "indicators" for the acquisition of specific active or adoptive immunity by their hosts. By transplanting skin homografts to conventional beds concomitantly with intra-flap grafts and then excising the former at various intervals, it has been found that a graft must be in residence for a minimum period of 4 days to evoke the development of a detectable level of sensitivity in the host. Furthermore, by replacing either freshly prepared or long-term skin flaps bearing skin homografts in vascular beds on the trunk and determining the subsequent survival times of the homografts, evidence has been obtained suggesting that reestablishment of a functional lymphatic system in a free skin graft may take as long as 9 days. Using intra-flap homografts as indicators of adoptive immunization of the host, we found that as few as 50 x 106 isologous peripheral blood leukocytes from a specifically sensitized animal will transfer an effective level of sensitivity. We also found that hyperimmune serum, in relatively large amount, exerts a weak but definite adverse effect upon either freshly or recently transplanted intra-flap grafts. PMID:4873840

Barker, Clyde F.; Billingham, R. E.

1968-01-01

348

Mosquito repellents in frog skin  

PubMed Central

The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

Williams, C.R; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M; Tyler, M.J

2006-01-01

349

Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

2014-08-01

350

Direct Measurements of Skin Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

Dhawan, Satish

1953-01-01

351

Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... workplace to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical. The MSDS will describe any known risk for skin irritation, ... or skin cancer. Be sure to read each MSDS your company provides. Skin Problems Irritation and Rashes. ...

352

Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

2010-02-01

353

Older people and skin: challenging perceptions.  

PubMed

In this article we set out to challenge perceptions about older people and skin. We examine current portrayals of older people and skin, both in the media and in the nursing literature. We describe the ‘normal’ process of skin ageing and highlight the importance of maintaining skin integrity and effective barrier function for health and wellbeing, particularly in older people. One element of maintaining skin integrity is ensuring that personal hygiene and emollient needs are met. Effective skin hygiene and emollient care will reduce the risk of breakdown, with all its burdensome and costly consequences. We therefore offer a summary of the current evidence base for skin-hygiene practice. We make a case for nurses considering skin health from a wider societal and human perspective, and identify opportunities to enhance nursing practice through skin-care advice and health education for all older people. PMID:25075384

Cowdell, Fiona; Garrett, Dawne

354

Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

2014-01-01

355

Transdermal drug delivery: overcoming the skin’s barrier function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin represents an extraordinary evolutionary feat. Not only does it physically encapsulate the organism and provide a multifunctional interface between us and our surroundings, but it is perpetually engaged in the assembly of a highly efficient homeostatic barrier to the outward loss of water1. In so doing, it furnishes a membrane that is equally adept at limiting molecular transport

Aarti Naik; Yogeshvar N. Kalia; Richard H. Guy

2000-01-01

356

Differentiating the efficacy of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are a diverse group of biologic agents. Although there are no studies that directly compare these agents, data from noncomparative trials suggest that all 3 agents have therapeutic activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Etanercept and infliximab have also demonstrated beneficial activity in other inflammatory arthritides (ie, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis [both agents] and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis [etanercept only]) and inflammatory diseases (ie, psoriasis and uveitis). Their effects in granulomatous diseases are more variable, with only infliximab demonstrating clear efficacy in the treatment of Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, and Wegener's granulomatosis. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize current efficacy data and explore possible explanations for observed clinical differences. PMID:15852248

Haraoui, Boulos

2005-04-01

357

Differentiating the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.  

PubMed

Blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has emerged as one of the most promising therapies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Three agents are currently available as specific TNF antagonists, etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade), and adalimumab (Humira). Data from noncomparative trials suggest that all 3 agents have comparable therapeutic activity in RA. Etanercept and infliximab have also demonstrated beneficial activity in other inflammatory arthritides [i.e., psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (both agents) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (etanercept only)] and inflammatory diseases (i.e., psoriasis and uveitis). Their effects in granulomatous diseases are more variable, with only infliximab demonstrating clear efficacy in the treatment of Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, and Wegener's vasculitis. In this brief review current efficacy data are summarized and possible explanations for observed clinical differences are explored. PMID:15742457

Haraoui, Boulos

2005-03-01

358

Tumor necrosis factor-? in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) includes a number of complex and diverse mechanisms involving interactions between hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, neutrophils, macrophages, sinusoidal endothelial cells, and platelets. Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?), a cytokine produced by numerous cell types in response to inflammatory stimuli, is a well-known mediator during ischemia/reperfusion (IR) that plays a central role in injury to hepatocytes. TNF-? has a multifactorial effect in hepatic IRI because of the many interactions between TNF-? and reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, adhesion molecules, and various cytokines and chemokines. The intracellular cascades that TNF-? triggers and their downstream effects are clearly presented throughout this manuscript. With these mechanisms in mind, ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological interventions with potential clinical application to prevent or attenuate IRI will be emphasized. PMID:21675854

Perry, Brandon C; Soltys, Douglas; Toledo, Alexander H; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

2011-01-01

359

Tumor necrosis factor-?: regulation of renal function and blood pressure.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine that becomes elevated in chronic inflammatory states such as hypertension and diabetes and has been found to mediate both increases and decreases in blood pressure. High levels of TNF-? decrease blood pressure, whereas moderate increases in TNF-? have been associated with increased NaCl retention and hypertension. The explanation for these disparate effects is not clear but could simply be due to different concentrations of TNF-? within the kidney, the physiological status of the subject, or the type of stimulus initiating the inflammatory response. TNF-? alters renal hemodynamics and nephron transport, affecting both activity and expression of transporters. It also mediates organ damage by stimulating immune cell infiltration and cell death. Here we will summarize the available findings and attempt to provide plausible explanations for such discrepancies. PMID:23515717

Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

2013-05-15

360

Acute Retinal Necrosis after Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis  

PubMed Central

A case report of a 68-year-old male who developed acute retinal necrosis (ARN) after Boston type I keratoprosthesis is presented. The procedure was performed for multiple graft failure secondary to herpetic keratitis. Clinical data including visual acuity, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, laboratory tests findings, and management are presented. After exclusion of other causes by laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed with ARN most likely secondary to herpetic infection. Intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone were administered to the patient resulting in marked improvement in visual acuity and regression in the size of the retinitis. The patient eventually developed a soft eye and choroidal detachment with light perception vision. In patients with a history of herpetic keratitis or keratouveitis, it is highly advisable to maintain prophylactic systemic antiviral treatment before and after any ocular procedure such as the Boston keratoprosthesis. PMID:22623871

Al-Amri, Abdullah M.; Al-Rashaed, Saba; Al-Kharashi, Sulaiman

2012-01-01

361

Acute retinal necrosis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis.  

PubMed

A case report of a 68-year-old male who developed acute retinal necrosis (ARN) after Boston type I keratoprosthesis is presented. The procedure was performed for multiple graft failure secondary to herpetic keratitis. Clinical data including visual acuity, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, laboratory tests findings, and management are presented. After exclusion of other causes by laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed with ARN most likely secondary to herpetic infection. Intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone were administered to the patient resulting in marked improvement in visual acuity and regression in the size of the retinitis. The patient eventually developed a soft eye and choroidal detachment with light perception vision. In patients with a history of herpetic keratitis or keratouveitis, it is highly advisable to maintain prophylactic systemic antiviral treatment before and after any ocular procedure such as the Boston keratoprosthesis. PMID:22623871

Al-Amri, Abdullah M; Al-Rashaed, Saba; Al-Kharashi, Sulaiman

2012-01-01

362

[Vasculitis with cutaneous necrosis induced by oral contraceptive].  

PubMed

Multiple ulcerated and necrotic lesions developed in a 29-year-old woman. Response to treatment during the next few months was minimal. The most plausible explanation was drug-induced vasculitis caused by contraceptive pills (Microgynon: levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and ethinyl oestradiol 0.03 mg). The diagnosis of vasculitis was confirmed by histopathological and immunofluorescent studies. Urticarial manifestations had developed into necrotizing inflammation and the lesions only began to heal after discontinuation of the pills. Contraceptive pills are not included among the drugs causing necrotizing vasculitis, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report. Although contraceptive pills are commonly implicated in the induction of erythema nodusom or vasculitis, such a severe reaction with necrosis is rare. PMID:1885102

Mosovich, B; Biton, A; Avinoach, I

1991-04-15

363

Acute lindane poisoning with development of muscle necrosis.  

PubMed Central

A 35-year-old man ingested food contaminated with lindane, an insecticide containing almost pure gamma hexachlorocyclohexane. Grand mal seizures and severe acidemia developed rapidly. The seizures recurred for nearly 2 hours, then ceased. In addition, the patient had muscle weakness and pain, headaches, episodic hypertension, myoglobinuria, acute renal failure and anemia. Pancreatitis developed 13 days after the ingestion of lindane. A muscle biopsy on the 15th day of illness demonstrated widespread necrosis and regeneration of muscle fibres. The patient's condition improved and he was discharged 24 days after the onset of his illness. During the year following the poisoning the patient noted difficulty with recent memory, loss of libido and easy fatigability. One year after lindane ingestion the results of physical examination, including those for muscle power and bulk, were normal. Images FIG. 2 PMID:71942

Munk, Z. M.; Nantel, A.

1977-01-01

364

Diagnostic opportunities based on skin biomarkers.  

PubMed

Systemic as well as localized skin diseases modify the molecular composition of human skin. Changes in skin chemistry have been observed in diseases such as cancer, psoriasis, eczema, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Skin chemistry, represented by an enormous wealth of disease biomarkers including lipids, structural proteins, inflammatory mediators, nucleic acids and small molecules, therefore, can serve as a "window to body's health". Various methods including tape-stripping, iontophoresis, microneedles and ultrasound, among others, are being developed to access skin biomarkers and understand skin's detailed molecular composition. This information provides opportunities to diagnose various diseases and their response to therapeutic treatments. This review provides an overview of such diagnostic and theranostic opportunities. PMID:23159445

Paliwal, Sumit; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Mitragotri, Samir

2013-12-18

365

"Skin Cancer-What to Look For" Rochester Recreation  

E-print Network

"Skin Cancer- What to Look For" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf May 20, 2010 #12;Supporters for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview Skin Overview What is skin cancer? Who is at risk? How common is skin cancer? Signs of skin cancer Prevention Treatments #12;Skin Overview Skin is the largest organ in your body

Goldman, Steven A.

366

Sarcoma-like tumor of head and neck skin.  

PubMed

A group of tumors referred to as atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) predominantly occur in sun-damaged skin of the elderly, particularly in the head and neck region. Although this group of tumors is often regarded as of mesenchymal phenotype, the matter of histogenesis has not been entirely resolved. Evans H and Smith JL reported in 1980 that prognosis was not significantly different irrespective of whether there was a definite squamous cell carcinoma component or not, supporting a view that these are all carcinomata in nature (sarcomatoid carcinoma [SC]). There are a number of clinicopathologic studies of AFX in the literature but information on morphologically similar sarcoma-like tumors with immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial differentiation is sparse. One hundred sarcoma-like tumors (SLTs) of head and neck skin of the elderly, treated by surgical excision, were studied. Clinical information was obtained, and pathology reports and hematoxylin and eosin sections were reviewed to document size (maximum dimension), extent of invasion, mitotic count, vascular and perineural invasion, margin status, ulceration, necrosis, and the presence of actinic keratosis in adjacent/overlying skin. Immunostains examined included: pan-cytokeratins (CKs) (AE1/AE3, MNF116), high-molecular weight CKs (34?E12, CK5/6, CK14), p63, and melanocytic (S100, Melan A, HMB-45, MITF), vascular (CD31, CD34), and muscle markers (SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon) to exclude melanoma and definite sarcoma entities. The tumors were divided into AFX/PDS (G1), the SC group, which was subdivided into SLT with only p63 positivity (G2a) and SLT with CK positivity regardless of p63 status (G2b), and SLT with a minor morphologic squamous cell carcinoma component (G3). Clinicopathologic findings of each group were compared, in relation to outcomes. Age at diagnosis ranged from 51 to 96 years (median, 79 y), with M:F=11.5:1. There were 53 tumors in G1 (19AFX, 34PDS), 37 in G2 (25 in G2a, 12 in G2b), and 10 in G3. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical and pathologic parameters or survival among all 3 groups. CKs and p63 expression, size, extent of invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, mitotic count, and ulcer did not affect outcome, whereas margin status and necrosis did by both univariate and multivariate analysis and by only univariate analysis, respectively. Sixty patients had multiple nonmelanomatous skin cancers. Actinic keratosis was observed in overlying/adjacent epidermis in 51 cases. Eight patients had prior radiotherapy to head skin cancers; 1 patient developed 2 separate tumors (G1 and G3) after radiotherapy. Four patients died of tumor (1 G1, 2 G2b, and 1 G3); of these, 3 cases had positive margin, and 1 had narrow margin. Our results have shown similarities of various clinicopathologic parameters between AFX/PDS and SC, raising the possibility that both entities are related, and some of the former entities may represent complete dedifferentiation (complete loss of epithelial phenotype) with a gain of mesenchymal phenotype. In addition, the difference between AFX and PDS appears to be the extent of invasiveness (stage) rather than a different histogenesis. Further investigations are needed. However, from a practical point of view, efforts should be made to excise this group of tumors with clear margins, as margin status appears to be the most important prognostic factor regardless of the presence or absence of epithelial differentiation. PMID:24705313

Nonaka, Daisuke; Bishop, Paul W

2014-07-01

367

Skin penetration of topically applied white mustard extract and its effects on epidermal Langerhans cells and cytokines.  

PubMed

White mustard (Sinapis alba L.), a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in China for clinical prevention and treatment of the common winter diseases of asthma and bronchitis by percutaneous administration in the summer. The present study is to investigate the skin penetration behavior of white mustard extract to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying its immune regulation activity. The principle active compound of the extract, sinapine thiocyanate (ST), was used as a marker. The skin penetration of ST in white mustard extract was examined in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study on excised guinea pig hairless skin using Franz diffusion cell revealed ST can permeate through the skin and also accumulate in the skin. In vivo study was carried out on the guinea pig hairless skin for 24 h, and then skin was excised for frozen section, ST from the sections were extracted to quantify the amount of drug in different skin layers. The detailed distribution of ST showed that it accumulated in the epidermis, especially in the stratum corneum. After treatment with white mustard extract for 24h, the skin was stained with ATPase, and the morphometric parameters of epidermal LCs were compared to the untreated control through image-analysis system. A statistically significant reduction in LC density and increase in shape factor were observed. Cytokines related to LCs migration including interleukin 1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) were also measured after white mustard extract treated at different time points. Compared to the untreated group, white mustard extract significantly enhanced the release of IL-1? and TNF?. The morphometric changes of LCs and the local cytokine release after topical white mustard treatment may explain the activity of the white mustard extract against asthma and bronchitis. PMID:24076395

Guo, Xiucai; Lu, Haoyang; Lin, Yuanyuan; Chen, Bao; Wu, Chuanbin; Cui, Zhengrong; Wang, Yinping; Xu, Yuehong

2013-11-30

368

Fermented Maesil (Prunus mume) with probiotics inhibits development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.  

PubMed

Maesil (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.), a potential source of free radical scavengers and inhibitor of pro-inflammatory mediators, is used in traditional Korean medical preparations as a remedy for skin disorders as have probiotics. The action of a probiotic fermented Maesil preparation on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions was determined in a NC/Nga mouse model as an initial step towards the development of a therapeutic feed supplement for use in dogs. Continuous ingestion of the experimental feed markedly inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions, as evidenced by a marked decrease in skin signs and reduced inflammation within the skin lesions. Efficacy was confirmed by significant decreases in eosinophil ratio and serum IgE concentration, and a reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from the ear. Relative mRNA expression levels of IL-4, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the spleens of the experimental animals were also decreased and there was an increased serum concentration of IL-10 with a concurrent decreased IL-4 concentration in comparison to a control group. Taken together, the results indicate that some component(s) of fermented Maesil have the ability to suppress the development of AD-like skin lesions, possibly by stimulation of IL-10. Beneficial effects of fermented Maesil may thus be expected in dogs with AD, although this and the nature of the active pathway remain to be explored. PMID:20141605

Jung, Bock-Gie; Cho, Sun-Ju; Koh, Hong-Bum; Han, Dong-Un; Lee, Bong-Joo

2010-04-01

369

Virulence of two mastitis strains of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine skin: enhancement by growth in high carbohydrate-high salt medium or in raw milk.  

PubMed

Cows were inoculated intradermally with two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and the severity of the resulting skin lesions was assessed on the basis of size, degree of necrosis, and in some cases by measuring the area of inflammation in histological preparations of excised skin. At least 10(6) colony forming units were required to produce a detectable skin lesion, indicating that the cow has a resistance to staphylococcal skin infection comparable to man and rabbit. The severity of the lesions produced by the two strains correlated with their known virulence in the bovine udder as mastitis pathogens. A comparison between lesions produced by cocci grown in a stock laboratory medium and those grown in the high carbohydrate-high salt modified 110 medium showed that the virulence of cocci grown in the latter medium was enhanced. The comparable effect of milk to the modified 110 medium is discussed. PMID:4716546

Brock, J H; Turvey, A; Reiter, B

1973-06-01

370

Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the

Lise L. Randeberg; Ivar Baarstad; Trond Løke; Peter Kaspersen; Lars O. Svaasand

2006-01-01

371

Skin, Scale, Feather, and Fur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "skin, scale, feather, and fur" program was designed to provide children in the New York City public schools with knowledge about various animal species and their place in the animal world. Teacher and paraprofessional staff along with the Staten Island Zoo Personnel developed activities and instructed children at the zoo. They also conducted…

Kastner, Sheldon

372

An Experiment on Skin Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experimental apparatus which may be used to demonstrate the skin effect phenomenon. One apparatus shows the decrease of a magnetic field as it penetrates a thickness of metal; the other demonstrates the decrease with depth of current in a wire. (Author/MLH)

MacDougall, J. W.

1976-01-01

373

Nothing but skin and bone  

PubMed Central

Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues. PMID:16670754

Ross, F. Patrick; Christiano, Angela M.

2006-01-01

374

Segmentation of skin cancer images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic method for segmentation of images of skin cancer and other pigmented lesions is presented. This method first reduces a color image into an intensity image and approximately segments the image by intensity thresholding. Then, it refines the segmentation using image edges. Double thresholding is used to focus on an image area where a lesion boundary potentially exists. Image

Lang Xu; Marcel Jackowski; A. Ardeshir Goshtasby; D. Roseman; S. Bines; Clement T. Yu; Akshaya Dhawan; Arthur C. Huntley

1999-01-01

375

What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... stains Lipomas: soft growths made up of fat cells Warts: rough-surfaced growths caused by a virus Most of these tumors rarely, if ever, turn into cancers. There are many other kinds of benign skin ... most melanoma cells still make melanin, melanoma tumors are usually brown ...

376

Cryosurgery for common skin conditions.  

PubMed

Cryosurgery is a highly effective treatment for a broad range of benign skin problems. With appropriate instruction and supervised experience, family physicians can master the technique quickly. Cryosurgery is best suited for use in patients with light skin and for treatment of lesions in most non-hair-bearing areas of the body. Spray methods include the timed spot freeze technique, the rotary or spiral pattern, and the paintbrush method. Benign skin lesions that are suitable for freezing include actinic keratosis, solar lentigo, seborrheic keratosis, viral wart, molluscum contagiosum, and dermatofibroma. Cryosurgery requires little time and fits easily into the physician's office schedule. Advantages of this treatment include a short preparation time, low risk of infection, and minimal wound care. In addition, cryosurgery requires no expensive supplies or injectable anesthesia, and the patient does not have to return for suture removal. Potential side effects include bleeding, blister formation, headache, hair loss, and hypopigmentation, but rarely scarring. Skin lesions often can be treated in a single session, although some require several treatments. PMID:15168956

Andrews, Mark D

2004-05-15

377

Skin Infections in Eastern Panama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A skin infection survey of 1084 people was carried out in two jungle villages in eastern Panama. Bacterial pyoderma was the most prevalent infection, affecting 25% of boys, 15% of girls, and 11% of those over 10 years of age. S. pyogenes and S. aureus wer...

A. M. Allen, D. Taplin

1974-01-01

378

Skin aging and natural photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging of skin is a continuous process that may be enhanced by sun exposure. Photoaging may provoke changes different from aging. Epidermal changes involve thinning of stratum spinosum and flattening of the dermo-epidermal junction. The senescent keratinocytes becomes resistant to apoptosis and may survive for a long time giving time for DNA and protein damage to accumulate with possible implication

Hans Christian Wulf; Jane Sandby-Møller; Takasi Kobayasi; Robert Gniadecki

2004-01-01

379

Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity  

PubMed Central

Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC) after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier. PMID:22927835

Walters, Russel M.; Mao, Guangru; Gunn, Euen T.; Hornby, Sidney

2012-01-01

380

Mandibular Bone and Soft Tissues Necrosis Caused by an Arsenical Endodontic Preparation Treated with Piezoelectric Device  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a case of wide mandibular bone necrosis associated with significant soft tissues injury after using an arsenical endodontic preparation in the right lower second molar for endodontic purpose. Authors debate about the hazardous effects of the arsenic paste and the usefulness of piezosurgery for treatment of this drug related bone necrosis. PMID:24062957

Giudice, A.; Cristofaro, M. G.; Barca, I.; Novembre, D.; Giudice, M.

2013-01-01

381

Open approach in pancreatic and infected pancreatic necrosis: Laparostomies and preplanned revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis were treated in accordance with a combined regimen of necrosectomy, open drainage by laparostomies, and repeated re-explorations. The severity of pancreatitis was assessed by the APACHE II score (median 15 on admission). Eighty-seven (85%) patients were classified as having infected pancreatic necrosis and only 15 (15%) as having pancreatic necrosis. Overall,

Reinhold Ffigger; Franz Schulz; Michael Rogy; Friedrich Herbst; Darius Mirza; Arnulf Fritsch

1991-01-01

382

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head: a rare class-effect of anti-VEGF agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a rare musculoskeletal disease caused by various factors including alcohol consumption, long-lasting corticotherapy, local radiotherapy and surgery [1]. This article describes three cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA) and sunitinib (Sutent; Pfizer, New York,

Olivier Mir; Romain Coriat; Thomas Gregory; Stanislas Ropert; Bertrand Billemont; François Goldwasser

2011-01-01

383

Relationship of root necrosis potential of soil to asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ) decline in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible relationship between asparagus decline and the root necrosis potential (RNP) of soil was investigated for 11 asparagus and 4 nonasparagus soils. Asparagus seedlings were grown in each soil in climate chambers. A root necrosis index was used to determine RNP. RNP was correlated with the decline observed in the field for seven white asparagus crops, but not for

G. Gordon-Lennox; D. Gindrat

1987-01-01

384

Prediction and measurement of thermally induced cambial tissue necrosis in tree stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for fire-induced heating in tree stems is linked to a recently reported model for tissue necrosis. The combined model produces cambial tissue necrosis predictions in a tree stem as a function of heating rate, heating time, tree species, and stem diameter. Model accuracy is evaluated by comparison with experimental measurements in two hardwood and two softwood species: red

Brent K tlbbA; Matthew B. Dickinsonc

385

Evolution of experimentally induced papillary necrosis to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic proteinuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromoethylamine (BEA)-induced papillary necrosis is a reproducible model for analgesic nephropathy. We induced this lesion in groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats and followed the functional and histological changes for 1 year. We found that by 1 month, necrosis of the papilla was complete, glomerular filtration rate was depressed, and urine albumin excretion was increased. There was an extensive interstitial fibrosis

Sandra L. Garber; Yelena Mirochnik; Jose A. L. Arruda; George Dunea

1999-01-01

386

[Prevention of testosterone-vasopressin induced necrosis of the kidney cortex by cyproterone acetate].  

PubMed

After a ten days pretreatment with testosteron-propyonate administration of vasopressin induces bilateral cortical necrosis of kidneys in rats. When testosteron and cyproteron-acetate an androgen-blocking agent were given simultaneously vasopressin did not induce necrosis of the renal cortices. These findings suggest that androgen receptors of the kidney may take a part in eliciting this phenomenon. PMID:503094

Mónus, Z; László, F

1979-07-01

387

Successful treatment of radiation-induced brain necrosis by hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 68-year-old man who underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to manage radiation necrosis of the brain, which developed after two treatments with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the same lesion. The necrosis was subsequently treated with steroids alone for 2 months; however, he progressed clinically and radiographically. Improvement again was noted with the reinstitution of HBO therapy. This case

Kiyotaka Kohshi; Hajime Imada; Satoshi Nomoto; Raizoh Yamaguchi; Haruhiko Abe; Haruaki Yamamoto

2003-01-01

388

Avascular necrosis of the hip in a 41-year-old male: a case study.  

PubMed

This case deals with the avascular necrosis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a 41-year-old male presenting to a chiropractor's office. In addition to the clinical picture, diagnostic imaging should be performed to confirm the presence and extent of hip avascular necrosis. Referral to an orthopedic specialist is key and treatment is mainly surgical. PMID:17549225

Karim, Rahim; Goel, Kambiz D

2004-06-01

389

Ultra-conservative skin-sparing 'keyhole' mastectomy and immediate breast and areola reconstruction.  

PubMed Central

The popularity of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) which preserves the breast skin envelope is increasing, but the risks and benefits of this approach are only beginning to emerge. A technique involving ultra-conservative SSM and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) has been evaluated to establish the surgical and oncological sequelae of skin conservation. Between 1994-1998, 67 consecutive patients underwent 71 SSM and expander-assisted immediate latissimus dorsi (LD) breast reconstructions (follow up, 24.1 months; range, 2-52 months). Breast resection, axillary dissection and reconstruction were performed through a 5-6 cm circular peri-areolar 'keyhole' incision. Patients were discharged 6.5 days (range, 5-15 days) after the 3.9 h (range, 3.0-5.5 h) procedure, and expansion was completed by 4.0 months (range, 0-10 months). Local recurrence occurred in 3% of breasts at risk, skin envelope necrosis occurred in 10%, and contralateral surgery was required to achieve symmetry in 14%. SSM and IBR is an oncologically safe, minimal-scar procedure which can be performed by surgeons trained in 'oncoplastic' techniques. It results in low rates of local recurrence and complication, and reduces the need for contralateral surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10932655

Peyser, P. M.; Abel, J. A.; Straker, V. F.; Hall, V. L.; Rainsbury, R. M.

2000-01-01

390

[Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis. PMID:24837841

Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

2014-01-01

391

Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy and/or intraarterial chemotherapy for brain tumors: PET and neuropathologic studies  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy for brain tumors is being recognized as a problem more common than previously estimated. Distinction between this iatrogenic complication and tumor recurrence cannot be made by either CT or MR imaging. By using positron emission tomography (PET) with /sup 18/F-deoxyglucose (FDG) we were able to reach a diagnosis of radiation necrosis, later verified, in 10 of 95 patients referred for the purpose of differentiating tumor recurrence from necrosis. The critical PET-FDG feature was focal hypometabolism in the area of necrosis, which contrasted with the hypermetabolism associated with the residual/recurrent tumor. In addition, four cases of cerebral necrosis after supraophthalmic, intraarterial chemotherapy (BCNU) were studied with the PET-FDG method. The area of chemotherapy damage was also characterized by marked hypometabolism. Histology revealed both similarities and differences between radio- and chemonecrosis.

Di Chiro, G.; Oldfield, E.; Wright, D.C.; De Michele, D.; Katz, D.A.; Patronas, N.J.; Doppman, J.L.; Larson, S.M.; Ito, M.; Kufta, C.V.

1988-01-01

392

A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. Methods We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Results Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. Conclusions A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft. PMID:24665420

Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae

2014-01-01

393

Skin Substitutes with Improved Barrier Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to in vitro cultured skin substitutes that have improved barrier function. In some embodiments, improved barrier function is a result of improved culture conditions, wh...

A. Comer, L. A. Hoffmann, M. Hoffmann

2005-01-01

394

Skin Diseases: NIH Research to Results  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. Another method is to train a person's immune cells to attack the skin cancer cells. Other forms ... recent small study showed that treating patients with immune system cells found in tumors could shrink skin cancer tumors ...

395

Effect of wind chill on skin temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Steady conduction heat transfer between the body core and the skin is modeled to find temperature distribution through a subskin layer. The effect of varying the outside heat transfer coefficient on the skin temperature and heat loss is predicted.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-14

396

Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... a chronic, intensely itchy, blistering skin manifestation of gluten-sensitive enteropathy, commonly known as celiac disease. DH ... external manifestation of an abnormal immune response to gluten, in which IgA antibodies form against the skin ...

397

Active skin for turbulent drag reduction  

E-print Network

capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

Mani, Raghavendran

2012-06-07

398

Organ Transplant Increases Risk of Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... actinic keratoses (AKs), lesions that can progress to squamous cell carcinoma (a type of skin cancer). Skin cancers and ... Low-dose retinoids in the prevention of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant recipients: a 16-year retrospective ...

399

21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a...

2011-04-01

400

21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a...

2012-04-01

401

21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a...

2014-04-01

402

21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a...

2013-04-01

403

X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin  

SciTech Connect

Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

1985-10-01

404

What Causes Our Skin to Age?  

MedlinePLUS

... causes aging skin What causes our skin to age Sun protection essential: Dermatologists agree that using sunscreen ... W X Y Z Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © 2014 American Academy ...

405

Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins  

DOEpatents

A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

2012-07-10

406

Skin flaps and grafts - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal After mastectomy or amputation Donor sites for grafts and flaps are chosen ... surgery than the wound due to newly exposed nerve endings.

407

The dynamics of inflammatory cytokines in the healing process of mouse skin wound: A preliminary study for possible wound age determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1a (IL-la, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) during the healing process of mouse skin wounds were examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunostaining. The applicability of this examination for wound age estimation is discussed from the perspective of forensic pathology. After wound induction, mice were sacrificed at intervals

Toshikazu Kondo; Tohru Ohshima

1996-01-01

408

The Transcription Factors c-rel and RelA Control Epidermal Development and Homeostasis in Embryonic and Adult Skin via Distinct Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the roles of Rel\\/NF-B transcription factors in mouse skin development with loss-of-function mutants has been limited by redundancy among these proteins and by embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RelA. Using mice lacking RelA and c-rel, which survive throughout embryogenesis on a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-)-deficient background (rela\\/ c-rel\\/ tnf\\/), we show that c-rel and RelA are

Raffi Gugasyan; Anne Voss; George Varigos; Tim Thomas; Raelene J. Grumont; Pritinder Kaur; George Grigoriadis; Steve Gerondakis

2004-01-01

409

Microbial Ecology of Human Skin and Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human skin is a complex organ that provides protection and regulates our interaction with the outside environment. The skin\\u000a is composed of three layers, which include the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Skin appendages include hair follicles,\\u000a sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. These appendages are unevenly distributed on the skin. The stratum corneum is the outer\\u000a protective layer of the epidermis

G. James; E. Swogger; E. deLancey-Pulcini

410

Skin and skeletal system lesions of european pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from natural habitats.  

PubMed

Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals. PMID:24334084

Aleksi?-Kova?evi?, Sanja; Ozvegy, József; Krsti?, Nikola; Rusvai, Miklós; Jakab, Csaba; Stanimirovi?, Zoran; Becskei, Zsolt

2014-06-01

411

What is the 'true' function of skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional textbook wisdom portrays the skin as an organ that literally enwraps whatever each of us stands for as a more or less functional, individual member of the mammalian species, and has it that the skin primarily establishes, controls and transmits contacts with the external world. In addition, the skin has long been recognized to protect the organism from deleterious

C M Chuong; B J Nickoloff; P M Elias; L A Goldsmith; E Macher; P A Maderson; J P Sundberg; H Tagami; P M Plonka; Pederson K Thestrup; B A Bernard; J M Schroder

2002-01-01

412

Skin cancer in Australian heart transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cutaneous malignancy is a major cause of morbidity in organ transplant recipients. Objective: Our purpose was to report on skin cancer in Australian heart transplant recipients with analysis of HLA factors. Methods: We reviewed histologically proven skin cancers in the first 455 patients undergoing organ transplantation in Sydney, Australia. Results: The cumulative incidence of skin cancer was 31% at

Colin S. Ong; Anne M. Keogh; Steven Kossard; Peter S. Macdonald; Phillip M. Spratt

1999-01-01

413

Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum  

E-print Network

Modeling skin permeation revisited Gabriel Wittum Computing diffusion through human skin is usually into the diffusion process and yielded results about the permeation paths. After starting with simple two dimensional were made a decade ago, yielding new insight into permeation pathways through human skin, which were

Hackbusch, Wolfgang

414

Ultrasound backscatter microscope for skin imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in high resolution, subsurface imaging of cutaneous tissues using higher frequency ultrasound. Some of the possible applications of higher frequency skin imaging include tumour staging, boundary definition, and studies of the response of tumours to therapy, investigations of inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, and basic studies of skin aging, sun damage and

D. H. Turnbull; B. G. Starkoski; K. A. Harasiewiczz; G. R. Lockwood; F. S. Foster

1993-01-01

415

Oncologic Safety of Skin-Sparing Mastectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin-sparing mastectomy consists of a standard mastectomy that preserves as much of the patient’s skin as is safe in preparation for immediate breast reconstruction. Aside from this preserving the skin, the mastectomy technique is the same as that for a standard total mastectomy with removal of all breast tissue. In this issue of the Annals of Surgical Oncology , two

S. Eva Singletary; Geoffrey L. Robb

2003-01-01

416

Skin Detection: A Bayesian Network Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated detection and tracking of humans in com- puter vision necessitates improved modeling of the human skin appearance. In this paper we propose a Bayesian net- work approach for skin detection. We test several classifiers and propose a methodology for incorporating unlabeled data. We apply the semi-supervised approach to skin detection and we show that learning the structure of

Nicu Sebe; Ira Cohen; Thomas S. Huang; Theo Gevers

2004-01-01

417

Purinergic Signaling in Healthy and Diseased Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine 5?-triphosphate and adenosine receptors have been identified in adult and fetal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, mast cells, Langerhans cells, and Meissner's corpuscles, as well as in hair follicles, sweat glands, and smooth muscle and endothelial cells of skin vessels. Purinergic signaling is involved in skin pathology, including inflammation, wound healing, pain, psoriasis, scleroderma, warts, and skin cancer.

Geoffrey Burnstock; Gillian E Knight; Aina V H Greig

2012-01-01

418

Skin color judgments of Negro college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjects judged most attractive seem to be those who are lighter than the average but not at the extreme light end of the skin color continuum. There is a tendency to displace the ratings of subjects considered attractive in the direction of the preferred skin color, the reference scale being dependent upon the rater's own skin color. Persons lighter

E. S. Marks

1943-01-01

419

Skin Microbiome: Looking Back to Move Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trillions of bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and small arthropods colonize the skin surface, collectively comprising the skin microbiome. Generations of researchers have classified these microbes as transient versus resident, beneficial versus pathogenic, and collaborators versus adversaries. Culturing and direct sequencing of microbial inhabitants identified distinct populations present at skin surface sites. Herein, we explore the history of this field, describe

Heidi H Kong; Julia A Segre

2012-01-01

420

Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Facts About Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Every year, more than 2 ... types—basal cell and squamous cell—can usually be cured when they are ...

421

Automatic Facial Skin Defect Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin analysis is one of the most important procedures before medical cosmetology. Most conventional skin analysis systems are semi-automatic. They often require human intervention. In this study, an automatic facial skin defect detection approach is proposed. The system first detects human face in the facial image. Based on the detected face, facial features are extracted to locate regions of interest.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Shang-Cheng Li; Pau-Choo Chung; Jui-Yi Kuo; Yung-Chin Tu

2010-01-01

422

Occupational Skin Injury by Hydrogen Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in products such as rocket fuel, bleaching preparations and topical disinfectants. Contact of hydrogen peroxide with the skin can cause severe skin damage. In this report, we describe a case of skin injury induced by hydrogen peroxide. The patient was a 34-year-old man working in a dry cleaning shop. While he was pouring 35% hydrogen

Kunio Izu; Osamu Yamamoto; Masakazu Asahi

2000-01-01

423

Image Analysis Of Facial Skin Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image processing algorithms and photographic techniques have been developed to allow objective, reproducible quantification of facial skin wrinkles, age spots, pores, and other visible skin features. The methods have been used to determine the effects of environmen-tal solar exposure on facial skin aging.

Gartstein, Vladimir; Shaya, Steven A.

1986-06-01

424

The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is persuasive evidence that each of the three main types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma, is caused by sun exposure. The incidence rate of each is higher in fairer skinned, sun-sensitive rather than darker skinned, less sun-sensitive people; risk increases with increasing ambient solar radiation; the highest densities are on the

Bruce K Armstrong; Anne Kricker

2001-01-01

425

Skin Cancer Saturday, June 7, 2014  

E-print Network

Free Skin Cancer Screening Saturday, June 7, 2014 8:00 am -- 4:00 pm South of Market Heath Center. FACT: One American dies of melanoma almost every hour. FACT: More than 3.5 million skin cancers in more in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Screenings will only be performed

Klein, Ophir

426

Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

Martin, Paul

1993-01-01

427

Nonprescription topical treatments for skin rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Topical skin care regimens are a mainstay treatment for aging skin. All patients seeking skin rejuvenation can benefit from this low-risk intervention. This article reviews available nonprescription topical treatments for rejuvenation including moisturizers, antioxidants, retinols, and sunscreen. PMID:24488631

Grunebaum, Lisa D; Baumann, Leslie S

2014-02-01

428

7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a...than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the skin missing or “feathered”; (3) “Moderately...

2012-01-01

429

7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a...than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the skin missing or “feathered”; (3) “Moderately...

2011-01-01

430

7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a...than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the skin missing or “feathered”; (3) “Moderately...

2013-01-01

431

7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.  

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a...than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the skin missing or “feathered”; (3) “Moderately...

2014-01-01

432

Skin colour and bilirubin in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between the yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reserve albumin concentration, and pH was investigated in 76 icteric neonates. Significant linear correlation existed between yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reciprocal of the reserve albumin concentration, and the squared hydrogen ion concentration. Furthermore, the basic yellowness of the skin at birth correlated

A Knudsen; R Brodersen

1989-01-01

433

Sun’s effect on skin  

MedlinePLUS

The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

434

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer - Learn How to Protect the Skin You're In!  

MedlinePLUS

... risk for skin cancer too? It doesn’t matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between—anyone can get skin ... also give off UV rays. It doesn’t matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between— remember, anyone can get ...

435

Is Skin Color a Marker for Racial Discrimination? Explaining the Skin Color–Hypertension Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that dark-skinned Blacks have higher rates of hypertension than their lighter-skinned cohorts because the former experience greater racial discrimination. However, there is no empirical evidence linking skin color to discrimination. This study tested the extent to which skin color is associated with differential exposure to discrimination for a sample of 300 Black adults. Results revealed that

Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

2000-01-01

436

Skin examinations and skin cancer prevention counseling by US physicians: A long way to go  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratoses may be partially preventable by physician counseling. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of counseling for skin cancer prevention. Methods: Data on skin cancer counseling and skin examinations were obtained from representative visits to outpatient physicians in the United States from the 1997 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Steven R. Feldman; Alan B. Fleischer

2000-01-01

437

Potentiation of Tumor Necrosis Factor -induced Secreted Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA Expression in Mesangial Cells  

E-print Network

Potentiation of Tumor Necrosis Factor -induced Secreted Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA Expression by cytokines like tumor necrosis factor- (TNF ) and interleukin-1 . The transcriptional pathway mediating

Gelb, Michael

438

A strategy for skin irritation testing.  

PubMed

Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future. PMID:11887101

Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

2002-03-01

439

Azacytidine induces necrosis of multiple myeloma cells through oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase and is known to be an anti-leukemic agent to induce cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, multiple myeloma cells were treated with azacytidine at clinically relevant concentrations to induce necrosis through oxidative stress. Necrotic myeloma cells exhibit unique characteristics, including enrichment of the cell-bound albumin and overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and mitochondrial-specific chaperones, which were not observed in other necrotic cells, including HUH-7, A2780, A549, and Hoc1a. Proteomic analysis shows that HSP60 is the most abundant up-regulated mitochondrial specific chaperone, and azacytidine-induced overexpression of HSP60 is confirmed by western blot analysis. In contrast, expression levels of cytosolic chaperones such as HSP90 and HSP71 were down-regulated in azacytidine-treated myeloma cells, concomitant with an increase of these chaperones in the cell culture medium, suggesting that mitochondrial chaperones and cytosolic chaperones behave differently in necrotic myeloma cells; ER- and mitochondrial-chaperones being retained, and cytosolic chaperones being released into the cell culture medium through the ruptured cell membrane. Our data suggest that HSP60 is potentially a new target for multiple myeloma chemotherapy. PMID:23764212

2013-01-01

440

Tumor necrosis factor enhances eosinophil toxicity to Schistosoma mansoni larvae.  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a monocyte product that kills or inhibits the growth of certain tumor cells. Its cell source and physical characteristics suggest that it is similar to a monokine, eosinophil-cytotoxicity-enhancing factor (M-ECEF), that activates human eosinophil toxicity to Schistosoma mansoni larvae. The availability of recombinant human TNF allowed us to test this possibility. The data show that TNF has no direct effect on the parasites but enhances eosinophil toxicity to the parasites in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect is specific for eosinophils and not neutrophils. TNF and the eosinophil-specific activity of TNF are coeluted with M-ECEF in reversed-phase HPLC. Further, M-ECEF activity in HPLC fractions is reduced by treatment with rabbit anti-TNF antibody and protein A-Sepharose. This demonstrates physical similarity and at least partial immunological identity of TNF and a fraction of M-ECEF. Thus, TNF can enhance eosinophil function and may constitute an important immunological regulatory mechanism. This effect should be considered when TNF is applied clinically. Images PMID:3456562

Silberstein, D S; David, J R

1986-01-01

441

Translational readthrough in Tobacco necrosis virus-D.  

PubMed

The plus-strand RNA genome of Tobacco necrosis virus-D (TNV-D) expresses its polymerase via translational readthrough. The RNA signals involved in this readthrough process were characterized in vitro using a wheat germ extract translation system and in vivo via protoplast infections. The results indicate that (i) TNV-D requires a long-range RNA-RNA interaction between an extended stem-loop (SL) structure proximal to the readthrough site and a sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of its genome; (ii) stability of the extended SL structure is important for its function; (iii) TNV-D readthrough elements are compatible with UAG and UGA, but not UAA; (iv) a readthrough defect can be rescued by a heterologous readthrough element in vitro, but not in vivo; and (v) readthrough elements can also mediate translational frameshifting. These results provide new information on determinants of readthrough in TNV-D and further support the concept of a common general mechanism for readthrough in Tombusviridae. PMID:24503089

Newburn, Laura R; Nicholson, Beth L; Yosefi, Michael; Cimino, Peter A; White, K Andrew

2014-02-01

442

Apoptosis, paraptosis, necrosis, and cell regeneration in posttraumatic cerebral arteries.  

PubMed

This study is to understand the nature and functional significance of the activated cell death programs and rehabilitation signs during late vascular changes after brain injury. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to describe changes of cells within the vascular endothelium and tunica media of the cortical arteries four weeks after craniocerebral traumatism. Within tunica media of the posttraumatic damaged artery, apoptotic and paraptotic phenotypes were identified as well as some early ultrastructural signs of smooth muscle cells regeneration, these cell highlighting a remarkable degree of plasticity. Surprisingly, some endothelial cells showed an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum development, whereas other endothelial cells showed typical necrosis. In conclusion, two groups of suicidal cells apoptotic and paraptotic cells were encountered in the same lesional vascular wall after neurotrauma, showing also signs of cell regeneration. The pathophysiologic significance of the coexisting double cell death programs and cell regeneration seems to be in relation with late cell survival, after arterial damage when some cells disappear and other cells try to survive undergoing reversible injury. PMID:23790779

Danaila, L; Popescu, I; Pais, V; Riga, D; Riga, S; Pais, E

2013-01-01

443

Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-?, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Oberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

2013-01-01

444

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha: A Link between Neuroinflammation and Excitotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a proinflammatory cytokine that exerts both homeostatic and pathophysiological roles in the central nervous system. In pathological conditions, microglia release large amounts of TNF-?; this de novo production of TNF-? is an important component of the so-called neuroinflammatory response that is associated with several neurological disorders. In addition, TNF-? can potentiate glutamate-mediated cytotoxicity by two complementary mechanisms: indirectly, by inhibiting glutamate transport on astrocytes, and directly, by rapidly triggering the surface expression of Ca+2 permeable-AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors, while decreasing inhibitory GABAA receptors on neurons. Thus, the net effect of TNF-? is to alter the balance of excitation and inhibition resulting in a higher synaptic excitatory/inhibitory ratio. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which TNF-? links the neuroinflammatory and excitotoxic processes that occur in several neurodegenerative diseases, but with a special emphasis on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As microglial activation and upregulation of TNF-? expression is a common feature of several CNS diseases, as well as chronic opioid exposure and neuropathic pain, modulating TNF-? signaling may represent a valuable target for intervention. PMID:24966471

Olmos, Gabriel; Llado, Jeronia

2014-01-01

445

TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA IN PATIENTS WITH ALOPECIA AREATA  

PubMed Central

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common form of localized, nonscarring hair loss. It is characterized by the loss of hair in patches, total loss of scalp hair (alopecia totalis, AT), or total loss of body hair (alopecia universalis, AU). The cause of AA is unknown, although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the hair follicle and that cytokines play an important role. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in patients with AA and the healthy subjects and also to investigate the difference between the localized form of the disease with the extensive forms like AT and AU. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with AA and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Forty-six patients had localized AA (LAA), and 14 patients had AT, AU, or AT/AU. The serum levels of TNF-? were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay techniques. Results: Serum levels of TNF-? were significantly higher in AA patients than in controls (10.31 ± 1.20 pg ml vs 9.59 ± 0.75 pg/ml, respectively). There was no significant difference in serum levels of TNF-? between patients with LAA and those with extensive forms of the disease. Conclusion: Our findings support the evidence that elevation of serum TNF-? is associated with AA. The exact role of serum TNF-? in AA should be additionally investigated in future studies. PMID:22121261

Kasumagic-Halilovic, Emina; Prohic, Asja; Cavaljuga, Semra

2011-01-01

446

Mycobacterial diseases developed during anti-tumour necrosis factor-? therapy.  

PubMed

Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease and tuberculosis (TB) develop during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? therapy. We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two diseases. A total of 1165 patients were screened for TB and treated with TNF-? antagonists from July 2004 to July 2013 for the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease (n = 422), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 320), and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 389). TB and NTM disease were diagnosed at baseline screening in four and three patients, respectively, and developed during anti-TNF-? therapy in 19 and six patients, respectively. The incidence rate of TB and NTM disease was 747.7 per 100 000 and 238.2 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Patients with NTM disease were older, with a greater proportion of females. All cases of NTM disease involved the lung, with rheumatoid arthritis (83.3%) being the most frequent underlying disease. The most common radiological feature was consolidation in NTM disease, and honeycombing was present in two rheumatoid arthritis patients with NTM disease. The most common pathogen was Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 3) followed by Mycobacterium avium (n = 2). Both the NTM and TB group showed favourable outcomes. The clinical characteristics differed between NTM disease and TB that developed on anti-TNF-? agents, but clinical outcomes were favourable in both diseases. PMID:25102962

Yoo, Jung-Wan; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Kang, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Mi Young; Yoo, Bin; Lee, Chang-Keun; Kim, Yong-Gil; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Shim, Tae Sun

2014-11-01

447

How to Create an Anti-Aging Skin Care Plan  

MedlinePLUS

... plan How to create an anti-aging skin care plan What dermatologists tell their patients Wrinkle creams, ... help prevent premature skin aging. Anti-aging skin care tips Protect your skin from the sun: Sun ...

448

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for Hispanics  

Cancer.gov

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for Hispanics. This article addresses myths about skin cancer and discusses how everyone can protect their skin. It also introduces an NCI publication for minorities: Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer.

449

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans  

Cancer.gov

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer: Information for African Americans. This article addresses myths about skin cancer and discusses how everyone can protect their skin. It also introduces an NCI publication for minorities: Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer.

450

Demystifying Skin Color and “Race”  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Historical confusion in thinking about skin color and race derives from the state of science at the time human classifications\\u000a were proposed, and from our incomplete understanding of the genetics of human pigmentation and human ancestry. The pervasiveness\\u000a of racism reflects the universal human desire for kinship, in settings of competition for resources, where it is common to\\u000a devalue and

Keith C. Cheng

451

Vitamin D and the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not only the primary source of vitamin D for the body, but also possessing\\u000a the enzymatic machinery to metabolize vitamin D to active metabolites [in particular, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that enables the keratinocytes to respond to the 1,25(OH)2D they produce. Numerous functions of the

Daniel D. Bikle

2010-01-01

452

Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Inflammatory disorders of the skin, including eczematous, psoriasiform, lichenoid-interface, ­autoimmune, and neutrophilic\\u000a dermatoses, probably represent the group of cutaneous diseases in which molecular pathology currently has the least impact\\u000a in daily clinical practice. Many of these diseases are readily diagnosed through the correlation of clinical features with\\u000a histopathological findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H + E)-stained tissue sections. In general,

Michael J. Murphy; Amanda Phelps; Markus Braun-Falco

453

Zinc and propolis reduces cytotoxicity and proliferation in skin fibroblast cell culture: total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of propolis.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that zinc exerts its beneficial influence on skin fibroblasts. Propolis, a complex mixture of plant-derived and bees' products, was reported to stimulate cicatrization processes in skin and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to find out how zinc and propolis influence human skin fibroblasts in cell culture and to compare the effect of individual compounds to the effect of a mixture of zinc and propolis. In this study, zinc, as zinc aspartate, at a concentration of 16 ?M, increased human fibroblasts proliferation in cell culture, whereas propolis at a concentration of 0.01% (w/v) revealed antiproliferative and cytotoxic action followed by mild cell necrosis. In culture, zinc was effectively transported into fibroblasts, and propolis inhibited the amount of zinc incorporated into the cells. An addition of propolis to the medium caused a decrease in the Zn(II) amount incorporated into fibroblasts. The obtained results also indicate an appreciable antioxidant property of propolis and revealed its potential as a supplement when applied at doses lower than 0.01% (w/v). In conclusion, the present study showed that zinc had a protective effect on human cultured fibroblasts' viability, although propolis revealed its antiproliferative action and caused mild necrosis. PMID:24913100

Tyszka-Czochara, Ma?gorzata; Pa?ko, Pawe?; Reczy?ski, Witold; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Bystrowska, Beata; Opoka, W?odzimierz

2014-07-01

454

Skin in protein energy malnutrition.  

PubMed

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), the most widespread nutritional deficiency disorder of mankind, is a group of related disorders, with a more complex and still incompletely understood etiologic basis than its name suggests. Dermatologic and other clinical manifestations are more florid and characteristic in kwashiorkor than in marasmus. The complex of clinical syndromes that constitute PEM is best considered when using a three-dimensional model to illustrate its varying degrees (ie, mild, moderate, or severe) and the spectrumlike nature of the forms of the severe degree (ie, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor, or marasmus). Protein energy malnutrition is not confined to children in the Third World and is the most common form of undernutrition in hospitalized patients in Western countries. Marasmus is by far the most prevalent form. Much of the nutritional support given in hospitals is not based on an assessment of nutritional status, and little attention is paid to the different forms PEM might take. Even those who do consider this last point confuse hypoalbuminemia in patients acutely stressed or infected with kwashiorkor. Recent evidence suggests that the skin changes of kwashiorkor may be caused by zinc deficiency. Almost nothing is known about the histopathology of the skin per se in PEM but studies of the hair bulb have shown important differences among patients with kwashiorkor, marasmus, and normal skin. PMID:3120652

McLaren, D S

1987-12-01

455

Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population. PMID:25207367

Smola, Sigrun

2014-01-01

456

Bevacizumab as Therapy for Radiation Necrosis in Four Children With Pontine Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Diffuse pontine gliomas are a pediatric brain tumor that is fatal in nearly all patients. Given the poor prognosis for patients with this tumor, their quality of life is very important. Radiation therapy provides some palliation, but can result in radiation necrosis and associated neurologic decline. The typical treatment for this necrosis is steroid therapy. Although the steroids are effective, they have numerous side effects that can often significantly compromise quality of life. Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been suggested as a treatment for radiation necrosis. We report on our initial experience with bevacizumab therapy for radiation necrosis in pediatric pontine gliomas. Materials and Methods: Four children with pontine gliomas treated at the Children's Hospital in Denver and the University of Colorado Denver developed evidence of radiation necrosis both clinically and on imaging. Those 4 children then received bevacizumab as a treatment for the radiation necrosis. We reviewed the clinical outcome and imaging findings. Results: After bevacizumab therapy, 3 children had significant clinical improvement and were able to discontinue steroid use. One child continued to decline, and, in retrospect, had disease progression, not radiation necrosis. In all cases, bevacizumab was well tolerated. Conclusions: In children with pontine gliomas, bevacizumab may provide both therapeutic benefit and diagnostic information. More formal evaluation of bevacizumab in these children is needed.

Liu, Arthur K., E-mail: arthur.liu@ucdenver.ed [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States); Macy, Margaret E.; Foreman, Nicholas K. [Children's Hospital, Denver, Department of Neuro-Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States)

2009-11-15

457

Stress-induced intestinal necrosis resulting from severe trauma of an earthquake  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the possible reasons and suggest therapeutic plan of stress-induced intestinal necrosis resulting from the severe trauma. METHODS: Three patients in our study were trapped inside collapsed structures for 22, 21 and 37 h, respectively. The patients underwent 3-4 operations after sustaining their injuries. Mechanical ventilation, intermittent hemodialysis and other treatments were also provided. The patients showed signs of peritoneal irritation on postoperative days 10-38. Small intestinal necrosis was confirmed by emergency laparotomy, and for each patient, part of the small bowel was removed. RESULTS: Two patients who all performed 3 operations died of respiratory complications on the first and second postoperative days respectively. The third patient who performed 4 operations was discharged and made a full recovery. Three patients had the following common characteristics: (1) Multiple severe trauma events with no direct penetrating gastrointestinal injury; (2) Multiple surgeries with impaired renal function and intermittent hemodialysis treatment; (3) Progressive abdominal pain and tenderness, and peritoneal irritation was present on post-traumatic days 10-38; (4) Abdominal operations confirmed segment ulcer, necrosis of the small intestine, hyperplasia and stiffness of the intestinal wall; and (5) Pathological examinations suggested submucosal hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis and hyalinization of the vascular wall. Pathological examinations of all 3 patients suggested intestinal necrosis with fistulas. CONCLUSION: Intestinal necrosis is strongly asso-ciated with stress from trauma and post-traumatic complications; timely exploratory laparotomy maybe an effective method for preventing and treating stress-induced intestinal necrosis. PMID:22563202

Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Hu; Tian, Fu-Zhou; Wang, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Yong-Kuan; Wang, Pei-Hong

2012-01-01

458

Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade  

PubMed Central

Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. PMID:25201987

Liu, Kai; Ding, Lianggong; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Chunyue; Lei, Ye; Han, Shuting; Tao, Wei; Miao, Dengshun; Steller, Hermann; Welsh, Michael J.; Liu, Lei

2014-01-01

459

Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade.  

PubMed

Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. PMID:25201987

Liu, Kai; Ding, Lianggong; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Chunyue; Lei, Ye; Han, Shuting; Tao, Wei; Miao, Dengshun; Steller, Hermann; Welsh, Michael J; Liu, Lei

2014-09-23

460

Near real-time skin deformation mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

2013-02-01

461

Skin-to-Skin Contact Analgesia for Preterm Infant Heel Stick.  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of the study was to compare a heel stick conducted during skin-to-skin contact with the mother to a heel stick in an incubator in reducing premature infant physiologic and behavioral pain responses. Study Design 24 premature infants in a University-based NICU were recruited and randomized to two sequences: Sequence A group received three hours of skin-to-skin contact with a heel stick in skin-to-skin followed by three hours in an incubator with a heel stick in the incubator. Sequence B group had incubator care and heel stick before skin contact care and heel stick. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, crying time and behavioral state were measured before, during, and after heel stick. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann Whitney U statistics were performed. Results Heart rate and crying responses to pain were significantly reduced during the skin-to-skin contact and skin contact heel stick as compared to incubator care and incubator heel stick. Three infants did not cry at all during the skin contact heel stick. Infants slept more during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator. Conclusion Skin-to-skin positioning before and during a heel stick is a simple and inexpensive intervention to ameliorate pain in medically stable premature infants. PMID:16082239

Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Hosseini, Robert B.

2005-01-01

462

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 Is a Dynamic Tight Junction-Related Shuttle Protein Involved  

E-print Network

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 Is a Dynamic Tight Junction-Related Shuttle in vivo evidences that Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4 (TRAF4) plays a key biological, Alpy F, Baguet A, Polette M, Stoll I, et al. (2008) Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Reduced necrosis of dystrophic muscle by depletion of host neutrophils, or blocking TNF? function with Etanercept in mdx mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres in the lethal childhood myopathy Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy results from deficiency of the cell membrane associated protein, dystrophin. We test the hypothesis in dystrophin-deficient mice, that the initial sarcolemmal breakdown resulting from dystrophin deficiency is exacerbated by inflammatory cells, specifically neutrophils, and that cytokines, specifically Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF?), contribute to myofibre necrosis. Antibody

Stuart Hodgetts; Hannah Radley; Marilyn Davies; Miranda D. Grounds

2006-01-01

464

Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: Compromised perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction results in fat necrosis and flap loss. Increased flap weight with fewer perforator vessels may exacerbate imbalances in flap perfusion. We studied deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-TRAM) flaps to assess this concept. Methods: Data from patients who underwent reconstruction with DIEP and/or MS-TRAM flaps between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 (n = 123) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were collected, including flap fat necrosis and donor/recipient site complications. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine effects of flap weight and perforator number on breast flap fat necrosis. Results: One hundred twenty-three patients who underwent 179 total flap reconstructions (166 DIEP, 13 MS-TRAM) were included. Mean flap weight was 658 ± 289 g; 132 (73.7%) were single perforator flaps. Thirteen flaps (7.5%) developed fat necrosis. African American patients had increased odds of fat necrosis (odds ratio, 11.58; P < 0.001). Odds of developing fat necrosis significantly increased with flap weight (odds ratio, 1.5 per 100 g increase; P < 0.001). In single perforator flaps weighing more than 1000 g, six (42.9%) developed fat necrosis, compared to 14.3% of large multiple perforator flaps. Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

Mulvey, Carolyn L.; Cooney, Carisa M.; Daily, Francis F.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ogbuago, Onyebuchi U.; Cooney, Damon S.; Rad, Ariel N.; Manahan, Michele A.; Rosson, Gedge D.

2013-01-01

465

Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

2013-11-01

466

Tissue-engineered skin: bottleneck or breakthrough  

PubMed Central

During the past few years, tissue-engineered skin constructs has offered great promise in the treatment of deep burns and various skin-related disorders. The overall impact of bioengineered skin research, as a multidisciplinary field, has also enhanced our understanding of the structure-function relations and the physiological processes of tissue regeneration within these constructed three-dimensional skin models. Despite of the fact that currently available bioengineered skin products have a range of problems such as patient safety, clinical efficacy and convenience of use, they are still one of the most advanced strategies because of their wide use and potential development in the biomedical field. Here, the challenges and developments in tissue-engineered skin research are discussed. Central to the discussion is the extensive application and future prospects of these bioengineered skin constructs. PMID:22928152

Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

2011-01-01