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1

Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional nuclear medicine offers a variety of different methods for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, including\\u000a three-phase bone scintigraphy, gallium imaging, and labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 (111In)-oxine or Tc-99-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and labeled antibodies against leukocyte surface antigens (antigranulocyte\\u000a antibodies). However, most of the conventional radionuclide imaging techniques are of low specificity in the detection of\\u000a low-grade and chronic

Katrin D. M. Stumpe

2

Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

Velchik, M.G.

1985-11-01

3

Radionuclide bone imaging: an illustrative review.  

PubMed

Bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled diphosphonates is one of the most frequently performed of all radionuclide procedures. Radionuclide bone imaging is not specific, but its excellent sensitivity makes it useful in screening for many pathologic conditions. Moreover, some conditions that are not clearly depicted on anatomic images can be diagnosed with bone scintigraphy. Bone metastases usually appear as multiple foci of increased activity, although they occasionally manifest as areas of decreased uptake. Traumatic processes can often be detected, even when radiographic findings are negative. Most fractures are scintigraphically detectable within 24 hours, although in elderly patients with osteopenia, further imaging at a later time is sometimes indicated. Athletic individuals are prone to musculoskeletal trauma, and radionuclide bone imaging is useful for identifying pathologic conditions such as plantar fasciitis, stress fractures, "shin splints," and spondylolysis, for which radiographs may be nondiagnostic. A combination of focal hyperperfusion, focal hyperemia, and focally increased bone uptake is virtually diagnostic for osteomyelitis in patients with nonviolated bone. Bone scintigraphy is also useful for evaluating disease extent in Paget disease and for localizing avascular necrosis in patients with negative radiographs. Radionuclide bone imaging will likely remain a popular and important imaging modality for years to come. PMID:12640151

Love, Charito; Din, Anabella S; Tomas, Maria B; Kalapparambath, Tomy P; Palestro, Christopher J

4

Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.  

PubMed

A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern. PMID:9160420

Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

5

Radionuclide cerebral imaging confirming brain death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by portable radionuclide cerebral imaging (RCI) and by four-vessel cerebral contrast arteriography in 15 clinically brain-dead patients, including six children. Neither technique showed evidence of CBF, although four RCI scans showed sagittal sinus activity. Portable scanning techniques are therefore considered valid determinants of brain death and may be useful in lieu of contrast cerebral

J. A. Schwartz; J. Baxter; D. Brill; J. R. Burns

1983-01-01

6

Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition

P Maltby

1997-01-01

7

Radionuclide Imaging of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skeletal imaging of oncologic patients is aimed at identifying early bone involvement, to determine the extent of the disease,\\u000a and to monitor the response to therapy [1]. Detection of malignant bone involvement is either direct, by visualization of tumoral infiltration, or indirect, by detecting\\u000a the reaction of bone to the presence of malignant cells. The vast majority of bone metastases

Einat Even-Sapir Weizer

8

Storing Images in Warm Atomic Vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversible and coherent storage of light in an atomic medium is a promising method with possible applications in many fields. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30?s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A technique analogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

Shuker, M.; Firstenberg, O.; Pugatch, R.; Ron, A.; Davidson, N.

2008-06-01

9

Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging. Volume 3 update  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on radioisotope scanning. Topics considered include single photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, cell labelling, radiolabelled leukocytes, radiolabelled platelets, radiolabelled antibodies, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, radionuclide diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer, and historical aspects of the radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors.

Freeman, L.M.

1986-01-01

10

Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

1981-10-01

11

Multimodality Radionuclide, Fluorescence, and Bioluminescence Small-Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging of molecular events in the complex physiological interplay between organelles, cells, tissues, and organs in the whole organism is now more practical through the use of small-animal imaging technologies. Radionuclide based molecular imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been used for imaging intracellular enzymes, receptors, transporters, reporter gene expression,

SANJIV S. GAMBHIR

2005-01-01

12

Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides  

SciTech Connect

New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

Wickstrom, Eric

2008-03-19

13

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

14

Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on ? therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

2005-06-17

15

Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.  

PubMed

Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies. PMID:12592127

Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

2003-03-01

16

Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary

W. H. Beierwaltes; J. C. Sisson; B. Shapiro

1984-01-01

17

Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis  

SciTech Connect

The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

1980-01-01

18

Radionuclide bone imaging of femoral prostheses with porous coatings. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide bone imaging can be of value in assessing the osseous changes around porous-coated femoral prostheses. Scintimetry appears to be a promising method for determining if radiodensities seen in radiographs of long-term prostheses are indicative of accelerated bone turnover or represent stable osseous structures. In dogs, the periosteal reaction which often occurs within two months of joint surgery masks endosteal-intramedullary osseous changes, including bone ingrowth into the porous coating.

Spector, M.; Wigger, W.B.; Buse, M.G.

1981-01-01

19

Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left

Charles A. Boucher; Robert D. Okada; Gerald M. Pohost

1980-01-01

20

Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics  

SciTech Connect

Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

2004-02-27

21

Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

1984-01-01

22

Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

1983-05-01

23

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

1981-01-01

24

Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis  

SciTech Connect

Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston (USA))

1989-01-01

25

Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine  

SciTech Connect

Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

1985-07-01

26

Radionuclide imaging of experimental atherosclerosis with nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G  

SciTech Connect

The utility of nonspecific polyclonal IgG for external imaging of experimental atherosclerosis was tested in a series of rabbits after balloon catheter deendothelialization of the abdominal aorta. Following injection of /sup 111/In-IgG, /sup 111/In-Fc, or /sup 111/In-Fab serial images were recorded. In addition, several animals received /sup 125/I-low density lipoproteins (/sup 125/I-LDL), or /sup 125/I human serum albumin (/sup 125/I-HSA) as positive and negative controls. Forty-eight hours after injection of the radiolabeled proteins, the aortas were removed, divided into abdominal and thoracic regions, counted, and autoradiographed. The images acquired after injection of /sup 111/In-IgG and /sup 111/In-Fc, showed clear focal accumulation of radioactivity in the healing abdominal aorta. In contrast, the images obtained after injection of /sup 111/In-Fab did not show focal radionuclide accumulation. For /sup 111/In-IgG and /sup 111/In-Fc there were three to six times as many counts in the abdominal as in the thoracic aorta, while for /sup 111/In-Fab and /sup 125/I HSA, the abdominal and thoracic counts were nearly equal. The results suggest that radiolabeled IgG and Fc can be used to image experimental atherosclerosis.

Fischman, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Khaw, B.A.; Kramer, P.B.; Wilkinson, R.; Ahmad, M.; Needelman, M.; Locke, E.; Nossiff, N.D.; Strauss, H.W.

1989-06-01

27

Myocardial perfusion imaging: clinical experience and recent progress in radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 20 years, radionuclide scintigraphy has proven to be a sensitive clinical tool in the assessment of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging may also be used to study myocardial perfusion, but its potential value still has to emerge in the clinical setting. This review addresses the potential and achievements of both methods in clinical cardiology.

Cess A. Visser; Jan T. Keijer; Jeroen J. Bax; Albert C. van Rossum; Frans C. Visser

1997-01-01

28

Diagnosis of biliary atresia with radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen patients with biliary atresia and 11 patients with neonatal hepatitis were studied preoperatively with either Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA or TC-99m-diisopropyl-IDA. Two parameters were evaluated: hepatocyte clearance and time to appearance of radioactivity in the intestine. Two observers, using a visual grading system of 1 to 4, gave the 16 patients with biliary atresia a hepatocyte clearance grade of 1.7 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- SD); intestinal radioactivity was not seen through 24 hours. The hepatocyte clearance grade of the 11 patients with neonatal hepatitis was 2.1 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- SD) (p greater than 0.05); intestinal radioactivity was seen in nine of 11 patients (p less than 0.001). Using both parameters, 91% of the patients were classified correctly, 4% were misclassified, and 6% were classified as indeterminate; sensitivity and specificity for biliary atresia were 97% and 82%, respectively. Radionuclide imaging with the newer technetium-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals appears promising for the noninvasive diagnosis of biliary atresia.

Gerhold, J.P.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Kuni, C.C.; Lilly, J.R.; Silverman, A.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Nixt, T.L.

1983-02-01

29

Accurate scatter compensation using neural networks in radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a new method to estimate primary photons using an artificial neural network in radionuclide imaging. The neural network for [sup 99m]Tc had three layers, i.e., one input layer with five units, one hidden layer with five units, and one output layer with two units. As input values to the input units, the authors used count ratios which were the ratios of the counts acquired by narrow windows to the total count acquired by a broad window with the energy range from 125 to 154 keV. The outputs were a scatter count ratio and a primary count ratio. Using the primary count ratio and the total count they calculated the primary count of the pixel directly. The neural network was trained with a back-propagation algorithm using calculated true energy spectra obtained by a Monte Carlo method. The simulation showed that an accurate estimation of primary photons was accomplished within an error ratio of 5% for primary photons.

Ogawa, Koichi; Nishizaki, N. (Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1993-08-01

30

A more rational basis for determining the activities used for radionuclide imaging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine specialists often wonder why the unique information on physiology and biochemistry in radionuclide images of human physiology has not achieved a wider acceptance. Part of the problem must lie in the comparison made by our referring physicians with anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging with their superb resolution. In spite of all the recent

Ralph McCready; Roger A'Hern

1997-01-01

31

The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.  

PubMed

This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. PMID:22486296

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2012-04-04

32

Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Allston, MA)

1984-06-04

33

ECG-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging using adenosine pharmacologic stress: Does choice of radionuclide matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Opinions vary as to whether Tc-99m radionuclides are superior for myocardial perfusion (P) imaging based on their imaging characteristics, or Tl-201 is better because of its uptake kinetics and less problem with inferior wall scatter from splanchnic organs. We designed this study to compare these 2 agents in patients imaged after pharmacologic stress using adenosine (Adenoscan®).Methods: 3 expert reviewers

T. M Bateman; G. V Heller; M. D Cerqueira; P. G Jones; J. R Bryngelson; K. L Moutray; L. L Gegen; G. K Hertenstein; K Moser; J. A Case

2004-01-01

34

Radionuclide imaging in primary amyloidosis with liver involvement.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man with hepatomegaly, hyperglycemia, and proteinuria was diagnosed with primary amyloidosis with liver involvement, proven by biopsy. Abnormal distribution of tracer in the liver on Tc-99m phytate liver-spleen imaging and abnormal tracer uptake by the liver on Tc-99m pyrophosphate whole body imaging were observed. Scintigraphic imaging studies may be used noninvasively to evaluate the involvement of organs in patients with primary amyloidosis, reducing the risk of bleeding caused by biopsy. PMID:9619324

Chen, S D; Kao, C H; Poon, S K

1998-06-01

35

In Vivo Mouse Bioluminescence Tomography with Radionuclide-Based Imaging Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Bioluminescence imaging, especially planar bioluminescence imaging, has been extensively applied in in vivo preclinical biological research. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has the potential to provide more accurate imaging information\\u000a due to its 3D reconstruction compared with its planar counterpart.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this work, we introduce a positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide imaging-based strategy to validate the BLT results.\\u000a X-ray computed tomography, PET,

Yujie Lu; Hidevaldo B. Machado; Qinan Bao; David Stout; Harvey Herschman; Arion F. Chatziioannou

2011-01-01

36

Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

1984-01-01

37

Infrared Imaging System with Ellipsoid Reflective Warm Baffle and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An infrared imaging system uses an uncooled elliptical surface section between reflective surfaces to allow a detector to perceive a cold interior of a vacuum chamber rather than a warmer surface of a structure or housing. In this way, background infrared...

J. S. Wolske

2005-01-01

38

Characterization of hepatic adenoma with atypical appearance on CT and MRI by radionuclide imaging.  

PubMed

The appearance of hepatic adenomas on CT and MRI are highly variable because of their varied histopathology, and images of adenomas are at times indistinguishable from those of other hepatic tumors. The authors present two patients with hepatic adenomas with extremely atypical CT and MRI manifestations demonstrating a "nodule-in-nodule" appearance. Radionuclide imaging in both patients showed decreased Ga-67 uptake in the adenomas compared to normal liver, negative colloid (Tc-99m phytate) uptake in the adenomas, and early uptake and subsequent retention of Tc-99m PMT. This correctly characterized the unique histopathologic features of the resected tumors. Radionuclide imaging using a combination of radiotracers may play an important role in aiding the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor, despite variable CT and MRI appearances. PMID:9408643

Kume, N; Suga, K; Nishigauchi, K; Shimizu, K; Matsunaga, N

1997-12-01

39

Radionuclide imaging and ultrasound in liver/spleen trauma: a prospective comparison  

SciTech Connect

In a prospective blind study of liver/spleen trauma, 32 consecutive patients were evaluated by radionuclide imaging (/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid) and gray-scale ultrasound. Six patients (19%) had inadequate sonograms due to injuries and pain. Thirteen (41%) were normal, 13 (41%) were abnormal with one technique or the other, and there was a discrepancy in 2 (6%). Of the 13 abnormal patients, 1 had a lacerated spleen, 2 had angiographic confirmation of a subcapsular hematoma, and 10 showed resolution on follow-up. Two patients with left-sided trauma had abnormal radionuclide scans of the liver; sonograms were initially normal in one of them, but subsequent imaging confirmed the abnormality. The authors feel that imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid should be the primary screening examination for liver/spleen trauma.

Froelich, J.W.; Simeone, J.F.; McKusick, K.A.; Winzelberg, G.G.; Strauss, H.W.

1982-11-01

40

High Resolution Radionuclide Imaging Using Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant effort is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Although single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positro...

M. Pivovaroff W. Barber T. Funk B. Hasegawa C. Taylor W. Craig K. Ziock

2004-01-01

41

Radionuclide imaging of the liver in human fascioliasis  

SciTech Connect

The clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic findings in four cases of human fascioliasis are described. Acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss in a person who has ingested watercress constitutes the clinical syndrome often seen. Eosinophilia and alteration in liver function tests, particularly alkaline phosphatase are frequent. Tc-99m sulfur colloid images showed hepatomegaly in four patients, focal defects in two, splenomegaly in three, and increased splenic uptake in two. Gallium citrate (Ga 67) images show increased uptake in the focal lesions in two of two. Sonographic imaging showed focal lucent abnormality in one of three. Liver biopsy findings were nonspecific. The differential diagnosis from other invasive parasitic diseases is discussed. A possible role of hepatic imaging in the evaluation of fascioliasis is suggested.

Rivera, J.V.; Bermudez, R.H.

1984-08-01

42

Advances in radionuclide molecular imaging in myocardial biology.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging is a new and evolving field that employs a targeted approach to noninvasively assess biologic processes in vivo. By assessing key elements in specific cellular processes prior to irreversible end-organ damage, molecular tools will allow for earlier detection and intervention, improving management and outcomes associated with cardiovascular diseases. The goal of those working to expand this field is not just to provide diagnostic and prognostic information, but rather to guide an individual's pharmacological, cell-based, or genetic therapeutic regimen. This article will review molecular imaging tools in the context of our current understanding of biological processes of the myocardium, including angiogenesis, ventricular remodeling, inflammation, and apoptosis. The focus will be on radiotracer-based molecular imaging modalities with an emphasis on clinical application. Though this field is still in its infancy and may not be fully ready for widespread use, molecular imaging of myocardial biology has begun to show promise of clinical utility in acute and chronic ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, as well as in more global inflammatory and immune-mediated responses in the heart-like myocarditis and allogeneic cardiac transplant rejection. With continued research and development, molecular imaging promises to be an important tool for the optimization of cardiovascular care. PMID:20012514

Morrison, Alan R; Sinusas, Albert J

43

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI  

SciTech Connect

The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

1985-05-01

44

High-resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging with radionuclides: The coded aperture option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging with radionuclides is a very sensitive technique because it allows to obtain images with nanomolar or picomolar concentrations. This has generated a rapid growth of interest in radionuclide imaging of small animals. Indeed radiolabeling of small molecules, antibodies, peptides and probes for gene expression enables molecular imaging in vivo, but only if a suitable imaging system is used. Detecting small tumors in humans is another important application of such techniques. In single gamma imaging, there is always a well known tradeoff between spatial resolution and sensitivity due to unavoidable collimation requirements. Limitation of the sensitivity due to collimation is well known and affects the performance of imaging systems, especially if only radiopharmaceuticals with limited uptake are available. In many cases coded aperture collimation can provide a solution, if the near field artifact effect can be eliminated or limited. At least this is the case for “small volumes” imaging, involving small animals. In this paper 3D-laminography simulations and preliminary measurements with coded aperture collimation are presented. Different masks have been designed for different applications showing the advantages of the technique in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The limitations of the technique are also discussed.

Cusanno, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santavenere, F.; Lanza, R. C.; Majewski, S.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Orsini Cancelli, V.; de Notaristefani, F.; Bollini, D.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.

2006-12-01

45

Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions.

Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

2008-01-01

46

Role of radionuclide cardiac imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery  

SciTech Connect

The main applications of cardiac nuclear imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery include: patient selection, prediction of improvement in resting LV function after revascularization, diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction, assessment of the results of revascularization, evaluation of new or recurrent symptoms, and in risk stratification. Proper understanding of which test to be used, when, and why may be important to optimize patient management.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Mostel, E.

1987-01-01

47

An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repairing bone defects.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: In order to study the ability of nano-hydroxyapatite artificial bone in repair of large segmental bone defect and to evaluate the value of radionuclide bone imaging in monitoring the bone's repairing in the bone defect. Methods: The animal model of bone defect was made on the bilateral radius of 24 (New repaired with HA artificial bone) with 12 rabbits in each group. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2? 4? 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Results: The counts of regions of interest (ROI) measure and the target to non-target ratios (T/NT) of the two groups indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant ?P ? 0.05?. Conclusions: The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction?it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction. PMID:23305343

Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Peng, Liangquan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ou, Yangkan; Fen, Wenzhe; Lu, Wei; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

2013-01-10

48

The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.  

PubMed

Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies. PMID:21600822

Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

2011-05-19

49

Radionuclide imaging of the injured spleen and liver  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of Tc-99m sulfur colloid and the gamma camera, radiocolloid liver-spleen imaging displaced angiography as the primary modality for diagnosing injury because of its sensitivity and non-invasiveness. A splenic defect may be nonspecific since it can be caused by a congenital variant. Specificity can be increased by awareness of common morphologic variations and judicious use of detector angulation to separate an overlapping left lobe. An increased incidence of overwhelming sepsis in postsplenectomy patients led to a more conservative approach to splenic injury, aided by sequential scintigraphy to demonstrate healing of traumatic defects. This decreased the significance of an initial false-positive scan that was caused by congenital variation, since the clinical ''bottom line'' was failure of a defect to enlarge or cause delayed rupture. Computed tomography (CT) is also a sensitive method of diagnosing injury or spleen and liver as well as other intraabdominal organs such as the kidneys. Its performance has not been compared to simultaneous multiorgan scintigraphy, an underutilized but very useful approach.

Lutzker, L.G.

1983-07-01

50

The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

1984-06-01

51

Gamma camera radionuclide images: improved contrast with energy-weighted acquisition  

SciTech Connect

An energy-weighted acquisition (EWA) technique has been developed that utilizes all scintillation events, weighting their contributions depending on their energy, to formulate a radionuclide image. Photopeak events from primary radiation contribute positively; scatter events contribute negatively, providing for scatter subtraction and improved image contrast. EWA is employed with an on-line weighted-acquisition module (WAM) as the data are acquired, rather than as a postprocessing technique. EWA was compared with normal window imaging in patients and in phantoms. For gallium-67 and thallium-201, contrast improved by as much as 40%. A much smaller improvement in contrast was observed with technetium-99m due to its ideal monoenergetic emissions. Single photon emission computed tomographic studies also showed improved contrast and were without artifact. EWA has great promise, and with further development quantitative scatter correction may be possible.

Halama, J.R.; Henkin, R.E.; Friend, L.E.

1988-11-01

52

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

1989-07-18

53

Probing the warm dense copper nano-foil with ultrafast electron shadow imaging and deflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted ultrafast electron shadow imaging and deflection measurements of the optical laser-produced warm dense copper nano-foil. The results show that a significant amount of charge is ejected from the foil, forming electron clouds of hundreds of microns on both sides of the pumped foil. Furthermore, even for a thin 30-nm copper film, we found that the electron clouds develop asymmetry between the pumped front side and the rear side at the pump fluence of 4.5 J/cm2. The possible mechanism leading to this ejected charge asymmetry and its implication are discussed.

Li, Junjie; Zhou, Jun; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Ping, Yuan; Ware, William D.; Cao, Jianming

2012-09-01

54

SIMULTANEOUS DUAL-RADIONUCLIDE MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING WITH A SOLID-STATE DEDICATED CARDIAC CAMERA  

PubMed Central

We compared simultaneous dual-radionuclide stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with a novel solid-state cardiac camera and a conventional SPECT camera with separate stress and rest acquisitions. Methods 24 consecutive patients (64.5 ± 11.8 years, 16 men) were injected with 74 MBq of 201Tl (rest) and 250 MBq 99mTc-MIBI (stress). Conventional MPI acquisition times for stress and rest were 21 min and 16 min, respectively. A simultaneous dual-radionuclide (DR) 15 minute list mode gated acquisition was performed on D-SPECT (Spectrum-dynamics, Caesarea, Israel). The DR D-SPECT data were processed using a spillover and scatter correction method. We compared DR D-SPECT images with conventional SPECT images by visual analysis employing the 17-segment model and a 5-point scale (0=normal, 4=absent) to calculate the summed stress and rest scores (SSS and SRS, respectively) and the % visual perfusion defect (TPD) at stress and rest, by dividing the stress and rest scores, respectively, by 68 and multiplying by 100. TPD <5% was considered normal. Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1=poor, 4=very good) and gut activity was assessed on a 4-point scale (0=none, 3=high). Results Conventional MPI was abnormal at stress in 17 patients and at rest in 9 patients. In the 17 abnormal stress studies DR D-SPECT MPI was abnormal in 113 vs. 93 abnormal segments by conventional MPI. In the nine abnormal rest studies DR D-SPECT was abnormal in 45 vs. 48 segments abnormal by conventional MPI. SSS, SRS, TPD stress and TPD rest on conventional SPECT and DR D-SPECT highly correlated (r=0.9790, 0.9694, 0.9784, 0.9710, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). In addition, 6 patients had significantly larger perfusion defects on DR D-SPECT stress images, including five of 11 patients who were imaged earlier on D-SPECT than conventional SPECT. Conclusion D-SPECT enables fast and high quality simultaneous DR MPI in a single imaging session with comparable diagnostic performance and image quality to conventional SPECT. Modifications of the injected doses and of the imaging protocol with DR D-SPECT may enable shortening of imaging time, reducing radiation exposure and shortening significantly patient stay in the department.

Ben-Haim, S.; Kacperski, K.; Hain, S.; Van Gramberg, D.; Hutton, B.F.; Waddington, W.A.; Sharir, T.; Roth, N.; Berman, D.S.; Ell, P.J.

2011-01-01

55

Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches.

Frank Berger; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

2001-01-01

56

Parametric imaging in cerebral radionuclide angiography (RNA) by planar imaging improving presentation and objectivation of cerebral blood flow.  

PubMed

Methods of parametric imaging of radionuclide angiography using parameters like appearance time, peak time, transit time, height of peak, arterial slope and area of inflow were developed and evaluated regarding their diagnostic meaning in 111 patients suffering from TIA or PRIND and in 30 normal persons. The meaning of these single parameters could shown depended on the specificity of the diagnostic question. Local cerebral blood flow can be estimated most favourably by parametric images of area of inflow whereas transit time is most promising as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of total cerebral blood flow classified with reference to severity of the perfusion disturbance. Appearance time is suited very well to estimation of collateral perfusion. Blood flow in great cerebral arteries could be seen well by non parametric imaging of radioactivity inflow in the brain supplying arterial vessels in the cranial floor. Applying a combination of the parametric images, the sensitivity for detection of disturbances of cerebral blood flow amounts to 0.91. A specificity of 0.88 and accuracy of 0.90 were found. The described combination of evaluation of RNA using various parameters is considered a well suited method for detection of disturbances in local and total cerebral blood flow by means of planar imaging. PMID:2646124

Lerch, H; Franke, W G; Hliscs, R

1989-01-01

57

Analysis of serial radionuclide bone images in osteosarcoma and breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The authors first describe and illustrate didactically the use of the Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique for serial diagnostic studies. They then present an analysis of previously published data on the results of serial radionuclide bone images in patients with osteosarcoma or breast carcinoma, using this technique. The data indicate that patients with osteosarcoma show an almost linear increase in the occurrence of bone metastates between 5 and 29 months after diagnosis; the rate is approximately 1% per month. Patients with breast cancer, on the other hand, show a biphasic rate of development, averaging only 0.5% per month during the first year after diagnosis but increasing rapidly to approximately 2% per month after 15 months.

McNeil, B.J.; Hanley, J.

1980-04-01

58

WARM AND FUZZY: TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY ANALYSIS OF AN Fe XV EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER LOOP  

SciTech Connect

The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) were designed in part to work together. They have the same spatial resolution and cover different but overlapping coronal temperature ranges. These properties make a combined data set ideal for multithermal analysis, where EIS provides the best information on the cooler corona (log T < 6.5) and XRT provides the best information on the hotter corona (log T > 6.5). Here, we analyze a warm non-flaring loop detected in images made in a strong EIS Fe XV emission line with a wavelength of 284.16 A and peak formation temperature of log T = 6.3. We perform differential emission measure (DEM) analysis in three pixels at different heights above the footpoint and find multithermal results with the bulk of the emission measure in the range 6.0 < log T < 6.6. Analysis with the EIS lines alone gave a DEM with huge amounts of emission measure at very high temperatures (log T >7.2); analysis with XRT data alone resulted in a DEM that was missing most of the cooler emission measure required to produce many of the EIS lines. Thus, both results were misleading and unphysical. It was only by combining the EIS and XRT data that we were able to produce a reasonable result, one without ad hoc assumptions on the shape and range of the DEM itself.

Schmelz, J. T.; Rightmire, L. A.; Kimble, J. A.; Worley, B. T.; Pathak, S. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Saar, S. H., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-09-10

59

Diagnostic value of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in thyroid developmental anomaly imaging.  

PubMed

Thyroid is particularly prone to morphogenetic variability. Developmental failure of the thyroid gland is in 85% of cases the underlying cause of congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed at birth with a frequency of 1:3000-1:4000 newborns. However, the incidence of less severe developmental variants of the thyroid is much higher. Determination of the aetiology of congenital hypothyroidism is crucial for predicting its severity and outcome as well as impacts dose of L-thyroxine during substitution. Thyroid imaging is necessary to establish diagnosis, and it involves mainly thyroid ultrasound examination and scintiscan. Awareness of both the advantages and limitations of sonographic and scintigraphic imaging are central to the successful interpretation of their results and reasonable recommendation of these procedures for patients with thyroid developmental anomalies of different age and clinical picture. Hence, the aim of this review is to provide the most important and up-to-date information on the place of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in visualization of different thyroid developmental abnormalities. PMID:21751168

Rucha?a, Marek; Szczepanek, Ewelina; Sowi?ski, Jerzy

2011-01-01

60

Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease.

Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

1985-07-01

61

THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience  

PubMed Central

The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT), and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction.

Baum, Richard P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.

2012-01-01

62

The value of combined radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and conservative management of minimal or localized osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis is helpful for a successful conservative treatment. The value of bone scanning combined with granulocytes labeled with hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) granulocyte-Tc99m (GN) radionuclide imaging (combined [RI]) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was assessed in 24 diabetic patients with foot ulcers. Evidence of osteomyelitis was based on the presence of at

Lydia Vesco; Hatem Boulahdour; Selim Hamissa; Sandrine Kretz; Jean-Luc Montazel; Leon Perlemuter; Michel Meignan; Alain Rahmouni

1999-01-01

63

Imaging of Hepatic Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors by Radionuclide Scintiscanning in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediates the cellular uptake of plasma lipoproteins that are derived from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Most of the functional LDL receptors in the body are located in the liver. Here, we describe a radionuclide scintiscanning technique that permits the measurement of LDL receptors in the livers of intact rabbits. 123I-labeled VLDL were administered

Manfred Huettinger; James R. Corbett; Wolfgang J. Schneider; James T. Willerson; Michael S. Brown; Joseph L. Goldstein

1984-01-01

64

Imaging dose: calibration of polymer gel dosimeters for use in targeted radionuclide therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of standardised methodology to perform dose calculations for targeted radionuclide therapy and at present no method exists to objectively evaluate the various approaches employed. The aim of the work described here was to investigate the practicality and accuracy of calibrating polymer gel dosimeters such that dose measurements resulting from complex activity distributions can be verified. 12

Jonathan I. Gear; Glenn D. Flux; Elizabeth Charles-Edwards; Mike Partridge; Gary Cook; Robert J. Ott

2005-01-01

65

The clinical importance of electrocardiographic changes during pharmacologic stress testing with radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Radionuclide MPI has become a reliable tool for the detection and surveillance of suspected or known CAD, regardless of whether\\u000a it is used in combination with exercise or pharmacologic stress agents. The presence of an abnormal electrocardiogram, especially\\u000a during a pharmacologic stress test, may indicate an elevated risk of multivessel CAD and higher annualized cardiac event rates.\\u000a Therefore the presence

Elizabeth M. Cosmai; Gary V. Heller

2005-01-01

66

Radionuclide Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of ? and ? particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

Zalutsky, M. R.

67

Extracting gravity wave parameters during the September 2002 Southern Hemisphere major sudden stratospheric warming using a SANAE imaging riometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using absorption data measured by imaging riometer for ionospheric studies (IRIS) located at the South Africa National Antarctic Expedition (SANAE), Antarctica (72° S, 3° W), we extracted the parameters of gravity waves (GW) of periods between 40 and 50 min during late winter/spring of the year 2002, a period of the unprecedented major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in the Southern Hemisphere middle atmosphere. During this period, an unprecedented substantial increase of temperature by about 25-30 K throughout the stratosphere was observed. During the period of the occurrence of the major stratospheric warming, there was a reduction of both the GW horizontal phase speeds and the horizontal wavelengths at 90 km. The GW phase speeds and horizontal wavelengths were observed to reach minimum values of about 7 m s-1 and 19 km, respectively, while during the quiet period the average value of the phase speed and horizontal wavelength was approximately 23 m s-1 and 62 km, respectively. The observed event is discussed in terms of momentum flux and also a potential interaction of gravity waves, planetary waves and mean circulation.

Mbatha, N.; Sivakumar, V.; Bencherif, H.; Malinga, S.

2013-10-01

68

Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease  

SciTech Connect

Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

1984-01-01

69

Induced renal artery stenosis in rabbits: magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and radionuclide determination of blood volume and blood flow  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the ability of MRI to detect alterations due to renal ischemia, a rabbit renal artery stenosis (RAS) model was developed. Seven rabbits had RAS induced by surgically encircling the artery with a polyethylene band which had a lumen of 1 mm, 1 to 2 weeks prior to imaging. The stenosis was confirmed by angiography, and the rabbits were then imaged in a 1.4 T research MRI unit. T1 was calculated using four inversion recovery sequences with different inversion times. Renal blood flow, using /sup 113/Sn-microspheres, and regional water content by drying were then measured. The average T1 of the inner medulla was shorter for the ischemia (1574 msec) than for the contralateral kidney (1849 msec), while no change ws noted in the cortex. Ischemic kidneys had less distinct outer medullary zones on IR images with TI = 600 msec than did contralateral or control kidneys. Blood flow to both the cortex and medulla were markedly reduced in ischemic kidneys compared with contralateral kidneys (119.5 vs. 391 ml/min/100 gm for cortex and 19.8 vs. 50.8 ml/min/100 gm for medulla). Renal water and blood content were less affected. Our rabbit model of renal artery stenosis with MRI, radionuclide, and angiographic correlation has the potential to increase our understanding of MR imaging of the rabbit kidney.

Mitchell, D.G.; Tobin, M.; LeVeen, R.; Tomaczewski, J.; Alavi, A.; Staum, M.; Kundel, H.

1988-03-01

70

Comparison of Different Echocardiographic Methods With Radionuclide Imaging for Measuring Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction During Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Thrombolytic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the usefulness, in clinical practice, of different echocardiographic methods of left ventricular (LV) function determination in patients with a recent thrombolytic-treated acute myocardial infarction (AMI); (2) compare these measurements with the reference method radionuclide imaging; and (3) evaluate the reproducibility of visual estimation of the LV ejection fraction (EF) and the

Kerstin Jensen-Urstad; Frederic Bouvier; Jonas Höjer; Hernan Ruiz; Johan Hulting; Bassem Samad; Curt Thorstrand; Mats Jensen-Urstad

1998-01-01

71

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

72

Direct Imaging of Radionuclide-Produced Electrons and Positrons with an Ultrathin Phosphor  

PubMed Central

Current electron detectors are either unable to image in vivo or lack sufficient spatial resolution because of electron scattering in thick detector materials. This study was aimed at developing a sensitive high-resolution system capable of detecting electron-emitting isotopes in vivo. Methods The system uses a lens-coupled charge-coupled-device camera to capture the scintillation light excited by an electron-emitting object near an ultrathin phosphor. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the system were measured with a 3.7-kBq 90Y/90Sr ?-source and a 70-µm resin bead labeled with 99mTc. Finally, we imaged the 99mTc-pertechnetate concentration in the mandibular gland of a mouse in vivo. Results Useful images were obtained with only a few hundred emitted ? particles from the 90Y/90Sr source or conversion electrons from the 99mTc bead source. The in vivo image showed a clear profile of the mandibular gland and many fine details with exposures of as low as 30 s. All measurements were consistent with a spatial resolution of about 50 µm, corresponding to 2.5 detector pixels with the current camera. Conclusion Our new electron-imaging system can image electron-emitting isotope distributions at high resolution and sensitivity. The system is useful for in vivo imaging of small animals and small, exposed regions on humans. The ability to image ? particles, positrons, and conversion electrons makes the system applicable to most isotopes.

Chen, Liying; Gobar, Lisa S.; Knowles, Negar G.; Liu, Zhonglin; Gmitro, Arthur F.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2008-01-01

73

Phantom feet on digital radionuclide images and other scary computer tales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malfunction of a computer-assisted digital gamma camera is reported. Despite what appeared to be adequate acceptance testing, an error in the system gave rise to switching of images and identification text. A suggestion is made for using a hot marker, which would avoid the potential error of misinterpretation of patient images.

J. E. Freitas; H. J. Dworkin; S. M. Dees; R. Ponto

1989-01-01

74

Phantom feet on digital radionuclide images and other scary computer tales  

SciTech Connect

Malfunction of a computer-assisted digital gamma camera is reported. Despite what appeared to be adequate acceptance testing, an error in the system gave rise to switching of images and identification text. A suggestion is made for using a hot marker, which would avoid the potential error of misinterpretation of patient images.

Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Dees, S.M.; Ponto, R. (William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (USA))

1989-09-01

75

Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

1987-07-01

76

The pinhole: gateway to ultra-high-resolution three-dimensional radionuclide imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the majority of clinical molecular imaging procedures are carried out with single-photon emitters and gamma cameras,\\u000a in planar mode and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) mode. Thanks to the development of advanced multi-pinhole\\u000a collimation technologies, SPECT imaging of small experimental animals is rapidly gaining in popularity. Whereas resolutions\\u000a in routine clinical SPECT are typically larger than 1 cm (corresponding to

Freek Beekman; Frans van der Have

2007-01-01

77

Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)|

Hileman, Bette

1989-01-01

78

Radionuclide trap  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01

79

Scatter correction in scintillation camera imaging of positron-emitting radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Anger scintillation cameras for positron SPECT has become of interest recently due to their use with imaging 2-18F deoxyglucose. Due to the special crystal design (thin and wide), a significant amount of primary events will also be recorded in the Compton region of the energy spectra. Events recorded in a second Compton window (CW) can add information

M. Ljungberg; M. Danfelter; S.-E. Strand; M. A. King; B. A. Brill

1996-01-01

80

Study on qualitative imaging diagnosis of human brain glioma with immuno-radionuclide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The target imaging agent (sup 131)I-SZ39 was made by labelling to monoclonal antibody SZ39 with (sup 131)I using modified chloramine T method. On the basis of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics study in glioma-bearing nude mice and the patients, the...

Huang Qiang Lan Qing Li Xiaonan

1996-01-01

81

Imaging of radionuclide emissions with a low-noise charge-coupled device  

SciTech Connect

Autoradiography is an extremely powerful tool for imaging the distribution of a radiolabeled compound within tissues. This is especially the case in microdosimetry for radioimmunotherapy and for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Film-based autoradiography provides excellent spatial resolution but presents some problems with regard to sensitivity, dynamic range, and quantitation. Although film as an image receptor can produce excellent resolution, it is time consuming and presents many problems in quantitative measurements due to its non-linearity of response and limited dynamic range. In this work the authors are investigating the adaptation of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) for some autoradiographic applications which may alleviate some of the problems encountered with film. The proposed approach uses a scientific-grade CCD which is optically coupled via a lens to a scintillator without intermediate amplification. On the basis of the experience with the lens coupling, the performance of the CCD is investigated with the option of a fiber optic coupling between the scintillator and CCD. The attainable performance by operating the CCD in the charge integration mode is explored experimentally and computations are presented in order to predict the performance of a modified imaging system operating in the counting pulse-height mode for energy discrimination.

Karellas, A.; Hong Liu; Harris, L.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Reinhardt, C.; Brill, A.B. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

1993-08-01

82

Long-Term Outcome of Patients With Intermediate-Risk Exercise Electrocardiograms Who Do Not Have Myocardial Perfusion Defects on Radionuclide Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The appropriate management of patients with intermediate-risk Duke treadmill scores is not established. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term risk of subsequent cardiovascular events in patients with an intermediate-risk treadmill score who do not have myocardial perfusion defects on radionuclide imaging. Methods and Results—The existing databases of the nuclear cardiology laboratories of 4 academic institutions were

Raymond J. Gibbons; David O. Hodge; Daniel S. Berman; Olakunle O. Akinboboye; Jaekyeong Heo; Rory Hachamovitch; Kent R. Bailey; Ami E. Iskandrian

83

Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

1981-07-01

84

Molecular imaging with radionuclides, a powerful technique for studying biological processes in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our team is carrying on a systematic study devoted to the design of a SPECT detector with submillimeter resolution and adequate sensitivity (1 cps/kBq). Such system will be used for functional imaging of biological processes at molecular level in small animal. The system requirements have been defined by two relevant applications: study of atherosclerotic plaques characterization and stem cells diffusion and homing. In order to minimize costs and implementation time, the gamma detector will be based—as much as possible—on conventional components: scintillator crystal and position sensitive PhotoMultipliers read by individual channel electronics. A coded aperture collimator should be adapted to maximize the efficiency. The optimal selection of the detector components is investigated by systematic use of Monte-Carlo simulations (and laboratory validation tests); and finally preliminary results are presented and discussed here.

Cisbani, E.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.

2007-02-01

85

Preoperative imaging of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroid disease using combination Tc-99m-pertechnetate and Tc-99m-sestamibi radionuclide scans.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of combined Tc-99m-pertechnetate and Tc-99m-sestamibi radionuclide scanning for imaging abnormal parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroid disease in a prospective study. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Established methods to localize abnormal parathyroid glands lack accuracy for routine use. Tc-99m-sestamibi used in conjunction with iodine-123 has excellent potential for preoperative imaging in patients with hyperparathyroid disease. An alternative method for parathyroid imaging was studied using Tc-99m-pertechnetate and Tc-99m-sestamibi. METHODS: Thirty patients with hyperparathyroid disease had Tc-99m-pertechnetate and Tc-99m-sestamibi subtraction radionuclide scanning to visualize abnormal parathyroid glands before surgery. The patients had surgery and pathologic confirmation of all parathyroid glands. RESULTS: In 23 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 of 13 solitary adenomas were visualized. Six of nine patients with diffuse hyperplasia had bilateral uptake consistent with diffuse hyperplasia. Three of nine patients had negative scans. One patient previously operated on for diffuse hyperplasia had only one gland scanned. Seven patients with renal failure-associated hyperparathyroid disease were scanned: five had bilateral uptake of Tc-99m-sestamibi consistent with hyperplasia, and two who had been previously operated on had localization of remaining abnormal parathyroid glands. CONCLUSIONS: Tc-99m-pertechnetate combined with Tc-99m-sestamibi subtraction radionuclide scanning is less cumbersome to implement than iodine-123 combined with Tc-99m-sestamibi scanning. It has a high sensitivity for imaging solitary parathyroid adenomas or persistent solitary hyperplastic glands. However it does not have the resolution necessary to delineate all parathyroid glands in diffuse hyperplasia. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Wei, J P; Burke, G J; Mansberger, A R

1994-01-01

86

Radionuclide Generators for Biomedical Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of thi...

R. D. Finn V. J. Molinski H. B. Hupf H. Kramer

1983-01-01

87

Glaciology: Repeat warming in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenland's glaciers have lost significant amounts of ice over the past decade. Rediscovered historical images of the ice margin show a record of southeast Greenland's response to the last major warming event in the 1930s.

Smith, Benjamin E.

2012-06-01

88

Compare and contrast warm and cold fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of Earth science animations show students what happens at cold and warm fronts as clouds are formed by the interaction of warm air and cool air. The cool front animation depicts cumulonimbus clouds forming as a cold front moves into a region of warm air and forces the warm air to rise. In contrast, the warm front animation shows how warm air, moving over cold air, causes a progression of nimbostratus to cirrus clouds to form. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animations, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

89

Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

1989-11-01

90

In vivo tumor targeting and radionuclide imaging with self-assembled nanoparticles: Mechanisms, key factors, and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of more selective delivery systems for cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy is one of the most important goals of current anticancer research. The purpose of this study is to evaluate various self-assembled nanoparticles as candidates to shuttle radionuclide and\\/or drugs into tumors and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with self-assembled nanoparticles. By combining different hydrophobic moieties

Yong Woo Choa; Soo Ah Parkb; Tae Hee Hanb; Dai Hyun Sonb; Ji Sun; d Parkb; Seung Jun Ohd; Dae Hyuk Moond; Kyung-Ja Choe; Cheol-Hee Ahnf; Youngro Byung; In-San Kimh; Sang Yoon Kimc

91

In vivo tumor targeting and radionuclide imaging with self-assembled nanoparticles: Mechanisms, key factors, and their implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of more selective delivery systems for cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy is one of the most important goals of current anticancer research. The purpose of this study is to evaluate various self-assembled nanoparticles as candidates to shuttle radionuclide and\\/or drugs into tumors and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with self-assembled nanoparticles. By combining different hydrophobic moieties

Yong Woo Cho; Soo Ah Park; Tae Hee Han; Dai Hyun Son; Ji Sun Park; Seung Jun Oh; Dae Hyuk Moon; Kyung-Ja Cho; Cheol-Hee Ahn; Youngro Byun; In-San Kim; Ick Chan Kwon; Sang Yoon Kim

2007-01-01

92

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

93

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

2012-10-08

94

Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface

John Houghton

2005-01-01

95

Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

Hoffer, P. B.

1980-06-10

96

Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by engineers and economists at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Stanford University concludes that the global warming caused by buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere during the next century can at least be slowed down if we learn to use nonpolluting energy sources more efficiently. It will take international cooperation, however, and prompt action to keep the greenhouse effects to a minimum.The report follows on the heels of two separate studies released in October by the National Research Council and the Environmental Protection Agency on carbon dioxide and global warming (Eos, November 15, 1983, p. 929). Like those groups, the NSF study panel believes that “a significant … warming in the next century probably cannot be avoided.” However, “the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel consumption can be significantly reduced via the adoption of realistic energy strategies that are relatively ‘CO2-benign.”’ The so-called greenhouse effect is caused when carbon dioxide and other gasses create an atmospheric blanket that traps heat near the surface.

97

Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery  

SciTech Connect

Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. (Cardiology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-08-01

98

Radionuclide removal  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

Sorg, T.J.

1991-01-01

99

Radionuclide detection of iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas of the genitourinary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide angiography is a valuable screening test for arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. Seven iatrogenic AV communications of the genitourinary system were initially diagnosed by radionuclide imaging, and untreated patients are being followed up by yearly nuclear examinations. Contrast arteriography is reserved for patients requiring interventional therapy and for symptomatic patients with a negative radionuclide study.

R. Lisbona; M. J. Palayew; R. Satin; B. B. Hyams

1980-01-01

100

Incremental prognostic value and cost-effectiveness of radionuclide SPECT imaging in patients with chest pain and normal electrocardiogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Screening of ischemic heart disease in low risk population needs consideration of prognostic and cost issue. This study is planned to determine the incremental value and cost-effectiveness of myocardial nuclear SPECT imaging in discriminating patients with chest pain but normal rest electrocardiogram or no history of heart disease in terms of long term prognosis.Methods: We identified 587 subjects with

Y Kuwabara; K Nakayama; Y Tsuru; J Nakaya; S Shindo; M Hasegawa; I Komuro

2004-01-01

101

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

102

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

103

Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment strategy that is now widely investigated clinically. Researchers have begun to search for objective

Ingrid Dijkgraaf; Otto C. Boerman

2009-01-01

104

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

105

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)|

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

106

Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography  

SciTech Connect

This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

1980-01-01

107

Warm Seclusion Extratropical Cyclones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The warm seclusion or mature stage of the extratropical cyclone lifecycle often has structural characteristics reminiscent of major tropical cyclones including eye-like moats of calm air at the barotropic warm-core center surrounded by hurricane force winds along the bent-back warm front. Many extratropical cyclones experience periods of explosive intensification or deepening (bomb) as a result of nonlinear dynamical feedbacks associated

Ryan Nicholas Maue

2010-01-01

108

EPA Global Warming Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Extensive website discussing all aspects of global warming. Discover what global warming is, what the greenhouse gases are and how much we emit, what the potential future impacts are, and what is being done to correct the problem. Site features public, educator, student, and kid resources. Explore how global warming and sea level rise will affect your state, as well as learn what you can do to help.

2010-07-06

109

Warm Debris Disks from WISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an all-sky survey for warm debris disks in the solar neighborhood using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Cross-correlation of robustly-detected WISE 22 micron sources with the Hipparcos 2 catalog yields 25,964 stars within 120 pc of the Sun and 47,204 Tycho stars whose proper motions are suggestive of the same distance horizon. After careful vetting to exclude sources compromised by image artifacts, source confusion, and astronomical contaminants, a total of 508 Hipparcos and 296 Tycho high-confidence disk candidates emerge from the samples. Three hundred forty-six Hipparcos and 277 Tycho stars are newly-identified infrared excess stars. We have observed a subsample of the new FGK debris disk candidates with Herschel at 70 and 160 microns and find a mixture of warm and cold debris disks. In this talk, we will discuss the new WISE debris disks and their ongoing characterization.

Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Liu, W. M.; Leisawitz, D.; Krist, J. E.; Debes, J. H.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; WISE Science Team

2013-01-01

110

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

111

Radionuclides in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impending new maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for radionuclides, plus increased concern for radon in the air inside homes, have sparked new interest in these substances. An assessment of research needs,* which also provided background information on completed and ongoing research projects, showed that Rn-222 represents the most serious threat to health of all the radionuclides in drinking water, leading to

Jerry D. Lowry; Sylvia B. Lowry

1988-01-01

112

Radionuclides Production, vol 2  

SciTech Connect

Twelve specialists present a comprehensive and integrated guide on the theory and practical aspects of radionuclide production. Vol. II: Special consideration is given to production techniques of short-lived positron radionuclides and labeling procedures. Illustrative examples combined with technical explanations on the biomedical studies are also included.

Helus, F.

1983-01-01

113

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically

Jeffrey Y. C. Wong

2006-01-01

114

Television news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01

115

Is Earth Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part two of a seven-part National Academies series, Climate Change: Lines of Evidence. The video outlines, with the use of recent research and historical data, how we know that the Earth is warming.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

116

Economics of global warming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issu...

G. Pillet W. Hediger S. Kypreos C. Corbaz

1993-01-01

117

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

118

Radionuclide Cystogram (Bladder Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... as bladder scan, radionuclide cystogram is a diagnostic nuclear test that uses a solution containing radioactive material ... Kidney (Renal) Failure Kidney (Renal) Infection Kidney (Renal) Nuclear Medicine Scan Kidney (Renal) Transplantation Kidney (Renal) Trauma ...

119

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

120

Experimental cross sections for charged particle production of the therapeutic radionuclide 111Ag and its PET imaging analogue 104m,gAg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton and deuteron particle induced nuclear reactions for generation of selected Ag radionuclides used in therapeutic or diagnostic nuclear medicine were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural palladium targets up to Ep=43 MeV and Ed=22 MeV, respectively. Excitation functions are reported for the first time for the reactions natPd(d,xn)111Ag, natPd(d,xn) 110mAg, natPd(d,xn)104m,gAg, natPd(p,xn)104m,gAg. Optimal production pathways with minimal contamination, cross sections, thick target yields and activation functions have been deduced and compared with available experimental data.

Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.; Bolbos, R.

2004-04-01

121

Global warming on trial  

SciTech Connect

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.

Broeker, W.S.

1992-04-01

122

Tongue-shaped frontal structure and warm water intrusion in the southern Yellow Sea in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, a thermohaline front forms at the Yellow Sea (YS) entrance where the warm and saline Cheju Warm Current (CWC) water meets cold coastal water. The frontal structure, as well as the northwestward intrusion of the warm water, was investigated by analyzing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data, tracks of drifting floats, moored current data, and satellite images. The CWC water advances

Heung-Jae Lie; Cheol-Ho Cho; Seok Lee

2009-01-01

123

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program has made available the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming Website. Sections included at the site are the Beginning, the Story, the Data, Final Word, and Image Gallery, among others. The Story provides the user with a background on climate and climate variability. The Data section gives an in-depth look at the "instrumental and paleoclimatic data that tells us how the Earth's temperature has changed over the past years to the millennia." A highlight of the site is the Image Gallery section, with images from the following NOAA slide sets: Coral Paleoclimatology, Tree Ring, Lake Sediments, Pollen, and Low-Latitude Ice Cores and Polar Ice Cores. The site helps to highlight the importance of paleoclimatic research and shows how paleoclimatic research relates to global warming and other issues regarding climate change and variability.

Program., National G.

124

Dual-modality molecular imaging using antibodies labeled with activatable fluorescence and a radionuclide for specific and quantitative targeted cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Multimodality molecular imaging should have potential for compensating the disadvantages and enhancing the advantages of each modality. Nuclear imaging is superior to optical imaging in whole body imaging and in quantification due to good tissue penetration of gamma rays. However, target specificity can be compromised by high background signal due to the always signal ON feature of nuclear probes. In contrast, optical imaging can be superior in target specific imaging by employing target-specific signal activation systems, although it is not quantitative because of signal attenuation. In this study, to take advantage of the mutual cooperation of each modality, multimodality imaging was performed by a combination of quantitative radiolabeled probe and an activatable optical probe. The monoclonal antibodies, panitumumab (anti-HER1) and trastuzumab (anti-HER2) were labeled with 111In and ICG, and tested in both HER1 and HER2 tumor bearing mice by the cocktail injection of radiolabeled and optical probes, and by the single injection of a dual-labeled probe. The optical and nuclear images were obtained over 6 days after the conjugates injection. The fluorescence activation properties of ICG labeled antibodies were also investigated by in vitro microscopy. In vitro microscopy demonstrated that there was no fluorescence signal with either panitumumab-ICG or trastuzumab-ICG, when the probes were bound to cell surface antigens but were not yet internalized. After the conjugates were internalized into the cells, both conjugates showed bright fluorescence signal only in the target cells. These results show both conjugates work as activatable probes. In vivo multimodality imaging by injection of a cocktail of radio-optical probes, only the target specific tumor was visualized by optical imaging. Meanwhile, the biodistribution profile of the injected antibody was provided by nuclear imaging. Similar results were obtained with radio and optical dual labeled probe, and it is confirmed that pharmacokinetic properties did not affect the results above. Here, we could characterize the molecular targets by activatable optical probes, and visualize the delivery of targeting molecules quantitatively by radioactive probes. Multimodality molecular imaging combining activatable optical and radioactive probe has great potential for simultaneous visualization, characterization, and measurement of biological processes.

Ogawa, Mikako; Regino, Celeste A.S.; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Xi, Wenze; Williams, Mark; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2009-01-01

125

Warm vector inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we introduce the "warm vector inflation" scenario. In warm inflation scenario radiation is produced during the inflation epoch and reheating is avoided. Slow-roll and perturbation parameters of this model are presented. We develop our model using intermediate inflation model. In this case, the model is compatible with observational data. We also study the model using another exact cosmological solution, named logamediate scenario. We present slow-roll and Hubble parameters, power spectrum and tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflaton. The model is compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

Setare, M. R.; Kamali, V.

2013-10-01

126

Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

Winzelberg, G.G.

1983-02-01

127

Radionuclide evaluation of tubal function  

SciTech Connect

The tubal capacity to transport radioactively labeled human albumin microspheres deposited in the vaginal fornix and cervical canal and to concentrate them on the ovarian surface was evaluated in a group of 34 patient-volunteers. One millicurie of /sup 99m/Tc was used to label human albumin microspheres of 20 ..mu.. in diameter, suspended in 1 ml of saline. The distribution of the radioactive material was imaged on a gamma camera at different intervals between 15 and 240 minutes. The radiation dose to the ovaries was estimated to be similar to that of a hysterosalpingogram. The results of the radionuclide evaluation were compared with the surgical findings at the time of laparoscopy or laparotomy performed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The overall correlation was 87.1%. It would appear that as opposed to the traditional hysterosalpingogram, a radionuclide test may give a better understanding of the functional capacity of the tube and may also prove a useful method in the evaluation of the results of tubal microsurgical procedures.

Stone, S.C.; McCalley, M.; Braunstein, P.; Egbert, R.

1985-05-01

128

Behavior of the warm ocean water at the south coast of Kyushu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The warm ocean water filaments are emanated periodically in winter from the meandering Kuroshio Current at the East China\\u000a Sea. They bring the intermittent warm ocean water intrusion into the Kagoshima Bay well known as ‘Kyucho’ phenomenon. From\\u000a the satellite SST images, the warm water intrusion is also observed at the Fukiage Seashore. In addition to the warm water\\u000a intrusions,

K. Hosotani

2006-01-01

129

Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

2011-01-01

130

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

131

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

132

Global warming on trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would

Broeker

1992-01-01

133

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

134

Keeping Warm: Unit Outlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article assembles free resources from the Keeping Warm issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for grades K-2 and 3-5.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

135

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University;)

2002-10-01

136

Warm-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Warm-ups are questions I assign on the reading. Students read the text, do the questions, and turn one copy of the answers at the beginning of every class. They also keep one copy. The questions range from very objective to extremely subjective, but I generally keep them more concrete and less speculative. In class, we will go over the answers at the point in the lecture they best apply. They make corrections (if needed) as we discuss the questions in class. At that point, I'm also very explicit about what a good answer entails and we even discuss how I might ask this on an exam. As the exam comes up, they know what questions are most important, because we've covered them in the warm-ups. If there was information that I could not cover in a warm-up but could only provide in lecture, I will point that out. In brief, Warm-ups help to accomplish the following things: They help get students to read before class, They provide another source of points based on rewarding them for what they should already be doing, They are the main source of exam questions, They indicate to students what is most important to learn, They provide students a format for assembling information and practicing answers for questions that will be on the exam, and They help break my lecture into shorter segments interspersed with student interaction and feedback.

Price, Alan P.

137

Variability of thermocline hydrography for IMAGES Core MD05-2925 at the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the past 170 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent, mainly originates from the northward transport of the New Guinea Coastal Underwater from the Solomon Sea, has been provoked as a major source to fuel intense primary production in the eastern equatorial Pacific. However, little is known about the glacial-interglacial (G/IG) variability of thermocline hydrographic history in the Solomon Sea. Here we present stable isotopes and Mg/Ca paleotemperature records of surface-dwelling foraminiferas Globigerinoides sacculifer and thermocline-dwelling Pulleniatina obliqulioculata for Core MD05-2925 ( 9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E) at the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. P. obliqulioculata is considered to live at the upper thermocline layer, and therefore, its geochemistry proxies reflect hydrological variations of the thermocline through time. The oxygen isotope ratios of G. sacculifer and P. obliqulioculata fluctuated with an amplitude of 2 permil over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The carbon isotope ratios of P. obliqulioculata decreased by ~ 0.3 permil during the two deglaciations. The d13C of G. sacculifer decreased ~ 0.2 permil during the Termination I but increased ~ 0.4 permil during the Termination II. The Mg/Ca ratios of G.sacculifer and P. obliqulioculata fluctuate with a range of ~ 1.3 and ~ 1.1 mmol/mol, respectively, corresponding to a ~ 3 and ~ 5oC change in temperature. Spectral analyses of d13C and Mg/Ca-derived upper thermocline temperature (UTT) suggest a strong influence of Antarctic on the sub-surface hydrographic changes at this site. UTT reached its highest peak at the beginning of the IG periods, namely, MIS 5e and early Holocene, and decreased rapidly by 3 - 5 oC afterwards. Similar pattern has been reported recently in the Timor Sea at Terminations I and II by Xu et al. (2006 & 2008). The decoupling of surface and sub-surface water in temperature during the early IG periods can be explained by the dramatically thickening of mixed layer and deepening of the thermocline during the second half of the Terminations, assuming that the dwelling depth of P. obliqulioculata did not change much. The good similarity in d18Ow between surface and sub-surface species implies that the stratification is mainly caused by temperature gradient rather than salinity. However, the relationship between the southern high-latitude climate and the sub-surface waters in the WPWP during the G/IG needs further examination.

Lee, M.-Y.; Lo, L.; Lin, Y.-C.; Mii, H.-S.; Wei, K.-Y.

2009-04-01

138

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

139

Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

1983-07-01

140

Satellite-Based Assessment of the Aerosol Effect on Global Warm Cloud Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present characteristics of global warm cloud properties and warm-rain process in conjunction with the aerosol index (AI) and the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible\\/Infrared Radiance Imager (VIRS) simultaneously derive cloud-top droplet effect radius, column droplet radius, cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, cloud optical depth, and a warm rain index.

T. Matsui; H. Masunaga; R. A. Pielke; S. M. Kreidenweis; W. Tao; M. Chin; Y. J. Kaufman

2004-01-01

141

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

142

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

De Nie, Michael W.

143

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other elements of the TSPA-SR model. The scope of the EBS RT Abstraction also does not include computational or numerical procedures for solving the process-level equations; rather, it identifies the important processes that must then be evaluated with process-level or component-level software using analytical or numerical solutions.

R. Schreiner

2001-06-27

144

Microwave warming of resuscitation fluids.  

PubMed

Hypothermia is a common complication in fluid resuscitation of the hypovolemic patient. Warm intravenous (IV) fluids have been shown to be a valuable adjunct in volume replacement to prevent this complication. A rapid method of warming IV fluids is the microwave oven. Heating time for liter bags of crystalloid to 39 C was determined to be two minutes at high power, 600 W. Fresh frozen plasma was thawed with five 30-second exposures to microwave radiation. Microwave warming of packed red blood cells (PRBC), 4 C to 37 C, resulted in a 17-fold increase in plasma hemoglobin over that of water bath controls, (P greater than .01). Heating on a warm cycle to room temperature, 21 C, caused an average 26% increase in plasma hemoglobin. Therefore, we do not advocate microwave warming of PRBC because of the possible danger of local overheating, which causes hemolysis. We warm PRBC secondarily by diluting with microwave-warmed, calcium-free crystalloid. PMID:4025986

Leaman, P L; Martyak, G G

1985-09-01

145

Radionuclide Migration: Prediction Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many different methods of calculating radionuclide migration (transfer) with groundwater-from very simple handmade calculations to use of sophisticated computer models, - exist and are in use. There is no doubt whether we can solve a particular problem in this area; the question is how can we find means of doing this in a fast, precise and economical way. According to practical experience of MosSIA 'Radon' specialists it is useful at the first stage to assess the degree to which various parameters affect the final result. Then the relevance of modeling parameters is usually assessed. SUE MosSIA 'Radon' has applied this complex approach to assessing possible radionuclide transfer from the long term storage facilities located within one of the sites in Moscow. Questions of model verification, computer realization, the analysis of obtained results, a role and a place of these calculations in safety assessment and safety case are beyond the scope of this paper. (authors)

Martianov, V.V.; Sheglov, M.Yu.; Guskov, A.V. [State Unitary Enterprise MosSIA 'Radon', 2/14, 7th Rostovsky pereulok, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

146

Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

1992-10-01

147

Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific Warm Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in observed sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature are analyzed for the tropical Pacific during 1955–2003. Since\\u000a 1955, the western Pacific Warm Pool has significantly warmed and freshened, whereas SSS has been increasing in the western\\u000a Coral Sea and part of the subtropical ocean. Waters warmer than 28.5°C warmed on average by 0.29°C, and freshened by 0.34\\u000a pss per

Sophie Cravatte; Thierry Delcroix; Dongxiao Zhang; Michael McPhaden; Julie Leloup

2009-01-01

148

Global warning, global warming  

SciTech Connect

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.

Benarde, M.A. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

149

Warm climate surprises  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decade, paleoclimatic data from ice cores and sediments have shown that the climate system is capable of switching between significantly different modes, suggesting that climatic surprises may lie ahead. Most attention in the growing area of abrupt climatic change research continues to be focused on large changes observed during glacial periods. The weight of paleoclimatic evidence now suggests that conforting conclusions of benign warm climate variability may be incorrect. The article goes on to discuss the evidence for this. 17 refs.

Overpeck, J.T. [National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-03-29

150

Global warming from HFC  

SciTech Connect

Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

Johnson, E. [Atlantic Consulting, London (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

151

Negative radionuclide scan in osteoid osteoma. A case report  

SciTech Connect

Advances in radionuclide imaging have facilitated the accurate diagnosis and surgical excision of osteoid osteoma. While radionuclide imaging has been inconsistent in the diagnosis of certain problems, its accuracy in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma has been frequently stressed. To date, no case of a negative bone scan in the presence of a histologically proven osteoid osteoma has been reported. The present case report emphasizes that a negative bone scan does not preclude the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Clinical suspicion remains the most sensitive indicator of this lesion.

Fehring, T.K.; Green, N.E.

1984-05-01

152

Kidney Dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy: Influence of Image Timing, Time-Activity Integration Method, and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Kidney dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y PRRT requires 3 to 6 whole-body/SPECT scans to extrapolate the peptide kinetics, and it is considered time and resource consuming. We investigated the most adequate timing for imaging and time-activity interpolating curve, as well as the performance of a simplified dosimetry, by means of just 1-2 scans. Finally the influence of risk factors and of the peptide (DOTATOC versus DOTATATE) is considered. 28 patients treated at first cycle with 177Lu DOTATATE and 30 with 177Lu DOTATOC underwent SPECT scans at 2 and 6 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after the radiopharmaceutical injection. Dose was calculated with our simplified method, as well as the ones most used in the clinic, that is, trapezoids, monoexponential, and biexponential functions. The same was done skipping the 6?h and the 3?d points. We found that data should be collected until 100?h for 177Lu therapy and 70?h for 90Y therapy, otherwise the dose calculation is strongly influenced by the curve interpolating the data and should be carefully chosen. Risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) cause a rather statistically significant 20% increase in dose (t-test, P < 0.10), with DOTATATE affecting an increase of 25% compared to DOTATOC (t-test, P < 0.05).

Guerriero, F.; Ferrari, M. E.; Botta, F.; Fioroni, F.; Grassi, E.; Versari, A.; Sarnelli, A.; Pacilio, M.; Amato, E.; Strigari, L.; Bodei, L.; Paganelli, G.; Iori, M.; Pedroli, G.; Cremonesi, M.

2013-01-01

153

Cyclotron Production of Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclotron products are gaining in significance in diagnostic investigations via PET and SPECT, as well as in some therapeutic studies. The scientific and technological background of radionuclide production using a cyclotron is briefly discussed. Production methods of the commonly used positron and photon emitters are described and developments in the production of some new positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides outlined. Some perspectives of cyclotron production of medical radionuclides are considered.

Qaim, S. M.

154

Radionuclides production. Volumes 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on isotope production. Topics considered include historical aspects of radioisotope production, nuclear physics fundamentals, activation techniques, the radiochemical processing of activated targets, reactor-produced radionuclides, short-lived positron emitting radionuclides, other cyclotron radionuclides, nuclear medicine, the production of radionuclides by a 14 MeV neutron generator, and radionuclides and labelled compounds produced at an electron linear accelerator.

Not Available

1983-01-01

155

Perturbations in warm inflation  

SciTech Connect

Warm inflation is an interesting possibility to describe the early universe, whose basic feature is the absence, at least in principle, of a preheating or reheating phase. Here we analyze the dynamics of warm inflation generalizing the usual slow-roll parameters that are useful for characterizing the inflationary phase. We study the evolution of entropy and adiabatic perturbations, where the main result is that for a very small amount of dissipation the entropy perturbations can be neglected and the purely adiabatic perturbations will be responsible for the primordial spectrum of inhomogeneities. Taking into account the Cosmic Background Explorer Differential Microwave Radiometer data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy as well as the fact that the interval of inflation for which the scales of astrophysical interest cross outside the Hubble radius is about 50 e-folds before the end of inflation, we could estimate the magnitude of the dissipation term. It is also possible to show that at the end of inflation the universe is hot enough to provide a smooth transition to the radiation era.

de Oliveira, H. P.; Joras, S. E.

2001-09-15

156

Understanding Warm Coronal Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warm (~ 1 MK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. It has been shown that the excess density can be explained if loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively and quasi-randomly to very high temperatures. This picture of nanoflare heating predicts that neighboring strands of different temperature should coexist and therefore that loops should have multi-thermal cross sections. In particular, emission should be produced at temperatures hotter than 2 MK. Such emission is sometimes but not always seen, however. We offer two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense warm loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We verify these possibilities with numerical hydro simulations. Time permitting, we will show FeXVII line profile observations from EIS/Hinode that support the existence of nanoflare heating. Work supported by NASA and ONR.

Klimchuk, J. A.; Karpen, J. T.; Patsourakos, S.

2007-12-01

157

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

PubMed

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

2011-03-03

158

Radionuclides in nephrology  

SciTech Connect

In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

Lausanne, A.B.D.

1987-01-01

159

Warm waters, bleached corals  

SciTech Connect

Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse warming. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.

Roberts, L.

1990-10-12

160

Interacting warm dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear ??m??e? form, where ?m and ?e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters ? and ? are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (?,?,?) as well as wm and we of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter - phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ?CDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (?,?,?) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

2013-05-01

161

The Discovery of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important

Michael C. MacCracken

2004-01-01

162

Global warming as analytic tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, like many other environmental controversies, mixes pervasive uncertainty with the certainties of expert (but contradictory) opinion. How can we know who is right about global warming, if the only things we have to work with are the scientists’ competing scenarios, the truth?value of which has yet to be established? One approach is to rely on narrative policy analysis

Emery M. Roe

1992-01-01

163

Global warming and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns that the rapid development of the developing countries will hasten global warming and exacerbate resource problems. That is to say, it is quite possible that we cannot solve the North-South problem while at the same time containing global warming and conserving fossil fuels. But this paper attempts to show that, on the contrary, the fast development of

Kokichi Ito

1996-01-01

164

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

165

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by ?- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

166

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Garland, Marc A [ORNL

2011-01-01

167

Segmental wall-motion analysis in the right anterior oblique projection: comparison of exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and exercise contrast ventriculography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were studied at rest and during supine bicycle exercise with radionuclide and contrast left ventriculography. Analysis of regional wall motion was made by visual evaluation of the five standard 30° right anterior oblique (RAO) wall segments in the contrast images and the corresponding 10° RAO radionuclide segments. The radionuclide studies were

T. J. Brady; J. H. Thrall; J. W. Jr. Keyes; J. F. Brymer; J. A. Walton; B. Pitt

1980-01-01

168

Natural radionuclides in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Laul, J.C.

1990-01-01

169

The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Oncology, Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G1Z2 (Canada)

2008-08-11

170

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

171

How the West Was Warmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

172

Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone scintigraphy (BS) with 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates (99mTc-DPD) is the second most common nuclear medicine procedure performed in children and adolescents after renography. Common\\u000a indications are suspicion of infections\\/inflammations, trauma, and tumors. BS is a simple and non-invasive procedure and does\\u000a not need special preparation [1–3]. Cooperation of the child and parents can be easily obtained by a trained staff. A

Ariane Boubaker

173

Neutralino warm dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the supersymmetric (SUSY) standard model, the lightest neutralino may be the lightest SUSY particle (LSP), and it is is a candidate of the dark matter in the universe. The LSP dark matter might be produced by the non-thermal process such as heavy particle decay after decoupling of the thermal relic LSP. If the produced LSP is relativistic, and does not scatter enough in the thermal bath, the neutralino LSP may contribute as the warm dark matter (WDM) to wash out the small scale structure of /O(0.1) Mpc. In this Letter we calculate the energy reduction of the neutralino LSP in the thermal bath and study whether the LSP can be the WDM. If temperature of the production time TI is smaller than 5 MeV, the bino-like LSP can be the WDM and may contribute to the small-scale structure of /O(0.1) Mpc. The higgsino-like LSP might also work as the WDM if TI<2 MeV. The wino-like LSP cannot be the WDM in the favored parameter region.

Hisano, J.; Kohri, K.; Nojiri, M. M.

2001-04-01

174

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

175

Soil Microbes and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, viewers learn how one-celled organisms in permafrost may be contributing to greenhouse gas levels and global warming.

Kuac; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

176

Review of Warm Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA technology allows the mixing, transport...

A. Chowdhury J. W. Button

2008-01-01

177

Global Warming Kids.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

178

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

179

Seasonal Flows on Warm Martian Slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48°S to 32°S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood.

McEwen, Alfred S.; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J.; Cull, Selby C.; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gulick, Virginia C.

2011-08-01

180

[Teratogenic effects of incorporated radionuclides].  

PubMed

Experimental data on teratogenic effects induced by incorporated alpha, beta and gamma-emitters were analyzed. It was found that the radioactive substances as well as external irradiation induced teratogenic effects. Teratogenesis caused by incorporated radionuclides has some peculiarities compared to the effect caused by fetus exposure to external radiation. These peculiarities are related to the fact of the limited penetration of incorporated radionuclides via placenta barrier so the radiation fetal doses are accumulated within long period of time and radiation dose rates are relatively low. The exposure to incorporated radionuclides does not induce severe developmental defects. Most frequent developmental defects of fetus include its death, general retardation of the development and growth. In such case the earlier pregnancy term was affected by radionuclide the more severe fetal damages occur in fetus because of the gradual increase of absorbed dose even in case of single intake of radionuclide. RBEs of radionuclides if compared to that for external gamma radiation are evaluated as follows: 2-4 (tritium oxide), 20 (241Am), 50 (238Pu) and 3-5 (131I in thyroid). PMID:11898639

Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A

181

Active Movement Warm-Up Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

2011-01-01

182

Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.  

PubMed

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

2012-02-20

183

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

Lau, William; Wu, H. T.; Agu

184

The Great Warming Brian Fagan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

Fagan, B. M.

2010-12-01

185

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2004-06-29

186

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2003-06-01

187

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector, using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2001-06-01

188

Global warming and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

189

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-04-01

190

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed.

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

191

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24

192

Cellular dosimetry of diagnostic radionuclides for spherical and ellipsoidal geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides which emit Auger electrons are widely used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Studies have shown possible uptake of these in developing germ cells within the testes. In addition, mature sperm within the reproductive tract may be subject to uptake of radionuclides from the circulating blood pool. Though much work has been carried out concerning cellular dosimetry applied to spherical sources, such an approach may lead to significant errors when considering spermatids and spermatozoa, which are almost ellipsoidal in shape (with the long axis twice the short). A numerical method for determining geometrical reduction factors has been developed and used in conjunction with experimentally determined range - energy relationships for electrons, to determine dose gradients and S factors for homogeneous distributions of four commonly used diagnostic radionuclides (images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img1.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>, images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img2.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>, images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img3.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> and images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img4.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>) throughout source regions of both spherical and ellipsoidal geometry at typical cellular dimensions. The results indicate that assumption of spherical geometry is acceptable when determining S factors for late-type germ cells, but introduces error into calculations of dose distribution towards the edge of the cell.

Nettleton, Jo S.; Lawson, Richard S.

1996-09-01

193

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach.

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

194

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases.  

PubMed

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides ((153)samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and (89)strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide ((223)Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U

2012-04-24

195

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

196

Movement of Radionuclides past a Redox Front.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is assumed that radiolysis of water in a penetrated canister containing spent fuel has occured. Radionuclides and oxidizing agents are diffusing from the corroded canister and out through the clay barrier. A concentration front of radionuclides as well...

I. Neretnieks B. Aaslund

1983-01-01

197

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

198

MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes  

SciTech Connect

For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides.

Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Endo, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2007-01-01

199

Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†  

PubMed Central

Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found.

Dixit, Manish

2013-01-01

200

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

SciTech Connect

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Research, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

2006-10-01

201

Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring

R. J. E. M. Raymann; D. F. Swaab; E. J. W. van Someren

2005-01-01

202

Global warming and nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to give a review of reasons for believing that the problem of global warming is more urgent than widely assumed, largely following the lead of a recent book by Lovelock. It is argued that increased use of nuclear power is the best course, especially if fusion power can be achieved. A short note is appended

Alex M. Andrew

2007-01-01

203

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

1991-01-01

204

Global Warming: A Critical View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Introductory lecture aimed to engage the audience in a critical examination of the science claims for anthropogenic global warming (AGW). This is followed by a film which offers further critical views of AGW by various climatologists and social commentators. The last part of the workshop will engage audience participation in a discussion of the methodology used by some advocates of AGW.

Gould, Laurence

2007-10-01

205

Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by

Yury Barkin

2010-01-01

206

Warming Up to Communication II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight classroom warm-up games for the second language class are described, and related assignments are suggested. The activities include a game based on a teacher's explanation for his late arrival in class, a number-guessing game, an exercise in describing characters played by the teacher, a group discussion of a reading selection using fragments…

Garner, Lucia Caycedo; Rusch, Debbie

207

Global warming potential for CFâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sufficient emissions, fluorinated gases such as CFâ could contribute significantly to the concerns about global warming because they are greenhouse gases, are chemically very inert, and have long accumulation lifetimes in the atmosphere. At this time, the only significant known source of CFâ is primary aluminum smelting (Abrahamson, 1992). While current emissions are small, additional sources could make CFâ

D. J. Wuebbles; A. S. Grossman

1992-01-01

208

Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange patches on the surface, is not directly under the glare of its star but over to the side.

Anthony Greicius

2010-10-19

209

Public understanding of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic interviews were conducted with a small but diverse sample of U. S. residents in order to understand how ordinary citizens conceptualize global warming. Most informants had heard of the greenhouse effect. However, they conceptualized global climate change very differently than scientists because they interpreted it in terms of four preexistent categories: Stratospheric ozone depletion, plant photosynthesis, tropospheric pollution, and

Willett Kempton

1991-01-01

210

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the school's traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched green

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

211

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

212

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

213

Radionuclide left ventricular angiography during exercise in ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide angiocardiography during exercise is one of the latest advances in nuclear cardiology and is being introduced into clinical practice. In this article the pathophysiological principles of this technique and the method with which it is used to evaluate patients with ischemic heart diseases are outlined, the various patterns of response in these patients are illustrated, and factors that limit the interpretation of the results, including the level of exercise achieved, are discussed. Images FIG. 1

Manyari, D. E.; Driedger, A. A.; Melendez, L. J.; Cradduck, T. D.

1980-01-01

214

Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler\\/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by

Mark Harris; Pres Herrington; Harry Miley; J. Edward Ellis; David McKinnon; Devon St. Pierre

1999-01-01

215

Solubility Limits on Radionuclide Dissolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Moun...

J. F. Kerrisk

1984-01-01

216

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

217

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in

Steinhaeusler Friedrich; Zaitseva Lyudmila

2008-01-01

218

RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

219

GETOUT; Radionuclide Transport Geologic Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GETOUT is a set of four FORTRAN programs and associated subroutines developed as an aid to investigate the migration of radionuclide chains from an underground source. The model to be analyzed is an underground nuclear waste disposal site and a uniform on...

M. O. Cloninger W. V. DeMier P. J. Liddell H. C. Burkholder

1984-01-01

220

Terrestrial radionuclide cycling and effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ; ending September 30, 1973. Research progress on radionuclide cycling includes ; studies of the mechanism of strontium sorption-desorption by soils from the ; southeastern United States. Results indicate that strontium adsorption by clays ; may be related to the same sites which bond organic matter. The Aspergillus ; niger technique

R. C. Dahlman; S. H. Anderson; H. H. Andrews

1974-01-01

221

RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

222

Image Registration Techniques in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine has a long tradition of incorporating quantitative analysis in its diagnostic procedures. Until recently, the analysis was based on radionuclide images as the sole input although the importance of the complementary information available from other modalities or from earlier scans has long been recognized. Indeed, qualitative correlation between images, based on anatomical expertise, has always been part of

B. F. Hutton; M. Braun; P. Slomka

223

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

224

El Niño suppresses Antarctic warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present new isotope records derived from snow samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica and re-analysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) to explain the connection between the warming of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean [Jacka and Budd, 1998; Jacobs et al., 2002] and the current cooling of the terrestrial Ross Sea region [Doran et al., 2002a]. Our analysis confirms previous findings that the warming is linked to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) [Kwok and Comiso, 2002a, 2002b; Carleton, 2003; Ribera and Mann, 2003; Turner, 2004], and provides new evidence that the terrestrial cooling is caused by a simultaneous ENSO driven change in atmospheric circulation, sourced in the Amundsen Sea and West Antarctica.

Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Barrett, Peter J.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Shulmeister, James

2004-08-01

225

Warm Climates in Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of greenhouse climates in the earth's past leads to a greater understanding of the factors that influence today's climate. In this fully integrated volume, leading experts in paleoclimatology present cutting edge paleontological, geological, and theoretical research to assess intervals of global warmth. Coverage examines warm climate intervals during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic from the same perspectives: oceanic and terrestrial, theoretical and observational. This approach illuminates the differences and, more importantly, the commonalities of warm climate intervals. The book also provides a comprehensive overview of the advantages and limitations of different types of climate models that are currently used, and it discusses major factors that have caused global climatic change across geologic time scales. Central problems that remain unresolved are clearly identified. The book will be of great interest to researchers in paleoclimatology, and it will also be useful as a supplementary text in advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses in paleoclimatology and earth science.

Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Wing, Scott L.

1999-12-01

226

Media Construction of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Includes 383-page kit (may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered as a hard copy) with teacher guides for all eight units, including all activities, readings, slide shows, film clips, journal articles, advertisements, and more. Lessons teach core knowledge about the science of climate change, explore conflicting views, and integrate critical thinking skills. Students will apply knowledge of climate change to a rigorous analysis of media messages through asking and answering questions about accuracy, currency, credibility, sourcing, and bias. Lessons address basic climate science, the causes of climate change, scientific debate and disinformation, the consequences of global warming, the precautionary principle, carbon footprints, moral choices, and the history of global warming in media, science, and politics.

Sperry, Chris; Flerlage, Dan; Papouchis, Alexander

227

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

228

Warm {alpha}-nucleon matter  

SciTech Connect

The properties of warm dilute {alpha}-nucleon matter are studied in a variational approach in the Thomas-Fermi approximation starting from an effective two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction. The equation of state, symmetry energy, incompressibility of the said matter, and {alpha} fraction are in consonance with those evaluated from the virial approach, which sets the benchmark for such calculations at low densities.

Samaddar, S. K.; De, J. N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2011-05-15

229

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a history of research on global warming. It supplements a short monograph that tells the history of climate change research as a single story. The web site contains essays on a wide range of topics including factors that influence climate, data on climate changes, theories and models of climate, and societal issues. This material can be used as a resource for teaching about physics issues impacting society, sustainability, or scientific methods.

Weart, Spencer

2013-06-13

230

The heated debate. [Global warming  

SciTech Connect

The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

Balling, R.C. Jr.

1992-01-01

231

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a constant discount rate to study long-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive to the discount rate, and with moderate discount rates, large future damages have almost no effect on current decisions. Time-consistent quasi-hyperbolic discounting alleviates both of these modeling problems, and is a plausible description of how people

Larry S Karp

2004-01-01

232

Oceanic influences on recent continental warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented that the recent worldwide land warming has occurred largely in response to a worldwide warming of the oceans rather than as a direct response to increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) over land. Atmospheric model simulations of the last half-century with prescribed observed ocean temperature changes, but without prescribed GHG changes, account for most of the land warming. The oceanic influence has occurred through hydrodynamic-radiative teleconnections, primarily by moistening and warming the air over land and increasing the downward longwave radiation at the surface. The oceans may themselves have warmed from a combination of natural and anthropogenic influences.

Compo, Gilbert P.; Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.

2009-02-01

233

Oceanic Influences on Recent Continental Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented that the recent worldwide land warming has occurred largely in response to a worldwide warming of the oceans rather than as a direct response to increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) over land. Atmospheric model simulations of the last half-century with prescribed observed ocean temperature changes, but without prescribed GHG changes, account for most of the land warming. The oceanic influence has occurred through hydrodynamic radiative teleconnections, primarily by moistening and warming the air over land and increasing the downward longwave radiation at the surface. The oceans may themselves have warmed from a combination of natural and anthropogenic influences.

Compo, G.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.

2009-12-01

234

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

235

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, numerous conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global warming science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).

MacCracken, Michael C.

2004-07-01

236

Satellite-Based Assessment of the Aerosol Effect on Global Warm Cloud Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present characteristics of global warm cloud properties and warm-rain process in conjunction with the aerosol index (AI) and the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible/Infrared Radiance Imager (VIRS) simultaneously derive cloud-top droplet effect radius, column droplet radius, cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, cloud optical depth, and a warm rain index. These cloud properties are clustered by different bins of LTS, and then compared with GOCART-derived AI and MODIS-derived AI values. Results indicate that the characteristics of the aerosol-cloud interactions significant vary between different cloud types and thermodynamic environments. This indicates that the radiative effect and warm-rain process due to aerosols have significant heterogeneous regional climate forcing effects.

Matsui, T.; Masunaga, H.; Pielke, R. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Tao, W.; Chin, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

2004-12-01

237

MASCOT. Radionuclide Decay Chain Transport  

SciTech Connect

MASCOT computes the two- and three-dimensional space-time dependent, convective-dispersive transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in unbounded homogeneous porous media for constant (step and band) and radionuclide-dependent release. A steady-state isothermal groundwater flow regime is assumed with parallel streamlines along the direction of flow. The solutions are designed for an unbounded medium flow field assumed to be semi-infinite normal to the source and infinite orthogonal to the source with a variety of boundary conditions, including a single or multiple finite line source or a Gaussian-distributed source in the two-dimensional case, and a single or multiple patch source or bivariate-normal distributed source in the three-dimensional case. A postprocessor program, MAS-GRF, which produces tables and/or graphs from MASCOT output, is included.

Gureghian, A.B. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-03-29

238

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale

P. R. Dixon

2004-01-01

239

Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.  

PubMed

The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

Izrael, Yury A

2007-11-01

240

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

241

Comparison of methods for determining absolute left ventricular volumes from radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

Several radionuclide techniques have been used in routine clinical nuclear medicine practice as a means of quantitating left ventricular chamber volumes in man. Despite wide use and availability of the different techniques, however, there has not been a thorough comparison of radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements performed in the same patients in close temporal proximity. Accordingly, in order to validate traditional methods of ventricular volume measurement, we have performed contrast ventriculography followed immediately (upon return of baseline hemodynamics) by gated radionuclide ventriculography in 34 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were determined from single-plane, right anterior oblique, end-diastolic contrast silhouettes using a standard area-length method. Radionuclide ventriculographic volumes were determined by three methods: planimetry (32 patients), counts-based (19 patients), and thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction (32 patients). With planimetry, an area-length method was used in which the modified left anterior oblique left ventricular image was assumed to be a prolate ellipsoid whose volume can be determined by measuring surface area and the ventricular long axis. With the counts-based technique, a blood sample was drawn at the midpoint of the radionuclide ventriculogram acquisition and counted with a gamma camera with appropriate attenuation factor correction. With the thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction technique, the left ventricular stroke volume was determined by dividing thermodilution cardiac output by the heart rate.

Warren, S.E.; McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Kolodny, G.M.; Royal, H.D.

1987-01-01

242

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

243

The warm sacroiliac joint. A finding in pelvic abscess  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with pain referable to the low back and sacroiliac regions had bone scans with similar findings. In each, one sacroiliac joint was warm (uptake on that side was slightly greater than that in the contralateral area). Ga-67 imaging also demonstrated increased uptake in the same locale. Subsequent CT scanning revealed pelvic abscesses adjacent to the affected joints. Asymmetric uptake of bone imaging agent may have been related to hyperemia and heating of the sacroiliac joint. Rapid defervescence with antibiotics and drainage (and no CT evidence of bone involvement) suggested that osteomyelitis was not involved in these cases.

Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Epstein, N.; Negrin, J.A.; Spencer, R.P. (Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

244

The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3°C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively.

Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Vano, Julie A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2011-12-01

245

MIRD Pamphlet No. 23: Quantitative SPECT for Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Dosimetry in Internal Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification–based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry.

Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George; Brill, A. Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

246

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

247

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

248

Role of tomography in providing radionuclide distribution and kinetic data  

SciTech Connect

A major limitation in radionuclide dosimetry has been the lack of human organ-specific radionuclide distribution and kinetic data because methods of acquiring sequential quantitative information from volumes of interest were not available. Developments in emission computed tomography instrumentation and associated algorithms have overcome this basic limitation, thus allowing in vivo noninvasive tissue distribution studies to be performed. Positron transverse section devices can have sensitivities of 130 events/sec per ..mu..Ci/ axial cm for imaging objects about 20 cm in diameter and whole body positron systems have sensitivities of nearly 80 events sec/sup -1/ ..mu..Ci/sup -1/ per axial cm for 1 cm thick sections. The sensitivity of single photon systems can be about 40% that of the positron brain tomographs but less than 10% that of a body positron system of similar resolution.

Budinger, T.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.

1981-06-01

249

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

250

Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global warming's implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01

251

I'm Warm Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to make students aware of just how much clean fresh water is wasted while waiting for the water to become warm in our spigots. They will make predictions of the amount of time and the quantity of water wasted, collect data for the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and calculate the class average of time and water wasted per sink. They are then introduced to the concept of projections, based on the population of the city, state, and country per day, month, and year, construct a graph showing these projections, and discuss possible solutions.

Weldon, Carylon

252

HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the use of the four main types of medical imaging, i.e. x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, and considers their relative merits. Important recent and possible future developments in image processing are also described.

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-03-01

253

Use of Natural Radionuclides to Predict the Behavior of Radwaste Radionuclides in Far-Field Aquifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquife...

N. Hubbard J. C. Laul R. W. Perkins

1983-01-01

254

DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code  

SciTech Connect

The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

1997-07-14

255

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

256

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase of tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. The increased wind shear coincides with a weak but robust downward trend in U.S. landfalling hurricanes, a reliable measure of hurricanes over the long term. Warmings over the tropical oceans compete with one another, with the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans increasing wind shear and the tropical North Atlantic decreasing wind shear. Warmings in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans win the competition and produce increased wind shear which reduces U.S. landfalling hurricanes. Whether future global warming increases the vertical wind shear in the MDR for Atlantic hurricanes will depend on the relative role induced by secular warmings over the tropical oceans.

Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki

2008-01-01

257

Oceanic Influences on Recent Continental Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence will be presented that the recent worldwide warming of the continents has occurred largely in response to a worldwide warming of the oceans rather than as a direct response to increases of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over the continents. Atmospheric model simulations of the last half-century with prescribed observed ocean temperature changes, but without prescribed GHG changes, account for most of the continental warming. The oceanic influence has occurred through hydrodynamic-radiative teleconnections, primarily by moistening the air over the continents and increasing the downward longwave radiation at the surface. The oceans may themselves have warmed from a combination of natural and anthropogenic influences, as suggested by substantial differences between the observed recent warming trend and the ensemble-mean warming trend simulated by the IPCC models with all the radiative forcings included.

Compo, G. P.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.

2007-12-01

258

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

259

Global Warming in Asheville, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As predicted by Svante Arrhenius in 1896, global warming is taking place as evidenced by documented rises in average sea level\\u000a of about 1.7 mm\\/year during the 20th century. There have been naturally occurring cycles of global warming and cooling throughout\\u000a the history of the world. Much has been written about the catastrophe that global warming would present to humankind, but

George Ford; William McDaniel; Aaron Ball

260

Warm Oceans Raise Land Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2004, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were the third warmest in the past 125 years, land surface temperatures were the fourth warmest, and globaly averaged temperatures likewise ranked fourth highest [Levinson, 2005]. This article presents evidence that SSTs contributed significantly to the widespread terrestrial and global tropospheric warmth. Every ocean witnessed warm sea surface conditions in 2004, with only the middle latitudes of the Southern Ocean experiencing below average values (Figure 1, top). Much of this warmth was concentrated north of 30°S and included a weak El Niño event in the tropical central Pacific. Terrestrial warmth in 2004 was seen at all locations between 45°N and 45°S. The greatest departures from average temperatures occurred over interior Eurasia and western North America, which experienced increases of up to 2°C (Figure 1, middle). Consistent with the considerable warmth of ocean and land surfaces, much of the global troposphere was also warm in 2004. The thermal expansion of the tropospheric column, whose top is roughly at the 200-milli-bar pressure surface, is demonstrated by the increase in elevation of that surface world-wide (Figure 1, bottom).

Hoerling, Martin P.; Xu, TaiYi; Bates, Gary; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bhaskar

2006-05-01

261

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground

N. Hubbard; J. C. Laul; R. W. Perkins

1984-01-01

262

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground

N. Hubbard; J. C. Laul; R. W. Perkins

1983-01-01

263

[Theory study: warming-dredging and warming-reinforcing of moxibustion].  

PubMed

Through analysis of the basic mechanism and principle of moxibustion, it is found that the most basic characteristic of moxibustion on acupoints of human body rests with its warm stimulation. The multi-effect of the warm stimulation of moxibustion can be generalized into the following 2 aspects: 1) warming-dredging: to dredge meridians with warming through regulation of qi and blood circulation, and removing stagnation in meridians and collaterals. 2) warming-reinforcing: to reinforce with warming through strengthening of yang qi as well as tonifying yin through reinforcing of yang. The two effects are inter-depending and inter-acting on each other. The mechanism of warming-dredging and warming-reinforcing is different from that of the materia medica, and it has its own specific connotation. PMID:23213987

Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Huan-Gan; Hu, Ling; Chang, Xiao-Rong; Song, Xiao-Ge; Ma, Xiao-Peng

2012-11-01

264

Characteristics of Arabian Sea mini warm pool and Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool (ASMWP) is a part of the Indian Ocean Warm Pool and formed in the eastern Arabian Sea prior to the onset of the summer monsoon season. This warm pool attained its maximum intensity during the pre-monsoon season and dissipated with the commencement of summer monsoon. The main focus of the present work was on the triggering of the dissipation of this warm pool and its relation to the onset of summer monsoon over Kerala. This phenomenon was studied utilizing NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric and Research) re-analysis data, TRMM Micro wave Imager (TMI) and observational data. To define the ASMWP, sea surface temperature exceeding 30.25°C was taken as the criteria. The warm pool attained its maximum dimension and intensity nearly 2 weeks prior to the onset of summer monsoon over Kerala. Interestingly, the warm pool started its dissipation immediately after attaining its maximum core temperature. This information can be included in the present numerical models to enhance the prediction capability. It was also found that the extent and intensity of the ASMWP varied depending on the type of monsoon i.e., excess, normal, and deficient monsoon. Maximum core temperature and wide coverage of the warm pool observed during the excess monsoon years compared to normal and deficient monsoon years. The study also revealed a strong relationship between the salinity in the eastern Arabian Sea and the nature of the monsoon.

Neema, C. P.; Hareeshkumar, P. V.; Babu, C. A.

2012-05-01

265

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system...Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator...surface of the body for radiation therapy. This generic type of...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system...Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator...surface of the body for radiation therapy. This generic type of...

2009-04-01

267

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2013-04-01

268

Radionuclide distribution in olympic national park, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of radionuclides in air, precipitation, streams, sediments, soils, and selected plants was conducted in the Olympic National Park, Northwestern Washington State. Thirty-one radionuclides were observed in concentrations that were 3 to 4 fold higher than those observed in arctic Alaska.

C. E. Jenkins; N. A. Wogman; H. G. Rieck

1972-01-01

269

Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic

Johanna Sabine Becker

2003-01-01

270

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

271

Warm Climates in Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming and global environmental change are two key, inter-related topics that receive near-constant attention in the international press. Why? Because the political agencies that direct national and international economies are reluctant to admit that we may be conducting our own global scale experiment in atmospheric pollution. Perhaps they are right to do so. However, the arguments can only be tested properly by carefully documenting the natural climate system and by comparing recent and predicted future regional and global climate change with high-resolution geologic records of past changes and reorganization in response to climatic forcing. Geologic records on their own, though, are limited in their regional and global application and can only be properly applied to understanding the global climate system by integration with computer models and simulations.

Wilson, Gary

272

End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and corresponding heat flux, temperature of the nichrome wire can be estimated. The possibility of frost is of genuine concern, as evidenced by the 250 K minimum temperature for the warm tube while heaters are not operating. Noting that steady state operation at 1 Amp (40 volts) allows the nichrome wire to stay below the critical temperature for Kapton, a conservative plan is to allow several days of heater operation, at 1 Amp (40 volts), before roll-back. Warm-up can be accelerated by operating the heaters in excess of 1 Amp, as evidenced by the test where a maximum of 3.2 Amp was supplied. Operating the heaters in excess of 1 Amp must be done with care since a rapid rise in temperature will likely occur once any ice present has been melted.

Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

1991-08-06

273

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27

274

Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

Blunt, B.

2001-09-24

275

Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references.

Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

1988-10-01

276

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction is an informative, up to date discussion about the predicted impacts of global warming. It draws on material from the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a huge collaborative study drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines, and presents the findings of the panel

Mark Maslin

2005-01-01

277

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming is a balanced and comprehensive analysis of the role of economics in confronting global warming, the central environmental issue of the twenty-first century. It avoids a technical exposition in order to reach a wide audience and is up to date in its theoretical and empirical underpinnings. It is addressed to all who have

Charles S. Pearson

278

Global Warming and the Definition of Sin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2006 PBS contacted Jan Markell and asked to send a camera crew to film her radio show if she would do one on global warming. They were looking for her response to the global warming statement signed by evangelicals such as Rick Warren, Brian McLaren, and Leif Anderson. Jan asked me to join her because of my background

Bob DeWaay

279

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming.…

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

280

Attribution of polar warming to human influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming

Nathan P. Gillett; Dáithí A. Stone; Peter A. Stott; Toru Nozawa; Alexey Yu. Karpechko; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Michael F. Wehner; Philip D. Jones

2008-01-01

281

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)|

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

282

Measuring the Forcing Function of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate system is warmed by 35 C due to the emission of downward infrared radiation by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (surface radiative forcing) or by the absorption of upward infrared radiation (radiative trapping). Increases in this emission\\/absorption are the driving force behind global warming. Climate models predict that the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has

W. F. Evans

2004-01-01

283

Response of ocean ecosystems to climate warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine six different coupled climate model simulations to determine the ocean biological response to climate warming between the beginning of the industrial revolution and 2050. We use vertical velocity, maximum winter mixed layer depth, and sea ice cover to define six biomes. Climate warming leads to a contraction of the highly productive marginal sea ice biome by 42 in

J. L. Sarmiento; R. Slater; R. Barber; L. Bopp; S. C. Doney; A. C. Hirst; J. Kleypas; R. Matear; U. Mikolajewicz; P. Monfray; V. Soldatov; S. A. Spall; R. Stouffer

2004-01-01

284

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

285

Warm-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of warm-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of warm-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)

Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy

1981-01-01

286

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

287

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)|

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

288

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

289

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase of tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. The increased wind shear coincides with a weak but robust downward trend

Chunzai Wang; Sang-Ki Lee

2008-01-01

290

The EPA Global Warming Kids Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site focuses on the science and impacts of global warming or climate change, and on actions that help address global warming. It features games, events, and links to other relevant sites for kids and educators, including activities on climate and weather and the greenhouse effect.

291

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

292

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College;)

2003-08-01

293

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these issues must be featured along with the underlying science. The

Troy D. Sadler; Michelle L. Klosterman

2009-01-01

294

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

2009-01-01

295

Imaging in breast cancer – breast cancer imaging revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Breast Cancer Research published a series of articles describing the state-of-the-art of breast cancer imaging, edited by James Basilion [1-6]. This series reviewed developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), radionuclide imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomogrophy (PET), and optical imaging, including optical computed tomography and near infra-red imaging fluorescence.

David Mankoff

2005-01-01

296

Pelvic radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

A pelvic radionuclide angiogram (PRAG) was obtained in addition to Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell scans in 18 studies (16 patients) of gastrointestinal bleeding. A bleeding focus adjacent to the bladder was found in the four studies in which the bladder region was seen on the PRAG; no perivesicular bleeding site was found in the 14 studies with a normal PRAG. It is concluded that the PRAG can be useful in locating pelvic bleeding sites, which can be missed on delayed images because of the superimposed bladder, and may be a useful addition to Tc-99m RBC studies for gastrointestinal bleeding.

Wahl, R.L.; Lee, M.E.

1984-06-01

297

Prinzmetal's variant angina evolved in inferior myocardial infarction with involvement of the right ventricle: Sequential radionuclide evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with Prinzmetal's variant angina (PVA) who developed an inferolateral myocardial infarction with right-ventricle involvement was studied using sequential radionuclide imaging until 5 months after the acute event. The patient also underwent-contrast ventriculography and coronary-artery angiography. Equilibrium-gated radionuclide angiography (EGRA) revealed the localization of ventricular dysfunction, the results obtained being in agreement with haemodynamic data. We emphasize the usefulness

Raffaele Baroffio; Bruno Palagi; Arturo Ricci; Roberto Picozzi

1985-01-01

298

Prospective study of left ventricular function using radionuclide scans in patients receiving mitoxantrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective Phase II study to evaluate the effects of mitoxantrone on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been carried out in patients treated with 12 mg\\/m2 every three weeks. Gated radionuclide cardiac blood pool imaging with assessment of LVEF and wall motion prior to and during graded exercise was performed before the first and every other mitoxantrone course. Ten

Matti S. Aapro; David S. Alberts; James M. Woolfenden; Cindy Mackel

1983-01-01

299

Diagnostic imaging of osteosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

The diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up evaluation of osteosarcoma rely heavily on a variety of imaging techniques. Plain roentgenography, radionuclide bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play important roles in defining local tumor extent, detecting metastatic disease, and monitoring for recurrent tumor. Invasive studies such as angiography are now rarely necessary. In the future, newer imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography, can be expected to become important tools for evaluation of these tumors. 23 references.

Seeger, L.L.; Gold, R.H.; Chandnani, V.P. (Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine (United States))

1991-09-01

300

Transverse section radionuclide scanning system  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

Kuhl, David E. (Rosemont, PA); Edwards, Roy Q. (Plymouth Township, PA)

1976-01-01

301

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device â(1)...

2013-04-01

302

Study of fast electron transport in warm dense plasma targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments [Le Pape et al., RSI 79, 106104, 2008] successfully demonstrated creation of a warm dense plasma using ns laser driven shock compression in a low-density foam target. Fast electron transport in such shock heated targets relevant to fast ignition is investigated using the Titan laser at LLNL. K-shell x-ray emission from the Cu fluorescent layer in the foam package targets is measured using Bragg crystal imagers and HOPG spectrometers. Electron transport through cold, conductor and shocked compressed foam targets is compared. The experiment is modeled using a 2D radiation hydro code and the hybrid PIC code LSP.

Wei, M. S.; Sawada, H.; Chawla, S.; Nakanii, N.; Higginson, D. P.; Paradkar, B. S.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Macphee, A.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; McLean, H. S.; Foord, M.; Key, M. K.; Patel, P. K.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Friesen, H.; Tiedje, H.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Pasley, J.; Morace, A.; Batani, D.

2009-11-01

303

Tumor targeting efficiency of bare nanoparticles does not mean the efficacy of loaded anticancer drugs: Importance of radionuclide imaging for optimization of highly selective tumor targeting polymeric nanoparticles with or without drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

The better understanding of polymeric nanoparticles as a drug delivery carrier is a decisive factor to get more efficient therapeutic response in vivo. Here, we report the non-invasive imaging of bare polymeric nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles to evaluate biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. To make nano-sized drug delivery carrier, glycol chitosan was modified with different degrees of hydrophobic N-acetyl

Beom Suk Lee; Sangjin Park; Gui Chul Kim; Hyo Jung Kim; Sangjoo Lee; Heeseup Kil; Seung Jun Oh; Daeyoon Chi; Kwangmeyung Kim; KuiWon Choi; Ick Chan Kwon; Sang Yoon Kim

2010-01-01

304

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

1988-01-01

305

Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning in evaluation of local radiation injury. A case report  

SciTech Connect

The management of local radiation injuries is influenced by the degree of vascular compromise within the skin and underlying tissues. Other authors have used thermography and angiography in assessing the blood flow to radiation damaged tissues. This report describes the use of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of a patient who developed necrosis of his distal digits following a radiation accident. In addition to determining the vascular status of the hands, imaging helped indicate an appropriate level for amputation.

Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Davis, M.; Rosenberg, R.; Kelsey, C.; Listrom, M.

1987-10-01

306

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

307

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

308

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers.

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

309

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-08-09

310

Global Warming in 5 Steps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists say the planet is warming because of human activities, namely the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere when burning fossil fuels. But, how do we know? How do scientists know? Students are presented with the following questions: 1) What makes a greenhouse gas a greenhouse gas? 2) Is carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas? [Instructor: How do we know?] 3) Is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? How do we know? 4) Is carbon dioxide [in the atmosphere] increasing because of human activities? [Instructor: How do we know?] ---- Discussion of results and prediction of what students expect will happen to global average temperature... 5) Is global average temperature increasing? How do we know? Separate groups of students research just one question each on the internet and submit a brief summary to the instructor. The instructor and class go over results for just the first four questions. The instructor addresses "How do we know" for questions 2 and 4. Then, students are asked what they think will happen to global average temperature based on results of the first four questions (i.e. make an hypothesis). Finally, the results from the last group are presented and students are asked to discuss how observed global temperature changes compare with their hypothesis.

Taylor, Stephen

311

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

312

Thermal pollution causes global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

Nordell, Bo

2003-09-01

313

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction is an informative, up to date discussion about the predicted impacts of global warming. It draws on material from the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a huge collaborative study drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines, and presents the findings of the panel for a general readership for the first time. The book also discusses the politics of global warming and what we can do now to adapt to climate change and mitigate its worst effects.

Maslin, Mark

2005-01-01

314

Frederick National Lab: Small Animal Imaging Program (SAIP)  

Cancer.gov

In addition to the above 'in vivo imaging modalities, the SAIP also utilizes a high spatial resolution image autoradiography system (Fuji; FLA 5100) and performs radionuclide biodistribution and dosimetry studies (Perkin-Elmer 1480 Wizard gamma well counter).

315

Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions,...

2004-01-01

316

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and chara...

D. Robertson A. Schilk K. Abel E. Lepel C. Thomas

1994-01-01

317

RADionuclide Transport, Removal, and Dose (RADTRAD) code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, And Dose (RADTRAD) code is designed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) use to calculate the radiological consequences to the offsite population and to control room operators following a design-basis accident ...

L. A. Miller D. I. Chanin J. Lee

1993-01-01

318

Reconcentration Phenomenon of Radionuclide Chain Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential reconcentration of radionuclide decay products during their transport by flowing groundwater from underground geologic nuclear waste disposal sites to the biosphere is analyzed. The calculations show that the predicted maximum (but not the a...

H. C. Burkholder M. O. Cloninger

1976-01-01

319

Sorption of Radionuclides on Yucca Mountain Tuffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation...

A. Meijaer I. Triay S. Knight M. Cisneros

1989-01-01

320

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

321

Warm Press Forming of Stainless Steel Sheets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of 'warm press forming' on the press formability of stainless steel sheets in deep drawing and restriking was studied. The result indicates that the press formability of both austenitic and ferritic steels is markedly improved by the compositio...

1985-01-01

322

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

323

Climate change: Brief but warm Antarctic summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature record derived from measurements of an ice core drilled on James Ross Island, Antarctica, prompts a rethink of what has triggered the recent warming trends on the Antarctic Peninsula. See Letter p.141

Steig, Eric J.

2012-09-01

324

Preparing for Global Warming: Smart Insurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Why should the insurance community insurance agents and brokers, primary insurers, risk managers, and reinsurers--put a premium on addressing global warming. The insurance industry has an opportunity to reduce risk and promote safety by informing policyho...

2000-01-01

325

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

326

Air kerma rate constants for radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion to SI units requires that the exposure rate constant which was usually quoted in R·h-1·mCi-1· cm2 be replaced by the air kerma rate constant with units m2·Gy·Bq-1·s-1. The conversion factor is derived and air kerma rate constants for 30 radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy are listed. A table for calculation of air kerma rates for other radionuclides

Herman Wasserman; Wilhelm Groenewald

1988-01-01

327

Resource Letter GW2: Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change,

Michael D. Mastrandrea; Stephen H. Schneider

2008-01-01

328

Issues in-depth: Inside global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last 15 years, much attention has been given to global warming, and whether the increase in the Earth's temperature in recent decades threatens the survival of life on Earth. As such, it's important that science teachers understand the basics behind the scientific phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the topic, and how to discuss and explore global warming with their students. This comprehensive discussion includes suggestions, activities, and resources that are designed for use in the middle school science classroom.

Greitz-Miller, Roxanne

2006-10-01

329

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the "lay" reader and lacks detail required by students. This book successfully bridges this gap, prividing an accessible explanation of the physical mechanisms of global warming--discussed within the wider context of climate change.

Drake, Frances

2000-07-01

330

Should we be concerned about global warming?  

PubMed

Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-warming and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. PMID:17283974

Diaz, James H

331

"Warming hole" in the midwestern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A regional climate model was used to estimate current and future climate scenarios to examine the effect of low-level circulation patterns in the midwestern United States on that part of the country's resistance to warming seen over the rest of North America at that time. A "warming hole" was found in the central U.S. during June-September that is not reflected in previously examined global climate models.

Al., Pan E.; Agu

332

Warm Spitzer Characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Warm Spitzer photometric imaging DDT observations of Comet ISON, as part of a worldwide observing campaign led by NASA of the comet. Warm Spitzer's 3 and 4 um near-IR passbands will provide unique scattering and emissivity information for the comet's nucleus and dust, and allow us to detect CO_2 gas emission from the comet. Spitzer holds a unique place in the solar system to observe the comet, right before it enters the region of rapid water ice sublimation after spending millions of years in the deep freeze of the Oort Cloud. It is likely the comet will undergo a rapid outburst soon after the time of the proposed observations in the week of June 7 - 14, 2013, and understanding its baseline behavior is critical to understanding the evolution of its activity, as is Spitzer's unique ability to detect CO_2 sublimation and outgassing activity from ISON. As for our previous Spitzer observations of comets Tempel 1 and Hartley 2, we will bootstrap from HST DDT imaging lightcurve and spectroscopic measurements taken over in April - May 2013. The combination of the two datasets will place strong constraints on the comet's coma morphology, and thus its pattern of outgassing jets and the rotation state of the nucleus, and the amount and kind of dust and gas emitted by the comet.

Lisse, Carey; Bauer, James; Fernandez, Yan; Kelley, Michael; Knight, Matthew; Li, Jian-Yang; Meech, Karen; Reach, William; Sitko, Michael

2013-05-01

333

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

334

Coral growth characteristics and marine environments during Pliocene warm period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global mean temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 5-3 Ma) were substantially high as much as those predicted for near-term climate change. Experimental and model studies are suggesting that recent past and future global warming and ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would have dramatically influenced on the calcification processes of marine organisms. However, few direct evidences have existed to address how warming and acidification would play it for marine ecosystem. Tropical corals could record long term growth histories in annual bands of their skeletons as well as marine environments during their growth periods up to several hundreds years. We discovered well-preserved fossil Porites corals at the muddy sand layer of Tartaro formation in Luzon island, the northern part of Philippine during the middle of PWP (3.5-3.8Ma); one of the most possible periods for analog to Earth's climate future. We screened and selected two exceptionally well-preserved fossil specimens for signs of diagenetic alternation using microanalysis of thin sections using the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with microstructural observation by scanning electronic microscopy and optical microscopic observation (Watanabe et al., 2011). We then present 70 years geochemical records with monthly resolution (?18O, ? 13C, Strontium/Calcium ratio, and other elemental concentrations) from this two fossil PWP corals in order to address the relationship between marine environments and coral growth characteristics. The detail profiles of carbon and oxygen isotopes of two series of corals indicate that significant reduced growth rate occurred in summer during the two different environments of PWP. Our coral geochemical and physiological data from this unique time window confirm future predictions that temperature rising and ocean acidification may lead to severely reduced coral growth but also imply the possibility that corals can still survive even in such marine environments of future warming climate with shifting the growth seasonal characteristics if the future climate change could provide enough intervals for tropical coral to be adapted. We will discuss in the presentation about other possible stresses for coral growth such as nutrient and marine pollution facing differently on modern and PWP corals to understand more realistically expected future images of marine ecosystems. Reference Watanabe, T., Suzuki, A., Minobe, S., Kawashima, T., Kameo, K., Minoshima, K., Aguilar, Y.M., Wani, R., Kawahata, H., Sowa, K., Nagai, T., Kase, T. (2010) Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence, Nature 471, 209-211

Watanabe, T.; Ohmori, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kase, T.

2011-12-01

335

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

336

Hydrology and radionuclide migration program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 129}I in water from the Cheshire stie; {sup 222}Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 {mu}m and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions.

Marsh, K.V. (comp.)

1992-02-01

337

Greenland warming of 1920-1930 and 1995-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an analysis of Greenland temperature records to compare the current (1995-2005) warming period with the previous (1920-1930) Greenland warming. We find that the current Greenland warming is not unprecedented in recent Greenland history. Temperature increases in the two warming periods are of a similar magnitude, however, the rate of warming in 1920-1930 was about 50% higher than that

Petr Chylek; M. K. Dubey; G. Lesins

2006-01-01

338

Greenland warming of 1920–1930 and 1995–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an analysis of Greenland temperature records to compare the current (1995–2005) warming period with the previous (1920–1930) Greenland warming. We find that the current Greenland warming is not unprecedented in recent Greenland history. Temperature increases in the two warming periods are of a similar magnitude, however, the rate of warming in 1920–1930 was about 50% higher than that

Petr Chylek; M. K. Dubey; G. Lesins

2006-01-01

339

Comparison of the 2003 Atlantic Ocean Warm Event With Previous Warm Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical Atlantic Ocean exhibits warm events in the eastern region of the basin bounded by the Gulf of Guinea to the north and extending to the Benguela region. Since 1982 about eight warm events have shown sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) greater than 1 degree Celsius with meridional asymmetry and variable time evolution among them. These events occurred in

E. Munoz; A. J. Busalacchi

2004-01-01

340

Molecular cardiovascular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging with radionuclides has historically played an important role in detection of cardiovascular disease as well as in\\u000a risk stratification and prognostication. With the growth of molecular biology have come new therapeutic interventions and\\u000a the requirement for new diagnostic imaging approaches. Noninvasive targeted radiotracer-based strategies require the development\\u000a of new instrumentation to meet these needs. This progress has been made

Lawrence W. Dobrucki; Albert J. Sinusas

2005-01-01

341

Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.  

PubMed

Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J

2005-01-11

342

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

1987-10-01

343

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, stored, and potentially emitted. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2011, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.01 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included about 90 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley lab operations. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer codes, CAP88-PC and COMPLY, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI).

Wahl, Linnea

2012-06-04

344

Radionuclide transfer from soil to fruit.  

PubMed

The available literature on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to fruit has been reviewed with the aim of identifying the main variables and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclides in fruit plants. Where available, data for transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of fruit plant have also been collected, to help in understanding the processes of translocation and storage in perennial plants. Soil-to-fruit transfer factors were derived from agricultural ecosystems, both from temperate and subtropical or tropical zones. Aggregated transfer factors have also been collected from natural or semi-natural ecosystems. The data concern numerous fruits and various radionuclides. Soil-to-fruit transfer is nuclide specific. The variability for a given radionuclide is first of all ascribable to the different properties of soils. Fruit plant species are very heterogeneous, varying from woody trees and shrubs to herbaceous plants. In temperate areas the soil-to-fruit transfer is higher in woody trees for caesium and in shrubs for strontium. Significant differences between the values obtained in temperate and subtropical and tropical regions do not necessarily imply that they are ascribable to climate. Transfer factors for caesium are higher in subtropical and tropical fruits, while those for strontium, as well as for plutonium and americium, in the same fruits, are lower; these results can be interpreted taking into account different soil characteristics. PMID:11202699

Carini, F

2001-01-01

345

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

346

PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated.

Ellis, M.W.; LeBaron, G.J.

1995-01-16

347

Warm-season severe wind events in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs.Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events.Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

Gatzen, Christoph

2013-04-01

348

Iterative tomographic image reconstruction by compressive sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) are essential medical imaging tools with inherent drawback of slow data acquisition process. With the knowledge that radionuclide images are sparse in transform domain, we have applied a novel concept of Compressive Sampling on them. The proposed approach aims to reconstruct images from fewer measurements, significantly reducing scan time

Adnan Hanif; Atif Bin Mansoor; Tahira Ejaz

2010-01-01

349

Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview  

SciTech Connect

Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

De Nardo, Sally J. [Radiodiagnosis and Therapy, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: sjdenardo@ucdavis.edu; De Nardo, Gerald L. [Radiodiagnosis and Therapy, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

2006-10-01

350

Atmospheric Moisture Demand Under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming near the surface increases the water vapor holding capacity of the air. Since the vapor saturation level or relative humidity in the air is fairly stable on annual to longer time scales, this would lead to increased atmospheric demand for water vapor if other things being equal. However, accompanying changes in surface wind speed and solar radiation can alter this general trend under global warming at least on regional scales. Decreasing trends in pan evaporation from the 1950s- early 1990s over many parts of the continents suggest that recent warming did not play a dominant role in determining atmospheric demand of water vapor over many areas. In this talk, I will examine historical data for trends in surface humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation and their implications for potential evapotranspiration over global land. I may also discuss climate-model simulated changes in evapotranspiration if time permits.

Dai, A.

2007-12-01

351

Mediterranean seagrass vulnerable to regional climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean Sea, one of the regions warming fastest under climate change, harbours lush seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows that form the basis for a key ecosystem in the region. Recent field results have shown that increased maximum annual seawater temperature in the Mediterranean has already led to increased seagrass mortality. Here we project the trajectory of P. oceanica meadows under the warming expected in the western Mediterranean through the twenty-first century to conclude that warming will lead to the functional extinction of P. oceanica meadows by the middle of this century (year 2049+/-10) even under a relatively mild greenhouse-gas emissions scenario. Efforts to alleviate local stresses adding to the loss of P. oceanica meadows will have a limited effect in conserving the meadows under climate change. Efforts to mitigate climate change are urgently needed to preserve this key ecosystem.

Jordà, Gabriel; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M.

2012-11-01

352

Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

Dorweiler, V.P. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1998-04-01

353

Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SSC site. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study, in conjunction with the SSC groundwater model, show that adequate groundwater protection would have been maintained for an accidental loss of the entire proton beam at a point in the SSC Collider tunnel. Early warning techniques developed are directly applicable to soil activation monitoring at other facilities.

Baker, S.I.; Bull, J.S. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Waxahachie, TX (United States); Goss, D.L. [Nebraska Wesleyan Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States)

1997-12-01

354

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

355

Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides.  

PubMed

Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SSC site. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were 3H and 22Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, 134Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study, in conjunction with the SSC groundwater model, show that adequate groundwater protection would have been maintained for an accidental loss of the entire proton beam at a point in the SSC Collider tunnel. Early warning techniques developed are directly applicable to soil activation monitoring at other facilities. PMID:9373069

Baker, S I; Bull, J S; Goss, D L

1997-12-01

356

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

357

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

358

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

359

Experimental warming does not enhance gross primary production and above-ground biomass in the alpine meadow of Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the response of gross primary production (GPP) and above-ground biomass (AGB) to warming, a field warming experiment using open-top chambers was conducted in an alpine meadow at three elevations (i.e., 4313, 4513, and 4693 m) on the Northern Tibetan Plateau in May 2010. We calculated GPP from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer algorithm and AGB using the surface measured data in 2012. Average GPP and AGB at elevation 4313 m was significantly decreased by experimental warming, whereas the declines at elevations 4513 and 4693 m were not statistically significant across all sampling dates. The negative effects of experimental warming on GPP and AGB may be related to experimental warming-induced soil drying. The different responses of GPP and AGB to experimental warming among the three alpine meadow sites could be dependent on climate conditions. Our findings suggested that experimental warming did not enhance GPP and AGB in the alpine meadow, and its effects differed among alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau.

Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xianzhou; Zhang, Yangjian; Shi, Peili; Li, Yunlong; Zhou, Yuting; Yang, Pengwan; Shen, Zhenxi

2013-01-01

360

The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) is investigated with two long time series using reanalysis (ERA-40) and model (MAECHAM5/MPI-OM) data. Applying planetary wave analysis, we distinguish between wavenumber-1 and wavenumber-2 major SSWs based on the wave activity of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 during the prewarming phase. For this analysis an objective criterion to identify and classify the preconditioning of major SSWs is developed. Major SSWs are found to occur with a frequency of six and seven events per decade in the reanalysis and in the model, respectively, thus highlighting the ability of MAECHAM5/MPI-OM to simulate the frequency of major SSWs realistically. However, from these events only one quarter are wavenumber-2 major warmings, representing a low (˜0.25) wavenumber-2 to wavenumber-1 major SSW ratio. Composite analyses for both data sets reveal that the two warming types have different dynamics; while wavenumber-1 major warmings are preceded only by an enhanced activity of the zonal wavenumber-1, wavenumber-2 events are either characterized by only the amplification of zonal wavenumber-2 or by both zonal wavenumber-1 and zonal wavenumber-2, albeit at different time intervals. The role of tropospheric blocking events influencing these two categories of major SSWs is evaluated in the next step. Here, the composite analyses of both reanalysis and model data reveal that blocking events in the Euro-Atlantic sector mostly lead to the development of wavenumber-1 major warmings. The blocking-wavenumber-2 major warming connection can only be statistical reliable analyzed with the model time series, demonstrating that blocking events in the Pacific region mostly precede wavenumber-2 major SSWs.

Bancalá, S.; Krüger, K.; Giorgetta, M.

2012-02-01

361

Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.  

PubMed

Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495

Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

2008-01-01

362

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

363

Tongue-shaped frontal structure and warm water intrusion in the southern Yellow Sea in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In winter, a thermohaline front forms at the Yellow Sea (YS) entrance where the warm and saline Cheju Warm Current (CWC) water meets cold coastal water. The frontal structure, as well as the northwestward intrusion of the warm water, was investigated by analyzing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data, tracks of drifting floats, moored current data, and satellite images. The CWC water advances westward as a tongue with its tip heading westward across the YS entrance, not intruding northward along the deepest part of the YS trough, whereas a secondary warm water band is developed northwestward along the western flank of the trough. Floats in the warm tongue moved northwestward across the western frontal zone where the frontal structure was weak, reflecting the northwestward intrusion along the 50-70 m isobaths through the frontal zone. Currents in the trough do not always meet the upwind flow theory that, in an elongated basin, the wind-driven flow is upwind in the deep channel, but rather show the predominance of the southward downwind flow. Model experiments show that on the western flank of the trough, both the southeastward tide-induced residual flow and the southeastward flow due to the nonlinear effect between tide and wind are generated at the same time. Thus the intermittent intrusion of the CWC across the western frontal zone may be closely associated with the predominance of the upwind flow over the southeastward nonlinear interacted flow.

Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Seok

2009-01-01

364

Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations  

SciTech Connect

Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

1999-08-03

365

Global warming: a public health concern.  

PubMed

Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

Afzal, Brenda M

2007-05-31

366

Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2008-07-01

367

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

SciTech Connect

The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-04-01

368

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, A.; Mao, J.

1992-01-01

369

Even warm climates get the shivers  

SciTech Connect

Researchers in the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) have found evidence of sharp climate shifts during the last two intergalcials. The Greenland ice sheet evidence shows that Greenland, over and over for decades to thousands of years, cooled drastically from temperatures equal to or higher than today's, often to virtual ice age conditions. The researchers believe that disruptions in the flow of warm water from the southern Atlantic to the North Atlantic, and the return flow of cold water to the south, may be linked to these climatic fluctuations. The present climate appears relatively stable, but that may change if temperatures warm due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Kerr, R.A.

1993-07-16

370

Analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations  

SciTech Connect

The present paper is concerned with analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations for electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Specifically, effects of finite betas on two slow modes, namely, the left-hand circularly polarized ion-cyclotron mode and the right-hand circularly polarized whistler mode, are investigated. Analytic models of the warm plasma dispersion relations are constructed on the basis of conjecture and upon comparisons with numerically found roots. It is shown that the model solutions are good substitutes for actual roots. The significance of the present work in the context of nonlinear plasma research is discussed.

Seough, J. J.; Yoon, P. H. [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-09-15

371

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Allen, Bruce; Herreid, Clyde

372

Electromigration radionuclide generator: working principles and testing  

SciTech Connect

An electromigration radionuclide generator can be built in which the daughter product is separated from the parent one because of differences in ion migration rates in an electric field. Two types are described in which the daughter after separation is eluted either as a result of hydrostatic pressure of by electrical migration. The barium 140-lanthanum 140 pair has been used to examine the working characteristics (yield, radiochemical purity, specific activity, and so on), and it has been found that the decisive effect comes from the distance between the peaks; the prospects for using the method to make short-lived radionuclides are considered.

Gedeonov, A.D.; Bulatenkov, Yu.V.

1988-09-01

373

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

374

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

375

Suprarenal abscess in the neonate. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging  

SciTech Connect

Although suprarenal abscess in a newborn is rare, a prompt diagnosis is essential for proper patient management. The findings obtained with Tc-99m glucoheptonate renal imaging in a newborn with a right adrenal abscess are reported. A radionuclide renal imaging sequence over a 15-hour period demonstrated a rim sign which can be used to suggest the diagnosis. Radionuclide and ultrasound imaging of neonatal adrenal masses is discussed.

Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Hodgson, N.B.

1986-01-01

376

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it. PMID:22217735

Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

2012-01-21

377

Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dol...

M. Sutton

2009-01-01

378

Survey of the Use of Radionuclides in Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phase I study, which was a national survey of all licensed and registered medical users of radionuclides, required the compilation of a comprehensive registry of physicians using radionuclides for medical purposes, and the development of a survey ques...

R. M. Rodden B. E. Suta L. W. Weisbecker

1969-01-01

379

Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag ? 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

2012-03-01

380

Warm Eddy Structure Observed During EPIC in Eastern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the NSF/NOAA sponsored Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) field program in Sept. and Oct. 2001, oceanic current, temperature and salinity profiles were acquired by deploying expendable profilers from research aircraft flights above the warm pool grid centered on the TAO mooring at 10oN 95oW and the R/V Ron Brown, and along the 95oW transect from the NOAA WP-3D and the NCAR WC-130, respectively. Analyses of mooring, ship and aircraft observations suggest the propagation of a wind-forced, warm eddy in accord with remotely sensed fields from radar altimetry and TRMM microwave imager (TMI) measurements. This anti- cyclonically rotating warm eddy, consistent with Rossby wave dynamics, impacted both the oceanic and atmospheric mixed layer structure. To examine the evolving characteristics of this oceanic feature, SSTs, isotherm depths and oceanic heat content variations (relative to the 26oC isotherm depth referred to as OHC) were compared at the TAO buoy. Satellite- based OHC variations were estimated by inferring isotherm depths (20oC, 26oC) from blended and objectively mapped, altimeter-derived surface height anomaly (SHA) fields based on climatology and TMI-derived SSTs. Based on sequential maps of the SHA, the observed warm eddy had SHA elevation of 12 to 14 cm that indicated a propagation speed of 13 cm s-1 towards the southwest. Inferred isotherm depths and OHC variations agreed with those from the TAO mooring and profiler measurements. For example, the 26oC isotherm depth ranged from 35 to 40 m with OHC values of 40 kJ cm-2. Understanding the evolving 3-D structure of these features is central to assessing the upper ocean's role in hurricane intensity fluctuations in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This approach is now being applied to several years of in situ and remotely sensed measurements in this regime to assess uncertainties in satellite retrievals to build climatology for use with hurricane intensity forecast models as in the Atlantic Ocean basin as part of the NOAA Joint Hurricane Testbed program.

Shay, L. K.; Jaimes, B.; Brewster, J.

2007-05-01

381

Internal radionuclide therapy: The ULMDOS software for treatment planning  

SciTech Connect

Before therapy with unsealed radionuclides, a dosimetry assessment must be performed for each patient. We present the interactive software tool ULMDOS, which facilitates dosimetric calculations, enhances traceability, and adequate documentation. ULMDOS is developed in IDL 6.1 (Interactive Data Language) under Windows XP/2000. First the patient data, the radiotracer data, and optionally urine and serum data are entered. After loading planar gamma camera images and drawing regions of interest, the residence times can be calculated using fits of the time activity data to exponential functions. Data can be saved in ASCII format for retrospective examination and further processing. ULMDOS allows one to process the dosimetric calculations within a standardized environment, spares the time-consuming transfer of data between different software tools, enables the documentation of ROI and raw data, and reduces intraindividual variability. ULMDOS satisfies the required conditions for traceability and documentation as a prerequisite to routine use in clinical settings.

Glatting, Gerhard; Landmann, Michael; Kull, Thomas; Wunderlich, Arthur; Blumstein, Norbert M.; Buck, Andreas K.; Reske, Sven N. [Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany); Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany); Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany)

2005-07-15

382

Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension  

PubMed Central

In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension.

Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

2012-01-01

383

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

384

Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'—about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored.

Bond, Tami C.

2007-10-01

385

Sharing the Costs of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model global warming as a non-excludable public bad jointly pro- duced by countries' emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The distribu- tion of the environmental damage bears no relationship to the distribu- tion of global emissions, due to meteorological factors. We argue that this discrepancy should be offset and propose that countries be fully compen- sated for the costs of

Etienne Billette de Villemeur; Justin Leroux

386

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

387

Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2

Laurence I. Gould

2007-01-01

388

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

SciTech Connect

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

389

Does coral bleaching mean global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the implications of global warming on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is

1991-01-01

390

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

391

Global warming studies need synthesis, says Gore  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 27, scientists representing a variety of disciplines presented methods for measuring past climate to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. According to committee member Al Gore (D-Tenn.), the roundtable participants presented a ``set of overwhelming conclusions that support the global warming theory.'' Their studies, said Gore, gave him a clearer understanding of research priorities and the

Susan Bush

1992-01-01

392

The Effects of Global Warming on Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW) on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface because of CO? emissions. It is assumed that (i) GW exists, and (ii) higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. The literature on biology and GW supporting these two

Carlos A. Medel

2011-01-01

393

Cold and Warm Denaturation of Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a simplified protein model where the water degrees of freedom appear explicitly (although in an extremely simplified fashion). Using thismodel we are able to recover both the warm and the cold protein denaturation within a single framework, while addressing important issues about the structure of model proteins.

G. Caldarelli; P. De Los Rios

2001-01-01

394

Cold and Warm Denaturation of Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a simplified protein model where the water degrees of freedom appear explicitly (although in an extremely simplified fashion). Using this model we are able to recover both the warm and the cold protein denaturation within a single framework, while addressing important issues about the structure of model proteins.

Guido Caldarelli; Paolo De Los Rios

2002-01-01

395

Compare and Contrast Warm and Cold Fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In weather, fronts are defined as the boundaries between different air masses. Depending on the direction of movement and the characteristics of the air involved, different types of fronts form. This visualization shows the movement of warm and cold fronts as well as the characteristic clouds that are generated by each. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-02-18

396

Climatic Warming of Atlantic Intermediate Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdecadal temperature variability of the Atlantic Ocean is investigated by differencing hydrographic sections taken from the 1920s through the 1990s. A comprehensive reanalysis of North Atlantic sections and the inclusion of South Atlantic sections show that warming seen previously in the North Atlantic extends to the South Atlantic. The largest statistically significant changes occur on pressure surfaces between 1000 and

Brian K. Arbic; W. Brechner Owens

2001-01-01

397

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

398

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C. [Mondragon Goi Eskola Politeknikoa (MGEP), Manufacturing Department, Loramendi 4, 20500, Mondragon (Spain)

2007-05-17

399

The Problem That Is Global Warming: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming poses significant challenges to society at every level, evading easy definitions that would make the usual instrumental approaches to policymaking and regulation a relatively straightforward task. The embeddedness of the carbon economy in contemporary methods of industrialization and development means that climate protection is at once a problem of environment, the global economy, and human rights. It requires

FIONA HAINES; NANCY REICHMAN

2008-01-01

400

Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming  

PubMed Central

Because the flowering and fruiting phenology of plants is sensitive to environmental cues such as temperature and moisture, climate change is likely to alter community-level patterns of reproductive phenology. Here we report a previously unreported phenomenon: experimental warming advanced flowering and fruiting phenology for species that began to flower before the peak of summer heat but delayed reproduction in species that started flowering after the peak temperature in a tallgrass prairie in North America. The warming-induced divergence of flowering and fruiting toward the two ends of the growing season resulted in a gap in the staggered progression of flowering and fruiting in the community during the middle of the season. A double precipitation treatment did not significantly affect flowering and fruiting phenology. Variation among species in the direction and magnitude of their response to warming caused compression and expansion of the reproductive periods of different species, changed the amount of overlap between the reproductive phases, and created possibilities for an altered selective environment to reshape communities in a future warmed world.

Sherry, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Xuhui; Gu, Shiliang; Arnone, John A.; Schimel, David S.; Verburg, Paul S.; Wallace, Linda L.; Luo, Yiqi

2007-01-01

401

Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits

A. Palazzo; D. Cumberbatch; A. Slosar; J. Silk

2007-01-01

402

NPR: Atmospheric Dry Spell Eases Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from NPR explains why the effects of global warming may not have been noticeable during the past few years. The article warns that there are several factors, such as ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor levels, that mask the problem of rising global temperatures.

2010-03-12

403

Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

Mazzatenta, Claudio

2008-01-01

404

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

405

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming Partha P. Bera, Joseph S. Francisco and Timothy J. Lee NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, and Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393 Abstract The physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been investigated to assess

Partha P. Bera; T. J. Lee; J. Francisco

2009-01-01

406

WARM: A SCIENTIFIC GROUP ON RICE MODELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an open letter aiming at inviting all researchers and technicians working on rice and\\/or on modelling aspects that can be related to rice to participate to a scientific exchange group. The WARM (Water Accounting Rice Model) model is currently the result of an unofficial cooperation among researchers working at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission

Roberto Confalonieri; Marco Acutis; Marcello Donatelli; Gianni Bellocchi; Luigi Mariani; Mirco Boschetti; Daniela Stroppiana; Stefano Bocchi; Francesco Vidotto; Dario Sacco; Carlo Grignani

2005-01-01

407

Dynamic and Thermodynamic Regulation of Ocean Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative roles of clouds, surface evaporation, and ocean heat transport in limiting maximum sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western Pacific warm pool are investigated by means of simple and intermediate coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The authors first take an analytical approach by constructing a conceptual two-box model that contains dynamic coupling among the Walker circulation, SST, and ocean thermocline

Tim Li; Timothy F. Hogan; C.-P. Chang

2000-01-01

408

Characterization of Emulsion Based Warm Mix Binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evotherm warm mix process is the direct substitution of the asphalt binder with a cationic asphalt emulsion. The field trial in Canada demonstrates 30 °C and 60 °C reduction in the mix and compaction temperature, respectively, than the conventional hot mix with the same aggregate and asphalt. This results in 60–80% reduction in CO, NOx and SO2 emission. A

Koichi Takamura

2008-01-01

409

Isolating the signal of ocean global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying the signature of global warming in the world's oceans is challenging because low frequency circulation changes can dominate local temperature changes. The IPCC fourth assessment reported an average ocean heating rate of 0.21 +/- 0.04 Wm-2 over the period 1961-2003, with considerable spatial, interannual and inter-decadal variability. We present a new analysis of millions of ocean temperature profiles designed to filter out local dynamical changes to give a more consistent view of the underlying warming. Time series of temperature anomaly for all waters warmer than 14°C show large reductions in interannual to inter-decadal variability and a more spatially uniform upper ocean warming trend (0.12 Wm-2 on average) than previous results. This new measure of ocean warming is also more robust to some sources of error in the ocean observing system. Our new analysis provides a useful addition for evaluation of coupled climate models, to the traditional fixed depth analyses.

Palmer, M. D.; Haines, K.; Tett, S. F. B.; Ansell, T. J.

2007-12-01

410

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A

Norman Myers

1993-01-01

411

Global-Warming: A National Security Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waters in the Canadian Arctic are quickly becoming free to navigate due to global warming. International shipping bombards the region, the United States and Canada must be ready to face the security implications that will arise. A failure to do so may...

A. J. Klug

2006-01-01

412

Antarctica Gives Mixed Signals on Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News investigates trends in the Antarctic Ice Cap that seem to give contradictory information about global warming. The results of various studies do not seem useful in predicting future climate development for the rest of the planet.

Trivedi, Bijal P.; News, National G.

413

Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these

A. Del Prete; G. Papadia; A. A. De Vitis; T. Primo

2011-01-01

414

Global Warming Advocacy Science: a Cross Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal scholarship has come to accept as true the various pronouncements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other scientists who have been active in the movement for greenhouse gas (ghg) emission reductions to combat global warming. The only criticism that legal scholars have had of the story told by this group of activist scientists – what may

Jason S Johnston

2010-01-01

415

Phenology and global warming research in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional

L. P. C. Morellato

2009-01-01

416

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

417

Development of models for warm prestressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to evaluate available mathematical models and associated fracture criteria for predicting warm prestress (WPS) effects. A verified model of the WPS phenomenon is required before credit for improved low temperature toughness can be taken in analysis of postulated accident scenarios such as pressurized thermal shock. The primary basis of evaluation is finite-element analysis using

R. B. Stonesifer; E. F. Rybicki

1987-01-01

418

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

419

Warm pediatric cardiac surgery: European experience.  

PubMed

Cold pediatric cardiac surgery has been a dogma for 50 years. However, the beneficial effects of cold perfusion are counterbalanced by the drawbacks of hypothermia. Thus, we propose a major paradigm shift from hypothermic surgery to warm perfusion and intermittent warm blood cardioplegia. This approach gives satisfactory results even with prolonged aortic crossclamp times. The major advantages are reduced time to extubation and shorter intensive care unit stay. Warm pediatric surgery is an anecdotal phenomenon no more; over 10,000 procedures have been carried out in Europe. All types of cardiopathy have been treated, including arterial switch, total pulmonary anomalous venous return, interruption of the aortic arch, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Once surgeons decide to shift from hypothermia to normothermia, they never decide to shift back to hypothermia. This fact is evidence of the satisfactory clinical outcome obtained with this technique. The technique and the composition of microplegia is identical in all European centers, the only variable factor being the interval between microplegia injections, which varies from 10 to 25 min. We hope that the increasing interest in pediatric warm surgery will hearten new candidates. PMID:20719795

Durandy, Yves

2010-08-01

420

Global Warming and Future Fossil Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential for reducing emissions of CO, by reducing the use of fossil fuels. Following a brief review of current data on greenhouse gas emissions and global warming\\/ the author considers three ways of decreasing fossil fuel consumption: doing without; maximizing conversion efficiencies; and reducing the use of energy intensive products through better design and extensive recycling

Vaclav Smil

1989-01-01

421

Abrupt warming of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

2011-07-01

422

Global Warming, Africa and National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global warming and the resulting climate change is an issue with far reaching security ramifications for the United States. The US has vested interests in regional stability in many critical areas throughout the world. Few of these areas are growing in im...

J. C. Hinkley

2008-01-01

423

Report Nixes ``Geritol'' Fix for Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea

Leslie Roberts

1991-01-01

424

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 15, 1991), and the subsequent cooling of the earth's lower atmosphere [Dutton and Christy, 1992; Minnis et al., 1993] shows that stratospheric aerosols can have a strong effect on the earth's climate. This supports the notion that the intentional enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer through increased carbonyl sulfide (OCS) emissions might be an effective means for counteracting global warming. Through the use of a one-dimensional photochemical model, we investigate what effect such a program might have on global average stratospheric ozone. In addition, we consider the impact of enhanced OCS emissions on rainwater acidity and on the overall health of both plants and animals. We find that while the warming produced by a single CO2 doubling (1 to 4°C) might be offset with ozone losses of less than 5%, any attempt to use carbonyl sulfide as a permanent solution to global warming could result in depletion of global average ozone by 30% or more. We estimate that in order to achieve cooling of 4°C rainwater pH would fall to between 3.5 and 3.8. Finally, a 4°C cooling at the surface will require that ambient near ground OCS levels rise to above 10 ppmv which is probably greater than the safe exposure limit for humans. Thus, enhanced OCS emissions do not provide an environmentally acceptable solution to the problem of global warming.

Taubman, Steven J.; Kasting, James F.

1995-04-01

425

Synthesis of Warm-Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis documents the results of a comprehensive review of worldwide information dealing with the following issues as related to warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technology: (1) current state of the art/practice of WMA; (2) benefits and costs of WMA technolo...

A. Wimsatt C. Estakhri J. W. Button

2007-01-01

426

Warm-Mix Asphalt: European Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is a group of technologies that allow a reduction in the temperatures at which asphalt mixes are produced and placed. These technologies tend to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt and provide for the complete coating of aggregates ...

E. Harm G. Baumgardner J. Bartoszek J. D'Angelo M. Corrigan

2008-01-01

427

When could global warming reach 4°C?  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be reached by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'. PMID:21115513

Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G

2011-01-13

428

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the

2006-01-01

429

Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the

2009-01-01

430

Use of immediate static scans in combination with radionuclide cerebral angiography as a confirmatory test in the diagnosis of brain death  

SciTech Connect

Using a portable scintillation camera in combination with a portable computer, bedside acquisition of immediate static images in combination with a dynamic radionuclide cerebral angiogram can be quickly and safely performed as a confirmatory test in the diagnosis of brain death. Confusion in the differentiation of extracerebral from intracerebral flow on the dynamic radionuclide angiogram can be accomplished by identifying the presence or absence of uptake in the cerebral sinuses.

Nagle, C.E.

1980-04-01

431

Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the

A. B. Johan Groeneveld

1997-01-01

432

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

433

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent

V. Babain; I. Smirnov; M. Alyapyshev; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst; A. Paulenova

2008-01-01

434

Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near...

W. J. Snodgrass P. McKee J. Garnett L. Stieff

1988-01-01

435

PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

436

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses a ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected r...

R. W. Atcher J. J. Hines

1989-01-01

437

Gastroesophageal reflux demonstrated by hepatobiliary imaging in scleroderma  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging was performed on a patient with a longstanding history of scleroderma who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of biliary disease. Cystic duct patency was documented after 10 min with tracer accumulation in the second portion of the duodenum which failed to progress consistent with the duodenal hypomotility of scleroderma. The patient was given intravenous Kinevac resulting in gastroesophageal reflux of radionuclide.

Sawaf, N.W.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.

1987-03-01

438

Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.  

PubMed

Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures warmed by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean warming by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water warming does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this warming. PMID:17901296

Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert

2007-09-27

439

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01

440

Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening  

SciTech Connect

The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

G. Ragan

2002-08-09

441

Difficulty of diagnosing infected hypertrophic pseudarthrosis by radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

Hypertrophic pseudarthrosis was studied with /sup 99m/Tc MDP and /sup 67/Ga citrate in 11 patients. Two of the 11 pseudarthroses were complicated by infection. A high concentration of both radiopharmaceuticals was obtained at all 11 sites and their distribution patterns were identical. It was therefore impossible to distinguish the infected from the noninfected pseudarthroses by using /sup 67/Ga.

Hadjipavlou, A.; Lisbona, R.; Rosenthall, L.

1983-02-01

442

Upper extremity radionuclide bone imaging: shoulder, arm, elbow, and forearm.  

PubMed

Along with resurgence of physical activity during these fitness conscious times, there is increasing participation by people of all ages in sporting activities. Enrollment in organized and recreational sports among young adults and children has increased with as many as 30% of adolescents participating in competitive high school athletics. Despite improvements in equipment, the number of sports-related injuries presenting for medical attention has increased. Injuries to the upper extremities account for more than 25% of all sports-related injuries, but receive disproportionately less attention compared to lower extremity injuries. If neglected, upper extremity injuries can end the career of a professional athlete and cause sufficient damage to hinder daily activities in a recreational participant. Overuse syndromes, brought on by repetitive microtrauma are sports-specific, and often challenging to diagnose. Accurate diagnosis requires a thorough understanding about mechanism of injury, site of pain, and knowledge of the sport. After a thorough physical exam, a variety of radiographic testing is often necessary to promptly diagnose and manage the injury so athletes can return to competition as soon as possible. PMID:9467189

Patel, M

1998-01-01

443

Radionuclide reporter gene imaging for cardiac gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In the field of cardiac gene therapy, angiogenic gene therapy has been most extensively investigated. The first clinical trial\\u000a of cardiac angiogenic gene therapy was reported in 1998, and at the peak, more than 20 clinical trial protocols were under\\u000a evaluation. However, most trials have ceased owing to the lack of decisive proof of therapeutic effects and the potential\\u000a risks

Masayuki Inubushi; Nagara Tamaki

2007-01-01

444

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

445

Draft global warming study. Draft 1990 Resource Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net c...

1990-01-01

446

Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra ...  

Treesearch

Source: Ecology Letters 15: 164–175 ... In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. ... The response of plant groups to warming often differed with ambient summer ...

447

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the \\

C. Fabara; B. Hoeneisen

2005-01-01

448

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

449

Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

450

Diagnosis of Men-I Syndrome on 68Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and Role of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With 177Lu-DOTATATE  

PubMed Central

Abstract MEN-I is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells. We present a case of MEN-I syndrome diagnosed using predominantly nuclear medicine imaging followed by radionuclide therapy, thus emphasizing the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN-I.

kumar Gupta, Santosh; Singla, Suhas; Damle, Nishikant A; Agarwal, Krishankant; Bal, Chandersekhar

2012-01-01

451

Winter warming in West Antarctica caused by central tropical Pacific warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific sector of Antarctica, including both the Antarctic Peninsula and continental West Antarctica, has experienced substantial warming in the past 30 years. An increase in the circumpolar westerlies, owing in part to the decline in stratospheric ozone concentrations since the late 1970s, may account for warming trends in the peninsula region in austral summer and autumn. The more widespread warming in continental West Antarctica (Ellsworth Land and Marie Byrd Land) occurs primarily in austral winter and spring, and remains unexplained. Here we use observations of Antarctic surface temperature and global sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation data to show that recent warming in continental West Antarctica is linked to sea surface temperature changes in the tropical Pacific. Over the past 30 years, anomalous sea surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific have generated an atmospheric Rossby wave response that influences atmospheric circulation over the Amundsen Sea, causing increased advection of warm air to the Antarctic continent. General circulation model experiments show that the central tropical Pacific is a critical region for producing the observed high latitude response. We conclude that, by affecting the atmospheric circulation at high southern latitudes, increasing tropical sea surface temperatures may account for West Antarctic warming through most of the twentieth century.

Ding, Qinghua; Steig, Eric J.; Battisti, David S.; Küttel, Marcel

2011-06-01

452

Winter warming in West Antarctica caused by central tropical Pacific warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific sector of Antarctica, including both the Antarctic Peninsula and continental West Antarctica, has experienced substantial warming in the past 30 years. An increase in the circumpolar westerlies, owing in part to the decline in stratospheric ozone concentrations since the late 1970s, may account for warming trends in the peninsula region in austral summer and autumn. The more widespread warming in continental West Antarctica (Ellsworth Land and Marie Byrd Land) occurs primarily in austral winter and spring, and remains unexplained. Here we use observations of Antarctic surface temperature and global sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation data to show that recent warming in continental West Antarctica is linked to sea surface temperature changes in the tropical Pacific. Over the past 30 years, anomalous sea surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific have generated an atmospheric Rossby wave response that influences atmospheric circulation over the Amundsen Sea, causing increased advection of warm air to the Antarctic continent. General circulation model experiments show that the central tropical Pacific is a critical region for producing the observed high latitude response. We conclude that, by affecting the atmospheric circulation at high southern latitudes, increasing tropical sea surface temperatures may account for West Antarctic warming through most of the twentieth century.

Ding, Q.; Steig, E. J.; Battisti, D. S.; Kuttel, M.

2011-12-01

453

Tropical Pacific response to 20th century Atlantic warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of a series of regionally coupled ocean-atmospheric simulations suggests that the Atlantic warming that has occurred in the 20th century may have reduced the concomitant warming in the eastern tropical Pacific. The Pacific response to the Atlantic warming shows La Nina-like features even in the presence of greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The physical mechanism for the Atlantic warming

F. Kucharski; I.-S. Kang; R. Farneti; L. Feudale

2011-01-01

454

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals.

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

455

Radionuclide removal for small public water systems. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to aid water utility owners, engineers, operators and municipal managers in understanding and dealing with excessive radionuclide levels in their water supply. It is intended to be used for defining the problem, developing or evaluating proposed solutions, and explaining to water consumers why radionuclides are controlled and what the approximate cost of control will be. This handbook is designed as a technical guide to radionuclide removal for those smaller size systems that have decided that radionuclide control is desirable. This document contains no regulatory policy and does not obligate systems to use any treatment or nontreatment technique to reduce radionuclide concentrations.

Not Available

1983-06-01

456

Global Warming of the Atmosphere in Radiative Convective Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of global warming have commonly reported positive warming feedback by water vapor, exhibiting relative humidity in the atmosphere unchanged for different warming conditions. However, this is not self-evident, since water vapor content in the atmosphere may be significantly affected by atmospheric convections, such as cumulus convection, which involve strong vertical motions of air. To find an explanation, global

Yoshiharu Iwasa; Yutaka Abe; Hiroshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

457

Warm eddy movements in the eastern Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm eddy movements and their areal extent in the eastern Japan Sea were described by presenting space-time diagrams for the warm eddy locations and magnitudes. The analyzed data were compiled from Japan Maritime Safety Agency thermal maps at 200 m depth from 1985 to 1992. Two to four warm eddies always existed in the eastern Japan Sea and exhibited both

Yutaka Isoda

1994-01-01

458

Evaluation of low temperature properties of warm mix asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm mix asphalt (WMA), which reduces the mixing and compaction temperature of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA), is becoming an attractive paving material. It is critical to identify the low temperature properties of warm mix asphalt. In this study, the three-point bending, bending creep tests and indirect tensile tests were conducted to test the low-temperature properties of warm mix asphalt

Jin Wen; Zhifei Liu; Shaopeng Wu

2009-01-01

459

Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new analysis of an expanded data set of ocean temperature profiles dating back to 1955 confirmed the ocean warming trend, which was particularly pronounced in the Atlantic, and identified a decrease in ocean heat content beginning around 1980. The decrease has since rebounded, and the overall warming trend continues in the new millennium. Sources driving ocean warming and cooling trends are attributed.

Levitus, S.; Antonov, J.; Boyer, T.; Agu

460

Effects of a Warming Blanket and Warmed Intravenous Crystalloid on Patient Temperature during Surgery Not Involving a Body Cavity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the warming blanket, warmed intravenous crystalloid, and a combination of both heating modalities in the maintenance of normothermic in the anesthetized adult undergoing surgery not involving...

R. E. McCain

1984-01-01

461

Mesospheric temperature and atomic oxygen response during the January 2009 major stratospheric warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the response of the mesosphere\\/lower thermosphere to the major stratospheric warming (SSW) event from January 2009, as seen in the OH and O2(0,1) atmospheric band airglow observations nominally at 87 and 94 km, respectively, by a SATI (Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager) instrument installed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka (80°N, 86°W) as part

Marianna G. Shepherd; Young-Min Cho; Gordon G. Shepherd; William Ward; James R. Drummond

2010-01-01

462

Mesospheric Temperature and Atomic Oxygen Response during the January 2009 Major Stratospheric Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the response of the mesosphere\\/lower thermosphere to the major strato-spheric warming (SSW) event from January 2009, as seen in the OH and O2 (0,1) Atmospheric band airglow observations nominally at 87 km and 94 km, respectively by a SATI (Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager) instrument installed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Re-search Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka (80N, 86W)

Marianna G. Shepherd; Gordon Shepherd; William E. Ward; James R. Drummond

2010-01-01

463

A portable system for measuring cutaneous thresholds for warming and cooling.  

PubMed Central

Measurement of cutaneous thermal thresholds is a valuable technique for detecting small fibre neuropathy. A robust and portable microcomputer controlled system, which separately measures thresholds for warming and cooling, is described. Thresholds at three sites have been measured; the cheek, the dorsum of the hand and the sole of the foot. Regional variability and a correlation with age have been found, indicating the sensitivity of this system. Images

Fowler, C J; Carroll, M B; Burns, D; Howe, N; Robinson, K

1987-01-01

464

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

465

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

466

Is the basin-wide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basin-wide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean has occurred since the mid-1990s; however, the cause of this basin-wide warming is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular increase of the atmospheric greenhouse gas of carbon dioxide (CO2), while others suggested that it is caused by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Chunzai Wang; Shenfu Dong

2010-01-01

467

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Robock, A.; Jianping Mao (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1992-12-24

468

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-16

469

Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming  

SciTech Connect

Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

2010-12-08

470

Current status and future needs for standards of radionuclides used in positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly used as a quantitative technique for detecting disease and monitoring patient progress during treatment. To ensure the validity of the quantitative information derived from the imaging data, it is imperative that all radioactivity measurements that are part of the imaging procedure be traceable to national or international standards. This paper reviews the current status of standards for positron emitting radionuclides (e.g., (18)F, (68)Ge/(68)Ga, and (124)I) and suggests needs for future work. PMID:23078834

Zimmerman, B E

2012-09-23

471

Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases.

Zaidi, Habib

472

Resource Letter: GW1: Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change-a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The

John W. Firor

1994-01-01

473

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

474

Global warming studies need synthesis, says Gore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 27, scientists representing a variety of disciplines presented methods for measuring past climate to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. According to committee member Al Gore (D-Tenn.), the roundtable participants presented a “set of overwhelming conclusions that support the global warming theory.” Their studies, said Gore, gave him a clearer understanding of research priorities and the necessity of the synthesis of research. “For funding, we must pay attention to science in disparate fields,” he added.

Bush, Susan

1992-03-01

475

Health and Amenity Effects of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that climate change would probably reduce mortality in the United States by about 40,000 per year, assuming a 4.5 degree warmer climate--the IPCC best estimate of temperature change with a doubling of carbon dioxide. Benefits would extend to lower medical costs nationwide. Measuring willingness to pay by wage rates shows that people prefer warm climates and would

Thomas Gale Moore

1998-01-01

476

Benchmarking the War Against Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the HadCRUT3 reconstruction of the instrumental global temperature record for 1850 through 2008 to decompose thirty-year temperature trends into signal and noise components. The signal represents multidecadal trends and the noise represents annual variability about those trends. Historical estimates of temperature variability (e.g., noise) are used with seven temperature projections to simulate global warming time series. These trends

Douglas J. Sherman; Bailiang Li; Steven M. Quiring; Eugene J. Farrell

2010-01-01

477

Warming of an elevated layer over Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes trends of temperatures over Africa and seeks to quantify the most significant processes. Observations\\u000a of air temperature reveal significant warming trends in the 925–600 hPa layer over tropical west Africa and the east Atlantic.\\u000a This is related to the influence of desert dust and biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric energy budget. We calculate\\u000a a net radiative absorption

Mark R. Jury; Kim Whitehall

2010-01-01

478

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

479

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

480

Toward international law on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming.

Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-01-01

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