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1

Radionuclide Imaging of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our understanding of microorganisms has ad- vanced significantly and antimicrobial therapy has become increasingly available, infection remains a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The role of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of the patient suspected of har- boring an infection varies with the situation. For example, in the postoperative patient, radionuclide imaging is comple- mentary to CT

Charito Love; Christopher J. Palestro

2

Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging  

PubMed Central

The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscopy is the method of choice for detection of most lesions in the small intestine. Small intestine scintigraphies are only a complementary imaging method and can be successful, for example, for the detection of the bleeding site in the small intestine, ectopic gastric mucosa, carcinoid and its metastasis, or inflammation. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available.

Dolezal, Jiri; Kopacova, Marcela

2013-01-01

3

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

4

Imaging technologies for radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targeted radionuclide therapy is becoming an increasingly popular treatment modality as an alternative or as an adjunct to external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The present method of dosimetry based on the MIRD system requires measurements of the concentration of the radionuclide in the target and risk tissues and the effective half-life of the radionuclide in these tissues. Radionuclide imaging techniques including planar scintigraphy, rectilinear scanning, single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography have all been used to provide data from which this information can be obtained. Additionally anatomical imaging has been used to aid these estimates. This paper reviews the application of imaging technology and methodology to radionuclide dosimetry.

Ott, R. J.

1996-10-01

5

Radionuclide Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, a space-occupying lesion in the kidney is usually discovered with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. The benign or malignant nature of the lesion can usually accurately be assessed with these radiological procedures. Radionuclide imaging techniques do not play a major role in diagnosing kidney cancer, as currently there are no radiopharmaceuticals routinely

A. H. Brouwers; P. L. Jager

6

Subtraction of simultaneously acquired dual radionuclide images  

SciTech Connect

The physical aspects of a simultaneous dual radionuclide technique incorporating computer subtraction for the diagnosis of infection using /sup 67/Ga citrate and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or sulfur colloid are considered. The efficacy of the data acquisition protocol and the interpretation of the subtracted images are shown to depend significantly on fundamental imaging system parameters. Measurement of these parameters using simple phantoms and their role in elucidating the technique is detailed. Subtracted images produced by three variations of the basic method arising from different normalization algorithms in current usage are compared. Simple phantoms are again used in assessing the accuracy of each variation. Clinical results are reported elsewhere.

Sloboda, R.S.

1986-09-01

7

Atlas of radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging  

SciTech Connect

Hepatobiliary imaging has progressed to the point where an atlas is indicated for the practitioner of nuclear medicine; based upon their experience, Juni and Klingensmith have produced such a work presenting an account of Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid hepatobiliary agents and their clinical utilization. Chapter 1 gives a brief history of I-131 rose bengal and a comparison with Tc-99m labeled compounds. Hepatic extraction, hepatobilary transit, and renal clearance are briefly discussed.

Kuni, C.C.; Klingensmith, W.C. III

1983-01-01

8

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed.

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

9

Quantitative Dual Radionuclide Imaging of Acute Myocardial Infarction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves the development of a quantitative dual radionuclide imaging approach for defining regions of infarction, ischemia and scar. Studies proceed in a parallel fashion in both animal and patient laboratories. Thus far the authors have defin...

B. L. Zaret

1976-01-01

10

Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1  

PubMed Central

Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications.

Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

2000-01-01

11

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOEpatents

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18

12

Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

1994-03-01

13

Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.  

PubMed

Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies. PMID:12592127

Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

2003-03-01

14

Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics  

SciTech Connect

Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

2004-02-27

15

Biologic Considerations in Anatomic Imaging with Radionuclides. Final Progress Report, July 1974--June 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important task relating to anatomic imaging with radionuclides is the determination of factors which effect the use of imaging procedures. This is important to reduce radiation exposure in the population, to improve the efficacy of diagnostic imaging p...

E. J. Potchen

1975-01-01

16

Preliminary tests of a prototype system for optical and radionuclide imaging in small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assembled a prototype system for multimodal (radionuclide and optical) in vivo planar imaging of small animals (mice) using single photon emission radiotracers (Tc-99m) and a fluorescent marker (hematoporphyrin). Preliminary tests of the separate (optical and radionuclide) prototype imaging systems are presented, aimed at assessing their features and at determining the experimental protocol for in vivo imaging. Tests were

L. Celentano; P. Laccetti; R. Liuzzi; G. Mettivier; M. C. Montesi; M. Autiero; P. Riccio; G. Roberti; P. Russo; M. Salvatore

2003-01-01

17

Space Shuttle Video Images: An Example of Warm Cloud Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warm cloud lightning has been reported in several tropical locations. We have been using the intensified monochrome TV cameras at night during a number of shuttle flights to observe large active thunderstorms and their associated lightning. During a nighttime orbital pass of the STS-70 mission on 17 July 1995 at 07:57:42 GMT, the controllers obtained video imagery of a small cloud that was producing lightning. Data from a GOES infrared image establishes that the cloud top had a temperature of about 271 degrees Kelvin ( -2 degrees Celsius). Since this cloud was electrified to the extent that a lightning discharge did occur, it may be another case of lightning in a cloud that presents little if any evidence of frozen or melting precipitation.

Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Boeck, William L.

1998-01-01

18

Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine  

SciTech Connect

Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

1985-07-01

19

High Resolution Radionuclide Imaging Using Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics  

SciTech Connect

Significant effort is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Although single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are well-matched to the study of physiological function in small animals, the spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm currently achievable with these techniques limits the types of research possible. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence optics to focus the low-energy gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 96}Tc, and {sup 99m}Tc. We compare this approach to the more traditional use of absorptive collimation.

Pivovaroff, M; Craig, W; Ziock, K; Barber, W; Funk, T; Hasegawa, B; Taylor, C

2004-02-27

20

Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney compartment is presented. The blood curve and the radiorenogram are analyzed in great detail and a physiological analysis from the radiorenogram is given. Applications of Kuhn-Tucker multiplier methods are illustrated for the renal compartmental model in the field of nuclear medicine. Conventional kinetic data analysis methods, the maximum likehood method, and the weighted integration method are investigated and used for comparisons. Moreover, the effect of the blood background subtraction is shown by using the gamma camera images in man. Several functional images are calculated and the functional imaging technique is applied for evaluating renal function in man quantitatively and visually and compared with comments from a physician.

Qiao, Yi

21

Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging.  

PubMed

Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort has been devoted to developing alternative radiotracers, such as radiolabelled HIGs, liposomes, antigranulocyte antibodies and fragments, as well as more investigational tracers such as radiolabelled antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages and thymidine kinase. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) is still growing in the field of PJI imaging with radiotracers such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), (18)F-FDG white blood cells and (18)F-fluoride. But unfortunately this superb tomographic technique will only receive full acceptance when specific PET uptake patterns can be successfully developed. The emergence of hybrid modality imaging using integrated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and PET with computed tomography (SPECT/CT and PET/CT) may also have a contributing role for more accurate assessment of joint replacement complications, especially combined with new radiotracers such as (68)Ga and (64)Cu. Finally, in searching for infection-specific tracers, currently there is no such diagnostic agent available. PMID:22361912

Gemmel, Filip; Van den Wyngaert, Hans; Love, Charito; Welling, M M; Gemmel, Paul; Palestro, Christopher J

2012-05-01

22

Harnessing the power of radionuclides for optical imaging: Cerenkov luminescence imaging.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, nuclear imaging modalities such as PET and SPECT have received much attention because they have been instrumental not only in preclinical cancer research but also in nuclear medicine. Yet nuclear imaging is limited by high instrumentation cost and subsequently low availability to basic researchers. Cerenkov radiation, a relativistic physical phenomenon that was discovered 70 years ago, has recently become an intriguing subject of study in molecular imaging because of its potential in augmenting nuclear imaging, particularly in preclinical small-animal studies. The intrinsic capability of radionuclides emitting luminescent light from decay is promising because of the possibility of bridging nuclear imaging with optical imaging-a modality that is much less expensive, is easier to use, and has higher throughput than its nuclear counterpart. Thus, with the maturation of this novel imaging technology using Cerenkov radiation, which is termed Cerenkov luminescence imaging, it is foreseeable that advances in both nuclear imaging and preclinical research involving radioisotopes will be significantly accelerated in the near future. PMID:22080446

Xu, Yingding; Liu, Hongguang; Cheng, Zhen

2011-12-01

23

The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.  

PubMed

This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. PMID:22486296

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2012-06-01

24

Pearls and pitfalls of radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system. Part 2: evaluation of extremity lymphoedema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of two pictorial essays on radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system and will focus on evaluation of extremity lymphoedema using lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoedema results from anatomical or functional obstruction of the lymphatic system. Lymphoscintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for assessing lymphoedema. The technique plays a pivotal role in determining the aetiology of extremity swelling and

A F Scarsbrook; A Ganeshan; K M Bradley

2007-01-01

25

Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of renal transplant failure  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.

Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III

1988-04-01

26

Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices.

Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

1981-01-01

27

Role of radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma may be difficult if there is an atypical radiographic appearance or an inconclusive biopsy. Radionuclide bone scans of 13 patients with chondrosarcoma were reviewed to assess if a pattern of scan features could be recognized in association with this tumor. A combination, including increased blood pool activity, moderate intensity of uptake, patchy uptake with cortical predominance of activity, minimal distortion of bony outline, and a well-defined scintigraphic margin, occurred regularly in the series. Recognition of this characteristic pattern of scintigraphic features in cases of suspected chondrosarcoma may assist in the diagnostic assessment.

McLean, R.G.; Choy, D.; Hoeschl, R.; Nayanar, V.; Murray, I.P.

1985-01-01

28

Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

1984-01-01

29

Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

1982-12-01

30

Advances in radionuclide molecular imaging in myocardial biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging is a new and evolving field that employs a targeted approach to noninvasively assess biologic processes in vivo. By assessing key elements in specific cellular processes prior to irreversible end-organ damage, molecular tools will allow for earlier detection and intervention, improving management and outcomes associated with cardiovascular diseases. The goal of those working to expand this field is not just to provide diagnostic and prognostic information, but rather to guide an individual’s pharmacological, cell-based, or genetic therapeutic regimen. This article will review molecular imaging tools in the context of our current understanding of biological processes of the myocardium, including angiogenesis, ventricular remodeling, inflammation, and apoptosis. The focus will be on radiotracer-based molecular imaging modalities with an emphasis on clinical application. Though this field is still in its infancy and may not be fully ready for widespread use, molecular imaging of myocardial biology has begun to show promise of clinical utility in acute and chronic ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, as well as in more global inflammatory and immune-mediated responses in the heart-like myocarditis and allogeneic cardiac transplant rejection. With continued research and development, molecular imaging promises to be an important tool for the optimization of cardiovascular care.

Morrison, Alan R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

2010-01-01

31

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI  

SciTech Connect

The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

1985-05-01

32

High-resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging with radionuclides: The coded aperture option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging with radionuclides is a very sensitive technique because it allows to obtain images with nanomolar or picomolar concentrations. This has generated a rapid growth of interest in radionuclide imaging of small animals. Indeed radiolabeling of small molecules, antibodies, peptides and probes for gene expression enables molecular imaging in vivo, but only if a suitable imaging system is used. Detecting small tumors in humans is another important application of such techniques. In single gamma imaging, there is always a well known tradeoff between spatial resolution and sensitivity due to unavoidable collimation requirements. Limitation of the sensitivity due to collimation is well known and affects the performance of imaging systems, especially if only radiopharmaceuticals with limited uptake are available. In many cases coded aperture collimation can provide a solution, if the near field artifact effect can be eliminated or limited. At least this is the case for "small volumes" imaging, involving small animals. In this paper 3D-laminography simulations and preliminary measurements with coded aperture collimation are presented. Different masks have been designed for different applications showing the advantages of the technique in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The limitations of the technique are also discussed.

Cusanno, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santavenere, F.; Lanza, R. C.; Majewski, S.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Orsini Cancelli, V.; De Notaristefani, F.; Bollini, D.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.

2006-12-01

33

Physiologic considerations in radionuclide imaging of the extrahepatic biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Scintigraphy of the biliary system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enables the clinician to assess kinetics of bile flow through the gallbladder, common bile duct, and sphincter of Oddi. We review some aspects of biliary tract physiology and imaging which may be of interest to the physicians ordering and performing these studies. 56 references.

Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.

1988-01-01

34

Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal arterial switch operation using warm perfusion.  

PubMed

Neurological morbidity is a major concern in pediatric cardiac surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass is one of the few modifiable factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome. This study aimed to measure the incidence of abnormalities apparent by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after neonatal arterial switch operation using warm surgery. Neonates admitted for transposition of the great arteries underwent pre- and postoperative brain MRI. They were operated on using a warm perfusion method. The data collected included antenatal diagnosis, place of birth, gestational age, total maturation score as described by Childs, weight, cyanosis as assessed by minimal SpO(2) sustained for at least 10 min, balloon atrial septostomy, prostaglandin E1 infusion, need for neonatal intensive care, bypass time, time to extubation, and length of stay in intensive care. All of the MRI results were interpreted by the same senior specialist in pediatric neuroimaging, and lesions were classified as white matter injury, infarct, or hemorrhage. On preoperative exam, nine patients (42%) had one or more lesions, with infarct in four patients, white matter injury in four patients, and hemorrhage in five. We were unable to find any correlation between the data collected and brain injury. On postoperative exam, there was one new infarct, two new cases of white matter injury, and three cases of hemorrhage but no worsening of the preoperative lesions. Based on this initial experience with brain imaging, there is no deleterious effect of warm perfusion and no rationale to postpone surgery in neonates with "subclinical" brain injury. PMID:21995580

Durandy, Yves; Rubatti, Marina; Couturier, Roland; Rohnean, Adela

2011-11-01

35

Small-animal radionuclide imaging with focusing gamma-ray optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by 125I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from 125I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 ?m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform it in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Barber, William B.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Decker, Todd; Epstein, Michael; Funk, Tobias; Hailey, Charles J.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Hill, Randy; Jernigan, Jesse G.; Taylor, C.; Ziock, Klaus P.

2004-01-01

36

The potential for Cerenkov luminescence imaging of alpha-emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

Targeted ?-emitting drugs are promising for cancer therapy, but cannot be effectively imaged by conventional techniques. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has previously been shown capable of imaging ?(+)- and ?(-)-emitting radionuclides in vivo and could have the potential to image ?-emitters. Cerenkov light production from ?-emitters is through Compton scattering and from farther down the decay chain. This causes the Cerenkov production to vary in time and depend on sample geometry, complicating the interpretation of CLI images. We used the simulation toolkit Geant4 to predict the Cerenkov light output from five ?-emitting radionuclides that have therapeutic potential: (225)Ac, (230)U, (213)Bi, (212)Bi and (212)At. We found that (225)Ac, (213)Bi and (212)Bi produced an order of magnitude more Cerenkov light than (18)F. However, the light from (225)Ac is delayed from the initial decay, possibly decreasing the correlation of the drug and light source. This indicates that CLI will not be helpful in the development of some ?-emitting drugs. PMID:22252144

Ackerman, N L; Graves, E E

2012-02-01

37

An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada); Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)

2013-11-15

38

Multi-Modal Nano-Probes for Radionuclide and 5-color Near Infrared Optical Lymphatic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Current contrast agents generally have one function and can only be imaged in monochrome, therefore, the majority of imaging methods can only impart uniparametric information. A single nano-particle has the potential to be loaded with multiple payloads. Such multi-modality probes have the ability to be imaged by more than one imaging technique, which could compensate for the weakness or even combine the advantages of each individual modality. Furthermore, optical imaging using different optical probes enables us to achieve multi-color in vivo imaging, wherein multiple parameters can be read from a single image. To allow differentiation of multiple optical signals in vivo, each probe should have a close but different near infrared emission. To this end, we synthesized nano-probes with multi-modal and multi-color potential, which employed a polyamidoamine dendrimer platform linked to both radionuclides and optical probes, permitting dual-modality scintigraphic and 5-color near infrared optical lymphatic imaging using a multiple excitation spectrally-resolved fluorescence imaging technique.

Kobayashi, Hisataka; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Hama, Yukihiro; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Shin, In Soo; Jang, Beom-Su; Le, Nhat; Paik, Chang H.; Choyke, Peter L.; Urano, Yasuteru

2008-01-01

39

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

1989-07-18

40

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management.

Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

2013-01-01

41

A comparison of gray scale ultrasound and radionuclide imaging for the detection of focal hepatic lesions: open shutter technique.  

PubMed

A conventional B scan ultrasound unit was modified by the addition of a specially built logarithmic amplifier and a high resolution nonstorage oscilloscope, as suggested by Taylor and Carpenter. One hundred five consecutive patients submitted for radionuclide imaging of the liver were examined with ultrasound using a standardized scanning system. The ultrasound technique produced scans that were technically poor or inadequate in 37 per cent of the patients studied. In the studies in which there has been confirmation, the ultrasound diagnosis was accurate in 73 per cent and the radionuclide diagnosis was correct in 83 per cent. The combined accuracy of the two studies was 93 per cent. In 11 patients, ultrasound more clearly defined the lesions that were demonstrated by both techniques or demonstrated the nature of suspicious or equivocal areas on the radionuclide images. In 48 patients, the radionuclide scan imaged the liver more completely or demonstrated lesions more clearly than did the ultrasound examination. This specific approach to ultrasound gray scale imaging appears to be a valuable supplemental tool to radionuclide imaging, but at its present stage of development cannot replace it as a routine screening technique for hepatic disease. PMID:406285

Zatz, L M; Gouldin, J A; Hanley, G A

1977-06-01

42

Registration of serial SPECT/CT images for three-dimensional dosimetry in radionuclide therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For radionuclide therapy, individual patient pharmacokinetics can be measured in three dimensions by sequential SPECT imaging. Accurate registration of the time series of images is central for voxel-based calculations of the residence time and absorbed dose. In this work, rigid and non-rigid methods are evaluated for registration of 6-7 SPECT/CT images acquired over a week, in anatomical regions from the head-and-neck region down to the pelvis. A method for calculation of the absorbed dose, including a voxel mass determination from the CT images, is also described. Registration of the SPECT/CT images is based on a CT-derived spatial transformation. Evaluation is focused on the CT registration accuracy, and on its impact on values of residence time and absorbed dose. According to the CT evaluation, the non-rigid method produces a more accurate registration than the rigid one. For images of the residence time and absorbed dose, registration produces a sharpening of the images. For volumes-of-interest, the differences between rigid and non-rigid results are generally small. However, the non-rigid method is more consistent for regions where non-rigid patient movements are likely, such as in the head-neck-shoulder region.

Sjögreen-Gleisner, K.; Rueckert, D.; Ljungberg, M.

2009-10-01

43

Radionuclide Imaging of Apoptosis in Malignancies: Promise and Pitfalls of 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V Imaging  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide detection of apoptosis with of 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy is an effective tool for in vivo visualisation and monitoring of apoptosis in various malignant tumour. Early therapy-induced increase of the tumour tracer uptake correlates with favourable outcome, whereas stable or decreased uptake correlates with stable disease or tumour progression. Therefore sequential 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy could be used to predict therapy outcome on a patient-to-patient basis within 48 hours after the start of treatment. However, moderate tumour-to-background ratio and therapy-induced changes in normal tissues could confound image analysis. To assure accurate interpretation of Annexin V scans, the awareness of the biophysiological and biochemical properties contributing to the tracer distribution is essential. In with manuscript we discuss the patterns of Annexin V tumour uptake and illustrate the most frequent pitfalls associated with Annexin V imaging in correlation with CT and MRI imaging.

Kartachova, M.S.; Verheij, M.; van Eck, B.L.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Olmos, R.A. Valdes

2008-01-01

44

Radionuclide Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

45

Studies on radionuclide imaging and contrast ultrasound for sentinel node diagnostics in breast cancer and melanoma.  

PubMed

Malignant involvement of the regional lymph nodes in breast cancer, melanoma and other cancers is considered an important prognostic factor and determines the further treatment of the patient. Currently two methods are most often combined for SN detection, intra-operative blue dye injection around the tumour site and the radionuclide technique. The aims of this thesis were to evaluate the possibility of optimising the radionuclide SN procedures in patients with breast cancer and melanoma, and to examine the possibility of using contrast enhanced lympho-ultrasonography (CELUS) for SN detection. The radionuclide method was evaluated in patients with breast cancer (study I) and in melanoma patients (study II). CELUS was tested in animals (pigs and mice, study III and IV) and in melanoma patients (study IV). I. We investigated the influence on axillary SN biopsy in breast cancer patients of: a) Preoperative scintigraphy, used by some, but omitted by other centres, b) The variable activity remaining in the patient at surgery, due to differences in activity administered and to time to surgery. II. This study compared the interpretation of delayed static imaging alone with the interpretation of early dynamic and delayed static imaging in combination with SPECT/CT in the SN diagnostics in melanoma. III. This study describes the possibility of using CELUS to detect SNs in a pig model. The method worked well for SN detection in this model, in agreement with previous studies in pigs and other animals. IV. In this study we examined the possibility of using CELUS with micro bubbles to detect SN in melanoma patients. Conclusions: In breast cancer patients it is essential for SN detection that the injected activity is high enough for optimal SN detection, preoperative scintigraphy may be of some clinical value. A combination of the three imaging modalities works only slightly better for SN detection than a simple static gamma camera imaging in patients with melanoma, the combined procedure used as gold standard identifies 1% more patients with malignant SNs. CELUS as performed in our study worked well for SN detection in a pig model, but could not be used to detect SN in patients. PMID:21205568

Nielsen, Kristina Rue

2011-01-01

46

Radionuclide imaging of inflammation and infection in the acute care setting.  

PubMed

Although infection may be suggested by signs and symptoms such as fever, pain, general malaise, and abnormal laboratory results, imaging tests often are used to confirm its presence. Morphologic imaging tests identify structural alterations of tissues or organs that result from a combination of microbial invasion and the inflammatory response of the host. Functional imaging studies use minute quantities of radioactive material, which are taken up directly by cells, tissues, and organs, or are attached to substances that subsequently migrate to the region of interest. Bone scintigraphy is extremely sensitive and can be positive within 2 days after the onset of symptoms. With an accuracy of more than 90%, 3-phase bone scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in unviolated bone. In patients with acute renal failure, gallium imaging facilitates the differentiation of acute interstitial nephritis from acute tubular necrosis. Gallium imaging also is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many opportunistic infections affect the lungs, and a normal gallium scan of the chest excludes infection with a high degree of certainty, especially when the chest x-ray is negative. In the human immunodeficiency virus positive patient, lymph node uptake usually is associated with mycobacterial disease or lymphoma. Focal pulmonary parenchymal uptake suggests bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake suggests an opportunistic pneumonia. Gallium imaging provides useful information about other acute respiratory conditions, including radiation pneumonitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In vitro labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 and technetium-99m labeled leukocytes is useful in various acute care situations. The test facilitates the differentiation of normal postoperative changes from infection and is useful for diagnosing prosthetic vascular graft infection. In inflammatory bowel disease, labeled leukocyte imaging is useful for initial screening, monitoring treatment response, detecting recurrent disease, and evaluating patients with discordant physical presentation and laboratory test results. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow scintigraphy accurately diagnoses complicating osteomyelitis. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, imaging is rapidly completed and provides high-resolution images. This test is especially valuable in patients with fever of unknown origin, patients in septic shock, and mechanically ventilated patients suspected of harboring infection. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose imaging also shows promise in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23414826

Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

2013-03-01

47

WARM AND FUZZY: TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY ANALYSIS OF AN Fe XV EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER LOOP  

SciTech Connect

The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) were designed in part to work together. They have the same spatial resolution and cover different but overlapping coronal temperature ranges. These properties make a combined data set ideal for multithermal analysis, where EIS provides the best information on the cooler corona (log T < 6.5) and XRT provides the best information on the hotter corona (log T > 6.5). Here, we analyze a warm non-flaring loop detected in images made in a strong EIS Fe XV emission line with a wavelength of 284.16 A and peak formation temperature of log T = 6.3. We perform differential emission measure (DEM) analysis in three pixels at different heights above the footpoint and find multithermal results with the bulk of the emission measure in the range 6.0 < log T < 6.6. Analysis with the EIS lines alone gave a DEM with huge amounts of emission measure at very high temperatures (log T >7.2); analysis with XRT data alone resulted in a DEM that was missing most of the cooler emission measure required to produce many of the EIS lines. Thus, both results were misleading and unphysical. It was only by combining the EIS and XRT data that we were able to produce a reasonable result, one without ad hoc assumptions on the shape and range of the DEM itself.

Schmelz, J. T.; Rightmire, L. A.; Kimble, J. A.; Worley, B. T.; Pathak, S. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Saar, S. H., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-09-10

48

Analysis of serial radionuclide bone images in osteosarcoma and breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The authors first describe and illustrate didactically the use of the Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique for serial diagnostic studies. They then present an analysis of previously published data on the results of serial radionuclide bone images in patients with osteosarcoma or breast carcinoma, using this technique. The data indicate that patients with osteosarcoma show an almost linear increase in the occurrence of bone metastates between 5 and 29 months after diagnosis; the rate is approximately 1% per month. Patients with breast cancer, on the other hand, show a biphasic rate of development, averaging only 0.5% per month during the first year after diagnosis but increasing rapidly to approximately 2% per month after 15 months.

McNeil, B.J.; Hanley, J.

1980-04-01

49

The diagnostic role of gated myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide ventriculography in severe congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Several techniques have been applied for the assessment of severe congenital heart diseases (SCHD) including echocardiography, cardiac catheterization with angiocardiography, and more recently, cardiovascular multi detector tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The value of gated single photon emission tomography (GSPET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for evaluating myocardial ischemia, tissue viability, and left ventricular function in SCHD is less apparent. The risk of radiation exposure is greatest in the youngest patients. Both, GSPET MPI and RNV seem to be underutilized in pediatric clinical practice due to increased radiation exposure. We have reviewed basic and specific technical and diagnostic aspects, as well as specific clinical indications of GSPET MPI and RNV in children with SCHD in comparison with other cardiology methods. Some of our own tests are also presented where they apply. In conclusion, GSPET MPI and RNV can provide clinical relevant information of functional significance of SCHD in pediatric patients especially when the other cardiology methods are indeterminate. With regard to radiation exposure appropriate patient selection and recommendations for reduction of radiation exposure are of great importance. PMID:22087451

Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana P; Pavlovic, Smiljana V; Artiko, Vera M; Obradovic, Vladimir B

2011-01-01

50

Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease.

Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

1985-07-01

51

Identification of hip surface arthroplasty failures with TcSC/TcmDP radionuclide imaging.  

PubMed

The roentgenographic identification of femoral component loosening after hip surface arthroplasty is often impossible because the metallic femoral component obscures the bone-cement interface. The use of combined technetium sulfur colloid and technetium methylene diphosphonate radionuclide imaging has been especially useful in the diagnosis of loosening. In 40 patients, follow-up combined TcSC and TcmDP scans at an average of three, nine, and 27 months postoperation revealed significant differences in the isotope uptakes in patients who had loose prostheses compared with those without complications. Scans were evaluated by first dividing them into eight anatomical regions and then rating the uptake in each region or 'zone' on a five-point scale. Results were compared using the Student's t-test and differences were noted between normal controls and patients who had femoral component loosening. Combining both TcSC and TcmDP studies increased the statistical significance obtained when comparing patients who had complications to those in the control group. PMID:6212178

Thomas, B J; Amstutz, H C; Mai, L L; Webber, M M

1982-07-01

52

Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium  

SciTech Connect

A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

1983-03-01

53

THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience  

PubMed Central

The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT), and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction.

Baum, Richard P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.

2012-01-01

54

Imaging dose: calibration of polymer gel dosimeters for use in targeted radionuclide therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of standardised methodology to perform dose calculations for targeted radionuclide therapy and at present no method exists to objectively evaluate the various approaches employed. The aim of the work described here was to investigate the practicality and accuracy of calibrating polymer gel dosimeters such that dose measurements resulting from complex activity distributions can be verified. 12

Jonathan I. Gear; Glenn D. Flux; Elizabeth Charles-Edwards; Mike Partridge; Gary Cook; Robert J. Ott

2005-01-01

55

Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator.  

PubMed

Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries. PMID:24819280

Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C

2014-06-01

56

Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries.

Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

2014-06-01

57

Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.  

PubMed

The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues. PMID:23843083

Boschi, Federico; Pagliazzi, Marco; Rossi, Barbara; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Salgarello, Matteo; Spinelli, Antonello E

2013-01-01

58

Pyomyositis diagnosed by radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography. [/sup 99m/Tc-PYP, /sup 67/Ga  

SciTech Connect

Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle which is usually associated with abscess formation. Although it is a common disease in tropical countries, it is rare in temperate zones, with only 15 cases reported in the United States. We recently evaluated a patient with primary muscle abscess, using technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) bone scanning, gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) scanning, and sonography. To our knowledge, the radionuclide and sonographic diagnosis of the disease has not been previously reported in this country.

Datz, F.L.; Lewis, S.E.; Conrad, M.R.; Maravilla, A.; Parkey, R.W.

1980-05-01

59

Low-grade chondrosarcomas: a difficult target for radionuclide imaging. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bone scan with Tc-99m (technetium) diphosphonate is sensitive, but non-specific for musculoskeletal tumors. Tl-201 (thallium), Tc-99m-sestamibi, Tc-99m-tetrofosmin, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) can visualize tumors more specifically and are therefore useful in orthopedic oncology. However, cartilaginous tumors are characterized by histological and biological features, which potentially impair specific radionuclide imaging. A case of a patient with a low-grade primary chondrosarcoma of the femur and a false negative Tl-201 scan is presented. Tc-99m-based tumor-localizing compounds (sestamibi, tetrofosmin), as well as metabolic and receptor-imaging radiopharmaceuticals have also been reported to fail in low-grade chondrosarcomas imaging. Low cellularity, mitochondrial specialization and the presence of an efflux membrane pump may contribute to poor imaging. A negative Tl-201 or Tc-99m-sestamibi scan should be interpreted with caution, when the possibility of a chondrosarcoma is not negligible. PMID:12065124

Arsos, Georgios; Venizelos, Ioannis; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Koukoulidis, Apostolos; Karakatsanis, Constantinos

2002-07-01

60

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

61

CdZnTe Detector for MRI-Compatible-SPECT Systems, Radionuclide Imaging Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During th...

H. Krawczynski L. J. Meng

2013-01-01

62

Imaging Cardiac Stem Cell Transplantation Using Radionuclide Labeling Techniques: Clinical Applications and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapy is emerging as a potential new therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. In recent years, advances in molecular imaging have allowed monitoring of stem cell homing and survival. In this review article, we will discuss the clinical application and future directions of stem cell imaging in advanced heart failure.

2013-01-01

63

Direct Imaging of Radionuclide-Produced Electrons and Positrons with an Ultrathin Phosphor  

PubMed Central

Current electron detectors are either unable to image in vivo or lack sufficient spatial resolution because of electron scattering in thick detector materials. This study was aimed at developing a sensitive high-resolution system capable of detecting electron-emitting isotopes in vivo. Methods The system uses a lens-coupled charge-coupled-device camera to capture the scintillation light excited by an electron-emitting object near an ultrathin phosphor. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the system were measured with a 3.7-kBq 90Y/90Sr ?-source and a 70-µm resin bead labeled with 99mTc. Finally, we imaged the 99mTc-pertechnetate concentration in the mandibular gland of a mouse in vivo. Results Useful images were obtained with only a few hundred emitted ? particles from the 90Y/90Sr source or conversion electrons from the 99mTc bead source. The in vivo image showed a clear profile of the mandibular gland and many fine details with exposures of as low as 30 s. All measurements were consistent with a spatial resolution of about 50 µm, corresponding to 2.5 detector pixels with the current camera. Conclusion Our new electron-imaging system can image electron-emitting isotope distributions at high resolution and sensitivity. The system is useful for in vivo imaging of small animals and small, exposed regions on humans. The ability to image ? particles, positrons, and conversion electrons makes the system applicable to most isotopes.

Chen, Liying; Gobar, Lisa S.; Knowles, Negar G.; Liu, Zhonglin; Gmitro, Arthur F.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2008-01-01

64

Functional cardiac imaging in coronary disease: increased sensitivity of first-pass radionuclide angiography utilizing sequential regional left ventricular early diastolic filling rate images.  

PubMed

In 127 patients, 113 with greater than or equal to 50% coronary artery stenosis (CAD), 14 with normal coronaries, cardiac catheterization and first-pass radionuclide angiography (RNA) utilizing left ventricular (LV) regional ejection fraction, first half systolic LV regional mean transit time and ejection rate images were performed. Additionally, the incremental value of a new technique, sequential regional LV filling rate images focusing on the first third of diastole, was established. Diastolic imaging improved RNA sensitivity from 88% (100/113) to 96% (109/113). Single vessel disease sensitivity increased from 77% (23/30) to 90% (27/30), whereas multivessel disease RNA positivity changed from 93% (77/83) to 99% (82/83). LAD system (LAD/D) sensitivity improved by 24% to 94% (79/84); RCA system (RCA/PDA) sensitivity increased 17% to 84% (59/70); circumflex system (CFX/OM) sensitivity was 83% (67/81), an improvement of 5%. Specificity was well maintained despite the increased sensitivity, as 86% (12/14) of patients with normal coronaries were normal by RNA. Furthermore, in the 113 CAD patients, 81% (84/104) of the vessels with insignificant or no stenosis were normal by RNA. We conclude sequential regional LV diastolic filling images substantially increase RNA sensitivity for CAD, while specificity is satisfactorily maintained. PMID:2376050

Murray, G L; Schad, N; Ladd, W; Stagg, J; Abben, R; Pharo, W; Walker, C; Vander-Zwagg, R

1990-01-01

65

Tomographic and planar radionuclide imaging in patients suspected meniscal injury: Arthroscopic correlation  

SciTech Connect

In patients (pts) with knee pain which may be related to meniscal tears, clinical judgment is used to determine whether medical management or arthroscopy is indicated. Based on the assumption that meniscal injury will result in adjacent changes in Tc-99m MDP bone images, studies using both planar and tomographic techniques were performed in 12 pts referred for arthroscopy. Planar imaging was performed in the anterior, posterior, and posterior medial and lateral oblique positions of the symptomatic knee. Single photon emission computed tomography was performed using a 64 view 360/sup 0/ acquisition of both knees. In this series, both imaging techniques were accurate in identifying abnormality, but analysis of transaxial tomographic data showed greater contrast and facilitated localization because of the better spatial orientation provided by this method. Thus, tomographic bone imaging appears valuable in defining areas of localized abnormality in the knees of pts with meniscal injury.

Fajman, W.A.; Diehl, M.; Dunaway, E.; Stephenson, R.; Eisner, R.; Riggins, R.S.; Berger, H.J.

1985-05-01

66

Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

1987-07-01

67

The pinhole: gateway to ultra-high-resolution three-dimensional radionuclide imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the majority of clinical molecular imaging procedures are carried out with single-photon emitters and gamma cameras,\\u000a in planar mode and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) mode. Thanks to the development of advanced multi-pinhole\\u000a collimation technologies, SPECT imaging of small experimental animals is rapidly gaining in popularity. Whereas resolutions\\u000a in routine clinical SPECT are typically larger than 1 cm (corresponding to

Freek Beekman; Frans van der Have

2007-01-01

68

Does warm blood retrograde cardioplegia preserve right ventricular function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Efficacy of warm blood retrograde cardioplegia in preserving right heart function remains controversial. The current study was conducted to gauge the preservation of right ventricular function after warm blood retrograde cardioplegia.Methods. We studied 75 consecutive patients undergoing isolated heart valve procedures with warm blood retrograde cardioplegia as the exclusive mode of preservation. Right ventricular radionuclide ejection fraction and hemodynamic

Pankaj Kulshrestha; John A. Rousou; Richard M. Engelman; Joseph E. Flack; David W. Deaton; Richard B. Wait; Heather M. Hampf

2001-01-01

69

An adult patient with left ventricular noncompaction detected on radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging.  

PubMed

Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare congenital disease. We herein present less common single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of myocardial perfusion in an adult patient with LVNC. The images revealed segmental and seriously decreased myocardial perfusion with moderate enlargement of the left ventricle. Quantitative electrocardiogram-gated SPECT showed a moderately decreased left ventricular ejection fraction with impaired contractions. The SPECT findings were very similar to those of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of LVNC. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon cardiomyopathy and conduct comprehensive analyses in order to make a better differential diagnosis. PMID:23503407

Li, Jian-Ming; Li, Ting; Xu, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Rong-Fang

2013-01-01

70

Comparison Between Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping and Radionuclide Perfusion Imaging for Detection of Myocardial Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—A novel 3-dimensional left ventricular (LV) mapping system uses low-intensity magnetic field energy to determine the location of sensor-tipped electrode catheters within the LV. Using this system, we sought to distinguish between infarcted, ischemic, and normal myocardium by comparing LV electromechanical mapping data with myocardial perfusion imaging studies. Methods and Results—Unipolar voltage potentials and local endocardial shortening (LS) were measured

Ran Kornowski; Mun K. Hong; Martin B. Leon

71

The future of amyloid-beta imaging: a tale of radionuclides and tracer proliferation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review will focus on the coming proliferation of amyloid-beta imaging tracers and give an opinion on how the Alzheimer’s disease field can develop a systematic means of evaluating which tracers are useful and how the useful tracers compare to each other. Recent findings Several new tracers have been reported to be useful for human amyloid-beta imaging. The most recent of these are labeled with fluorine-18. Compared with the 20 min half-life of carbon-11 used in the most widely used tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B, the 110 min half-life of fluorine-18 allows for wider utilization in research and clinical settings. Summary It is likely that more than one fluorine-18-labeled tracer will come into common use. The use of preclinical and clinical ‘bridging studies’ to [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound-B could be a means to determine whether the sizable body of knowledge already gained in [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound-B studies can be applied to the understanding of these new tracers and to form a basis for the comparison among them. This approach could save resources and help sort out a potentially bewildering onslaught of new amyloid-beta imaging tracers.

Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.

2009-01-01

72

Cell-SELEX Aptamer for Highly Specific Radionuclide Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common and highly oncogenic EGFR mutant in GBM. With the aim to generate specific molecular probes able to target EGFRvIII with high affinity, we selected four DNA aptamers (U2, U8, U19 and U31) specifically bound to U87-EGFRvIII cells that over expressed EGFRvIII with Kd values in the nanomole range by a cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) process. U87MG cells were introduced as control cells for counter selection. We further affirmed U2 and U8 identified EGFRvIII on the surface of target cells specifically. Then we radiolabeled U2 with 188Re to serve as a molecular imaging probe and observed 188Re -labeled U2 significantly targeted EGFRvIII over-expressing glioblastoma exnografts in mice. In conclusion, aptamers obtained from whole cell-SELEX strategy have great potential as molecular imaging probes that are probably beneficial to GBM diagnoses.

Tan, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Li, Shuji; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Guiping; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Xingmei

2014-01-01

73

The utilization of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiac catheterization under Taiwan's universal health insurance program.  

PubMed

This study examines the utilization patterns of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and cardiac catheterization (CC) under Taiwan's national health insurance program. This study used the longitudinal health insurance database with 1,000,000 people were randomly selected from the national health insurance research database. This study obtained data from these patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and comparison with the utilization of MPI or CC between 2005 and 2009. The incidence of CAD did not significantly change, while the prevalence of CAD, utilization of MPI, and the utilization of CC for the CAD patients increased annually. There were the most CAD patients in Northern Taiwan (43.5%), followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan. The utilizations of both of MPI (12.7 per 100 CAD patients) and CC (10.6 per 100 CAD patients) were most frequent in Northern Taiwan followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan. However, the MPI/CC ratio was 1.20 in Northern Taiwan, followed by Southern, Central, and Eastern Taiwan (0.88, 0.64, and 0.52, respectively, P = 0.0008). The use of MPI was higher than CC only in Northern Taiwan. MPI may be underutilized to serve the role of gatekeeper for CC in the other regions. PMID:23515948

Lin, Ming-Chia; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Chen, Huei-Yung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Kao, Chia-Hung

2013-06-01

74

Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to DOTA chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten binding affinity of 100 picomolar (pM) is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nanomolar (nM) to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2 ± 1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.

Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin; Bhushan, Kumar R; Frangioni, John V; Wittrup, K Dane

2014-01-01

75

Synthesis, radiofluorination, and in vivo evaluation of novel fluorinated and iodinated radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.  

PubMed

Our project deals with a multimodal approach using a single fluorinated and iodinated melanin-targeting structure and offering both imaging (positron emission tomography (PET)/fluorine-18) and treatment (targeted radionuclide therapy/iodine-131) of melanoma. Six 6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide derivatives with various side chains bearing fluorine were synthesized and radiofluorinated, and their in vivo biodistribution was studied by PET imaging in B16Bl6 primary melanoma-bearing mice. Among this series, [(18)F]8 emerged as the most promising compound. [(18)F]8 was obtained by a fully automated radiosynthesis process within 57 min with an overall radiochemical yield of 21%, decay-corrected. PET imaging of [(18)F]8 demonstrated very encouraging results as early as 1 h postinjection with high tumor uptake (14.33% ± 2.11% ID/g), high contrast (11.04 ± 2.87 tumor-to-muscle ratio), and favorable clearance properties. These results, associated with the previously reported pharmacokinetic properties and dosimetry of 8, make it a potential agent for both PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma. PMID:24044531

Billaud, Emilie M F; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Tarrit, Sébastien; Askienazy, Serge; Maisonial, Aurélie; Moins, Nicole; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Auzeloux, Philippe

2013-11-14

76

Are We Warming Earth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the culminating activity of this investigation, students write an editorial entitled, Are We Warming Earth?, in which they attempt to persuade readers to take global warming seriously. Leading up to that activity, students read background material and interpret a variety of supporting graphs, diagrams and charts. The supplemental material focuses on global warming- the causes, effects on physical systems, and effects on human systems. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 3 of three found in the Grades 9-12 Module 3 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 3, while related, can be done independently.

77

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

2012-10-08

78

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

79

The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

Not Available

1982-05-01

80

Finding a Cold Needle in a Warm Haystack: Infrared Imaging Applied to Locating Cryocooled Crystals in Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate the use of inbred imaging to locate crystals mounted in cryoloops and cryopreserved in a nitrogen gas stream at 100K. In the home laboratory crystals are clearly seen in the infrared images with light transmitting through the sample while irradiating the crystal from behind, and with illumination from a direction perpendicular to the direction of view. The crystals transmit and reflect infrared radiation differently from the surrounding mother liquor and loop. Because of differences in contrast between crystals and their surrounding mother liquor, it is possible to clearly identify the crystal position. In use at the synchrotron, with robotically mounted crystals the small depth of field of the lens required the recording of multiple images at different focal points. Image processing techniques were then used to produce a clear image of the crystal. The resulting infrared images and intensity profiles show that infrared imaging can be a powerful complement to visual imaging in locating crystals in cryocooled loops.

Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Miller, M. D.; Deacon, A. M.

2004-01-01

81

Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatostatin receptor-targeting peptides are widely being used for imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor\\u000a radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with e.g. 177Lu labeled somatostatin analogues in neuroendocrine tumor patients has resulted in symptomatic improvement, prolonged survival\\u000a and enhanced quality of life. Yet, much profit can be gained from improving the receptor-targeting strategies available and\\u000a developing new strategies, e.g. targeting other

Marion de Jong; Suzanne M. Verwijnen; Monique de Visser; Dik J. Kwekkeboom; Roelf Valkema; Eric P. Krenning

82

Single photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma: new multimodal fluorinated and iodinated radiotracers.  

PubMed

This study reports a series of 14 new iodinated and fluorinated compounds offering both early imaging ((123)I, (124)I, (18)F) and systemic treatment ((131)I) of melanoma potentialities. The biodistribution of each (125)I-labeled tracer was evaluated in a model of melanoma B16F0-bearing mice, using in vivo serial ? scintigraphic imaging. Among this series, [(125)I]56 emerged as the most promising compound in terms of specific tumoral uptake and in vivo kinetic profile. To validate our multimodality concept, the radiosynthesis of [(18)F]56 was then optimized and this radiotracer has been successfully investigated for in vivo PET imaging of melanoma in B16F0- and B16F10-bearing mouse model. The therapeutic efficacy of [(131)I]56 was then evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F0 melanoma, and a significant slow down in tumoral growth was demonstrated. These data support further development of 56 for PET imaging ((18)F, (124)I) and targeted radionuclide therapy ((131)I) of melanoma using a single chemical structure. PMID:21417462

Maisonial, Aurélie; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Papon, Janine; Boisgard, Raphaël; Bayle, Martine; Vidal, Aurélien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Rbah, Latifa; Bonnet-Duquennoy, Mathilde; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Borel, Michèle; Askienazy, Serge; Dollé, Frédéric; Tavitian, Bertrand; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole; Chezal, Jean-Michel

2011-04-28

83

Warm baryogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a baryon asymmetry can be generated by dissipative effects during warm inflation via a supersymmetric two-stage mechanism, where the inflaton is coupled to heavy mediator fields that then decay into light species through B- and CP-violating interactions. In contrast with thermal GUT baryogenesis models, the temperature during inflation is always below the heavy mass threshold, simultaneously suppressing thermal and quantum corrections to the inflaton potential and the production of dangerous GUT relics. This naturally gives a small baryon asymmetry close to the observed value, although parametrically larger values may be diluted after inflation along with any gravitino overabundance. Furthermore, this process yields baryon isocurvature perturbations within the range of future experiments, making this an attractive and testable model of GUT baryogenesis.

Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.

2012-06-01

84

Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery  

SciTech Connect

Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. (Cardiology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-08-01

85

Dosimetric Considerations Relative to Radionuclides for Thyroid Diagnosis and Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent changes have occurred in the radionuclidic approach to the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. These changes have been directed toward reduction of radiation dose by the use of short-lived radionuclides for imaging and toward better control ...

H. L. Atkins

1976-01-01

86

Gastrointestinal tract radionuclide activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging: clinical significance in patients with fever of unknown origin  

SciTech Connect

To determine the frequency and clinical significance of indium-111 labeled leukocyte activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients with fever of unknown origin, we reviewed 312 leukocyte studies involving 271 patients. Radionuclide activity was noted in the bowel in 59 cases. Of these, only 27 were due to the infection or inflammatory disease that caused the patient's fever. The 32 false-positive results were due primarily to swallowed leukocytes or bleeding. In two cases, no explanation was found for the activity in the GI tract. We conclude that bowel activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte scans in patients with fever of unknown origin often does not correlate with the true cause of the patient's fever.

Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

1986-09-01

87

Finding the Cold Needle in a Warm Haystack: Infrared Imaging Applied to Locating Cryo-cooled Crystals in Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally imaging the cryocooling processes of crystals has been demonstrated showing the progression of a cold wave through a crystal from the face closest to the origin of the coldstream ending at the point furthest away. During these studies large volume crystals were clearly distinguished from the loop holding them. Large volume crystals, used for neutron studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. The different infrared transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the cryo-protectant are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast making the crystal visible. As an application of the technology to locating crystals, more small crystals of lysozyme and a bFGF/dna complex were cryo-protected and imaged in large loops. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution. In the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to enable the crystal to be seen in the visible spectrum. These preliminary results will be presented along with advantages and disadvantages of the technique and a discussion of how it might be applied.

Snell, Edward; vanderWoerd, Mark

2003-01-01

88

The Imaging of Insulinomas Using a Radionuclide-Labelled Molecule of the GLP-1 Analogue Liraglutide: A New Application of Liraglutide  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores a new, non-invasive imaging method for the specific diagnosis of insulinoma by providing an initial investigation of the use of 125I-labelled molecules of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide for in vivo and in vitro small-animal SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) imaging of insulinomas. Methods Liraglutide was labelled with 125I by the Iodogen method. The labelled 125I-liraglutide compound and insulinoma cells from the INS-1 cell line were then used for in vitro saturation and competitive binding experiments. In addition, in a nude mouse model, the use of 125I-liraglutide for the in vivo small-animal SPECT/CT imaging of insulinomas and the resulting distribution of radioactivity across various organs were examined. Results The labelling of liraglutide with 125I was successful, yielding a labelling rate of approximately 95% and a radiochemical purity of greater than 95%. For the binding between 125I-liraglutide and the GLP-1 receptor on the surface of INS-1 cells, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 128.8±30.4 nmol/L(N?=?3), and the half-inhibition concentration (IC50) was 542.4±187.5 nmol/L(N?=?3). Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging with 125I-liraglutide indicated that the tumour imaging was clearest at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment. An examination of the in vivo distribution of radioactivity revealed that at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment, the target/non-target (T/NT) ratio for tumour and muscle tissue was 4.83±1.30(N?=?3). Our study suggested that 125I-liraglutide was predominantly metabolised and cleared by the liver and kidneys. Conclusion The radionuclide 125I-liraglutide can be utilised for the specific imaging of insulinomas, representing a new non-invasive approach for the in vivo diagnosis of insulinomas.

Li, Xiao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

2014-01-01

89

Lung deposition of particles by airway generation in healthy subjects: Three-dimensional radionuclide imaging and numerical model prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-modality medical imaging enables measurement of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of inhaled, radiolabelled aerosol within the human lung. Using a conceptual model of spatial lung morphology, this data may be transformed to provide information on deposition by airway generation in the conducting airways. This methodology has been used to study intrapulmonary deposition patterns in control subjects for two polydisperse aerosols

Adel H. Hashish; John S. Fleming; Joy Conway; Peter Halson; Elizabeth Moore; Trevor J. Williams; Adrian G. Bailey; Michael Nassim; Stephen T. Holgate

1998-01-01

90

100 Years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

91

The Way of Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence now demonstrate that the way the planet has warmed is much more important than whether or not it warms. The patterns, seasonality, and timing of observed warming paint a rather benign, if not beneficial, picture of changes in the earth's climate. The planetary average surface temperature is warmer than it was 100 years ago. But what

Patrick J. Michaels; Paul C. Knappenberger; Robert E. Davis

2000-01-01

92

Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

Davis, Stanley N.

1988-01-01

93

Radionuclides and carrier molecules for therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although radionuclide therapy has been around for a long time, this modality of cancer treatment has been limited mainly to the use of [images/0031-9155/41/10/004/img1.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>]-phosphate and [images/0031-9155/41/10/004/img2.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>]-sodium iodide. The last few years, however, have seen an increased interest in this area due to new developments of radionuclides and carrier molecules that may provide selective targeting of tumour sites. The potential of this technique can be further realized if the radionuclide is carefully selected to match both the localization of the carrier molecule and tumour morphology. This paper briefly reviews radionuclides in current use and potential candidates for targeted therapy. Decay characteristics, production methods and relevant chemical properties are discussed.

Zweit, Jamal

1996-10-01

94

Copper radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry, radiochemistry, radiobiology, and radiopharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals containing copper radionuclides are reviewed. Copper radionuclides offer application in positron emission tomography, targeted radiotherapy, and single photon imaging. The chemistry of copper is relatively simple and well-suited to radiopharmaceutical application. Current radiopharmaceuticals include biomolecules labelled via bifunctional chelators primarily based on cyclic polyaminocarboxylates and polyamines, and pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (PTSM) and its analogues.

Philip J. Blower; Jason S. Lewis; Jamal Zweit

1996-01-01

95

LETSNet Global Warming Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit includes classroom activities to help students understand global warming and its possible effects on human beings. Lessons in the unit provide students with opportunities to study global climate changes, discuss and debate the current arguments for and against global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, investigate the possibility of global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, and present their findings in the form of research reports.

2011-04-26

96

Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... a radionuclide) and a special camera to take pictures of your heart as it pumps blood. The ... called “multi-gated” because a gamma camera takes pictures at specific times during each heartbeat. The test ...

97

Global Warming Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

1990-01-01

98

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

99

Is the climate warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The balance of evidence suggests that the climate is not warming. A US National Research Council report has highlighted, but not explained, the disparity between different data sets: while a variety of surface thermometers report a substantial warming trend, microwave sensing units (MSU) on weather satellites, and also radiosondes carried in weather balloons, show little if

S. F. Singer

2002-01-01

100

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

101

Evaluation of radiolabeled (hetero)aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide for imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.  

PubMed

Targeted radionuclide therapy using radioiodinated compounds with a specific affinity for melanoma tissue is a promising treatment for disseminated melanoma, but the candidate with the ideal kinetic profile remains to be discovered. Targeted radionuclide therapy concentrates the effects on tumor cells, thereby increasing the efficacy and decreasing the morbidity of radiotherapy. In this context, analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide (BZA) are of interest. Various (hetero)aromatic analogues 5 of BZA were synthesized and radioiodinated with (125)I, and their biodistribution in melanoma-bearing mice was studied after i.v. administration. Most [ (125)I] 5-labeled compounds appeared to bind specifically and with moderate-to-high affinity to melanoma tumor. Two compounds, 5h and 5k, stood out with high specific and long-lasting uptake in the tumor, with a 7- and 16-fold higher value than BZA at 72 h, respectively, and kinetic profiles that makes them promising agents for internal targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma. PMID:18481842

Chezal, Jean-Michel; Papon, Janine; Labarre, Pierre; Lartigue, Claire; Galmier, Marie-Josephe; Decombat, Caroline; Chavignon, Olivier; Maublant, Jean; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole

2008-06-12

102

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

103

Television news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01

104

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

105

An Analysis of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Warming is an active research issue that concerns science fields as well as economic, environmental and political concerns. In this paper, I summarized the observations of global warming and the causes and possible effects of the warming. Modeling studies are also discussed and disputed. While all the questions are not answered about global warming, scientists are striving towards the

John Cangialosi

106

Radionuclides in US coals  

SciTech Connect

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

107

Warm dust around ? Eridani  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

? Eridani hosts one known inner planet and an outer Kuiper belt analog. Further, Spitzer/IRS measurements indicate that warm dust is present at distances as close as a few AU from the star. Its origin is puzzling, since an ``asteroid belt'' that could produce this dust would be unstable because of the inner planet. We tested a hypothesis that the observed warm dust is generated by collisions in the outer belt and is transported inward by P-R drag and strong stellar winds. With numerical simulation we investigated how the dust streams from the outer ring into the inner system, and calculated the thermal emission of the dust. We show that the observed warm dust can indeed stem from the outer belt. Our models reproduce the shape and magnitude of the observed SED from mid-IR to sub-mm wavelengths, as well as the Spitzer/MIPS radial brightness profiles.

Reidemeister, Martin; Krivov, Alexander V.; Stark, Christopher C.; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Löhne, Torsten; Müller, Sebastian

2011-11-01

108

What is Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This textbook chapter presents evidence of a warming climate and outlines how a clear picture of global warming has emerged since the 1980s. Students learn about sampling error sources in climate data, and compare graphical data collected by climate scientists Jim Hansen, Philip Jones and Tom Wigley, as they follow the global warming hypothesis move through the process of science. This is the fourth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 4 of Climate Change, part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

109

Global Warming News Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news page, provided by space.com, posts news stories and other current information related to global warming. Touching on topics ranging from industrial pollution to jet contrails to glacier meltings, this Website attempts to centralize news about many of the recent advances in our understanding of global warming. In many cases, news articles mention the scientific resource(s) upon which the findings are based, serving as a helpful hint for readers wishing to delve deeper into the science behind the news story.

1999-01-01

110

Biology of radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. (eds.) (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Raventos, A. (ed.) (Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

111

Distribution of fallout radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth profiles and cumulative deposition of four fallout radionuclides (7Be, 137Cs, 210Pb and 239,240Pu) were determined in presumably undisturbed soils in Taiwan. Inventories of these radionuclides in different areas correlate significantly with each other (except 7Be) and with mean annual rainfall, providing a necessary condition for the development of soil ero- sion studies in Taiwan. However, the data show very

C.-C. Su

112

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

113

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Learn, Windows T.; National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)

114

Warm-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Warm-ups are questions I assign on the reading. Students read the text, do the questions, and turn one copy of the answers at the beginning of every class. They also keep one copy. The questions range from very objective to extremely subjective, but I generally keep them more concrete and less speculative. In class, we will go over the answers at the point in the lecture they best apply. They make corrections (if needed) as we discuss the questions in class. At that point, I'm also very explicit about what a good answer entails and we even discuss how I might ask this on an exam. As the exam comes up, they know what questions are most important, because we've covered them in the warm-ups. If there was information that I could not cover in a warm-up but could only provide in lecture, I will point that out. In brief, Warm-ups help to accomplish the following things: They help get students to read before class, They provide another source of points based on rewarding them for what they should already be doing, They are the main source of exam questions, They indicate to students what is most important to learn, They provide students a format for assembling information and practicing answers for questions that will be on the exam, and They help break my lecture into shorter segments interspersed with student interaction and feedback.

Price, Paul

115

Global Warming Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to see if the earth is actually getting warmer is to check historical temperature records. A decade ago the authors began to do just that. They collected a hodgepodge of readings going back 300 years. Then they attempted to quantify the data. Analysis of land and marine records confirms that our planet has warmed half a degree Celsius

Philip D. Jones; Tom M. L. Wigley

1990-01-01

116

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

117

Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and electron (low-range images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

1996-10-01

118

Warming trends: Nonlinear climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies assume that temperature trends are linear. Now, research demonstrates that warming trends are nonlinear, that warming accelerated over most of the twentieth century and is much stronger since 1980 than calculated by linear methods.

Franzke, Christian L. E.

2014-06-01

119

The Great Warming Brian Fagan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts

B. M. Fagan

2010-01-01

120

Preconditioning during warm blood cardioplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Preconditioning describes the cardioprotective effects of multiple brief episodes of warm ischemia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether warm ischemia, during the intermittent delivery of warm blood cardioplegia, would induce preconditioning during cardioplegia arrest. Methods: Dogs, 15, were randomized to a preconditioning protocol or to serve as controls. The control group received 60 min of continuous

Roderick Landymore; John You; Thomas Murphy; John Fris

1997-01-01

121

Preconditioning during warm blood cardioplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Preconditioning describes the cardioprotective effects of multiple brief episodes of warm ischemia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether warm ischemia, during the intermittent delivery of warm blood cardioplegia, would induce preconditioning during cardioplegia arrest. Methods: Dogs, 15, were randomized to a preconditioning protocol or to serve as controls. The control group received 60 min of continuous

Roderick Landymore; John You; Thomas Murphy; John Fris

122

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

123

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part interactive feature illustrates principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human factors. In the first part, students explore climate at Mono Lake in California. They will estimate the temperature for a particular time period by computing the surface energy in the area, and use the model to estimate temperature for any month, in modern and ice age climates, and to predict future temperatures. In the second part, they use data on fossil fuel emissions, gross domestic product, energy types, land use, and other gas emissions to model temperature changes in different world cities for a selected month and year. The exercise includes assessment materials for teachers and tutorials on global warming.

124

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

125

Global Warming Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn firsthand how society and environment might be impacted by global warming and how to help people make better decisions regarding all the complicated issues surrounding climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Students will take on the role of scientist, business leader, or policy maker and be part of a climate action team, which will make some of the same discoveries and decisions that are made in the âreal worldâ every day.

2007-01-01

126

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

De Nie, Michael W.

127

Radionuclide Methods and Instrumentation for Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer mammography is a well-acknowledged technique for patient screening due to its high sensitivity. However, in addition to its low specificity the sensitivity of mammography is limited when imaging patients with dense breasts. Radionuclide imaging techniques, such as coincidence photon-based positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography or scintimammography, can play a role in assisting screening of such patients. Radionuclide techniques can also be useful in assessing treatment response of patients with breast cancer to therapy, and staging of patients to diagnose the disease extent. However, the performance of these imaging modalities is generally limited because of the poor spatial resolution and sensitivity of the commercially available multipurpose imaging systems. Here, we describe some of the dedicated imaging systems (positron emission mammography [PEM] and breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI]) that have been developed both commercially and in research laboratories for radionuclide imaging of breast cancer. Clinical studies with dedicated PEM scanners show improved sensitivity to detecting cancer in patients when using PEM in conjunction with additional imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging or mammography or both, as well as improved disease staging that can have an effect on surgical planning. High-resolution BSGI systems are more widely available commercially and several clinical studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancer in high-risk patients. Further development of dedicated PEM and BSGI systems is ongoing, promising further expansion of radionuclide imaging techniques in the realm of breast cancer detection and treatment.

Surti, Suleman

2013-01-01

128

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19

129

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream

2005-01-01

130

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream

H. Miller

2004-01-01

131

Assessment of radionuclide retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide migration in the unsaturated and saturated rock zones composing the Yucca Mountain site may be retarded compared with groundwater movement. Predicting the potential for retardation by processes that include sorption, dispersion, and diffusion requires a thorough geologic characterization of this candidate site for the disposal of radioactive waste, augmented by geochemical laboratory experiments and modeling. The retardation phenomenon is

R. J. Herbst; J. A. Canepa

1988-01-01

132

Warm climate surprises  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decade, paleoclimatic data from ice cores and sediments have shown that the climate system is capable of switching between significantly different modes, suggesting that climatic surprises may lie ahead. Most attention in the growing area of abrupt climatic change research continues to be focused on large changes observed during glacial periods. The weight of paleoclimatic evidence now suggests that conforting conclusions of benign warm climate variability may be incorrect. The article goes on to discuss the evidence for this. 17 refs.

Overpeck, J.T. [National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-03-29

133

Spatial Distribution of Warm Dust in Early-Type Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images taken with the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope show\\u000athat the spatial distribution of warm dust emission in lenticular galaxies is\\u000aoften organized into dynamically-stable structures strongly resembling spiral\\u000aarms. These galaxies have bulge-to-disk-ratios and colors for their stellar\\u000acontent appropriate for their morphological classification. Two of the three\\u000agalaxies with warm dust detected at 8.0 um

Michael A. Pahre; M. L. N. Ashby; G. G. Fazio; S. P. Willner

2004-01-01

134

Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific Warm Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in observed sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature are analyzed for the tropical Pacific during 1955–2003. Since\\u000a 1955, the western Pacific Warm Pool has significantly warmed and freshened, whereas SSS has been increasing in the western\\u000a Coral Sea and part of the subtropical ocean. Waters warmer than 28.5°C warmed on average by 0.29°C, and freshened by 0.34\\u000a pss per

Sophie Cravatte; Thierry Delcroix; Dongxiao Zhang; Michael McPhaden; Julie Leloup

2009-01-01

135

Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea: distribution and transport processes of particulate radionuclides.  

PubMed

Distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu) in seabed sediment in the Japan Sea were collected during the period 1998-2002. Concentration of (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in seabed sediment was 0.07-1.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.4-9.1 Bq kg(-1) and 0.002-1.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the northern basin of the sea (Japan Basin), (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios in seabed sediment were higher and their variation was smaller compared to that in the southeastern regions of the sea. The higher (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios throughout the Japan Basin were considered to reflect production of Pu-enriched particles in the surface layer and substantial sinking of particulate materials in this region. In the southern regions of the Japan Sea (<38 degrees N), both inventories and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios in sediment were larger than those in the other regions. In the southern Japan Sea, observations suggested that supply of particulate radionuclides by the Tsushima Warm Current mainly enhanced accumulation of the radionuclides in this region. PMID:17049416

Otosaka, S; Amano, H; Ito, T; Kawamura, H; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, T; Togawa, O; Chaykovskaya, E L; Lishavskaya, T S; Novichkov, V P; Karasev, E V; Tkalin, A V; Volkov, Y N

2006-01-01

136

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

137

Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

2013-04-01

138

Global Warming Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pace Energy Project is aimed at an academic audience and features links to key reports, treaties, and speeches, including President Clinton's October, 1997 speech outlining the US position on global warming. Recently, delegates from 160 countries commenced a ten day conference in Kyoto, Japan to agree on a strategy to cut the world's emissions of greenhouse gases, which are thought to cause global warming. Any agreement, however, will be difficult, as large divisions between nations were apparent even before the conference began. The two most important disagreements concern the amount of greenhouse gas cuts and the standards for developing nations. The European Union seeks a 15% cut in gases while the US government, lobbied hard by business groups, wants no reduction at all for at least ten years. The other major sticking point is whether developing countries should have to reach the same targets as the developed world, which is responsible for the vast majority of the emissions. Little progress is projected until the last phase of the conference, when senior representatives, including Vice-President Al Gore, arrive in Kyoto.

Studies., Pace U.

1997-01-01

139

RHIC warm-bore systems  

SciTech Connect

Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and warm-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable warm-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and warm-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to warm-bore regions of the machine.

Welch, K.M.

1994-07-01

140

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

141

Unilateral breast uptake on radionuclide ventriculography.  

PubMed

Gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography is frequently used to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction. We report a case of unilateral breast activity resulting in significant underestimation of the left ventricular ejection fraction, which mimicked a left ventricular aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, or an intrathoracic vascular mass. Unilateral breast uptake, in the absence of gastric activity, was presumed because of increased blood pool in the lactating breast, a finding not previously reported in the literature. This case is also presented to emphasize the importance of localizing abnormalities based on a review of tomographic images or images taken in at least 2 orthogonal projections. PMID:24662654

Pelletier-Galarneau, Matthieu; Sogbein, Oyebola O; Pham, Xuan H; Zuckier, Lionel S

2014-07-01

142

Functional Radionuclide Imaging, In-Vitro Radioiodine Uptake Estimation and RT-PCR in the Evaluation of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression and Functionality in Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a common malignancy in females, which is considered as a systemic disease, whose treatment involves combined modality including systemic as well as local treatment. Recent studies have shown that breast cancer also expresses Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) gene, like in the thyroid, which is the factor responsible for the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, enabling radioiodine therapy of thyroid disorders. This study aimed to evaluate various radionuclide imaging characteristics, in vitro radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and evaluation of NIS expression by using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to explore sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression and iodine uptake in breast cancer and to explor e whether radioiodine can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Ways of differential regulation of NIS expression in breast cancer has also been explored. Female patients with palpable breast lump and histologically proven infiltrating duct carcinoma were taken up for the study, which included 50 females of mean age 49 years. (range: 23-73 years). The patients were categorized into different groups, depending on the type of the study performed. The uptake patterns in various imaging modalities were analyzed and compared with invitro and RT-PCR studies. 68 % of breast cancer cases showed (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake at the initial images. This finding could partly be due to tumor vascularity, which is usually higher compared to the normal tissues. The uptake in the delayed imaging could be related to that due to NIS in the breast. Use of perchlorate or stable iodine did not alter the pertechnetate uptake pattern in breast tumor. Good correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake in breast cancer was demonstrated. In vitro radioactive iodine uptake in the breast tumor was significantly higher than that in the normal breast tissue. Only 42 % of breast tumor samples studied using RT-PCR showed NIS expression. Correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake and NIS expression could not be well established. Further studies with higher dose of radioiodine and/or mechanisms of differentially blocking the thyroid are required to assess the feasibility of radioiodine therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24426705

Joseph, J K; Patel, R B; Damle, A A; Nair, N; Badwe, R A; Basu, S

2013-03-01

143

Radionuclide Migration: Prediction Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many different methods of calculating radionuclide migration (transfer) with groundwater-from very simple handmade calculations to use of sophisticated computer models, - exist and are in use. There is no doubt whether we can solve a particular problem in this area; the question is how can we find means of doing this in a fast, precise and economical way. According to practical experience of MosSIA 'Radon' specialists it is useful at the first stage to assess the degree to which various parameters affect the final result. Then the relevance of modeling parameters is usually assessed. SUE MosSIA 'Radon' has applied this complex approach to assessing possible radionuclide transfer from the long term storage facilities located within one of the sites in Moscow. Questions of model verification, computer realization, the analysis of obtained results, a role and a place of these calculations in safety assessment and safety case are beyond the scope of this paper. (authors)

Martianov, V.V.; Sheglov, M.Yu.; Guskov, A.V. [State Unitary Enterprise MosSIA 'Radon', 2/14, 7th Rostovsky pereulok, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

144

Global Warming FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research is dedicated to understanding the atmosphereâÂÂthe air around usâÂÂand the interconnected processes that make up the Earth system, from the ocean floor to the Sun's core. The National Center for Atmospheric Research and the UCAR Office of Programs provide research, observing and computing facilities, and a variety of services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. Here, they have helpfully provided a series of frequently asked questions about Climate Change. Each question provides a clear and concise answer and provides links to further information. In addition, the site includes a special inset on Global Warming, a "Ask a Scientist" section, and links at the bottom of the page to learn more.

2008-10-21

145

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These materials illustrate the principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human-caused factors. They include a set of activities on the Earth's energy budget and future climate change. The energy budget model uses Mono Lake, California as an example. The future climate change activity uses the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data for six scenarios can be examined and comparisons can be observed by selecting a change or stabilization in emissions. The tools in the activity can generate data that examine predicted changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global and regional temperatures, sea level, and flooding. There are also tutorials on a variety of topics, such as Milankovitch Cycles, Earth's seasons, the Carbon cycle, and others. An assessment tool is included so that instructors can determine how well learning objectives are being met.

146

Global Warming Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of our readers will no doubt already be familiar with MIT's excellent OpenCourseWare (OCW), which offers free college-level curricula online to the public. The OpenCourseWare site is well worth a browse, as it offers courses on a variety of useful and engaging subjects such as business, health and medicine, mathematics, fine arts and science. This particular course, which was originally offered to undergraduate students in the spring of 2012, looks at the science behind global warming. Content includes lecture notes, assignments and student projects. The content could be used as a springboard for instructors teaching similar classes, or may prove useful to curious individuals looking to learn more about this timely and important topic. [AHT

2012-01-01

147

[Dependence of uniformity on the radionuclide in SPECT: test methods].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate test methods to clarify whether the non-uniformity of a gamma camera depends on individual radionuclides, and whether it is necessary to measure a separate correction matrix for each radionuclide used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two methods were devised to verify the nuclide-dependence of the gamma camera. In order to test the energy correction of the detectors, the first approach was based on the evaluation of the intrinsic non-uniformity and on the production of images with asymmetrical energy window. The second method was based on the production of correction matrices for different radionuclides, as well as on the subsequent application to phantom data that were also generated with different radionuclides. The investigation of a dualhead gamma camera produced the same results with both methods. One detector head was found to be weakly dependent on the radionuclide, due to the insufficient quality of energy correction. In this case, the phantom or patient data should be corrected using a uniformity correction matrix measured with the same radionuclide. The second detector remained nuclide-independent; in this case the uniformity correction matrix acquired for only one radionuclide was sufficient. PMID:15462416

Kalnischke, Heiko; Grebe, Gerhard; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter Ludwig; Geworski, Lilli

2004-01-01

148

Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.  

PubMed

For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases. PMID:22815123

Gabriel, Michael

2012-10-01

149

Interacting warm dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear ??m??e? form, where ?m and ?e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters ? and ? are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (?,?,?) as well as wm and we of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter - phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ?CDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (?,?,?) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

2013-05-01

150

Is the Arctic Ocean warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent high-quality hydrographic measurements in the Arctic Ocean have revealed a warming of up to 1 K of the Atlantic Layer when compared with Russian climatologies of the 1940s to 1970s. About half of this warming can be attributed to the different methods by which the two data sets were obtained: the climatologies are based on discrete bottle data in

Kerstin Grotefendt; Kai Logemann; Detlef Quadfasel; Stephanie Ronski

1998-01-01

151

Global warming and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns that the rapid development of the developing countries will hasten global warming and exacerbate resource problems. That is to say, it is quite possible that we cannot solve the North-South problem while at the same time containing global warming and conserving fossil fuels. But this paper attempts to show that, on the contrary, the fast development of

Kokichi Ito

1996-01-01

152

Impact of Episodic Warming Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica were investigated to determine the impact of a significant air temperature warming event that occurred during the austral summer of 2001–2002. The warming in the valleys caused an increase in glacial run-off, record stream discharge, an increase in lake levels, and thinning of the permanent ice covers. These changes in the physical environment drove

Christine M. Foreman; Craig F. Wolf; John C. Priscu

2004-01-01

153

Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gr...

B. Macintosh

2005-01-01

154

Radionuclide ventriculography to evaluate myocardial function  

SciTech Connect

Developments over the past decade have allowed one to visualize the right and left ventricles using radionuclide techniques and to study the influence of a wide range of physiologic, pharmacologic and surgical interventions on global and regional ventricular function thereby providing important diagnostic insight and improved therapeutic capabilities. These tests are relatively non-invasive, they can be performed serially, they may be performed in patients that are seriously ill, and they have no recognized risk other than low level radiation exposure. With continued improvement in noninvasive imaging and processing and in the sophistication of associated computer systems, one may expect significant and wide ranging additional contributions in the assessment of myocardial function using radionuclide ventriculographic techniques.

Huxley, R.L.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.

1983-01-01

155

Kidney Dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy: Influence of Image Timing, Time-Activity Integration Method, and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Kidney dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y PRRT requires 3 to 6 whole-body/SPECT scans to extrapolate the peptide kinetics, and it is considered time and resource consuming. We investigated the most adequate timing for imaging and time-activity interpolating curve, as well as the performance of a simplified dosimetry, by means of just 1-2 scans. Finally the influence of risk factors and of the peptide (DOTATOC versus DOTATATE) is considered. 28 patients treated at first cycle with 177Lu DOTATATE and 30 with 177Lu DOTATOC underwent SPECT scans at 2 and 6 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after the radiopharmaceutical injection. Dose was calculated with our simplified method, as well as the ones most used in the clinic, that is, trapezoids, monoexponential, and biexponential functions. The same was done skipping the 6?h and the 3?d points. We found that data should be collected until 100?h for 177Lu therapy and 70?h for 90Y therapy, otherwise the dose calculation is strongly influenced by the curve interpolating the data and should be carefully chosen. Risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) cause a rather statistically significant 20% increase in dose (t-test, P < 0.10), with DOTATATE affecting an increase of 25% compared to DOTATOC (t-test, P < 0.05).

Guerriero, F.; Ferrari, M. E.; Botta, F.; Fioroni, F.; Grassi, E.; Versari, A.; Sarnelli, A.; Pacilio, M.; Amato, E.; Strigari, L.; Bodei, L.; Paganelli, G.; Iori, M.; Pedroli, G.; Cremonesi, M.

2013-01-01

156

Kidney dosimetry in ¹??Lu and ??Y peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: influence of image timing, time-activity integration method, and risk factors.  

PubMed

Kidney dosimetry in (177)Lu and (90)Y PRRT requires 3 to 6 whole-body/SPECT scans to extrapolate the peptide kinetics, and it is considered time and resource consuming. We investigated the most adequate timing for imaging and time-activity interpolating curve, as well as the performance of a simplified dosimetry, by means of just 1-2 scans. Finally the influence of risk factors and of the peptide (DOTATOC versus DOTATATE) is considered. 28 patients treated at first cycle with (177)Lu DOTATATE and 30 with (177)Lu DOTATOC underwent SPECT scans at 2 and 6 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after the radiopharmaceutical injection. Dose was calculated with our simplified method, as well as the ones most used in the clinic, that is, trapezoids, monoexponential, and biexponential functions. The same was done skipping the 6?h and the 3?d points. We found that data should be collected until 100?h for (177)Lu therapy and 70?h for (90)Y therapy, otherwise the dose calculation is strongly influenced by the curve interpolating the data and should be carefully chosen. Risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) cause a rather statistically significant 20% increase in dose (t-test, P < 0.10), with DOTATATE affecting an increase of 25% compared to DOTATOC (t-test, P < 0.05). PMID:23865075

Guerriero, F; Ferrari, M E; Botta, F; Fioroni, F; Grassi, E; Versari, A; Sarnelli, A; Pacilio, M; Amato, E; Strigari, L; Bodei, L; Paganelli, G; Iori, M; Pedroli, G; Cremonesi, M

2013-01-01

157

Autophagic activation in vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes.  

PubMed

Vitrification involves the use of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), which may cause osmotic damage and cryoinjury to oocytes. Autophagy is widely recognized as a survival or response mechanism elicited by various environmental and cellular stressors. However, the induction of autophagy in vitrified-warmed oocytes has not been examined. In this work, we investigated whether the vitrification-warming process induces autophagy in mouse oocytes. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes that were vitrified and stored in LN2 for at least 2 weeks were used in the study. In RT-PCR analyses, we observed that several Atg genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, LC3a (Map1lc3a), LC3b (Map1lc3b), and Beclin1 were expressed in MII mouse oocytes. Slight reduction in mRNA levels of Atg7 and Atg12 in vitrified-warmed oocytes was noted, and expression of these genes was not significantly influenced. Confocal live imaging analysis using oocytes from GFP-LC3 transgenic mice revealed that vitrified-warmed oocytes had a significantly higher number of GFP-LC3 puncta in comparison to fresh oocytes. The expression of BECLIN1 protein was also increased in vitrified-warmed oocytes. Treatment with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, did not significantly affect the rates of oocyte survival, IVF, and embryonic development after warming and IVF. The results suggest that the observed autophagic activation in vitrified-warmed oocytes is a natural adaptive response to cold stress. Collectively, we show for the first time that vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes exhibit autophagic activation during warming and that this response is not induced by CPA-containing solutions. The induction of autophagy by cold temperature is first reported herein. PMID:24760879

Bang, Soyoung; Shin, Hyejin; Song, Haengseok; Suh, Chang Suk; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

2014-07-01

158

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

159

Warming up for Planck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. Warm inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|nt|, where nt is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.

Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.

2013-06-01

160

Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

2006-02-01

161

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

162

How the West Was Warmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

163

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15

164

Modifications to the warm Spitzer data reduction pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) basic calibrated data reduction pipeline is designed to take a single raw frame from a single IRAC detector and produce a flux-calibrated image that has had all well-understood instrumental signatures removed. We discuss several modifications to the pipeline developed in the last two years in response to the Spitzer warm mission. Due to the different instrument characteristics in the warm mission, we have significantly changed pipeline procedures for masking residual images and mitigating column pulldown. In addition, the muxbleed correction was turned off, because it is not present in the warm data. Parameters relevant to linearity correction, bad pixels, and the photometric calibration have been updated and are continually monitored.

Lowrance, Patrick J.; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica E.; Surace, Jason A.; Glaccum, William J.; Khan, Iffat; Ingalls, James G.; Laine, Seppo; Grillmair, Carl

2012-09-01

165

Global Warming Kids.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

166

Review of Warm Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA technology allows the mixing, transport...

A. Chowdhury J. W. Button

2008-01-01

167

Soil Microbes and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, viewers learn how one-celled organisms in permafrost may be contributing to greenhouse gas levels and global warming.

Kuac; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

168

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by ?- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

169

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Garland, Marc A [ORNL

2011-01-01

170

Issues concerning global warming today  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global weather of today is growing significantly warmer; this is an indisputable fact. However, the scientific community\\u000a has not yet reached consensus on the causes of global warming and its possible consequences. This paper introduces the causes\\u000a of global warming and summarizes its results, which both involve a series of huge and complex system issues. Our top priority\\u000a is

Zhenqiu Ren

2008-01-01

171

Beta-emitting radionuclides for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on the ?-emitting radionuclides which might be useful for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, PRRT. For the effective design of the radiopharmaceutical, the choice of radionuclide will depend on the purpose for which the radioligand is being used and on the physicochemical properties of the radionuclide. The important factor is also the availability and the cost of production. The physical characteristics of several radionuclides which are currently used or can be considered as potential candidates for PRRT is provided, followed by short description of production methods and chemical aspects of their use in preparation of peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals. Somatostatin analogues labeled with radionuclides have been a successful example of PRRT. For treatment of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, somatostatin analogues labeled with the radioisotopes (111)In, (90)Y and (177)Lu have been used so far. Labeling with (111)In, mainly an Auger electron emitter, resulted in no reduction of tumor size while somatostatin analogues labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu gave overall positive response and improved the patients' quality of life. These promising results together with the increasing availability of other ?-emitting radionuclides are a good basis for further studies. PMID:23339764

Parus, J L; Mikolajczak, R

2012-01-01

172

Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite images are used to show that major alterations in the structure of Gulf Stream warm-core rings can occur during very short periods of two to five days when an interaction with the Gulf Stream is particularly intense. The role of these interactions in the evolution of a ring are discussed.

Joyce, T.; Backus, R.; Cowles, T.; Baker, K.; Blackwelder, P.; Brown, O.; Evans, R.; Olson, D.; Fryxell, G.; Mountain, D.

1984-01-01

173

Natural radionuclides in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Laul, J.C.

1990-01-01

174

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

175

Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric warmings, and to correlate the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for warming, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric warming cases are analyzed.

Anderson, A. D.

1974-01-01

176

Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The first section, fundamental concepts, includes physics, instrumentation, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, radiation safety, and a chapter on procedures for working with pediatric patients. The clinical material, which occupies the bulk of the two volumes, is informative and illustrated.

Freeman, L.M.

1984-01-01

177

WARM N COLD: malignant and benign renal tumors in children.  

PubMed

Although Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy in children, the differential diagnosis is extensive and includes both malignant and benign disorders. We present a simple mnemonic-WARM N COLD, to aid in remembering these diverse tumors. Imaging clues including age of the patient, associated disease or syndrome as well as salient imaging characteristics such as bilaterality, and type or presence of metastasis are also presented and can help differentiate between these renal tumors of childhood. PMID:24570120

Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Ducore, Jonathan; Balagtas, Jay; Molloy, Christopher; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L

2014-06-01

178

The Great Warming Brian Fagan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

Fagan, B. M.

2010-12-01

179

The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Oncology, Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G1Z2 (Canada)

2008-08-11

180

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

181

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

Lau, William; Wu, H. T.; Agu

182

Radionuclides in groundwaters: contaminants and tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As groundwaters serve for drinking-water purposes, radionuclides in groundwater are generally considered as contaminants. Some of the radionuclides contributing to natural radioactivity in groundwater and some of the manmade atmospheric radionuclides, however, have become good tracers for the assessment of residence times (groundwater age) and mixing. Controlled experiments with artificial radionuclides, on the other hand, are restricted to a few

EDUARD HOEHN

183

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), this site seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

1999-01-01

184

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

185

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

J. Houseworth

2004-09-22

186

FTRANS. Radionuclide Transport Fractured Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTRANS (Fractured flow and Transport of RAdioNuclideS) is a two-dimensional finite-element code designed to simulate ground-water flow and transport of radioactive nuclides in a fractured porous return medium. FTRANS takes into account fluid interactions between the fractures and porous matrix blocks, advective-dispersive transport in the fractures and diffusion in the porous matrix blocks, and chain reactions of radionuclide components. It

Golis

1984-01-01

187

Global Warming Materials for Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Materials available at this site include a set of educational toolkits about ecosystems, a global warming map, a renewable energy teaching guide, and two reports. Each of the toolkits focuses on a specific ecosystem service, such as water purification or forest carbon storage. The map (and accompanying curriculum guide) shows where the fingerprints and harbingers of global warming have occurred in recent years. The teaching guide includes hands-on activities, games, action projects, and a resource guide. The reports focus on climate change impacts in California and in the Gulf Coast region. Corresponding teaching guides consist of multiple activities that are closely tied to and build upon the reports.

2011-04-21

188

Global warming at the summit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

Showstack, Randy

189

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01

190

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01

191

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the school's traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched green

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

192

Policy implications of greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

Not Available

1991-01-01

193

Global Warming: Is it Real?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the Why Files discusses research that provides new evidence for a century-long warming trend. The research is based on records of lake and river ice melting and freezing dates over a 150-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. Researcher John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison published his results in the journal Science.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-09-11

194

World View of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains information and photographs related to climate change and its impact. The World View of Global Warming project is documenting this change through science photography from the Arctic to Antarctica, from glaciers to the oceans, across all climate zones.

Braasch, Gary

2010-07-30

195

Properties of Warm IRAC Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the calibration and properties of data from the IRAC instrument aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope taken after the depletion of cryogen. The cryogen depleted on 15 May 2009, and shortly afterward a two-month-long calibration and characterization campaign was conducted. IRAC started nominal science observations for the warm mission on 28 July 2009. The array temperature

Sean J. Carey; J. A. Surace; W. J. Glaccum; J. Ingalls; J. Krick; M. Lacy; P. Lowrance; S. Laine; J. O'Linger; J. R. Stauffer; S. P. Willner; J. L. Hora; W. F. Hoffmann; M. L. N. Ashby; J. Huang; M. Marengo; M. A. Pahre; Z. Wang; G. G. Fazio

2010-01-01

196

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

197

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

198

Climate projection: Refining global warming projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately determining the warming associated with scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions remains an overarching aim of climate modelling. Research now shows that contemporary measurements significantly reduce uncertainty bounds and indicate that some more extreme warming predictions may be less likely.

Huntingford, Chris

2013-08-01

199

Radionuclide injury to the lung  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references.

Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

1984-04-01

200

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

201

Methods of Patient Warming during Abdominal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundKeeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients.MethodsPatients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion\\/fluid infusion

Li Shao; Hong Zheng; Feng-Ju Jia; Hui-Qin Wang; Li Liu; Qi Sun; Meng-Ying An; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Hao Wen

2012-01-01

202

Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

1974-01-01

203

Spitzer warm mission transition and operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the successful dynamic planning and implementation of IRAC Warm Instrument Characterization activities, transition to Spitzer Warm Mission operations has gone smoothly. Operation teams procedures and processes required minimal adaptation and the overall composition of the Mission Operation System retained the same functionality it had during the Cryogenic Mission. While the warm mission scheduling has been simplified because all observations

William A. Mahoney; Lisa J. Garcia; Joseph Hunt Jr.; Douglas B. McElroy; Vince G. Mannings; David S. Mittman; Joann C. O'Linger; Marc Sarrel; Elena Scire

2010-01-01

204

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

205

Cellular dosimetry of diagnostic radionuclides for spherical and ellipsoidal geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides which emit Auger electrons are widely used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Studies have shown possible uptake of these in developing germ cells within the testes. In addition, mature sperm within the reproductive tract may be subject to uptake of radionuclides from the circulating blood pool. Though much work has been carried out concerning cellular dosimetry applied to spherical sources, such an approach may lead to significant errors when considering spermatids and spermatozoa, which are almost ellipsoidal in shape (with the long axis twice the short). A numerical method for determining geometrical reduction factors has been developed and used in conjunction with experimentally determined range - energy relationships for electrons, to determine dose gradients and S factors for homogeneous distributions of four commonly used diagnostic radionuclides (images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img1.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>, images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img2.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>, images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img3.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> and images/0031-9155/41/9/018/img4.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>) throughout source regions of both spherical and ellipsoidal geometry at typical cellular dimensions. The results indicate that assumption of spherical geometry is acceptable when determining S factors for late-type germ cells, but introduces error into calculations of dose distribution towards the edge of the cell.

Nettleton, Jo S.; Lawson, Richard S.

1996-09-01

206

Warm Debris Disks from WISE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "

Padgett, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

207

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

208

Lagrangian description of warm plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

Kim, H.

1970-01-01

209

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a constant discount rate to study long-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive to the discount rate, and with moderate discount rates, large future damages have almost no effect on current decisions. Time-consistent quasi-hyperbolic discounting alleviates both of these modeling problems, and is a plausible description of how people

Larry Karp

2005-01-01

210

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a constant discount rate to study long-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive to the discount rate, and with moderate discount rates, large future damages have almost no effect on current decisions. Time-consistent quasi-hyperbolic discounting alleviates both of these modeling problems, and is a plausible description of how people

Larry S Karp

2004-01-01

211

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

212

Artificial and Natural Radionuclides in Marine Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Methods of investigation; Karyology of marine fish and the effect of radionuclides on their chromosome apparatus; Accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in marine organisms in nature; Extraction of radionuclides by alginic acid from seawa...

V. G. Tsytsugina N. S. Risik G. E. Lazorenko

1975-01-01

213

Testing For Outliers In Radionuclide Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of monitoring atmospheric radionuclides over time is investigated. Such monitoring is desirable for both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The statistical problem is one of testing for a time series outlier, and the problem is complicat...

B. Zhao H. L. Gray M. D. Fisk W. A. Woodward

2000-01-01

214

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

215

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

216

Subclavian steal diagnosed by radionuclide arteriogram.  

PubMed

We report a case of subclavian steal syndrome diagnosed by radionuclide arteriogram and subsequently confirmed by contrast arteriogram. We suggest that radionuclide arteriogram may sometimes be useful as a screening test. PMID:6090049

Cox, W M; Abghari, R

1984-08-01

217

Transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment have been investigated. The thesis is divided into two parts. Part I; Dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. The study comprises the development of a com...

M. Oehlenschlaeger

1991-01-01

218

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

219

TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

220

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

221

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

222

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes

D. E. Fields; R. D. Sharp

1985-01-01

223

(Biogeochemical pathways at artificial radionuclides)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the present computer codes used to assist management decisions on hazardous waste management issues have not been verified or tested and, in many instances, are operated by individuals lacking specific expertise about the overall behavior of radionuclides in the environment. BIOMOVS is an international effort to test such codes. SCOPE-RADPATH has been organized to address the data needs for reliable environmental assessment of radionuclides and the data required for code testing. Concern was expressed at both meetings that computer codes are being inadvertently used as a substitute for scientific expertise and are obscuring rather than identifying needs for further research. Efforts to alleviate this situation are apparent among the scientific community funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the Nordic Liason Committee for Atomic Energy. Attempts are also being made to transfer information about the environmental behavior of radionuclides to other types of trace contaminants in the biosphere, using radionuclides as quantitative tracers of major biospheric transport processes. Of particular importance is the assessment of the transfer of radioactive contaminants from watersheds into surface waters and subsequent bioaccumulation into aquatic food chains as well as the long-term remobilization of contaminants initially immobilized in sediment.

Hoffman, F.O.

1989-06-26

224

Satellite-Based Assessment of the Aerosol Effect on Global Warm Cloud Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present characteristics of global warm cloud properties and warm-rain process in conjunction with the aerosol index (AI) and the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible/Infrared Radiance Imager (VIRS) simultaneously derive cloud-top droplet effect radius, column droplet radius, cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, cloud optical depth, and a warm rain index. These cloud properties are clustered by different bins of LTS, and then compared with GOCART-derived AI and MODIS-derived AI values. Results indicate that the characteristics of the aerosol-cloud interactions significant vary between different cloud types and thermodynamic environments. This indicates that the radiative effect and warm-rain process due to aerosols have significant heterogeneous regional climate forcing effects.

Matsui, T.; Masunaga, H.; Pielke, R. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Tao, W.; Chin, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

2004-12-01

225

Warm Spray Forming of Ti-6Al-4V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm spray (WS) is a modification of high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, in which the temperature of the supersonic gas flow generated by the combustion of kerosene and oxygen is controlled by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. The inert gas is injected into the mixing chamber placed between the combustion chamber and the powder feed ports, thus the temperature of the propellant gas can be controlled from ~700 to 2,000 K. Since WS allows for higher particle temperatures in comparison to cold spray, warm sprayed particles are more softened upon impact, thus resulting in greater deformation facilitating the formation of shear instability for bonding. Recently, the combustion pressure of WS has been increased from 1 (low-pressure warm spray) to 4 MPa (high-pressure warm spray) in order to increase the velocity of sprayed particles. Effects of spray parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties, and splats formation of Ti-6Al-4V were systematically studied. Obtained coatings were examined by analyzing the coating cross-section images, microhardness as well as oxygen content. In addition, flattening ratio of splats was calculated as a function of nitrogen flow rate. It was found that the increased particle velocity caused by the increased combustion pressure had significant beneficial effects in terms of improving density and controlling the oxygen level in the sprayed Ti-6Al-4V coatings.

Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

2014-01-01

226

Mapping Gulf Stream warm core rings from shipboard ADCP transects of the Oleander Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow patterns of the Gulf Stream warm core rings and surrounding shelf break and slope water are constructed from shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) transects of the Oleander Project. For each warm ring, consecutive ADCP transects are colocated to a common ring center and are mapped into a stream function. Methods to locate ring centers from the ADCP transect and advanced very high resolution radiometer image are developed and tested. Two warm rings in 1999, which have relatively complete data coverage, are examined to study the ring-induced warm and cold streamers. For cold streamers, the estimated volume flux, based on more than 10 independent ADCP transects, is at least 1 × 106 m3 s-1. This result agrees well with the previous estimate in the Warm Core Ring Experiment. For warm streamers, the result is new. On the basis of a large number of ADCP transects, the estimated volume flux is about 2.5 × 106 m3 s-1. By pulling large transports associated with the cold/warm streamers, the warm rings likely play a fundamental role in the water exchange in the Slope Sea.

Wei, Jun; Wang, Dong-Ping; Flagg, Charles N.

2008-10-01

227

Paving the way to personalized medicine: production of some theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a relatively novel paradigm that involves specific individual radionuclides or radionuclide pairs that have emissions that allow pre-therapy low-dose imaging plus higher-dose therapy in the same patient. We have made an attempt to sort out and organize a number of such theragnostic radionuclides and radionuclide pairs that may potentially bring us closer to the age-long dream of personalized medicine for performing tailored low-dose molecular imaging (SPECT/CT or PET/CT) to provide the necessary pre-therapy information on biodistribution, dosimetry, the limiting or critical organ or tissue, and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), etc. If the imaging results then warrant it, it would be possible to perform higher-dose targeted molecular therapy in the same patient with the same radiopharmaceutical. A major problem that remains yet to be fully resolved is the lack of availability, in sufficient quantities, of a majority of the best candidate theragnostic radionuclides in a no-carrier-added (NCA) form. A brief description of the recently developed new or modified methods at BNL for the production of four theragnostic radionuclides, whose nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics seem to show great promise for personalized cancer therapy are described.

Srivastava S. C.

2011-06-06

228

The warm sacroiliac joint. A finding in pelvic abscess  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with pain referable to the low back and sacroiliac regions had bone scans with similar findings. In each, one sacroiliac joint was warm (uptake on that side was slightly greater than that in the contralateral area). Ga-67 imaging also demonstrated increased uptake in the same locale. Subsequent CT scanning revealed pelvic abscesses adjacent to the affected joints. Asymmetric uptake of bone imaging agent may have been related to hyperemia and heating of the sacroiliac joint. Rapid defervescence with antibiotics and drainage (and no CT evidence of bone involvement) suggested that osteomyelitis was not involved in these cases.

Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Epstein, N.; Negrin, J.A.; Spencer, R.P. (Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

229

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an overview of the history of scientific research and public policy on climate change, from the nineteenth century to the present. The site is an expanded version of the book "The Discovery of Global Warming" by Spencer Weart, and is presented as a series of essays with hyperlinks connecting related topics from page to page. Topics include climate data, influences on climate, models of climate change, and societal impacts. The essays are searchable by keyword, and the entire site can be downloaded as a zipped file or a series of printable files (PDFs).

Weart, Spencer R.

230

I'm Warm Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to make students aware of just how much clean fresh water is wasted while waiting for the water to become warm in our spigots. They will make predictions of the amount of time and the quantity of water wasted, collect data for the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and calculate the class average of time and water wasted per sink. They are then introduced to the concept of projections, based on the population of the city, state, and country per day, month, and year, construct a graph showing these projections, and discuss possible solutions.

Weldon, Carylon

231

Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the "Holy Gray"  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally.

Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

2007-01-01

232

Hot Science With a "Warm" Telescope - Archival Research Opportunities in the Spitzer "Warm" Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the end of the Spitzer cryogenic mission, the Spitzer archive will hold 25TB of data, and may generate an additional 4TB per year during the warm mission. This unique dataset enables a wide range of small and legacy-class archival research opportunities, as described in this presentation. These include asteroid counts, a Y-dwarf search, a systematic study of infrared extinction, a census of infrared dark clouds, extragalactic 16 and 70 micron surveys, searches for z>1 galaxy clusters, searches for dust obscured AGN and quasars, and stacking analyses of galaxy populations. In spring 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5’ fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. During the "warm” mission, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with extremely high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional" time allocations, as well as funding for archival research.

Squires, Gordon K.; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Soifer, T.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

2007-12-01

233

Hot Science With A "warm" Telescope: Galactic Studies With The Spitzer "warm" Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the capabilities for Galactic science in the Spitzer Space Telescope "warm" mission phase. The unique capabilities of IRAC in this mission will allow to: complete the census of the Galactic plane by mapping it over the entire longitude range; measure extinction in conjunction with existing near-infrared surveys such as 2MASS, and at higher spatial resolution than other long wavelength surveys; observe heavily extincted Galactic areas such as bars, interacting dwarf satellites, and spiral arms, with superior penetration than near-infrared data; study larger regions of star formation surrounding massive molecular clouds, such as the outer regions of OB associations and distant GMCs, to augment present studies of clouds within 500 pc; conduct wide angle surveys of cool T and Y dwarfs, and AGB stars in the halo. In spring 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5 arcmin X 5 arcmin fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. During the warm mission, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with extremely high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more traditional time allocations.

Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Soifer, B. T.; Squires, G.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

2007-12-01

234

Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

2002-01-01

235

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology.

Ibanez, Ines; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

236

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

237

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

238

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

239

Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data.

Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

2014-02-01

240

Warm gas in protoplanetary disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a study of warm CO, [OI] and H2 gas coming from the disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These various gas tracers are each a proxy for a different radial and vertical region of the PP disk surface. Our sample consists of disks whose shape (based on modeling of the the disk dust emission) can be divided into flaring and self-shadowed (flat). We find [1] evidence for the vertical decoupling of gas and dust in one disks (Chapter 2); [2] That disk geometry has a large influence on the spatial distribution and excitation mechanism of the CO emission (chapters 3,4); [3] Near-IR H 2 emission around 2 (out of 14) HAEBE stars, probably originating from large (±50AU) radii of the disk (chapter 5). In chapter 6 we investigate the trends between CO emission and disk geometry as noted in Chapter 3 and 4.

van der Plas, Gerrit

2010-12-01

241

Reports from a Warming Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Never afraid to take on controversial topics, American RadioWorks has recently released this special report on the early signs of climate change. For this particular report, they brought together a team of eleven young reporters who were led by noted environmental journalist Sandy Tolan. Their assignment was to identify different places around the world where global warming was making changes to both âÂÂlife and landscapeâÂÂ. Visitors to the site can listen to the entire radio documentary, or they can also read about some of the individual locations profiled in this presentation. Some of these areas include the fabled snows of Kilimanjaro, the island of Tuvalu in the Pacific Ocean, and the town of Churchill in Upper Manitoba, which has been known as âÂÂThe Polar Bear Capital of the Worldâ for decades.

2005-01-01

242

Sudden stratospheric warmings as catastrophes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and numerical approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are numerically demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.

Chao, W. C.

1985-01-01

243

Modern Physics and Warm Friendship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of warm friendship...

Yang, Chen Ning

2013-05-01

244

How to stop global warming  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs.

Goldenberg, J. (Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica)

1990-11-01

245

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

246

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

247

The Relationship Between the Taiwan Warm Current and Tsushima Warm Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) and the Tsushima Warm Current (TSWC) flow northward over the shelf in the East China Sea (ECS), which some previous studies regard as a Taiwan-Tsushima Warm Current (TTWC) System. But the roles of the TWC and TSWC in the formation of the TTWC system have not been clarified. This article will show that the TSWC

Pei-nan ZHENG; De-xing WU; Xiao-pei LIN

2009-01-01

248

Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

2010-01-01

249

MIRD Pamphlet No. 23: Quantitative SPECT for Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Dosimetry in Internal Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification–based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry.

Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George; Brill, A. Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

250

Contrast venography vs radionuclide venography: a study of discrepancies and their possible significance  

SciTech Connect

In 51 instances, patients underwent radionuclide venography with technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin followed by contrast venography. The criteria used for diagnosis of a positive radionuclide venogram (flow pattern and retention of radionuclide) were evaluated. Cases in which there were discrepancies between the two studies were analyzed. Multiple factors were found to result in a lack of correlation between the two studies. These are: failure to recognize nonfilling of the deep venous system on the radionuclide venogram, disparate distribution of the venographic imaging agents, presence of varicose veins, large venous valves, previous femoral venipuncture, postsurgical narrowing with obstruction, age of the thrombus, and other factors. These factors and their implications with respect to venographic technique are discussed.

Gomes, A.S.; Webber, M.M.; Buffkin, D.

1982-03-01

251

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

252

Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

Barr, Catherine, Ed.

1997-01-01

253

Warm-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of warm-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of warm-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)

Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy

1981-01-01

254

The safety of intermittent warm blood cardioplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous warm blood cardioplegia is considered to be an effective method for myocardial protection. However, frequently the flow of the cardioplegia needs to be interrupted for better visualization. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was reported to be safe by some investigators. To assess the degree of this safety, 76 pa- tients who underwent operations for coronary or valvular disease, or both,

I. M. Ah; C. E. Kinley

1994-01-01

255

Nonlinear electron oscillations in a warm plasma  

SciTech Connect

A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a warm plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized warm plasma.

Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)] [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

2013-12-15

256

Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change simulations made with coupled global climate models typically show a marked hemispheric asymmetry with more warming in the northern high lati- tudes than in the south. This asymmetry is ascribed to heat uptake by the ocean at high southern latitudes. A re- cent version of the CCCma climate model exhibits a much more symmetric warming, compared to an

G. M. Flato; G. J. Boer

2001-01-01

257

The EPA Global Warming Kids Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site focuses on the science and impacts of global warming or climate change, and on actions that help address global warming. It features games, events, and links to other relevant sites for kids and educators, including activities on climate and weather and the greenhouse effect.

258

The economic fundamentals of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

If unpriced emission of greenhouse gases imposes real costs on future generations, both present and future generations can enjoy a higher con- sumption of economic goods and services through the correction of this unpriced externality, so there is no real economic opportunity cost to mitigation of global warming. The misperception that control of global warming is costly rests on the

Duncan K. Foley

2007-01-01

259

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase of tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. The increased wind shear coincides with a weak but robust downward trend

Chunzai Wang; Sang-Ki Lee

2008-01-01

260

Role of computer in global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the world has experienced devastating natural disasters on a level that hasn't been seen for decades. There is much speculation that these especially strong phenomena are due to global climate change, brought on by Global Warming. The term 'Global Warming' refers to the rising temperature of the earth due to an increased amount of greenhouse

Rupali Jadhav

2011-01-01

261

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

262

Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to understand local effects of global climate change is most urgent in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) since marine ecosystem-based management requires information on the LME scale. Reported here is a study of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the World Ocean LMEs in 1957-2006 that revealed strong regional variations in the rate of SST change. The rapid warming in 1982-2006 was confined to the Subarctic Gyre, European Seas, and East Asian Seas. These LMEs warmed at rates 2-4 times the global mean rate. The most rapid warming was observed in the land-locked or semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas (Baltic Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Japan Sea/East Sea, and East China Sea) and also over the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The Indian Ocean LMEs’ warming was slow, while two major upwelling areas - California and Humboldt Currents - experienced a slight cooling. The Subarctic Gyre warming was likely caused by natural variability related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The extremely rapid surface warming in the enclosed and semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas surrounded by major industrial/population agglomerations may have resulted from the observed terrestrial warming directly affecting the adjacent coastal seas. Regions of freshwater influence in the European and East Asian Seas seem to play a special role in modulating and exacerbating global warming effects on the regional scale.

Belkin, Igor M.

2009-04-01

263

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

264

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College;)

2003-08-01

265

Nonlinear electron oscillations in a warm plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a warm plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized warm plasma.

Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

2013-12-01

266

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

267

Intra-arterial radionuclide infusion as an aid to assess chemotherapy perfusion patterns  

SciTech Connect

Regional treatment of advanced head and neck cancer by intra-arterial infusion has been tried for several years. The aim of such treatment is to increase the concentration of the drug in the tumor area while decreasing systemic toxicity. The exact localization of the intra-arterial catheter is thereby the key to effective treatment. This report describes the results of radionuclide imaging as an aid to defining the perfusion pattern in comparison with vital dye injection and contrast angiography. It is concluded that radionuclide infusion imaging is the best method to monitor the localization of the catheter.

Huys, J.; Borms, M.; Troch, M.

1983-06-01

268

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

269

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

270

DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code  

SciTech Connect

The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

1997-07-14

271

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13

272

Radioiodide imaging of struma cordis  

SciTech Connect

This is the first reported case in which struma cordis was demonstrated with radionuclide imaging. A 56-year-old white woman underwent surgical excision of a benign intracardiac thyroid mass (struma cordis). Subsequent radionuclide imaging with I-123 sodium iodide and Tc-99m labeled red blood cells demonstrated a normal cervical thyroid gland as well as a focus of activity in the mediastinum consistent with intracardiac thyroid.

Rieser, G.D.; Ober, K.P.; Cowan, R.J.; Cordell, A.R.

1988-06-01

273

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

274

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

275

How the public engages with global warming: A social representations approach.  

PubMed

The present study utilises social representations theory to explore common sense conceptualisations of global warming risk using an in-depth, qualitative methodology. Fifty-six members of a British, London-based 2008 public were initially asked to draw or write four spontaneous "first thoughts or feelings" about global warming. These were then explored via an open-ended, exploratory interview. The analysis revealed that first thoughts, either drawn or written, often mirrored the images used by the British press to depict global warming visually. Thus in terms of media framings, it was their visual rather than their textual content that was spontaneously available for their audiences. Furthermore, an in-depth exploration of interview data revealed that global warming was structured around three themata: self/other, natural/unnatural and certainty/uncertainty, reflecting the complex and often contradictory nature of common sense thinking in relation to risk issues. PMID:23832882

Smith, Nicholas; Joffe, Helene

2013-01-01

276

I. Investigations of behavior of commercially available /sup 99/Molybdenum//sup 99m/Technetium radionuclide generators. II. Liquid chromatographic characterization and biological distribution studies on a new skeletal imaging agent: /sup 99m/Tc - dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a comprehensive investigation into the behavior characteristics of commercially available /sup 99/Molybdenum-/sup 99m/Technetium chromatographic radionuclide generators. Generators are tracked throughout their normal clinical lifetimes and the generator eluants are subjected to several analytical procedures for the determination of total technetium (/sup 99/Tc + /sup 99m/Tc) concentrations. Several operational parameters of the generators and several characteristics of their eluants are systematically studied. Generators from four US manufacturers are studied. Four analytical techniques for the determination of medium energy beta particles such as the particle from /sup 99/Tc are used for the redundant analysis of the generator eluants. The data from the various analytical techniques is compared to behavior characteristics predicted by the currently accepted theory governing generator performance. Possible mechanisms explaining the non-theoretical behavior of the generators are examined by statistical correlations of the observed behavior, the analytical results and calculated generator parameters. This work also describes the characterization and separation, by liquid chromatographic techniques, of analogs of borohydride reduced technetium with dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate.

Holland, M.E.

1984-01-01

277

Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects.

Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

2012-01-01

278

Hot Science With A "Warm" Telescope: Extragalactic Research In The Spitzer "Warm" Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March 2009 the Spitzer cryogen will be expended but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6/4.5 ?m imaging capabilities over two 5'x5' fields-of-view with unchanged sensitivity. In this "warm" mission phase, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 providing up to 35,000 hours of observing time. The Warm Mission will provide a unique opportunity for large-field and deep observations of nearby galaxies to address a number of fundamental science questions. Potential science goals include the morphological classification of galaxies, the investigation of the edges of galaxy disks and of intragroup/intracluster environments, the use of hot dust emission to trace star formation and AGNs, the monitoring of supernovae and other variable sources, and the calibration of stellar population models in the mid-IR. In addition to being a powerful tool for studying nearby galaxies, IRAC excels at detecting distant objects, reaching greater depth in comparable exposure time at 3.6/4.5 ?m than any ground- or space-based facility currently can at 2.2?m. The longer wavelengths probed by IRAC enable studies of the rest-frame optical and near-infrared light of galaxies and AGN to much higher redshift than is possible from the ground. A proposed three-tiered approach to distant extragalactic surveys in the Warm Mission covers a wide range of science goals: 1) an ultra-deep survey 0.04 square degrees to a depth of 250 hrs (in conjunction with an HST/WFC3 program) to study the Universe at 76; and characterize the relation between the build-up of dark matter halos and their constituent galaxies at 2

Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Laine, S.; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Soifer, B. T.; Squires, G. K.

2007-12-01

279

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2010-04-01

280

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2011-04-01

281

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2012-04-01

282

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2014-04-01

283

Hot Science with a "Warm" Telescope: Observations of Extrasolar Planets During the Spitzer Warm Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spitzer Space Telescope will exhaust its cryogen supply sometime around March of 2009. However, the observatory is expected to remain operational until early 2014 with undiminished 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5’ fields-of-view. During this "warm” mission, Spitzer will operate with extremely high efficiency and provide up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This will enable unprecedented opportunities to address key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional” time allocations. Spitzer will remain a particularly valuable resource for studies of extrasolar planets, with applications including: 1) transit timing observations and precise radius measurements of Earth-sized planets transiting nearby M-dwarfs, 2) measuring thermal emission and distinguishing between broad band emission and absorption in the atmospheres of transiting hot Jupiters, 3) measuring orbital phase variations of thermal emission for both transiting and non-transiting, close-in planets, and 4) sensitive imaging searches for young planets at large angular separations from their parent stars.

Grillmair, Carl J.; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Soifer, T.; Squires, G. K.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

2007-12-01

284

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

285

Global Warming in 5 Steps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists say the planet is warming because of human activities, namely the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere when burning fossil fuels. But, how do we know? How do scientists know? Students are presented with the following questions: 1) What makes a greenhouse gas a greenhouse gas? 2) Is carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas? [Instructor: How do we know?] 3) Is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? How do we know? 4) Is carbon dioxide [in the atmosphere] increasing because of human activities? [Instructor: How do we know?] ---- Discussion of results and prediction of what students expect will happen to global average temperature... 5) Is global average temperature increasing? How do we know? Separate groups of students research just one question each on the internet and submit a brief summary to the instructor. The instructor and class go over results for just the first four questions. The instructor addresses "How do we know" for questions 2 and 4. Then, students are asked what they think will happen to global average temperature based on results of the first four questions (i.e. make an hypothesis). Finally, the results from the last group are presented and students are asked to discuss how observed global temperature changes compare with their hypothesis.

Taylor, Stephen

286

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

287

Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these materials and many conventional processes are adapted including the temperature as a new parameter. In addition to this option, warm hydroforming technology for the lightweight materials is currently emerging to achieve reduced number of manufacturing steps and part consolidation. The warm hydroforming process makes use of the improved formability at elevated temperature and it also utilizes the fluid to transport the forming action as well as heat. In the present work, the authors have studied the warm hydroforming process using two different numerical approaches in order to simulate it. The first software is traditionally used in metal stamping simulations (also warm and hot) unlike the second. The analyzed material is an Al 6061 alloy 2,03 mm thick. Process responses such as: bulge height, thickness reduction and strain distribution have been evaluated different temperature levels (room temperature, equal to 23° C, 100° C and 200° C). The obtained results have been used to study the accuracy of the second software in sheet warm hydroforming simulation. The authors have also defined the more reliable numerical environment in order to develop material damage models in warm forming conditions.

Prete, A. Del; Papadia, G.; de Vitis, A. A.; Primo, T.

2011-05-01

288

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

289

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

290

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27

291

Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

2000-01-01

292

Wave Signatures in the Polar Mesopause Region during the January, 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on a two minute cadence at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, 80N) with an all sky imager and a Doppler Imaging Interferometer were taken during the January, 2009 major stratospheric warming. These observations complement temperature and irradiance measurments previously reported from the same location. Oscillations with periods of 4 days, 2.5 days, 24 hours, 16 hours 12 hours and 8 hours are observed during this warming period. In addition shorter period oscillations in the airglow observations and wind observations are observed. This paper summarizes these observations and delineates the evolution of these features and the large scale winds during this warming event.Meridional winds from Doppler shifts in the oxygen green line airglow observed with the ERWIN II instrument from January 16-31, 2009. Individual points are observations every 2 minutes with an error of 2 m/s.

Ward, W. E.; Kristoffersen, S.; Vail, C.

2012-12-01

293

Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy performed on the mastectomized chest wall  

SciTech Connect

Lymphatic flow in the anterior chest wall of 64 patients who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma was studies on images of lymphoscintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-rhenium colloid. Scintigraphic images taken 4 hours after the intradermal injection of radionuclides along both sides of the surgical wound frequently made it possible to visualize the contralateral axillary lymph nodes. In particular, among 20 patients with local chest wall recurrence after the mastectomy, the contralateral axillary nodes were demonstrated in 13. Stimulated lymphatic flow seems to be manifested around the site of local recurrence over the chest wall. On the precise analysis of lymphographic images, faint lymphatic drainages were occasionally identified up to the contralateral axillary lymph nodes at various levels of the anterior chest wall. It is essential that the radiation field be made large towards the area including the downstream of the lymphatic flow. Additionally, accumulation of radionuclides in the lymph nodes appeared to be slowly impaired by the postoperative irradiation after the completion of radiotherapy.

Matsubara, S.; Umehara, I.; Shibuya, H.; Okuyama, T.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ebuchi, M.

1986-09-15

294

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

295

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

296

Warm Up, Cool Down and Be Flexible  

MedlinePLUS

... at a comfortable pace until your breathing and heart rate have returned to normal. Once you are breathing easily, stretch while your muscles are still warm. Top of page Flexibility Exercises Stretching is too often neglected by exercisers pressed ...

297

Myocardial Oxygenation During Terminal Warm Blood Cardioplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Terminal warm blood cardioplegia accelerates myocardial metabolic recovery. The process of myocardial oxygenation during terminal warm blood cardioplegia and its optimal administration are not clear.Methods. We measured the myocardial tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) during reperfusion using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-four dogs underwent 1 hour of ischemic arrest with cold crystalloid cardioplegia. They were then divided into four equal groups. Group

Michio Kawasuji; Shigeyuki Tomita; Tamotsu Yasuda; Naoki Sakakibara; Hirofumi Takemura; Yoh Watanabe

1998-01-01

298

Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia —An experimental study—  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (WBCP) on myocardial function and metabolism was studied. Fourty-two\\u000a adult mongrel dogs were used. The isolated heart of one dog was perfused by the cross circulation method with another support\\u000a dog. The dogs then were divided into three groups. In group I (n=6), the empty beating heart was perfused with warm blood\\u000a (WB)

Takashi Yamada

1998-01-01

299

In League: Global Warming And Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What relationship exists between the phenomena of global warming and globalization? How can a small grassroots organization promote green living and cultural food traditions through environmental education?\\u000aExamination of the relationship between global warming and globalization has required a process of basic research of pre-written texts; resulting in a theoretical analysis on selected journalism within this field of research. The

Allissa Beth Cloer

2008-01-01

300

Policy Adoption Rules and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is widespread agreement about the dangers of global warming and the resulting need to cut down emissions, there\\u000a does not seem to be general agreement about the exact form the policy should take or the timing of its adoption. Failure to\\u000a adopt and implement policies against global warming reflects the complexity of the problem, the uncertainties of climate

Anastasios Xepapadeas

1998-01-01

301

Issues in-depth: Inside global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last 15 years, much attention has been given to global warming, and whether the increase in the Earth's temperature in recent decades threatens the survival of life on Earth. As such, it's important that science teachers understand the basics behind the scientific phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the topic, and how to discuss and explore global warming with their students. This comprehensive discussion includes suggestions, activities, and resources that are designed for use in the middle school science classroom.

Greitz-Miller, Roxanne

2006-10-01

302

How Serious is the Global Warming Threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the media’s and politicians’ insistence that the science of global warming is “settled”, there are good reasons to\\u000a distrust climate model projections of future global warming. While the supposed scientific consensus is that mankind is very\\u000a likely to blame for recent global warmth, this is mostly a statement of faith made from a position of relative ignorance about\\u000a natural

Roy W. Spencer

2007-01-01

303

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

304

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR). We find that detection of real trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global warming. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 yr length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001-2100 suggests that, on average, the global warming trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

Henson, S. A.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Bopp, L.; Lima, I.; Doney, S. C.; John, J.; Beaulieu, C.

2009-11-01

305

Diagnostic imaging of osteosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

The diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up evaluation of osteosarcoma rely heavily on a variety of imaging techniques. Plain roentgenography, radionuclide bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play important roles in defining local tumor extent, detecting metastatic disease, and monitoring for recurrent tumor. Invasive studies such as angiography are now rarely necessary. In the future, newer imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography, can be expected to become important tools for evaluation of these tumors. 23 references.

Seeger, L.L.; Gold, R.H.; Chandnani, V.P. (Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine (United States))

1991-09-01

306

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

307

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s) (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

308

Warm Spitzer Characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Warm Spitzer photometric imaging DDT observations of Comet ISON, as part of a worldwide observing campaign led by NASA of the comet. Warm Spitzer's 3 and 4 um near-IR passbands will provide unique scattering and emissivity information for the comet's nucleus and dust, and allow us to detect CO_2 gas emission from the comet. Spitzer holds a unique place in the solar system to observe the comet, right before it enters the region of rapid water ice sublimation after spending millions of years in the deep freeze of the Oort Cloud. It is likely the comet will undergo a rapid outburst soon after the time of the proposed observations in the week of June 7 - 14, 2013, and understanding its baseline behavior is critical to understanding the evolution of its activity, as is Spitzer's unique ability to detect CO_2 sublimation and outgassing activity from ISON. As for our previous Spitzer observations of comets Tempel 1 and Hartley 2, we will bootstrap from HST DDT imaging lightcurve and spectroscopic measurements taken over in April - May 2013. The combination of the two datasets will place strong constraints on the comet's coma morphology, and thus its pattern of outgassing jets and the rotation state of the nucleus, and the amount and kind of dust and gas emitted by the comet.

Lisse, Carey; Bauer, James; Fernandez, Yan; Kelley, Michael; Knight, Matthew; Li, Jian-Yang; Meech, Karen; Reach, William; Sitko, Michael

2013-05-01

309

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

1988-01-01

310

Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers of mass of some bodies of solar system and attributes of secular displacements of their centers of mass are universal and testify to relative translational displacements of shells of these bodies (such as the core, the mantle and others). And it means, that there is a highly effective mechanism of an active life of planets and satellites [1, 2]. This mechanism is distinct from the tidal mechanism of gravitational interaction of deformable celestial bodies. Its action is shown, for example, even in case if the core and the mantle are considered as absolutely rigid gravitating bodies, but separated by a is viscous-elastic layer. Classics of celestial mechanics did not consider gravitational interaction and relative translational displacement of the core and the mantle of the Earth. As our studies have shown the specified new mechanism is high energetic and allows to explain many of the phenomena earlier inaccessible to understanding in various geosciences, including climatology [1] - [5]. It has been shown, that secular changes in activity of all planetary processes on the Earth are connected with a secular drift of the core of the Earth, and are controlled by the core and are reflections and displays of the core drift [5]. It is naturally, that slow climatic changes are connected with drift of the core, with induced by this drift inversion changes in an atmosphere, ocean, with thermodynamic variations of state of layer D ', with changes and variations in mantle convection and in plume activity of the Earth. The drift of the core controls a transmission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth, organizes volcanic and seismic activity of the Earth in planetary scale. The mechanism of a warming up of layers of the mantle and cyclic inversion changes of a climate. According to a developed geodynamic model all layers of the mantle at oscillations and motions of the core under action of its gravitational attraction test wide class of inversion deformations [1]. Thus the part of energy of deformations passes in heat by virtue of dissipation

Barkin, Yury

2010-05-01

311

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

312

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

313

A molecular approach to breast imaging.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging is a multimodality discipline for noninvasively visualizing biologic processes at the subcellular level. Clinical applications of radionuclide-based molecular imaging for breast cancer continue to evolve. Whole-body imaging, with scintimammography and PET, and newer dedicated breast imaging systems are reviewed. The potential clinical indications and the challenges of implementing these emerging technologies are presented. PMID:24434288

Fowler, Amy M

2014-02-01

314

Early 20th century warming in the Arctic: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1920s to the 1940s, the Artic experienced significant warming that is comparable to the recent 30-year warming. The former warming was concentrated mostly in high latitudes, in contrast to the recent 30-year warming, which has occurred in all latitudes. Several explanations have been proposed; however, one of these proposed explanations, single external forcing, which could once explain the

Takashi Yamanouchi

2011-01-01

315

Radionuclide assessment of a system for slow intrathecal infusion of drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a new radionuclide method for assessing the functional integrity of slow intrathecal infusion devices. Approximately 11 mCi (400 MBq) of Tc-99m DTPA is injected into the pump chamber. Early and delayed imaging of the pump, tubing, and spinal cerebrospinal fluid space is performed on a digital large-field-of-view gamma camera. The digitally displayed images are then reviewed by

RODNEY J. HICKS; VICTOR KALFF; GRAEME BRAZENOR; HALILI RAHMAT; MICHAEL J. KELLY

1989-01-01

316

Options to meet the future global demand of radionuclides for radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine continues to represent one of the important modalities for cancer management. While diagnostic nuclear medicine for cancer management is fairly well established, therapeutic strategies using radionuclides are yet to be utilized to their full potential. Even if 1% of the patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures can benefit from subsequent nuclear therapeutic intervention, the radionuclide requirement for nuclear therapeutics would be expected to be in the multi-million Curie levels. Meeting the demand for such high levels of therapeutic radionuclides at an affordable price is an important task for the success of radionuclide therapy. Although different types of particle emitters (beta, alpha, Auger electron etc.) have been evaluated for treating a wide variety of diseases, the use of ?? emitting radionuclides is most feasible owing to their ease of production and availability. Several ?? emitting radionuclides have been successfully used to treat different kind of diseases. However, many of these radionuclides are not suitable to meet the projected demand owing to the non-availability with sufficiently high specific activity and adequate quantity because of high production costs, relatively short half-lives etc. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages for broader uses of some of the well known therapeutic radionuclides. In addition, radioisotopes which are expected to have the potential to meet the growing demand of therapeutic radionuclides are also discussed. PMID:23116551

Das, Tapas; Pillai, M R A

2013-01-01

317

RADionuclide Transport, Removal, and Dose (RADTRAD) code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, And Dose (RADTRAD) code is designed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) use to calculate the radiological consequences to the offsite population and to control room operators following a design-basis accident ...

L. A. Miller D. I. Chanin J. Lee

1993-01-01

318

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

319

Economic efficiency of radionuclide neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Neutron sources based on various radionuclides are widely used in technological monitoring in many branches of industry, geological prospecting and also in medicine. Factors affecting the efficiency of radionuclide neutron sources (RNS) are discussed. The method considered here enables the formulation of comparative economic estimates at the stages of development and application of RNS in the solution of several problems such as: determining the limits of competitiveness of RNS based on different radionuclides; and also of RNS and other types of NS; determining the efficiency of utilization of specific RNS in comparison with conventional methods of performing the work; justifying the nomenclature of RNS manufacture with specific radionuclides as well as other areas described here.

Kirillov, E.V.; Karelin, E.A.; Klinov, A.V.; Konyashova, G.V.; Kudryashov, L.N.; Toporov, Y.G.

1985-11-01

320

The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.  

PubMed

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-05-01

321

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

322

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water\\/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption\\/desorption parameters for transport models and

J. C. Laul; M. R. Smith; T. C. Maiti

1988-01-01

323

Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale

Q. H. Hu; A. Möri

2008-01-01

324

Migration of radionuclides in the enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of transport and retaidation processes, chemistry and migration behaviour of radionuclides of fission products\\u000a and actinides in engineered barriers, especially bentonites, have been summarised. A “critical group of radionuclides” is\\u000a proposed for thorough investigation of their retardation properties in natural sorbents. The evaluation of accessible data\\u000a of retardation and transport parameters relevant for the conditions of underground deep

V. Jedináková-K?ižová

1998-01-01

325

Radionuclide hysterosalpingography for evaluation of fallopian tube patency  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of radionuclide hysterosalpingography (RNHSG) using a technique with some modifications, that was described by iturralde and Ventner. As these investigators demonstrated, technetium-labeled human albumin microspheres (HAM) will normally migrate spontaneously from the vagina to the ovaries. This study confirms that in the presence of fallopian tube obstruction, fibrosis and/or lack of motility, this migration does not take place, and that the presence or absence of migration of HAM can be imaged with a gamma camera. In the evaluation of 52 tubes the authors found that the efficiency of RNHSG for evaluation of fallopian tube patency when compared with contrast hysterosalpingography and/or direct observation of surgical pathology was over 94%. RNHSG is an essentially innocuous technique for assessing functional and mechanical fallopian tube obstruction that can be performed with conventional nuclear imaging equipment.

McCalley, M.G.; Braunstein, P.; Stone, S.; Henderson, P.; Egbert, R.

1985-08-01

326

Radionuclide localization of intraarterial infusions in head and neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic advantage of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy depends upon delivery of a high drug concentration to the entire tumor bulk with maximum sparing of critical normal tissues. It is clear that successful application of regional therapy must include methodology to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the infused area. /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) injected intraarterially is held on first pass in the arteriolar capillary bed, thus providing a map of blood flow distribution. Analog and digital planar images and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after Tc-MAA injections provide static and transaxial tomographic images of head and neck intraarterial infusions. SPECT can be viewed as an endless movie-type display, thus producing a rotating cimematic display. These radionuclide localization techniques provide a three-dimensional delineation of the tissues infused, including subsurface details not appreciated with dye injection alone. These procedures should be considered an integral part of intraarterial therapy of head and neck cancer.

Baker, S.R.; Wheeler, R.H.; Ziessman, H.A.; Medvec, B.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

327

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

328

Warm Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a warm inflationary model in the context of relativistic D-brane inflation in a warped throat, which has Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term and is coupled to radiation through a dissipation term. The perturbation freezes at the sound horizon and the power spectrum is determined by a combination of the dissipative parameter and the sound speed parameter. The thermal dissipation ameliorates the eta problem and softens theoretical constraints from the extra-dimensional volume and from observational bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The warm DBI model can lead to appreciable non-Gaussianity of the equilateral type. As a phenomenological model, ignoring compactification constraints, we show that large-field warm inflation models do not necessarily yield a large tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Cai Yifu; Dent, James B. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Easson, Damien A. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2011-05-15

329

Stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993 are described using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) analyses, calculated potential vorticity (PV) and diabetic heating, and N2O observed by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The first warming affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N2O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N2O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N2O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the warmings.

Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.

1994-01-01

330

{sup 119}Sb--A potent Auger emitter for targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Auger electron emitting radionuclides in cancer therapy offer the opportunity to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumor cells with high radiotoxicity while minimizing toxicity to normal tissue. We have in this study identified the Auger emitter {sup 119}Sb as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy based on theoretical dosimetry calculations at a subcellular scale. From these calculations we have determined the cellular S-values for this therapeutic isotope. Moreover, we have demonstrated the possibility of producing this isotope and also the SPECT-analogue {sup 117}Sb for patient-specific dosimetry, by measuring the proton irradiation yields for both isotopes using a low-energy cyclotron. The excellent SPECT imaging properties of the {sup 117}Sb radionuclide have been shown by scanning a Jaszczak SPECT Phantom.

Thisgaard, H.; Jensen, M. [Hevesy Laboratory, Radiation Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg (Denmark)

2008-09-15

331

The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) is investigated with two long time series using reanalysis (ERA-40) and model (MAECHAM5/MPI-OM) data. Applying planetary wave analysis, we distinguish between wavenumber-1 and wavenumber-2 major SSWs based on the wave activity of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 during the prewarming phase. For this analysis an objective criterion to identify and classify the preconditioning of major SSWs is developed. Major SSWs are found to occur with a frequency of six and seven events per decade in the reanalysis and in the model, respectively, thus highlighting the ability of MAECHAM5/MPI-OM to simulate the frequency of major SSWs realistically. However, from these events only one quarter are wavenumber-2 major warmings, representing a low (˜0.25) wavenumber-2 to wavenumber-1 major SSW ratio. Composite analyses for both data sets reveal that the two warming types have different dynamics; while wavenumber-1 major warmings are preceded only by an enhanced activity of the zonal wavenumber-1, wavenumber-2 events are either characterized by only the amplification of zonal wavenumber-2 or by both zonal wavenumber-1 and zonal wavenumber-2, albeit at different time intervals. The role of tropospheric blocking events influencing these two categories of major SSWs is evaluated in the next step. Here, the composite analyses of both reanalysis and model data reveal that blocking events in the Euro-Atlantic sector mostly lead to the development of wavenumber-1 major warmings. The blocking-wavenumber-2 major warming connection can only be statistical reliable analyzed with the model time series, demonstrating that blocking events in the Pacific region mostly precede wavenumber-2 major SSWs.

Bancalá, S.; Krüger, K.; Giorgetta, M.

2012-02-01

332

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

333

Analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is concerned with analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations for electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Specifically, effects of finite betas on two slow modes, namely, the left-hand circularly polarized ion-cyclotron mode and the right-hand circularly polarized whistler mode, are investigated. Analytic models of the warm plasma dispersion relations are constructed on the basis of conjecture and upon comparisons with numerically found roots. It is shown that the model solutions are good substitutes for actual roots. The significance of the present work in the context of nonlinear plasma research is discussed.

Seough, J. J.; Yoon, P. H.

2009-09-01

334

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, A.; Mao, J.

1992-01-01

335

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

1992-01-01

336

Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction in technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile radionuclide angiocardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is most commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. This paper presents a novel approach for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (L VEF) using the recently introduced myocardial imaging agent, technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi). The approach utilizes computer image processing techniques to determine L VEF in equilibrium 99mTc-sestamibi multiple gated radionuclide angiography (RNA). Equilibrium RNA is preferred to first-pass RNA techniques due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of equilibrium RNA resulting from longer image acquisition times. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that L VEFs determined using this radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast x-ray single plane cineangiography (r equals 0.83, p < 0.0000003).

Davis, Malcolm H.; Rezaie, Bahman; Weiland, Frederick L.

1992-06-01

337

[Diagnostic imaging in hepatosplenic candidiasis].  

PubMed

Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a severe complication encountered in immuno-compromised patients. Different imaging techniques can establish the diagnosis. After an introduction to the pathophysiological and clinical principles, the role of plain radiography, radionuclide scans, ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is discussed. PMID:10420910

Müller, D; Kopka, L; Grabbe, E

1999-06-01

338

Warm Spitzer Imaging of NuSTAR Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain complete 2-band Spitzer/IRAC maps over the entire NuSTAR field-of-view for all non-survey fields observed during the 2-year primary NuSTAR mission. Such data are important for identifying the low-energy counterparts to NuSTAR sources, which is a prerequisite for follow-up spectroscopy and fully characterizing the NuSTAR sources. The proposed 134.4 hr program will vastly improve our understanding of the sources responsible for the peak of the cosmic X-ray background, which is poorly understood currently -- only 1-2% of the X-ray background is resolved at 20-30 keV by missions prior to NUSTAR. The proposed data will also provide an important multi-mission NASA data base, including high-energy (3-79 keV) NuSTAR observations, low-energy (0.2-10 keV) Swift/XRT observations, and mid-infrared Spitzer/IRAC data. These data will be useful for stacking analyses, as well as provide a valuable legacy data set to the community.

Stern, Daniel; Alexander, David; Lansbury, George; Aird, James; Assef, Roberto; Ballantyne, David; Balokovic, Mislav; Bauer, Franz; Civano, Francesca; Del Moro, Agnese; Elvis, Martin; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian; Harrison, Fiona; Hickox, Ryan; La Massa, Stephanie; Madsen, Kristin; Mullaney, James; Puccetti, Simonetta; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Urry, Meg; Walton, Dominic

2013-10-01

339

Warm blood cardioplegia in high risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite overall good clinical results, cardiac surgery in high risk patients, such as those with poor left ventricular function or heavily hypertrophied myocardium, is still challenging. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) in these two subgroups of patients. Methods: Fifty-two patients, with an ejection fraction less than 50%, who underwent surgical revascularization,

Alain Bel; Hakim Aznag; Bouchaib Faris

340

Warm blood cardioplegia in high risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite overall good clinical results, cardiac surgery in high risk patients, such as those with poor left ventricular function or heavily hypertrophied myocardium, is still challenging. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) in these two subgroups of patients. Methods: Fifty-two patients, with an ejection fraction less than 50%, who underwent surgical revascularization,

Alain Bel; Hakim Aznag; Bouchaib Faris; Philippe Menasché

1997-01-01

341

Warm pediatric cardiac surgery: European experience.  

PubMed

Cold pediatric cardiac surgery has been a dogma for 50 years. However, the beneficial effects of cold perfusion are counterbalanced by the drawbacks of hypothermia. Thus, we propose a major paradigm shift from hypothermic surgery to warm perfusion and intermittent warm blood cardioplegia. This approach gives satisfactory results even with prolonged aortic crossclamp times. The major advantages are reduced time to extubation and shorter intensive care unit stay. Warm pediatric surgery is an anecdotal phenomenon no more; over 10,000 procedures have been carried out in Europe. All types of cardiopathy have been treated, including arterial switch, total pulmonary anomalous venous return, interruption of the aortic arch, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Once surgeons decide to shift from hypothermia to normothermia, they never decide to shift back to hypothermia. This fact is evidence of the satisfactory clinical outcome obtained with this technique. The technique and the composition of microplegia is identical in all European centers, the only variable factor being the interval between microplegia injections, which varies from 10 to 25 min. We hope that the increasing interest in pediatric warm surgery will hearten new candidates. PMID:20719795

Durandy, Yves

2010-08-01

342

Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean Warm?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Europa's subsurface water ocean may be warm: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

2002-01-01

343

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

344

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 15, 1991), and the subsequent cooling of the earth's lower atmosphere [Dutton and Christy, 1992; Minnis et al., 1993] shows that stratospheric aerosols can have a strong effect on the earth's climate. This supports the notion that the intentional enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer through increased carbonyl sulfide (OCS) emissions might be an effective means for counteracting global warming. Through the use of a one-dimensional photochemical model, we investigate what effect such a program might have on global average stratospheric ozone. In addition, we consider the impact of enhanced OCS emissions on rainwater acidity and on the overall health of both plants and animals. We find that while the warming produced by a single CO2 doubling (1 to 4°C) might be offset with ozone losses of less than 5%, any attempt to use carbonyl sulfide as a permanent solution to global warming could result in depletion of global average ozone by 30% or more. We estimate that in order to achieve cooling of 4°C rainwater pH would fall to between 3.5 and 3.8. Finally, a 4°C cooling at the surface will require that ambient near ground OCS levels rise to above 10 ppmv which is probably greater than the safe exposure limit for humans. Thus, enhanced OCS emissions do not provide an environmentally acceptable solution to the problem of global warming.

Taubman, Steven J.; Kasting, James F.

1995-04-01

345

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for

Preining

1995-01-01

346

Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these

A. Del Prete; G. Papadia; A. A. De Vitis; T. Primo

2011-01-01

347

Keeping Warm With Fractions: Quilts Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be using patterns found in quilts to represent fractions. Now, we will practice creating a quilt pattern on a computer. Technology is very helpful in many of the things we do today, including creating patterns for warm and colorful quilts. Use at least five of the six shapes available on your screen. Then, in the second column of the paper ...

2007-11-05

348

Pronounced Warming of the Greenland Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late spring and early summer of 2013, researchers on the SAGE (Sunlight Absorption on the Greenland ice sheet Experiment) Traverse, conducted a 4000 km snowmobile traverse across northwest Greenland. One aspect of this study collected field measurements of borehole temperatures across the northern Greenland ice sheet. Sites first measured by Benson in 1953-1955 are re-visited, showing long term trends in ice sheet temperature. Results indicate a pattern of dramatic warming (up to +5-6 C) at mid-level elevations (1400-2500 m) and little temperature change or perhaps slight cooling at high elevations (>2500 m). Compared to coastal West Greenland stations and Arctic-wide temperature reconstructions, which indicate warming trends of 1-1.5 C over the intervening 58-60 years, both results are surprising. Several mechanisms are explored which may account for the rapid warming of mid-altitude ice sheet, including albedo changes and elevated heat transport into the ice due to percolation. The observed ice warming, increasing ice temperature faster than air temperature changes, has serious implications, potentially driving melt facies up the ice sheet faster than would otherwise be expected and priming the ice sheet for greater runoff production.

Polashenski, C.; Courville, Z.; Benson, C. S.; Wong, G. J.; Hawley, R. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chen, J.

2013-12-01

349

Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming  

PubMed Central

Because the flowering and fruiting phenology of plants is sensitive to environmental cues such as temperature and moisture, climate change is likely to alter community-level patterns of reproductive phenology. Here we report a previously unreported phenomenon: experimental warming advanced flowering and fruiting phenology for species that began to flower before the peak of summer heat but delayed reproduction in species that started flowering after the peak temperature in a tallgrass prairie in North America. The warming-induced divergence of flowering and fruiting toward the two ends of the growing season resulted in a gap in the staggered progression of flowering and fruiting in the community during the middle of the season. A double precipitation treatment did not significantly affect flowering and fruiting phenology. Variation among species in the direction and magnitude of their response to warming caused compression and expansion of the reproductive periods of different species, changed the amount of overlap between the reproductive phases, and created possibilities for an altered selective environment to reshape communities in a future warmed world.

Sherry, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Xuhui; Gu, Shiliang; Arnone, John A.; Schimel, David S.; Verburg, Paul S.; Wallace, Linda L.; Luo, Yiqi

2007-01-01

350

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C. [Mondragon Goi Eskola Politeknikoa (MGEP), Manufacturing Department, Loramendi 4, 20500, Mondragon (Spain)

2007-05-17

351

Feasibility of warm drawing of aluminium products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is carried out on the feasibility of using warm forming at temperatures from 100 to 250°C in order to improve the makeability of aluminium sheet components. Drawing tests are performed on 1050, 5754 and 6016 series aluminium sheets. Both box shaped and conical rectangular products are made with a tool with heated die and blankholder. The effect of

P. J Bolt; N. A. P. M Lamboo; P. J. C. M Rozier

2001-01-01

352

Amplified Warming Rates in High Elevation Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ground-based and satellite-retrieved observations in conjunction with output from global climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine whether warming rates in high elevation regions are significantly different than in their lower elevation surroundings. In addition, for regions where there is enhanced warming at higher elevations, we investigate several of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to this enhancement. For the mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the multi-model ensemble indicates that warming rates during the 21st century will be enhanced at high elevations relative to their lower elevation counterparts at the same latitude. This effect is most pronounced for daily minimum temperatures during the cold season in the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayan region. A neural network analysis is used to identify and quantify some of the potential mechanisms responsible for enhanced warming rates, including the effects of variables such as atmospheric water vapor, clouds, snow cover, and aerosols on the radiation and surface heat budgets. We also demonstrate that satellite retrievals can be used to expand the often sparse ground-based observations in such regions and that they provide the correct relationships between variables. Please fill in your abstract text.

Miller, James; Naud, Catherine; Chen, Yonghua; Ghatak, Debjani; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric

2014-05-01

353

Delayed penile replantation after prolonged warm ischemia.  

PubMed

We report a case of microsurgical replantation of traumatic self-amputation of penis after prolonged warm ischemia as a result of delayed presentation. At 12 weeks postoperative follow-up evaluation, the patient exhibited good urinary flow, spontaneous erection, and a normal response to pharmacological stimulation. PMID:11288152

Mosahebi, A; Butterworth, M; Knight, R; Berger, L; Kaisary, A; Butler, P E

2001-01-01

354

Kendal Warm Springs Dace Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recovery plan for the Kendall Warm Springs dace was prepared by the U.S. fish and Wildlife Service, Billings endangered Species Team, with the assistance of the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the U.S. Forest Service. Representatives from the abo...

1982-01-01

355

Global Warming Advocacy Science: a Cross Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal scholarship has come to accept as true the various pronouncements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other scientists who have been active in the movement for greenhouse gas (ghg) emission reductions to combat global warming. The only criticism that legal scholars have had of the story told by this group of activist scientists – what may

Jason S Johnston

2010-01-01

356

Winter Warming from Large Volcanic Eruptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent leve...

A. Robock J. Mao

1992-01-01

357

Global-Warming: A National Security Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waters in the Canadian Arctic are quickly becoming free to navigate due to global warming. International shipping bombards the region, the United States and Canada must be ready to face the security implications that will arise. A failure to do so may...

A. J. Klug

2006-01-01

358

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25°C-250°C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; García, C.

2007-05-01

359

Compare and Contrast Warm and Cold Fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In weather, fronts are defined as the boundaries between different air masses. Depending on the direction of movement and the characteristics of the air involved, different types of fronts form. This visualization shows the movement of warm and cold fronts as well as the characteristic clouds that are generated by each. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

360

Higher hydroclimatic intensity with global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their dependence on water, natural and human systems are highly sensitive to change in the hydrologic cycle. We introduce a new measure of hydroclimatic intensity (HY-INT), which integrates metrics of precipitation intensity and dry spell length, viewing the response of these two metrics to global warming as deeply interconnected. Using a suite of global and regional climate model experiments, it is found that increasing HY-INT is a consistent and ubiquitous signature of twenty-first century, greenhouse gas-induce global warming. Depending on the region, the increase in HY-INT is due to an increase in precipitation intensity, dry spell length, or both. Late twentieth century observations also exhibit dominant positive HY-INT trends, providing a hydroclimatic signature of late twentieth century global warming. Precipitation intensity increases because of increased atmospheric water-holding capacity in warmer conditions. However, increases in mean precipitation are tied to increases in surface evaporation rates, which are lower than for atmospheric moisture. This leads to a reduction in the number of wet days and thus an increase in mean dry spell length. This analysis identifies increased hydroclimatic intensity as a robust integrated response to global warming, implying increasing risk of dry and wet extremes and providing a potential target for detection and attribution of hydroclimatic changes.

Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Soon, E. I.; Diffenbaugh, N.; Gao, X. J.; Mariotti, L.; Shi, Y.

2012-04-01

361

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

362

National contributions to observed global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

2014-01-01

363

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

364

Business Feels Heat from Global Warming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article describes various environmental issues, particularly the global warming, that will affect the U.S. industry in the coming years. The article looks at the political aspects of these issues and the growth of the international market for environm...

E. Reynolds

1991-01-01

365

Warm-Mix Asphalt: European Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is a group of technologies that allow a reduction in the temperatures at which asphalt mixes are produced and placed. These technologies tend to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt and provide for the complete coating of aggregates ...

E. Harm G. Baumgardner J. Bartoszek J. D'Angelo M. Corrigan

2008-01-01

366

Synthesis of Warm-Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis documents the results of a comprehensive review of worldwide information dealing with the following issues as related to warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technology: (1) current state of the art/practice of WMA; (2) benefits and costs of WMA technolo...

A. Wimsatt C. Estakhri J. W. Button

2007-01-01

367

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming  

PubMed Central

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12–67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of warm-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate warming on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass—e.g., for bioenergy—may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity.

De Frenne, Pieter; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Romermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D.; Brunet, Jorg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M.; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hedl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kirby, Keith J.; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petrik, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Gregory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M.; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S.; Woods, Kerry D.; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris

2013-01-01

368

Warm Eddy Structure Observed During EPIC in Eastern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the NSF/NOAA sponsored Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) field program in Sept. and Oct. 2001, oceanic current, temperature and salinity profiles were acquired by deploying expendable profilers from research aircraft flights above the warm pool grid centered on the TAO mooring at 10oN 95oW and the R/V Ron Brown, and along the 95oW transect from the NOAA WP-3D and the NCAR WC-130, respectively. Analyses of mooring, ship and aircraft observations suggest the propagation of a wind-forced, warm eddy in accord with remotely sensed fields from radar altimetry and TRMM microwave imager (TMI) measurements. This anti- cyclonically rotating warm eddy, consistent with Rossby wave dynamics, impacted both the oceanic and atmospheric mixed layer structure. To examine the evolving characteristics of this oceanic feature, SSTs, isotherm depths and oceanic heat content variations (relative to the 26oC isotherm depth referred to as OHC) were compared at the TAO buoy. Satellite- based OHC variations were estimated by inferring isotherm depths (20oC, 26oC) from blended and objectively mapped, altimeter-derived surface height anomaly (SHA) fields based on climatology and TMI-derived SSTs. Based on sequential maps of the SHA, the observed warm eddy had SHA elevation of 12 to 14 cm that indicated a propagation speed of 13 cm s-1 towards the southwest. Inferred isotherm depths and OHC variations agreed with those from the TAO mooring and profiler measurements. For example, the 26oC isotherm depth ranged from 35 to 40 m with OHC values of 40 kJ cm-2. Understanding the evolving 3-D structure of these features is central to assessing the upper ocean's role in hurricane intensity fluctuations in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This approach is now being applied to several years of in situ and remotely sensed measurements in this regime to assess uncertainties in satellite retrievals to build climatology for use with hurricane intensity forecast models as in the Atlantic Ocean basin as part of the NOAA Joint Hurricane Testbed program.

Shay, L. K.; Jaimes, B.; Brewster, J.

2007-05-01

369

What's behind the warming signals in eastern China megacity areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization doubtlessly has been the most significant demographic trend in the world for at least a century and promises to become even more significant in the future. The population of Asia has increased rapidly over the last three decades. In 1995, there were five megacities in Asia. Nowadays, half of the world's megacities are in Asia, population centers with more than 10 million people living in them. Urban development often causes great modification of land surface properties, landscape pattern, and even local climate through changing land use and cover. Urban expansion resulted by economic development and population growth has changed land surface properties in urban and surrounding area, including green vegetation cover, surface albedo, surface roughness, and emissivity in many parts of the world, especially in East Asia. The expansion of so-called urban heat island (UHI) is considered as a direct climate consequence of urbanization, as solar radiation is sequestered by urban architecture. Urban heat island is a unique micro-climate characteristic in urban areas, and it varied widely in different area due to varied weather or anthropogenic influence factors. Here, we investigated spatial pattern and temporal variety of urban heat island in the Bohai coastal region with multi-scale thermal infrared satellite data, including MTSAT, NOAA/AVHRR, Terra/MODIS, and Landsat/TM, along with hand-held thermal imager. We try to find the most optimal scale among those satellite platforms according to the thermal landscape properties and scale independent principles of thermal remote sensing. The influence of surface parameters on urban heat island effect and the seasonal changes of UHI were also investigated. Higher land surface temperatures were detected over city limits, especially in major cities compared to nearby rural areas in the Bohai Region. In some cases, the land surface temperature can get 2.5°C higher in city center than nearby green areas. There was a significant correlation between spatial patterns of land surface temperature and fraction of buildup. Meanwhile, both satellite and meteorological data indicated greater warming trends along urban-rural transition areas where major increases of buildup were detected in past 10 years. Because of rapid urbanization, urban warming has become an important part of regional warming signals and in many cases dominates warming trends detected by met stations densely located in urban areas.

Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

2010-12-01

370

Impact of warm winters on microbial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-warmed plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been warm-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in environmental factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the warmed and ambient plot.

Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

2014-05-01

371

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

372

Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

2003-11-13

373

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

374

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

375

Dosimetric model for antibody targeted radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid  

SciTech Connect

Although encouraging results have been obtained using systemic radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, it is likely that regional applications may prove more effective. One such strategy is the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal instillation of targeting or nontargeting beta particle emitting radionuclide carriers. The beta particle dosimetry of the spine is assessed, assuming that the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment can be adequately represented by a cylindrical annulus. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Cu, and {sup 199}Au. It is shown that the radiation dose to the cord can be significantly reduced using short range beta particle emitters and that there is little advantage in using targeting carriers with these radionuclides. {sup 199}Au and {sup 67}Cu also have the advantage of having a suitable gamma emission for imaging, permitting pretherapy imaging and dosimetric calculations to be undertaken prior to therapy. If these methods prove successful, it may be possible to replace the external beam component used in the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal radionuclide therapy, thus reducing or avoiding side effects such as growth and intellectual impairment.

Millar, W.T.; Barrett, A. (Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (England))

1990-02-01

376

WARM WATER SCALE MODEL EXPERIMENTS FOR MAGNESIUM DIE CASTING  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure die casting (HPDC) involves the filling of a cavity with the molten metal through a thin gate. High gate velocities yield jet break-up and atomization phenomena. In order to improve the quality of magnesium parts, the mold filling pattern, including atomization phenomena, needs to be understood. The goal of this study was to obtain experimental data on jet break-up characteristics for conditions similar to that of magnesium HPDC, and measure the droplet velocity and size distribution. A scale analysis is first presented in order to identify appropriate analogue for liquid magnesium alloys. Based on the scale analysis warm water was chosen as a suitable analogue and different nozzles were manufactured. A 2-D component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and 2-D component particle image velocimetry (PIV) were then used to obtain fine particle diameter and velocity distributions in 2-D plane.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2006-01-01

377

Observation-based estimate of the Fukushima radionuclide in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminated waters from Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) were discharged directly into the North Pacific Ocean in March 2011. Coastal current system in this region and time scale of the water exchange with the open ocean is not well understood, however both observational evidence and numerical model simulation results indicate relatively rapid advection of contaminants eastward into the highly energetic mixed water region in the confluence of the Kuroshio and Oyashio. Surface drifters deployed near the FNPP in early summer 2011 show trajectories crossing the North Pacific generally following the large scale ocean circulation after one year. Previously obtained cesium (Cs) samples from multiple cruises near FNPP and off shore region between 2011 and 2013 are collected and evaluated to diagnose the propagating Cs signal crossing North Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we use radionuclides of Fukushima origin as a tracer to understand the North Pacific circulation and mixing process after two years of release. Large numbers of the observation are repeatedly took place near shore where Cs shows still relatively higher about 10-30 Bq/m3 in 2013. Temperature-salinity (T-S) properties for the available hydrographic data indicate that the majority of the samples were obtained in the region where the water is highly influenced by the warm-salty Kuroshio origin water. Depth profiles of 35N section in March-May 2013 cruise of the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability and Carbon (CLIVAR) repeat Hydrography sections are examined to track the radionuclide penetration into the subsurface ocean and the subduction pathways along isopycnal surfaces. Available large drifter datasets that accumulated over decades of field work can guide us in estimating the spread of these radionuclides. By applying an innovative statistical analysis to the drifter data, we investigate the spreading of radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean over 5-year time scales.

Yoshida, Sachiko; Jayne, Steven; Macdonald, Alison; Buesseler, Ken; Rypina, Irina

2014-05-01

378

Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report  

SciTech Connect

The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

George Sgouros, Ph.D.

2007-03-20

379

Automated method and system for the alignment and correlation of images from two different modalities  

DOEpatents

A method and system for the computerized registration of radionuclide images with radiographic images, including generating image data from radiographic and radionuclide images of the thorax. Techniques include contouring the lung regions in each type of chest image, scaling and registration of the contours based on location of lung apices, and superimposition after appropriate shifting of the images. Specific applications are given for the automated registration of radionuclide lungs scans with chest radiographs. The method in the example given yields a system that spatially registers and correlates digitized chest radiographs with V/Q scans in order to correlate V/Q functional information with the greater structural detail of chest radiographs. Final output could be the computer-determined contours from each type of image superimposed on any of the original images, or superimposition of the radionuclide image data, which contains high activity, onto the radiographic chest image.

Giger, Maryellen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Chen, Chin-Tu (Lisle, IL); Armato, Samuel (Chicago, IL); Doi, Kunio (Willowbrook, IL)

1999-10-26

380

Gulf Warm-Water Eddies Intensify Hurricane Changes  

NSF Publications Database

... hurricanes that pass over eddies of warm water that spin off the main current. "A positive outcome ... flows clockwise, transferring warm subtropical waters from the Caribbean Sea through the Yucatan ...

381

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

382

Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

1991-02-01

383

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

384

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

385

Ecological Consequences of a Century of Warming in Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep tropical lakes are excellent climate monitors because annual mixing is shallow and flushing rates are low, allowing heat to accumulate during climatic warming. We describe effects of warming on Lake Tanganyika: A sharpened density gradient has slowed vertical mixing and reduced primary production. Increased warming rates during the coming century may continue to slow mixing and further reduce productivity

Piet Verburg; Robert E. Hecky; Hedy Kling

2003-01-01

386

Mitigating The Rate and Extent of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation, in the sense of slowing the rate of CO2 emission, can reduce the rate of rise of CO2 and global warming and limit peak CO2 concentration and global warm- ing. However, it will have little effect on the near steady state CO2 concentration and corresponding global warming achieved on a millennial timescale once emissions are negligible and the added

T. Lenton; M. Cannell

2002-01-01

387

Preclinical Lymphatic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive in vivo imaging of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic nodes is expected to fulfill the purpose of analyzing lymphatic vessels and their function, understanding molecular mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic spread of tumors, and utilizing lymphatic molecular markers as a prognostic or diagnostic indicator. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of in vivo imaging modalities for detecting lymphatic vessels, lymphatic drainage, lymphatic nodes, which include conventional lymphatic imaging techniques such as dyes and radionuclide scintigraphy as well as novel techniques for lymphatic imaging such as optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) using lymphatic biomarkers, photoacoustic imaging and combinations of multiple modalities. The field of lymphatic imaging is ever evolving, and technological advances, combined with the development of new contrast agents, continue to improve the research of lymphatic vascular system in health and disease states as well as to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in the relevant diseases.

Zhang, Fan; Niu, Gang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2011-01-01

388

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

389

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it. PMID:22217735

Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

2012-01-21

390

Warm Debris Disk Candidates from WISE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.

Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David

2011-01-01

391

Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People  

PubMed Central

Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.

Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.

2012-01-01

392

Global Warming Facts and Our Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum website provides easily understood scientific information that helps both policy makers and the public answer important questions about the changing global climate in order to promote informed decisions. The site examines the Earth's natural carbon balance and the ways that humans are affecting this balance, then goes on to explore possible responses to global warming both at a personal and national level. It explains some of the methods for measuring past change and modeling future changes, as well as discussing the impacts of and responses to global warming. There are several teaching activities listed as "pre- and post-visit," though they may also be used as stand-alone exercises, and four more teaching activities in the 'Responses to Change' section of the site, including a carbon dioxide calculator that examines personal and national actions that could be taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Sciences, Marian K.

393

The importance of being warm (during inflation)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplitude of primordial curvature perturbations is enhanced when a radiation bath at a temperature T>H is sustained during inflation by dissipative particle production, which is particularly significant when a non-trivial statistical ensemble of inflaton fluctuations is also maintained. Since gravitational modes are oblivious to dissipative dynamics, this generically lowers the tensor-to-scalar ratio and yields a modified consistency relation for warm inflation, as well as changing the tilt of the scalar spectrum. We show that this alters the landscape of observationally allowed inflationary models, with for example the quartic chaotic potential being in very good agreement with the Planck results for nearly-thermal inflaton fluctuations, whilst essentially ruled out for an underlying vacuum state. We also discuss other simple models that are in agreement with the Planck data within a renormalizable model of warm inflation.

Bartrum, Sam; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Cerezo, Rafael; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.

2014-05-01

394

Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change  

PubMed Central

It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

2012-01-01

395

Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming  

SciTech Connect

Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

2010-12-08

396

Early Mars: how warm and how wet?  

PubMed

Early in its history, Mars underwent fluvial erosion that has been interpreted as evidence for a warmer, wetter climate. However, no atmosphere composed of only CO2 and H2O appears capable of producing mean planetary temperatures even close to 0 degrees C. Rather than by precipitation, aquifer recharge and ground water seepage may have been enabled by hydrothermal convection driven by geothermal heat and heat associated with impacts. Some climatic warming was probably necessary to allow water to flow for long distances across the surface. Modest warming could be provided by even a low-pressure CO2 atmosphere if it was supplemented with small amounts of CH4, NH3, or SO2. Episodic excursions to high obliquities may also have raised temperatures over some portions of the planet's surface. PMID:11539185

Squyres, S W; Kasting, J F

1994-08-01

397

DM particles: how warm they can be?  

SciTech Connect

One of important questions concerning particles which compose the Dark Matter (DM) is their average speed. We consider the model of relativistic weakly interacting massive particles and try to impose an upper bound on their actual and past warmness through the analysis of density perturbations and comparison with the LSS data. It is assumed that the DM can be described by the recently invented model of reduced relativistic gas (RRG). The equation of state of the RRG model is closely reproducing the one of the Maxwell distribution, while being much simpler. This advantage of the RRG model makes our analysis very efficient. As a result we arrive at the rigid and model-independent bound for the DM warmness without using the standard (much more sophisticated) approach based on the Einstein-Boltzmann system of equations.

Fabris, Julio C. [Departamento de Fisica - CCE, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, CEP: 29060-900, ES (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica - CCE, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, CEP: 29060-900, ES (Brazil); Shapiro, Ilya L.; Sobreira, Flavia, E-mail: fabris@cce.ufes.br, E-mail: shapiro@fisica.ufjf.br, E-mail: flavia_sobreira@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Fisica - ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, CEP: 36036-330, MG (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica - ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, CEP: 36036-330, MG (Brazil)

2009-02-15

398

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Robock, A.; Jianping Mao (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1992-12-24

399

Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.

Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2014-05-01

400

Early Eocene climate warming increased petroleum production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the late Paleocene, about 58 million years ago, to the early Eocene, about 51 million years ago, Earth's surface temperatures warmed by about 5°-10°C. Also in the early Eocene, there was an increase of carbon-13-depleted carbon in the oceans that cannot be accounted for by changes in carbon cycling at the surface. To better understand the source of that carbon, Kroeger and Funnell modeled the thermal evolution of four sedimentary basins in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The authors show that the rising surface temperatures of the early Eocene eventually led to warming of the sedimentary beds deep beneath the surface. Petroleum can be produced at only a certain range of temperatures; rising temperatures at greater depths would bring more potential source rocks into temperature conditions under which oil and gas can be produced and released.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

401

Pathways of the Greenland Sea warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive warming of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) has been observed since 2004. During summer 2006 temperature and salinity of the core of Atlantic Water (AW) reached the highest ever observed by the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAS) values. The structure of the WSC, the heat content and the extent of AW in the Fram Strait (FS) region has also changed. Temperature changes resulted from the upstream warming of the Norwegian-Atlantic Current (NwAC); the structure of the WSC and its heat content were modified by the northward advection of large mesoscale eddies observed within the western branch of the WSC in summer 2005. These changes may have large impacts on the Arctic Ocean (AO) climate and ecosystem.

Walczowski, Waldemar; Piechura, Jan

2007-05-01

402

Warm work processing for iron base alloy  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing heavy, thick-section precipitation age hardenable iron base superalloy forgings is described comprising: (a) recrystallizing to provide a known uniform starting microstructure; (b) warm working under conditions which do not permit recrystallization; and (c) precipitation heat treating; whereby the resultant material has a minimum yield strength of about 140,000 psi and a minimum tensile strength of about 170,000 psi.

Cone, F.P.; Miller, J.A.; Cryns, B.J.; Zanoni, R.

1993-06-29

403

Robust warming of the global upper ocean.  

PubMed

A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2). PMID:20485432

Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

2010-05-20

404

Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour\\u000aby means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests\\u000ashowed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series\\u000aalloys. Finite element method simulations can be a powerful tool for the design of warm\\u000aforming processes and tooling.

P. J. Bolt; R. J. Werkhoven; Boogaard van den A. H

2003-01-01

405

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

406

Internal radionuclide therapy: The ULMDOS software for treatment planning  

SciTech Connect

Before therapy with unsealed radionuclides, a dosimetry assessment must be performed for each patient. We present the interactive software tool ULMDOS, which facilitates dosimetric calculations, enhances traceability, and adequate documentation. ULMDOS is developed in IDL 6.1 (Interactive Data Language) under Windows XP/2000. First the patient data, the radiotracer data, and optionally urine and serum data are entered. After loading planar gamma camera images and drawing regions of interest, the residence times can be calculated using fits of the time activity data to exponential functions. Data can be saved in ASCII format for retrospective examination and further processing. ULMDOS allows one to process the dosimetric calculations within a standardized environment, spares the time-consuming transfer of data between different software tools, enables the documentation of ROI and raw data, and reduces intraindividual variability. ULMDOS satisfies the required conditions for traceability and documentation as a prerequisite to routine use in clinical settings.

Glatting, Gerhard; Landmann, Michael; Kull, Thomas; Wunderlich, Arthur; Blumstein, Norbert M.; Buck, Andreas K.; Reske, Sven N. [Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany); Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany); Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaet Ulm, D-89070 Ulm (Germany)

2005-07-15

407

Attenuation of radionuclide activity by metal-cup arthroplasties  

SciTech Connect

The half-value layers of stainless steel, bone cement, and polyethylene were measured for /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 111/In, and /sup 201/TI to render some insight into the attenuating effects of the metallic cup and other components used in surface-replacement revision arthroplasty. On theoretic consideration, a twofold increase in /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate in bone inside the cup should not be attenuated to the point of escaping detection on the radionuclide images of the hip. /sup 67/Ga, using the 184 and 300 keV peaks, and /sup 111/In have greater half-value layers than /sup 99m/Tc and are subject to less attenuation by the metallic cup.

Rosenthall, L.; Rosenthall, S.

1985-04-01

408

Radiative Cooling of Warm Molecular Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the radiative cooling of warm (T >= 100 K), fully molecular astrophysical gas by rotational and vibrational transitions of the molecules H2O, CO, and H2. Using an escape probability method to solve for the molecular level populations, we have obtained the cooling rate for each molecule as a function of temperature, density, and an optical depth parameter. A four-parameter expression proves useful in fitting the run of cooling rate with density for any fixed values of the temperature and optical depth parameter. We identify the various cooling mechanisms which are dominant in different regions of the astrophysically relevant parameter space. Given the assumption that water is very abundant in warm regions of the interstellar medium, H2O rotational transitions are found to dominate the cooling of warm interstellar gas over a wide portion of the parameter space considered. While chemical models for the interstellar medium make the strong prediction that water will be produced copiously at temperatures above a few hundred degrees, our assumption of a high water abundance has yet to be tested observationally. The Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite will prove ideal instruments for testing whether water is indeed an important coolant of interstellar and circumstellar gas.

Neufeld, David A.; Kaufman, Michael J.

1993-01-01

409

Spitzer warm mission transition and operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the successful dynamic planning and implementation of IRAC Warm Instrument Characterization activities, transition to Spitzer Warm Mission operations has gone smoothly. Operation teams procedures and processes required minimal adaptation and the overall composition of the Mission Operation System retained the same functionality it had during the Cryogenic Mission. While the warm mission scheduling has been simplified because all observations are now being made with a single instrument, several other differences have increased the complexity. The bulk of the observations executed to date have been from ten large Exploration Science programs that, combined, have more complex constraints, more observing requests, and more exo-planet observations with durations of up to 145 hours. Communication with the observatory is also becoming more challenging as the Spitzer DSN antenna allocations have been reduced from two tracking passes per day to a single pass impacting both uplink and downlink activities. While IRAC is now operating with only two channels, the data collection rate is roughly 60% of the four-channel rate leaving a somewhat higher average volume collected between the less frequent passes. Also, the maximum downlink data rate is decreasing as the distance to Spitzer increases requiring longer passes. Nevertheless, with well over 90% of the time spent on science observations, efficiency has equaled or exceeded that achieved during the cryogenic mission.

Mahoney, William A.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph, Jr.; McElroy, Douglas B.; Mannings, Vince G.; Mittman, David S.; O'Linger, Joann C.; Sarrel, Marc; Scire, Elena

2010-07-01

410

Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.  

PubMed

The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective. PMID:22695877

Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

2013-01-01

411

The safety of intermittent warm blood cardioplegia.  

PubMed

Continuous warm blood cardioplegia is considered to be an effective method for myocardial protection. However, frequently the flow of the cardioplegia needs to be interrupted for better visualization. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was reported to be safe by some investigators. To assess the degree of this safety, 76 patients who underwent operations for coronary or valvular disease, or both, were divided into two groups of 38 patients each. The two groups were well matched for age, ejection fraction, number of coronary bypasses and type of valvular procedures. Cold blood cardioplegia (CBC) was used intermittently every 15 min in the first group while the second group received warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) intermittently every 15 min. The clamp time range was 50-140 min. There were no deaths in either group, four myocardial infarctions occurred, two in each group. Low cardiac output occurred in 13 patients of the WBC group and in 7 patients of the CBC group, electrocardiogram (ECG) global ischemic changes were recorded in 14 patients of the WBC group compared to 6 patients of the CBC group. Statistically the results indicate that the techniques are comparable if the clamp time is less than 90 min. However, after 90 min the development of ECG changes and low cardiac output are significantly higher when WBC is used P < 0.001. Therefore, it is concluded that using the WBC intermittently is as safe as CBC when the clamp time is less than 90 min, however extra precautions are needed with longer clamp times. PMID:7826654

Ali, I M; Kinley, C E

1994-01-01

412

Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.  

PubMed

Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min). PMID:24178508

Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

2014-03-01

413

Thermal-hydraulic modeling and severe accident radionuclide transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of radionuclide transport within a nuclear reactor plant and then to the external environment after an accident that involves severe damage to the fuel rods requires an appropriate evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic conditions that influence both the chemical equilibria among the involved species and the radionuclide retention phenomena. The ENEL Code for the Analysis of Radionuclide Transport (ECART)

F. Oriolo; W. Ambrosini; G. Fruttuoso; F. Parozzi; R. Fontana

1995-01-01

414

Predictions of radionuclide migration rates for a subseabed repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from studies of high temperature interactions between sediments and porewater (seawater), and of sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in oxidized, deep sea sediments were used, along with results from heat transfer studies, to predict migration rates of radionuclides in a subseabed repository. Preliminary results for most radionuclides in oxidized sediments are very encouraging fission products with moderate values of

L. H. Brush

1981-01-01

415

Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection\\/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the

D. M. Smith; C. D. Updegraff; E. J. Bonano; J. D. Randall

1986-01-01

416

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical methods have been applied for the prediction of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through water-saturated fractured porous rock. The presence of colloids may enhance the transport of radionuclides in groundwater by reducing retardation effects. The colloids existing in the groundwater act as carriers, adsorbing radionuclides in their large surface area and moving faster than the average water velocity. With colloids present,

I. Baek; W. W. Jr. Pitt

1996-01-01

417

Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix

Q. Hu; Y. Sun; R. P. Ewing

2005-01-01

418

Characterization of radionuclide behavior in low level waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory is investigating the subsurface migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, shallow land burial site and at a low-level aqueous waste disposal facility. At Maxey Flats, radionuclide and tracer data indicate groundwater communication between a waste trench and an adjacent experimental study area. Areal distributions of radionuclides in surface soil confirm that contamination at Maxey

A. P. Toste; K. H. Abel; L. J. Kirby; R. W. Perkins; D. E. Robertson

1983-01-01

419

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

420

Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between

Stefano Loppi; Alberto Malfatti; Mauro Sani; Neil E. Whitehead

1997-01-01

421

[Targeted radionuclide therapy - where should we go ?].  

PubMed

Treatment with radiopharmaceuticals which selectively target lesions is called targeted radionuclide therapy(TRT). These days, the requirement for TRTs such as treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine, is on the increase. In addition, a new TRT agent is currently in a clinical trial. Here, current issues regarding TRT and its possible future use are discussed. PMID:23411948

Kinuya, Seigo

2013-02-01

422

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

423

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs.

Laughlin, J.S.; Larson, S.M.

1988-01-01

424

The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A world-wide radionuclide network consisting of 80 stations is under establishment in the framework of the comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT). These monitoring stations are essential for the verification regime of the treaty and they will be able to monitor the airborne particulate as well as xenon isotopes that are produced by nuclear tests. The equipment, the operation and the

Fausto Medici

2001-01-01

425

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01

426

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

Thakur, M.L.

1991-04-30

427

Gastroesophageal reflux demonstrated by hepatobiliary imaging in scleroderma  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging was performed on a patient with a longstanding history of scleroderma who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of biliary disease. Cystic duct patency was documented after 10 min with tracer accumulation in the second portion of the duodenum which failed to progress consistent with the duodenal hypomotility of scleroderma. The patient was given intravenous Kinevac resulting in gastroesophageal reflux of radionuclide.

Sawaf, N.W.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.

1987-03-01

428

Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming  

PubMed Central

Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low.

Huey, Raymond B.; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Hertz, Paul E.; Alvarez Perez, Hector J.; Garland, Theodore

2009-01-01

429

Alterations in Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Behçet’s Disease Using Radionuclide Ventriculography and Doppler Echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behçet’s syndrome is a multisystem disease; however, cardiac involvement in this disorder has been relatively less recognized. Noninvasive imaging methods may reveal a cardiac disorder which has not manifested itself clinically. In this study, radionuclide ventriculography and Doppler echocardiography were performed in 24 patients with Behçet’s disease to assess the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Patients had neither known

Meral Calguneri; Belkis Erbas; Sirri Kes; Yasar Karaaslan

1993-01-01

430

Studies say - tentatively - that greenhouse warming is here  

SciTech Connect

Published studies on greenhouse warming have been ambivalent as to whether warming has arrived. Now two independent studies of the climate record have incriminated the green-house effect in global warming, although they fall short of convicting it. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg are confident they have exonerated natural climatic variability, saying the observed global warming seems to large to account for the warming effect. A group from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory directly implicates greenhouse warming by finding its geographic `fingerprinting` in the climate record of the past century. This article discusses both studies and how the results will affect future concerns in the area of greenhouse warming.

Kerr, R.A.

1995-06-16

431

Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

432

Source inversion for the CTBTO radionuclide network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support its mission of monitoring compliance with the treaty banning nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates four global networks of, respectively, seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic sensors and air samplers accompanied with radionuclide detectors. The role of the International Data Centre (IDC) of CTBTO is to associate the signals detected in the monitoring networks with the physical phenomena which emitted these signals, by forming events. One of the aspects of associating detections with emitters is the problem of inferring the sources of radionuclides from the detections made at CTBTO radionuclide network stations. This task is particularly challenging because the average transport distance between a release point and detectors is large. Complex processes of turbulent diffusion are responsible for efficient mixing and consequently for decreasing the information content of detections with an increasing distance from the source. The problem is generally addressed in a two-step process. In the first step, an atmospheric transport model establishes a link between the detections and the regions of possible source location. In the second step this link is inverted to infer source information from the detections. In this presentation, we will discuss enhancements of the presently used regression-based inversion algorithm to reconstruct a source of radionuclides. To this aim, modern inversion algorithms accounting for prior information and appropriately regularizing an under-determined reconstruction problem will be briefly introduced. Emphasis will be on the CTBTO context and the choice of inversion methods. An illustration of the first tests will be provided using a framework of twin experiments, i.e. fictitious detections in the CTBTO radionuclide network generated with an atmospheric transport model.

Krysta, M.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Carter, J. A.

2013-12-01

433

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

434

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through geomorphic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant acciden, fallout radionuclides on the ground surface will transfer through geomorphic processes. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers, and entrainment from trees and soils should be confirmed. We (FMWSE group) was funded by MEXT, Japanese government, and 1 year following monitoring has been conducted about 1 year. 1 Migration study of radionuclides in natural environment including forests and rivers 1) Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland. 2) Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests. 3) Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use. 4) Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils. 2 Migration study of radionuclides through hydrological cycle such as soil water, rivers, lakes and ponds, ground water. 1) Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use. 2) Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediment. 3) Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediment. 4) Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs. We will present how and where the fallout radionulides transfter through geomorphic processes.

Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Fukushima, T.; Wakahara, T.; Kita, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Sakaguchi, A.; Tanaka, K.; Yamashiki, Y.; Yoshida, N.

2012-12-01

435

Interactive display and analysis of 3-D medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ANALYZE software system, which permits detailed investigation and evaluation of 3-D biomedical images, is discussed. ANALYZE can be used with 3-D imaging modalities based on X-ray computed tomography, radionuclide emission tomography, ultrasound tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The package is unique in its synergistic integration of fully interactive modules for direct display, manipulation, and measurement of multidimensional image data.

R. A. Robb; C. Barillot

1989-01-01

436

Diagnosis of Men-I Syndrome on 68Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and Role of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With 177Lu-DOTATATE  

PubMed Central

Abstract MEN-I is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells. We present a case of MEN-I syndrome diagnosed using predominantly nuclear medicine imaging followed by radionuclide therapy, thus emphasizing the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN-I.

kumar Gupta, Santosh; Singla, Suhas; Damle, Nishikant A; Agarwal, Krishankant; Bal, Chandersekhar

2012-01-01

437

ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.  

PubMed

The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research. PMID:19451357

Hendel, Robert C; Berman, Daniel S; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Heidenreich, Paul A; Henkin, Robert E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pohost, Gerald M; Williams, Kim A

2009-06-01

438

Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials.

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

439

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals.

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

440

Radionuclide methods of identifying patients who may require coronary artery bypass surgery  

SciTech Connect

Myocardial thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography performed in conjunction with exercise stress testing can provide clinically useful information regarding the functional significance of underlying coronary artery stenoses in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Knowledge of type, location, and extent of myocardial /sup 201/Tl perfusion abnormalities or the severity of exercise-induced global and regional dysfunction has prognostic value. Risk stratification can be undertaken with either radionuclide technique by consideration of the magnitude of the ischemic response and may assist in the selection of patients for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In patients with coronary artery disease, delayed /sup 201/Tl redistribution observed on exercise or dipyridamole /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy, particularly when present in multiple vascular regions and associated with increased lung /sup 201/Tl uptake, has been shown to be predictive of an adverse outcome, whereas patients with chest pain and a normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigram have a good prognosis with medical treatment. Similarly, a marked fall in the radionuclide ejection fraction from rest to exercise has been found to correlate with high-risk anatomic disease. Another important application of radionuclide imaging in patients being considered for CABG (particularly those with a depressed resting left ventricular ejection fraction) is the determination of myocardial viability and potential for improved blood flow and enhanced regional function after revascularization. 69 references.

Beller, G.A.; Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.

1985-12-01

441

Mapping biological behaviors by application of longer-lived positron emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9-140h (e.g., (124)I, (64)Cu, (86)Y and (89)Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Brechbiel, Martin W

2013-07-01

442

Radionuclide analysis of the forearm venous pressure-volume relationship: response to nitroglycerin  

SciTech Connect

By means of equilibrium radionuclide forearm venous occlusion plethysmography, we studied 12 adult men without heart failure. By using stepwise increases in venous occlusion pressure (0, 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg), we found that the relationship between venous cuff pressure and forearm radionuclide volume was consistently linear (r greater than 0.985). When sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was administered (0.8 mg), the venous pressure-volume relationship was consistently shifted rightward (reducing the slope and increasing the intercept). This resulted in large increases in venous capacitance, as shown by other workers using alternative techniques. Increased venous distensibility due to NTG was caused by an entire shift of the venous pressure-volume relationship rather than increased capacitance at one occlusion pressure. Equilibrium radionuclide venous occlusion plethysmography is a sensitive way to characterize venous pressure-volume relations. In addition, by using radionuclide blood pool component imaging to evaluate venous compliance, concern over fluid transudation seen with standard strain gauge venous plethysmographic techniques can be ignored, particularly at higher occlusion pressures.

Dittrich, H.C.; Slutsky, R.A.

1984-04-01

443

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

PubMed Central

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

2011-01-01

444

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility.  

PubMed

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582

Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Zhang, Jingqi; Li, Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Wang, Shaohua; Kimball, Bruce A; Yan, Chuan; Liu, Zhenghui; Ding, Yanfeng

2011-01-01

445

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

446

Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

1986-08-01

447

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming Partha P. Bera, Joseph S. Francisco and Timothy J. Lee NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, and Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393 Abstract T