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1

Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging  

PubMed Central

Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

2015-01-01

2

Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal osteomyelitis are contradictory, and its role for this indication remains to be determined. Initial investigations suggested that (18)F-FDG accurately diagnoses prosthetic joint infection; more recent data indicate that it cannot differentiate infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Preliminary data on the PET agents gallium-68 and iodine-124 fialuridine indicate that these agents may have a role in diagnosing osteomyelitis. PMID:25475377

Palestro, Christopher J

2015-01-01

3

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

4

Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke. PMID:25300599

Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

2014-11-01

5

Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

DeRogatis, A.J.

1987-06-01

6

Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

Velchik, M.G.

1985-11-01

7

Radionuclide Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, a space-occupying lesion in the kidney is usually discovered with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. The benign or malignant nature of the lesion can usually accurately be assessed with these radiological procedures. Radionuclide imaging techniques do not play a major role in diagnosing kidney cancer, as currently there are no radiopharmaceuticals routinely

A. H. Brouwers; P. L. Jager

8

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

9

Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging. Volume 3 update  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on radioisotope scanning. Topics considered include single photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, cell labelling, radiolabelled leukocytes, radiolabelled platelets, radiolabelled antibodies, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, radionuclide diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer, and historical aspects of the radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors.

Freeman, L.M.

1986-01-01

10

Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

1981-10-01

11

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-print Network

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17

12

Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors.

Zhang, Hong

2015-01-01

13

Multimodality Radionuclide, Fluorescence, and Bioluminescence Small-Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging of molecular events in the complex physiological interplay between organelles, cells, tissues, and organs in the whole organism is now more practical through the use of small-animal imaging technologies. Radionuclide based molecular imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been used for imaging intracellular enzymes, receptors, transporters, reporter gene expression,

SANJIV S. GAMBHIR

2005-01-01

14

Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1  

PubMed Central

Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

2000-01-01

15

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOEpatents

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18

16

Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides  

SciTech Connect

New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

Wickstrom, Eric

2008-03-19

17

Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets  

SciTech Connect

One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the field of young-star identification, we carried out a systematic near-infrared search for young planetary companions to {approx}200 young stars. We also carried out targeted high-sensitivity observations of selected stars surrounded by circumstellar dust rings. We developed advanced image processing techniques to allow detection of even fainter sources buried in the noisy halo of scattered starlight. Even with these techniques, around most of our targets our search was only sensitive to planets in orbits significantly wider than our solar system. With some carefully selected targets--very young dusty stars in the solar neighborhood--we reach sensitivities sufficient to see solar systems like our own. Although we discovered no unambiguous planets, we can significantly constrain the frequency of such planets in wide (>50 AU) orbits, which helps determine which models of planet formation remain plausible. Successful modeling of our observations has led us to the design of a next-generation AO system that will truly be capable of exploring solar systems resembling our own.

Macintosh, B

2005-04-11

18

Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22)

D. C. P. Chen; L. E. Holder; G. N. Kaplan

1984-01-01

19

Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on ? therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

2005-06-17

20

Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis  

SciTech Connect

The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

1980-01-01

21

Advances in radionuclide imaging for bone metastases.  

PubMed

Bone scan remains the most frequently requested investigation in any nuclear medicine department. The main reason for this is the exquisite sensivity of the bone scan for lesion detection, combined with clear visualisation of the whole skeleton. The isotope bone scan is now generally accepted as initial investigation of choice in the search for bone metastases from most tumours. 13583 bone scans for metastases were performed in our institution in 1998-2002 years. The frequency of bone metastases was highest in breast, prostate and lung cancer (53,9%, 58,6% and 29,5% respectively). Future progress depends on further advances in specificity of radiotracers and improvements of image acquisition and processing. PMID:18033997

Benke, Ma?gorzata; Lapi?ska, Grazyna; Niewiadomska, Joanna; Garszel, Anna; Benke, Grzegorz; Koz?owicz-Gudzi?ska, Izabella

2003-04-30

22

Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

1984-01-01

23

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

1981-01-01

24

Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis  

SciTech Connect

Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston (USA))

1989-01-01

25

Preliminary tests of a prototype system for optical and radionuclide imaging in small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assembled a prototype system for multimodal (radionuclide and optical) in vivo planar imaging of small animals (mice) using single photon emission radiotracers (Tc-99m) and a fluorescent marker (hematoporphyrin). Preliminary tests of the separate (optical and radionuclide) prototype imaging systems are presented, aimed at assessing their features and at determining the experimental protocol for in vivo imaging. Tests were

L. Celentano; P. Laccetti; R. Liuzzi; G. Mettivier; M. C. Montesi; M. Autiero; P. Riccio; G. Roberti; P. Russo; M. Salvatore

2003-01-01

26

Preliminary tests of a prototype system for optical and radionuclide imaging in small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assembled a prototype system for multimodal (radionuclide and optical) in vivo planar imaging of small animals (mice) using single photon emission radiotracers (Tc99m) and a fluorescent marker (hematoporphyrin). Preliminary tests of the separate (optical and radionuclide) prototype imaging system are presented, aimed at assessing their features and at determining the experimental protocol for in vivo imaging. Tests were

L. Celentano; P. Laccetti; R. Liuzzi; G. Mettivier; M. C. Montesi; P. Riccio; G. Roberti; P. Russo; M. Salvatore

2002-01-01

27

Radionuclide imaging and computed tomography in renal oncocytoma  

SciTech Connect

Renal oncocytoma is an apparently benign neoplasm that is being reported with increasing frequency. It is important to differentiate it from renal-cell carcinoma prior to surgery. Angiographic, CT, and ultrasound studies may suggest the diagnosis but are not pathognomonic. In 4 cases, /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate imaging of the renal tubules was performed; one patient was also scanned with /sup 131/I-orthoiodohippurate. There was no evidence of radionuclide uptake by the tumor. Reasons for the lack of success in differentiating renal oncocytoma from renal-cell carcinoma are discussed.

Lautin, E.M. (Albert Einstein Coll. of Medicine, Bronx, NY); Gordon, P.M.; Friedman, A.C.; McCormick, J.F.; Fromowitz, F.B.; Goldman, M.J.; Sugarman, L.A.

1981-01-01

28

Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine  

SciTech Connect

Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

1985-07-01

29

Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging  

SciTech Connect

Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

1986-11-01

30

Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

2015-01-01

31

Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease  

SciTech Connect

Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

1980-01-01

32

Space Shuttle Video Images: An Example of Warm Cloud Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warm cloud lightning has been reported in several tropical locations. We have been using the intensified monochrome TV cameras at night during a number of shuttle flights to observe large active thunderstorms and their associated lightning. During a nighttime orbital pass of the STS-70 mission on 17 July 1995 at 07:57:42 GMT, the controllers obtained video imagery of a small cloud that was producing lightning. Data from a GOES infrared image establishes that the cloud top had a temperature of about 271 degrees Kelvin ( -2 degrees Celsius). Since this cloud was electrified to the extent that a lightning discharge did occur, it may be another case of lightning in a cloud that presents little if any evidence of frozen or melting precipitation.

Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Boeck, William L.

1998-01-01

33

Probing the warm dense copper nano-foil with ultrafast electron shadow imaging and deflectometry  

E-print Network

Probing the warm dense copper nano-foil with ultrafast electron shadow imaging and deflectometry measurements of the optical laser- produced warm dense copper nano-foil. The results show that a significant of the pumped foil. Furthermore, even for a thin 30-nm copper film, we found that the electron clouds develop

Cao, Jianming

34

Pearls and pitfalls of radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system. Part 2: evaluation of extremity lymphoedema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of two pictorial essays on radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system and will focus on evaluation of extremity lymphoedema using lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoedema results from anatomical or functional obstruction of the lymphatic system. Lymphoscintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for assessing lymphoedema. The technique plays a pivotal role in determining the aetiology of extremity swelling and

A F Scarsbrook; A Ganeshan; K M Bradley

2007-01-01

35

Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Allston, MA)

1984-06-04

36

An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05). The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction. PMID:21875418

Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jianquan; Peng, Liangquan; Li, Hao; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

2011-01-01

37

An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05). The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction. PMID:21875418

Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jianquan; Peng, Liangquan; Li, Hao; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

2011-08-01

38

Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in heptatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

1983-01-01

39

Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

1983-01-01

40

Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

1984-01-01

41

The radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a large group of neoplasms deriving from pluripotent stem cells or from differentiated neuroendocrine cells that are characterized by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. These rare tumors tend to grow slowly and are notoriously difficult to localize, at least in the early stages. Diagnostics involve blood, urine and biochemical examination as well as imaging modalities. Imaging is achieved by a variety of techniques such as radiological morphological imaging methods, for example, sonography, computerized tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and finally, nuclear functional imaging methods such as metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor scintigraphy (VIPRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorinated dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) as a radioisotopic marker. (131)I-labeled MIBG is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for localization and therapy of phechromocytoma and paraganglioma. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors possess a high density of somatostatin receptors. This observation provided the basis for the development of various radiolabeled somatostatin peptide analogs as imaging agents and therapeutics in nuclear medicine. FDG-PET is now performed in a wide variety of tumors and indications, including diagnosis, staging, re-staging and evaluation of the response to treatment. (18)F-DOPA-PET may be useful if (18)F-FDG-PET scan result is negative. (99m)Tc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA-V) or (99m)Tc sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) or (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin is used only for diagnosis of certain NETs such as medullary thyroid cancer. The expiences with other nuclear medicinie imaging and therapy modalities such as cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin-receptors, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor scintigraphy are still limited, and further clinical studies are needed. The studies using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for tumor angiogenesis imaging, annexin-V for imaging apoptosis and agents for hypoxia imaging are still in an early stage and the clinical role for these agents needs to be defined. In conclusion, no single imaging technique identifies all the metastatic sites of NETs. The best results may be obtained with a combination of functional imaging such as PET or/and SRS and morphologic imaging with CT and/or MR imaging. Many molecular imaging and therapy modalities fur NETs are recently under investigation or being developed, the usefulness of these modalities, however, has to be evaluated by well-designed and multicentre studies. PMID:15810878

Li, Shuren; Beheshti, Mohsen

2005-03-01

42

[Radionuclide imaging of neurendocrine tumors: biological basis and diagnostic results].  

PubMed

Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to detect neuroendocrine tumors, and many of them are based on a specific mechanism of uptake, while others are non-specific probes. This "review" focuses on the clinical applications of metaiodobenzylguanidine, (111)In-pentreotide and positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. New avances in diagnostic imaging will be discussed. Molecular imaging serves these diagnostic functions and provides powerful means for non-invasively detecting disease. PMID:24042404

Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Mallardo, Vania; Rossi, Michele; Vaccaro, Andrea; Raucci, Antonio; Della Vecchi, Nicoletta; Romano, Giovanna; Califano, Teresa; Schillirò, Francesco

2013-01-01

43

Radionuclide imaging for vesico-renal reflux using intravenous 99 m TcD. T. P. A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that Radionuclide imaging provides a simple method for detecting vesico-renal reflux in children, when an intravenous dose of 99mTc-D. T. P. A. is used as radioactive tracer. Forty-eight patients have been studied, of these twenty-eight also had intravenous pyelography with post-micturition films, micturating cystography, and cystoscopy. In this group of 28 patients the radionuclide imaging technique detected

J. E. Pollet; P. F. Sharp; F. W. Smith

1979-01-01

44

Clinical use of radionuclide bone imaging in a university medical center.  

PubMed

To assess the diagnostic utility of radionuclide bone imaging, we reviewed all examinations performed during a two-year period in a university medical center. The indication(s) for each bone image and its interpretation were compared by reviewing requisition forms and medical records. Thirty-nine percent of 988 studies demonstrated relevant abnormalities. Yields of pertinent positive findings were greatest in patients with cancers of the breast (40%) and prostate (38%) and lowest in women with uterine cancer (15%), patients with previously normal bone images, and individuals with suspected but unconfirmed malignancy. Incidental findings, unrelated to the indication for imaging, occurred frequently (up to 41% of cases). We did not find a sizable number of negative studies that could readily be labeled as unnecessary, suggesting that bone imaging to generally a useful procedure as applied by physicians in this setting. PMID:7087143

Fihn, S D; Larson, E B; Rudd, T R; Nelp, W B

1982-07-23

45

Pulp cell tracking by radionuclide imaging for dental tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (¹¹¹In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that ¹¹¹In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label and are viable to follow the repair process. This technique is expected to be of major interest for monitoring implanted cells in innovative therapies for injured teeth. PMID:23789732

Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois; Opsahl Vital, Sibylle

2014-03-01

46

An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada); Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)

2013-11-15

47

The channel ratio method of scatter correction for radionuclide image quantitation.  

PubMed

The accuracy of quantitation of radionuclide distributions in human tissue with the scintillation camera is decreased by attenuation and scatter of photons. If scatter correction is applied satisfactorily, narrow beam attenuation can be applied. In this article, a scatter correction technique, the channel ratio (CR) method, is introduced. The CR scatter correction method is proposed for quantitation of the radionuclide distribution in organs. The improvement in the geometrical resolution was measured and examples of clinical images are presented. In this method, the change in the ratio of counts from two symmetrical adjacent energy windows straddling the energy photopeak was used to eliminate the contribution of scattered photons during imaging with 99mTc. The theory and methods for the empirical affirmation are described. To apply the CR scatter correction method, two constants, the ratio of primary photons G and the ratio of scattered photons H in the same windows, were determined. Different sized sources in varying depths of water were imaged. When the source activities were quantified after scatter correction with the CR method, the measurements ranged from 96%-108% in comparison to the reference value in 100 mm water. The scatter fraction increased from 0.20 in 10 mm water to 1.44 in 200 mm water. The geometrical resolution expressed as full width at tenth maximum in 150 mm water improved by 30.4% and was restored to the value of the geometrical resolution in air. The CR scatter correction method is a simple method to correct for scatter in order to facilitate accurate quantitation of the radionuclide distribution during imaging with a scintillation camera. PMID:8429357

Pretorius, P H; van Rensburg, A J; van Aswegen, A; Lötter, M G; Serfontein, D E; Herbst, C P

1993-02-01

48

Beta camera for static and dynamic imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in biologic samples  

SciTech Connect

A detection system based on microchannel plates has been constructed to image charged particles emitted by radionuclides in biomedical samples. This technique has significant advantages over conventional film autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radiolabeled compounds: shorter acquisition times due to the high sensitivity, easier sample handling, direct quantification and the ability to perform dynamic studies. The detector performance shows a spatial resolution of 0.9 mm for carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) (0.156 MeV), good linearity and homogeneity. The noise level is below 50/(cm{sup 2}.sec). Successful imaging with this system has been performed with beta-emitters {sup 14}C, sulfur-35 ({sup 35}S), iodine-131 ({sup 131}I), yttrium-90 (90Y), and positron emitters gallium-68 ({sup 68}Ga), and fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F). Dynamic studies of axonal transport of {sup 35}S-methionine in a nerve, and static images of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in slices of tumors are presented. The system shows promise for rapid quantitative imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in small biologic samples.

Ljunggren, K.; Strand, S.E. (Lund Univ. (Sweden))

1990-12-01

49

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

1989-07-18

50

Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

Kuhl, D.E.

1981-03-03

51

U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform  

PubMed Central

Background In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. Methods An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc?+?tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Results Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). Conclusions We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images. PMID:25386389

2014-01-01

52

Evaluation of Cobalt-Labeled Octreotide Analogs for Molecular Imaging and Auger Electron-Based Radionuclide Therapy.  

PubMed

The somatostatin receptor, which is overexpressed by many neuroendocrine tumors, is a well-known target for molecular imaging and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Recently, (57)Co-labeled DOTATOC, an octreotide analog, was shown to have the highest affinity yet found for somatostatin receptor subtype 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic effects of novel cobalt-labeled octreotide analogs targeting the somatostatin receptor to identify promising candidates for molecular imaging and Auger electron-based radionuclide therapy. PMID:24876207

Thisgaard, Helge; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Dam, Johan Hygum; Bollen, Peter; Mollenhauer, Jan; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

2014-05-29

53

Image guidance, treatment planning and evaluation of cancer interstitial focal therapy using liposomal radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focally ablative therapy of cancer has gained significant interest recently. Improvements in diagnostic techniques have created possibilities for treatment which were once clinically unfeasible. Imaging must be capable of allowing accurate diagnosis, staging and planning upon initiation of therapy. Recent improvements in MRI and molecular imaging techniques have made it possible to accurately localize lesions and in so doing, improve the accuracy of proposed focal treatments. Using multimodality imaging it is now possible to target, plan and evaluate interstitial focal treatment using liposome encapsulated beta emitting radionuclides in a variety of cancer types. Since most absorbed dose is deposited early and heterogeneously in beta-radionuclide therapy, investigation of the resultant molecular and cellular events during this time is important for evaluating treatment efficacy. Additionally, investigating a multifocal entity such as prostate cancer is helpful for determining whether MRI is capable of discriminating the proper lesion for therapy. Correlation of MRI findings with histopathology can further improve the accuracy of interstitial focal radionuclide therapy by providing non-invasive surrogates for tissue compartment sizes. In the application of such therapies, compartmental sizes are known to heavily influence the distribution of injected agents. This has clear dosimetric implications with the potential to significantly alter the efficacy of treatment. The hypothesis of this project was that multimodality imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoradiography (AR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used to target, plan, and evaluate interstitial focal therapy with non-sealed source, liposome-encapsulated 186Re beta emitting radionuclides. The specific aims of this project were to 1) Identify suitable targets for interstitial focal therapy. This was done by retrospectively analyzing MRI data to characterize the tumor microenvironment through correlation with in-plane compartmental sizes obtained from histopathology analysis of step-sectioned prostatectomy specimens; 2) Gauge the ability of a reader to plan an interstitial focal treatment using MRI. This was accomplished by objective measures of contrast and volume measurement with subjective reader analysis of tumor conspicuities; 3) Evaluation of the early biologic response to 186Re interstitial focal therapy. This was achieved by correlation of histochemistry (HC) markers: hetrochromatin protein alpha (HP1?), cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), terminal deoxynucleotidal transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL), caspase 3, Ki-67 and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) to the radiation distribution as seen on AR and radiation absorbed dose as computed from planar imaging. The conclusions of this study are that prostate MRI allows targeting of appropriate lesions for therapy by its ability to inform on the tumor microenvironment. MRI distinguishes prostatic tumors on the basis of tissue composition. Readers are better able reproduce volumes and thus plan interstitial therapy for tumors which have a denser, more homogeneous composition. The combination of SPECT and autoradiography showed a dose and position dependent expression of HC markers. These results demonstrate that multimodality imaging is capable of targeting, planning and evaluating interstitial focal therapy.

Ware, Steve William

54

Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches.

Frank Berger; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

2001-01-01

55

Intrathoracic splenosis: evaluation by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide scintigraphy.  

PubMed

Splenosis represents the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue after either splenic trauma or surgery. Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and the left hemidiaphragm. We report a case of splenosis in a 41-year-old male patient who had experienced severe thoracoabdominal injury including rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm and post-traumatic splenectomy 20 years previously. Abnormal opacities in the cardiac region were noted on a chest radiograph at an annual checkup. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated multiple, well-circumscribed pleura-based nodules at the posterior base of the left hemithorax and the left subdiaphragmatic area. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), the lesions showed decreased signal intensity but remained slightly hyperintense relative to liver parenchyma on T2-weighted images. (99m)Tc-labeled Sn colloid scintigraphy revealed multiple areas of increased activity consistent with the lesions on the CT and MRI scans. In addition to the history of splenic trauma and left hemothorax, SPIO-enhanced MRI and radionuclide scintigraphy, which can demonstrate phagocytic ability in the ectopic splenic tissue, were useful for confirming the diagnosis. PMID:19943149

Ishibashi, Mana; Tanabe, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Hidenao; Matusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide

2009-11-01

56

Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods  

SciTech Connect

Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

1983-08-01

57

Comparison of radionuclide bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting spinal metastases.  

PubMed

A retrospective comparison was made between 99mTc-MDP bone scans and corresponding spine MR images in 35 patients who had complementary studies within 2 mo. Bone scans were performed with planar imaging of the entire body and MRI was performed with a 1.5 tesla signal scanner using standard techniques with T1- and T2-weighted images. There were 18 male and 17 female patients diagnosed with cancer prior to these studies. Cancer diagnoses included 14 prostate, 12 breast, 1 bladder, 2 renal, 2 lung, 1 each of esophagus, melanoma, myeloma and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary cancer. Of the regions compared, 69 were positive for bony metastases by MRI and 63 regions by bone scans. Thirty-eight regions were concordantly positive and 56 regions concordantly negative. No patients with entirely positive bone scans were negative by MRI, but one patient was entirely positive by MRI but negative by a bone scan. At least one region was discordantly read in 21 patients. Distribution of positive regions was similar on bone scan and MRI. The greatest number and proportion of discordant readings occurred in the lumbar regions and more frequently in patients with prostate cancer. Considering its widespread availability and the ease of performing a whole-body survey for metastasis, radionuclide bone scanning remains the study of choice for initial evaluation of patients with cancer. However, MRI is an excellent complementary technique when bone scan findings are inadequate for answering clinical questions. MRI appears to be quite sensitive and probably more specific for metastasis in certain locations of the spine. PMID:8254410

Gosfield, E; Alavi, A; Kneeland, B

1993-12-01

58

Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease.

Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

1985-07-01

59

SPECT–CT Fusion Imaging Radionuclide Lymphoscintigraphy: Potential for Limb Lymphedema Assessment and Sentinel Node Detection In Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy (RNL) has progressively superseded lymphangiography and may be considered as the most advanced\\u000a method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system (1, 2).As a safe, noninvasive, and physiological method, RNL is commonly\\u000a used in lymphology for the evaluation of limb lymphedemas and in oncology for the detection of the sentinel node (SN) (3,\\u000a 4).However, conventional planar imaging

Alain Pecking; W. Wartski; R. Cluzan; D. Bellet; J. Albérini

60

WARM AND FUZZY: TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY ANALYSIS OF AN Fe XV EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER LOOP  

SciTech Connect

The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) were designed in part to work together. They have the same spatial resolution and cover different but overlapping coronal temperature ranges. These properties make a combined data set ideal for multithermal analysis, where EIS provides the best information on the cooler corona (log T < 6.5) and XRT provides the best information on the hotter corona (log T > 6.5). Here, we analyze a warm non-flaring loop detected in images made in a strong EIS Fe XV emission line with a wavelength of 284.16 A and peak formation temperature of log T = 6.3. We perform differential emission measure (DEM) analysis in three pixels at different heights above the footpoint and find multithermal results with the bulk of the emission measure in the range 6.0 < log T < 6.6. Analysis with the EIS lines alone gave a DEM with huge amounts of emission measure at very high temperatures (log T >7.2); analysis with XRT data alone resulted in a DEM that was missing most of the cooler emission measure required to produce many of the EIS lines. Thus, both results were misleading and unphysical. It was only by combining the EIS and XRT data that we were able to produce a reasonable result, one without ad hoc assumptions on the shape and range of the DEM itself.

Schmelz, J. T.; Rightmire, L. A.; Kimble, J. A.; Worley, B. T.; Pathak, S. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Saar, S. H., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-09-10

61

Ambient noise imaging in warm shallow waters; robust statistical algorithms and range estimation.  

PubMed

The high frequency ambient noise in warm shallow waters is dominated by snapping shrimp. The loud snapping noises they produce are impulsive and broadband. As the noise propagates through the water, it interacts with the seabed, sea surface, and submerged objects. An array of acoustic pressure sensors can produce images of the submerged objects using this noise as the source of acoustic "illumination." This concept is called ambient noise imaging (ANI) and was demonstrated using ADONIS, an ANI camera developed at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. To overcome some of the limitations of ADONIS, a second generation ANI camera (ROMANIS) was developed at the National University of Singapore. The acoustic time series recordings made by ROMANIS during field experiments in Singapore show that the ambient noise is well modeled by a symmetric ?-stable (S?S) distribution. As high-order moments of S?S distributions generally do not converge, ANI algorithms based on low-order moments and fractiles are developed and demonstrated. By localizing nearby snaps and identifying the echoes from an object, the range to the object can be passively estimated. This technique is also demonstrated using the data collected with ROMANIS. PMID:22894207

Chitre, Mandar; Kuselan, Subash; Pallayil, Venugopalan

2012-08-01

62

Radionuclides in Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

Williams, E. D.

1989-01-01

63

High Resolution Tip/Tilt Near-Infrared Imaging of Warm Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present high spatial resolution H and K'-band images of a complete sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies selected to have warm mid-infrared colors known to be characteristic of active galaxies. The extended underlying galaxy is detected in each system, as are tidal features and many of the star-forming knots seen at optical wavelengths. While some of these knots have a considerable near-infrared excess, we show that they are likely to have bolometric luminosities more similar to that of the extended starbursts with similar optical morphology seen in less far-infrared luminous interacting systems. We find that each ULIG has increasing contributions at long wavelengths by a very compact source which we identify as an active galactic nucleus. We show that the optical/near-infrared colors of these putative nuclei are much more extreme than the most active starburst IRAS galaxies, yet are identical to "far-infrared loud" quasars which are in turn similar to optical quasars combined with large quantities of hot dust. Half of the ULIGs have nuclei with dereddened near-infrared luminosities comparable to those of QSOs, while the other half have dereddened luminosities more similar to Seyferts, although this may be an effect of patchy extinction and scattering.

Jason A. Surace; D. B. Sanders

1998-09-15

64

High-Resolution Tip/Tilt Near-Infrared Imaging of Warm Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high spatial resolution (FWHM~0.3"-0.5") H (1.6 ?m) and K' (2.1 ?m) images of a complete sample (12) of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) chosen to have ``warm'' mid-infrared colors (f25/f60>0.2) known to be characteristic of active galaxies. The extended underlying galaxy is detected in each system at H and K', as are tidal features and many of the star-forming knots seen at optical wavelengths. While some of these knots have considerable near-infrared excesses, we show that they are likely to have bolometric luminosities more similar to those of the extended starbursts with similar optical morphology seen in less far-infrared-luminous interacting systems. We find that each ULIG has increasing contributions at long wavelengths by a very compact source, which we identify as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We show that the optical/near-infrared colors of these putative nuclei are much more extreme than in the most active starburst IRAS galaxies, yet are identical to those in ``far-infrared-loud'' quasars, which are in turn similar to optical quasars combined with large quantities of hot (~800 K) dust. Half of the ULIGs have nuclei with dereddened near-infrared luminosities comparable to those of QSOs, while the other half have dereddened luminosities more similar to Seyfert galaxies, although this may be an effect of patchy extinction and scattering.

Surace, Jason A.; Sanders, D. B.

1999-02-01

65

THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience  

PubMed Central

The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT), and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction. PMID:22768024

Baum, Richard P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.

2012-01-01

66

Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries.

Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

2014-06-01

67

Nuclear medical imaging using ?+? coincidences from 44Sc radio-nuclide with liquid xenon as detection medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new nuclear medical imaging technique based on the measurement of the emitter location in the three dimensions with a few mm spatial resolution using ?+? emitters. Such measurement could be realized thanks to a new kind of radio-nuclides which emit a ?-ray quasi-simultaneously with the ?+ decay. The most interesting radio-nuclide candidate, namely 44Sc, will be potentially produced at the Nantes cyclotron ARRONAX. The principle is to reconstruct the intersection of the classical line of response (obtained with a standard PET camera) with the direction cone defined by the third ?-ray. The emission angle measurement of this additional ?-ray involves the use of a Compton telescope for which a new generation of camera based on a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber is considered. GEANT3 simulations of a large acceptance LXe Compton telescope combined with a commercial micro-PET (LSO crystals) have been performed and the obtained results will be presented. They demonstrate that a good image can be obtained from the accumulation of each three-dimensional measured position. A spatial resolution of 2.3 mm has been reached with an injected activity of 0.5 MBq for a 44Sc point source emitter.

Grignon, C.; Barbet, J.; Bardiès, M.; Carlier, T.; Chatal, J. F.; Couturier, O.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Faivre, A.; Ferrer, L.; Girault, S.; Haruyama, T.; Le Ray, P.; Luquin, L.; Lupone, S.; Métivier, V.; Morteau, E.; Servagent, N.; Thers, D.

2007-02-01

68

Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.  

PubMed

The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues. PMID:23843083

Boschi, Federico; Pagliazzi, Marco; Rossi, Barbara; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Salgarello, Matteo; Spinelli, Antonello E

2013-07-01

69

Experimental Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy Using Transferred Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Methods A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and 99mTc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6–24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. Results 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated 99mTc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusions The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC. PMID:25615643

Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

2015-01-01

70

Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease  

SciTech Connect

Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

1984-01-01

71

Radionuclide imaging for breast cancer diagnosis and management: is technetium-99m tetrofosmin uptake related to the grade of malignancy?  

PubMed

There are different scoring systems available for determining the grade of breast cancer malignancy. Breast cancer tumors have been described for grades 1-3 using the modified Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Determining the grade is very important for the clinicians to choose the best treatment options. Technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) and pentavalent (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy have been used and are under evaluation for being prognostic factors for breast carcinoma. Radionuclide breast imaging not only visualizes the lesion site but also reflects specific biological and functional lesion features, including perfusion, proliferative potential, metabolic activity and receptor status. PMID:24997077

Silov, Güler; Ta?demir, Arzu; Ozdal, Ay?egül; Erdo?an, Zeynep; Ba?bu?, Esma Mehtap; Arslan, Ay?e Esra; Turhal, Ozgül

2014-01-01

72

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

73

Potential clinical impact of radionuclide imaging technologies: highlights of the ITBS 2003 meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiopharmaceuticals are major determinants of progress in Nuclear Medicine. Besides 18FDG, the most common PET tracer, several other molecules are under evaluation, such as 18F-fluoride for bone studies, numerous ligands for neurotransmission, 18F-DOPA for neuro-endocrine tumors or generator produced 68Ga-peptides for various cancers. Nuclear medicine gradually changes for "molecular imaging" and medical imaging, which was at the beginning mainly anatomic, has progressed in the direction of functional and metabolic imaging. The present challenge is to achieve some degree of "in vivo" biochemistry or even histology or genetics. The importance of anatomic/functional image fusion justifies the development of combined PET-CT instrumentation, whose objectives have to be discussed in terms of anatomical landmarks and/or additional clinical information. The question of "hard" or "soft" image co-registration remains open, involving not only CT, but also SPECT or MRI. Development of dedicated imaging devices, whether single photon or positron, is of major interest for breast imaging, allowing optimal imaging conditions, with results definitely superior to classical gamma-cameras or PET. The patient population concerned with scintimammography is still controversial, as well as the imaging modalities: FDG or sestaMIBI, planar or tomographic, scintillators or semi-conductors, and the research field remains open. This is also valid for external or per-operative probe systems for tumor or lymph nodes localization.

Itti, Roland

2004-07-01

74

Tomographic and planar radionuclide imaging in patients suspected meniscal injury: Arthroscopic correlation  

SciTech Connect

In patients (pts) with knee pain which may be related to meniscal tears, clinical judgment is used to determine whether medical management or arthroscopy is indicated. Based on the assumption that meniscal injury will result in adjacent changes in Tc-99m MDP bone images, studies using both planar and tomographic techniques were performed in 12 pts referred for arthroscopy. Planar imaging was performed in the anterior, posterior, and posterior medial and lateral oblique positions of the symptomatic knee. Single photon emission computed tomography was performed using a 64 view 360/sup 0/ acquisition of both knees. In this series, both imaging techniques were accurate in identifying abnormality, but analysis of transaxial tomographic data showed greater contrast and facilitated localization because of the better spatial orientation provided by this method. Thus, tomographic bone imaging appears valuable in defining areas of localized abnormality in the knees of pts with meniscal injury.

Fajman, W.A.; Diehl, M.; Dunaway, E.; Stephenson, R.; Eisner, R.; Riggins, R.S.; Berger, H.J.

1985-05-01

75

[Clinical value of radionuclide whole body bone imaging in the diagnosis of skeletal metastasis].  

PubMed

Of 628 patients with extra-osseous malignancies diagnosed by surgery and/or pathology, 207 (33.0%) were identified as having skeletal metastasis by bone imaging. There was statistical significant difference in the incidence of metastasis in in different malignancies (P less than 0.02). The metastatic rates of nasopharyngeal, lung, prostate and breast cancers were higher than gastrointestinal, kidney, and other malignancies. There was significant differences in the different sites of skeletal metastasis (P less than 0.01). They were thorax, spine, pelvis, limbs and skull in order of incidence. Solitary metastatic rate was 15.9%. Biopsy is advised for patients suspected to have metastatic disease but with only one single "hot spot" in skeletal imaging, particularly in the rib. PMID:2612331

Chen, Y Q

1989-05-01

76

Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

1981-07-01

77

Cell-SELEX Aptamer for Highly Specific Radionuclide Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common and highly oncogenic EGFR mutant in GBM. With the aim to generate specific molecular probes able to target EGFRvIII with high affinity, we selected four DNA aptamers (U2, U8, U19 and U31) specifically bound to U87-EGFRvIII cells that over expressed EGFRvIII with Kd values in the nanomole range by a cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) process. U87MG cells were introduced as control cells for counter selection. We further affirmed U2 and U8 identified EGFRvIII on the surface of target cells specifically. Then we radiolabeled U2 with 188Re to serve as a molecular imaging probe and observed 188Re -labeled U2 significantly targeted EGFRvIII over-expressing glioblastoma exnografts in mice. In conclusion, aptamers obtained from whole cell-SELEX strategy have great potential as molecular imaging probes that are probably beneficial to GBM diagnoses. PMID:24603483

Tan, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Li, Shuji; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Guiping; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Xingmei

2014-01-01

78

A novel hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated viral vector-mediated radionuclide reporter gene imaging system for stem cells transplantation monitoring.  

PubMed

Hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated virus (BV-AAV) containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene or human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) derived from AAV (BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR and BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR) were constructed and used to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid BV-AAV transgenic vector to mediate hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplantation therapy as a novel biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging. The results showed that the infection efficiency of BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR in BM-MSCs reached 84.25?±?1.38%, and there were no obvious adverse effects on BM-MSCs. The (125)I(-) and (99m)TcO?(-) uptake assays showed that the radionuclide accumulation induced by BA-AAV-mediated hNIS was highly efficient in infected BM-MSCs. Furthermore, there was a robust correlation between the infected BM-MSCs cell number and the (125)I(-) accumulation amount (R(2)?=?0.9026). The micro-SPECT/CT imaging showed that BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR-infected BM-MSCs accumulated radioiodine efficiently in vivo, exhibiting obvious radiotracer accumulation in transplantation sites. Further quantitative analysis revealed that 30 min might be the optimal imaging time point. Moreover, the revealed high target/individual organ background ratios also supported the feasibility of BV-AAV-mediated hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring BM-MSCs transplantation in most of commonly used transplantation sites, thus highlighting this promise biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging for stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:25345809

Pan, Yu; Yin, Hongyan; Lv, Jing; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Yifan

2015-02-01

79

Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Possible explanations for the discordant findings are: (a) normal bone metabolism at the site of an old spondylolysis and (b) radiographically inapparent stress fractures. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

1981-07-01

80

Synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of multimodal radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of pigmented melanoma.  

PubMed

Melanin pigment represents an attractive target to address specific treatment to melanoma cells, such as cytotoxic radionuclides. However, less than half of the patients have pigmented metastases. Hence, specific marker is required to stratify this patient population before proceeding with melanin-targeted radionuclide therapy. In such a context, we developed fluorinated analogues of a previously studied melanin-targeting ligand, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (ICF01012). These latter can be labeled either with (18)F or (131)I/(125)I for positron emission tomography imaging (melanin-positive patient selection) and targeted radionuclide therapy purposes. Here we describe the syntheses, radiosyntheses and preclinical evaluations on melanoma-bearing mice model of several iodo- and fluoro(hetero)aromatic derivatives of the ICF01012 scaffold. After preliminary planar gamma scintigraphic and positron emission tomography imaging evaluations, [(125)I]- and [(18)F]-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-4-fluoro-3-iodobenzamides ([(125)I]4, [(18)F]4) were found to be chemically and biologically stable with quite similar tumor uptakes at 1 h p.i. (9.7 ± 2.6% ID/g and 6.8 ± 1.9% ID/g, respectively). PMID:25637883

Billaud, Emilie M F; Maisonial-Besset, Aurélie; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Béquignat, Jean-Baptiste; Decombat, Caroline; Degoul, Françoise; Audin, Laurent; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Tarrit, Sébastien; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Borel, Michèle; Auzeloux, Philippe; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel

2015-03-01

81

A new approach in radionuclide imaging to ureteric peristalsis using 99Tcm-MAG 3 and condensed images.  

PubMed

A new method for the evaluation of ureteric peristalsis is described. Standard, dynamic renal scintigraphy was carried out using 99Tcm-MAG 3 in 59 patients. Time-activity curves and condensed images over the ureter area were created simultaneously. A six-grade scale (O-V) was chosen for the classification of ureteral function. The results obtained were compared with parameters of renographic curves and other clinical findings. In a group of 13 patients, two different renal radiopharmaceuticals were used: 131I-OIH and 99Tcm-DTPA. The results show that the new method is suitable for the assessment of ureteral disorders, and has some advantages compared with previously described methods. 99Tcm-MAG 3, with a better target-to-background ratio compared to 131I-OIH and 99Tcm-DTPA, is the most suitable radiopharmaceutical for this purpose. PMID:1829799

Lepej, J; Kliment, J; Horák, V; Buchanec, J; Marosová, A; Belákova, S

1991-05-01

82

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Ms. Schultz

2007-12-03

83

The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

Not Available

1982-05-01

84

Single photon emission computed tomography imaging for temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin-treated thyroid cancer mouse model  

PubMed Central

Selective iodide uptake and prolonged iodine retention in the thyroid is the basis for targeted radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer patients; however, salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent nonthyroidal complications. In this study, we have used noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography functional imaging to quantify the temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in mice. At 60 min post radionuclide injection, radionuclide accumulation in the salivary gland was generally higher than that in thyroid due to much larger volume of the salivary gland. However, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in the salivary gland was lower than that in thyroid and was comparable among mice of different age and gender. Differently, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in thyroid varied greatly among mice. The extent of thyroidal radioiodine accumulation stimulated by a single dose of exogenous bovine TSH (bTSH) in triiodothyronine (T3)-supplemented mice was much less than that in mice received neither bTSH nor T3 (nontreated mice), suggesting that the duration of elevated serum TSH level is important to maximize thyroidal radioiodine accumulation. Furthermore, the extent and duration of radioiodine accumulation stimulated by bTSH was less in the thyroids of the thyroid-targeted RET/PTC1 (thyroglobulin (Tg)-PTC1) mice bearing thyroid tumors compared with the thyroids in wild-type (WT) mice. Finally, the effect of 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin on increasing thyroidal, but not salivary, radioiodine accumulation was validated in both WT mice and Tg-PTC1 preclinical thyroid cancer mouse model. PMID:20943721

Liu, Yu-Yu; Brandt, Michael P; Shen, Daniel H; Kloos, Richard T; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jhiang, Sissy M

2014-01-01

85

Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

1989-11-01

86

RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

87

Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

Hoffer, P. B.

1980-06-10

88

Compare and contrast warm and cold fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of Earth science animations show students what happens at cold and warm fronts as clouds are formed by the interaction of warm air and cool air. The cool front animation depicts cumulonimbus clouds forming as a cold front moves into a region of warm air and forces the warm air to rise. In contrast, the warm front animation shows how warm air, moving over cold air, causes a progression of nimbostratus to cirrus clouds to form. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animations, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

89

Gastrointestinal tract radionuclide activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging: clinical significance in patients with fever of unknown origin  

SciTech Connect

To determine the frequency and clinical significance of indium-111 labeled leukocyte activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients with fever of unknown origin, we reviewed 312 leukocyte studies involving 271 patients. Radionuclide activity was noted in the bowel in 59 cases. Of these, only 27 were due to the infection or inflammatory disease that caused the patient's fever. The 32 false-positive results were due primarily to swallowed leukocytes or bleeding. In two cases, no explanation was found for the activity in the GI tract. We conclude that bowel activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte scans in patients with fever of unknown origin often does not correlate with the true cause of the patient's fever.

Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

1986-09-01

90

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

91

Radionuclide imaging with human polyclonal immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG) and bone scan in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and serum-negative polyarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background and aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic polyarthritic syndrome in which actively inflamed joints coexist with others being in remission. Compatible bone scan (BS) reveals joints with increased activity due to degenerative alterations, whilst scanning with human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) is capable to show which of the joints present active inflammation of the synovial membrane. The aim of the study is to investigate the utility of molecular imaging with HIG in patients suffering from RA. Patients and methods: Forty patients (9 males plus 31 females), suffering from painful polyarthritic syndrome, with a mean age 45.3±7 years and a duration of disease 18.3±4.2 months were enrolled in the study. Twenty-six of the patients were serum positive to RA factor, considered as suffering from RA, whilst fourteen of them were RA factor negatives and they were considered as patients with serum-negative polyarthritis. All patients were submitted to x-rays and ultrasound examination (US) in joints of interest, plus whole body BS with 99mTc-MDP and finally scan with 99mTc-HIG. Results: A total of 1680 joints have been evaluated. In 6 of the patients-two with serum negative RA (252 joints), radionuclide imaging with HIG was within normal limits, despite the fact that in compatible bone scan degenerative alterations have been mentioned in 30 joints. In all these patients disease was evaluated as inactive ("arthrotic changes"). In the remaining 34 patients-12 with serum negative RA (1428 joints), increased accumulation of HIG, concerning serum positive patients, has been mentioned to 163 joints ("arthritic changes"), whilst in the same group, BS revealed degenerative changes to 265 joints. Concerning serum negative patients, the respective results were 64 versus 190 joints. Increased uptake of HIG has been found in 189/226 swollen and painful joints (overall sensitivity according to clinical criteria 83.3%) and in 38 joints without any clinical evidence of inflammation, with clinical active inflammation presented after follow-up to 35 of them, yielding thus specificity at the level of 92%. Matched findings between these two methods have been mentioned to 185 out of 227 joints with an abnormal scan with HIG. Abnormal x-rays and US findings have been mentioned in 67 of the joints. Conclusions: According to the above mentioned, BS in RA reveals joints being actively inflamed or not, whilst radionuclide study with HIG is capable to distinguish actively inflamed joints, even in patients with serum negative RA, in a greater extent than anatomical imaging modalities. PMID:21607034

Gerasimou, G; Moralidis, E; Papanastasiou, E; Liaros, G; Aggelopoulou, T; Triantafyllidou, E; Lytras, N; Settas, L; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, A

2011-01-01

92

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

93

Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

2015-01-01

94

Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

2015-01-01

95

Synthesis of heterodimer radionuclide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography dual-modality imaging.  

PubMed

We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag(125)I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced (125)I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging. PMID:25584713

Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wang, Jiaqing; Chong, Yu; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yaoyao; Tang, Minghua; Li, Yonggang; Ge, Cuicui; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

2015-02-12

96

A prolonged warm and humid interval during marine isotope stage 13-15 as revealed by hydrographic reconstructions from the South China Sea (IMAGES MD972142)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of orbital-driven insolation, ice volume, and greenhouse gas effects have been proposed as major controlling factors in determining the timing and amplitude of Quaternary cyclic climate changes. However, it remains to be determined how the internal feedback in the tropical atmosphere and ocean and the coupling between the low- and high-latitude systems may have produced instability or non-cyclic changes in the long-term climate evolution. Such "abnormalities" have been reported increasingly from paleoclimatic reconstructions in East Asia and the western Pacific for a prolonged warm and humid climate interval during marine isotope stage (MIS) 13-15, ˜475-610 kya. To better address the climate abnormality in MIS 13-15 that has been observed in the western Pacific, here we report high-resolution late Quaternary planktic foraminifer faunal abundance and faunal sea surface temperature (SST) records from the International Marine Past Global Change (IMAGES) program core MD972142, which was retrieved from the southeastern South China Sea (SCS). Our results indicate that the faunal assemblages and SSTs in the southeastern SCS express a substantially prolonged, unusual warm interglacial-type climate condition in MIS 13-15. The climate was abnormally warm during the cold MIS 14. Our study also suggests a lowering of sea surface salinity (SSS) during MIS 13-15. While the western Pacific climate experienced a persistently warm and humid period at MIS 14, a "normal" cooling (˜2 °C) condition on the surface of the eastern equatorial Pacific existed concomitantly. While assessing possible interpretations of this "abnormal" climate interval in MIS 13-15, our study indicates that an enhanced interhemispheric and/or longitudinal temperature gradient across the basin-wide Pacific cannot be ruled out. A change in the sensitivity of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) that controlled temperature and precipitation patterns in East Asia and the western Pacific is probably also important or responsible for this climate abnormality. Based on our evidence, we suggest that the tropical dynamics would have played a role in the climate abnormality in MIS 13-15, through maintaining or even increasing the longitudinal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific, which may have intensified the low-latitude trade winds in the eastern component of the Walker Circulation that drove a longer duration and/or stronger intensity of the summer vs. winter EAM.

Yu, Pai-Sen; Chen, Min-Te

2011-04-01

97

Synthesis of heterodimer radionuclide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography dual-modality imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging.We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures, TEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07255c

Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wang, Jiaqing; Chong, Yu; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yaoyao; Tang, Minghua; Li, Yonggang; Ge, Cuicui; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

2015-02-01

98

100 years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

99

Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

1988-03-01

100

Evaluation of radionuclide bone-imaging for the early detection of sepsis in a model of equine neonatal osteomyelitis  

E-print Network

abscesses. It is well documented today, however, that regions of osteomyelitis can appear as areas of decreased uptake, or "cold spots". ' ' Most likely in the early phase of osteomyelitis, 11, 12, 14 acute inflammation of the bone and marrow causes... osteomyelitis. CHAPTER III INDIUM-111-OXINE LABELED LEUKOCYTE IMAGING Literature Review The localization of an abscess is often a difficult clinical problem. Since an abscess is a focal accumulation of leukocytes, a patient's leukocytes labeled with gamma...

Taylor, James Rutledge

1986-01-01

101

Assessment of progression of secondary bone lesions following cancer of the breast or prostate using serial radionuclide imaging.  

PubMed

A serial study on 32 patients with bone metastases following cancer of the breast or prostate was performed over three years. Up to ten sets of images (average of four) per patient were obtained during this period using 99Tcm methylene diphosphonate as the radiopharmaceutical. Ninety-three paired serial images of individual lesions were qualitatively assessed for change by three physicians in nuclear medicine and the results were compared with the quantitative results from computer analysis. The reproducibility of the quantitative approach was determined by the analysis of 20 paired lesions by three physicists. It was found that quantitative changes in uptake of less than 20% between images were generally not detected by the medical observers; a change of 41% had only a 95% probability of being identified as change by the physicians. Although much more reproducible in determining changes in individual lesions, the quantitative approach was found to be inferior to the qualitative assessment of overall change in the majority of cases which involve multiple lesions. The basic assumption that uptake varies proportionally with progression of the bone lesion is discussed an is considered in some instances to be untenable. The conclusion is drawn that the determination of progression from changes of uptake in longstanding lesions is uncertain and is subsidiary in importance to the detection of new lesions. PMID:7448495

Condon, B R; Buchanan, R; Garvie, N W; Ackery, D M; Fleming, J; Taylor, D; Hawkes, D; Goddard, B A

1981-01-01

102

Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Warm Springs Mountain Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

2008-01-01

103

Warm baryogenesis  

E-print Network

We show that a baryon asymmetry can be generated by dissipative effects during warm inflation via a supersymmetric two-stage mechanism, where the inflaton is coupled to heavy mediator fields that then decay into light species through B- and CP-violating interactions. In contrast with thermal GUT baryogenesis models, the temperature during inflation is always below the heavy mass threshold, simultaneously suppressing thermal and quantum corrections to the inflaton potential and the production of dangerous GUT relics. This naturally gives a small baryon asymmetry close to the observed value, although parametrically larger values may be diluted after inflation along with any gravitino overabundance. Furthermore, this process yields baryon isocurvature perturbations within the range of future experiments, making this an attractive and testable model of GUT baryogenesis.

Mar Bastero-Gil; Arjun Berera; Rudnei O. Ramos; Joao G. Rosa

2012-05-15

104

Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

Rosenthall, L.

1981-05-01

105

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

106

Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography.  

PubMed

Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient. PMID:25024857

Choi, Jay Chol

2014-01-01

107

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

108

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

109

Upper tropospheric warming intensifies sea surface warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the robust features in the future projections made by the state-of-the-art climate models is that the highest warming rate occurs in the upper-troposphere especially in the tropics. It has been suggested that more warming in the upper-troposphere than the lower-troposphere should exert a dampening effect on the sea surface warming associated with the negative lapse rate feedback. This study, however, demonstrates that the tropical upper-tropospheric warming (UTW) tends to trap more moisture in the lower troposphere and weaken the surface wind speed, both contributing to reduce the upward surface latent heat flux so as to trigger the initial sea surface warming. We refer to this as a `top-down' warming mechanism. The rise of tropospheric moisture together with the positive water vapor feedback enhance the downward longwave radiation to the surface and facilitate strengthening the initial sea surface warming. Meanwhile, the rise of sea surface temperature (SST) can feed back to intensify the initial UTW through the moist adiabatic adjustment, completing a positive UTW-SST warming feedback. The proposed `top-down' warming mechanism and the associated positive UTW-SST warming feedback together affect the surface global warming rate and also have important implications for understanding the past and future changes of precipitation, clouds and atmospheric circulations.

Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Lauer, Axel; Lee, June-Yi; Ding, Qinghua

2014-07-01

110

global warming's six americas  

E-print Network

global warming's six americas in september 2012 #12;Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012, G. & Howe, P. (2013) Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012. Yale University and George Mason and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11

Haller, Gary L.

111

Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... radioactive tracer (called a radionuclide) and a special camera to take pictures of your heart as it ... test is called “multi-gated” because a gamma camera takes pictures at specific times during each heartbeat. ...

112

Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery.Discussion   The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of

Filip Gemmel; Nicolas Dumarey; Christopher J. Palestro

2006-01-01

113

Quantitative radionuclide imaging for early determination of fate of mandibular bone grafts. [\\/sup 99m\\/TC-I-hydroxy-ethane-I-diphosphonate (HEDP); Beagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assessment of bone-graft healing in the maxillofacial region is generally limited to clinical evaluation, radiographs, and biopsy. A noninvasive quantitative radionuclide method has been developed in an animal model, and it seems to allow earlier prediction of graft failure or success than conventional methods. Using a localization technique to identify preselected regions of interestreproducibly in the graft and adjacent

R. G. Triplett; J. F. Kelly; K. G. Mendenhall; F. Vieras

1979-01-01

114

External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

1989-05-01

115

Global Warming Observations  

E-print Network

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions

Schofield, Jeremy

116

Global Warming Local Warning  

E-print Network

Global Warming Local Warning The Greens I European Free Alliance in the European Parliament Dr;2 Global Warming, Local Warning contents Foreword 3 Introduction 4 Section 1 ­ Climate Change 5 Section 2 Cornwall. Taken by Cherry Puddicombe. #12;Global Warming, Local Warning 3 foreword O ver the coming years

Williams, Paul

117

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND�t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

118

Global warming elucidated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many

Shen

1995-01-01

119

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

120

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

121

Radionuclides in US coals  

SciTech Connect

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

122

Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

Welch, M.J.

2012-02-16

123

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

124

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

125

Radionuclide Methods and Instrumentation for Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer mammography is a well-acknowledged technique for patient screening due to its high sensitivity. However, in addition to its low specificity the sensitivity of mammography is limited when imaging patients with dense breasts. Radionuclide imaging techniques, such as coincidence photon-based positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography or scintimammography, can play a role in assisting screening of such patients. Radionuclide techniques can also be useful in assessing treatment response of patients with breast cancer to therapy, and staging of patients to diagnose the disease extent. However, the performance of these imaging modalities is generally limited because of the poor spatial resolution and sensitivity of the commercially available multipurpose imaging systems. Here, we describe some of the dedicated imaging systems (positron emission mammography [PEM] and breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI]) that have been developed both commercially and in research laboratories for radionuclide imaging of breast cancer. Clinical studies with dedicated PEM scanners show improved sensitivity to detecting cancer in patients when using PEM in conjunction with additional imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging or mammography or both, as well as improved disease staging that can have an effect on surgical planning. High-resolution BSGI systems are more widely available commercially and several clinical studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancer in high-risk patients. Further development of dedicated PEM and BSGI systems is ongoing, promising further expansion of radionuclide imaging techniques in the realm of breast cancer detection and treatment. PMID:23725989

Surti, Suleman

2013-01-01

126

Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

Winzelberg, G.G.

1983-02-01

127

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19

128

Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken ; from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and ; Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally ; occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg ; contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-; 137 into inner egg

W. H. Rickard; H. A. Sweany

1975-01-01

129

Televised news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

130

Traceability in radionuclide metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of traceability is developed in the general context of national and international measurement systems. The distinction is drawn between measurement standards and specification standards, and reference is made to legal aspects of metrology. These themes are further developed in relation to ionizing radiation and radionuclide metrology, and present and future requirements for traceability are discussed with particular reference to the UK situation.

Christmas, P.

1984-06-01

131

Reconciling Warming Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.

Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

132

Is Earth Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part two of a seven-part National Academies series, Climate Change: Lines of Evidence. The video outlines, with the use of recent research and historical data, how we know that the Earth is warming.

National Research Council

133

Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

Mannlein, Sally

2001-01-01

134

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

135

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

136

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-print Network

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

137

An Analysis of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Warming is an active research issue that concerns science fields as well as economic, environmental and political concerns. In this paper, I summarized the observations of global warming and the causes and possible effects of the warming. Modeling studies are also discussed and disputed. While all the questions are not answered about global warming, scientists are striving towards the

John Cangialosi

138

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J. Prouty

2006-07-14

139

Long range global warming  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

140

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

141

Functional Radionuclide Imaging, In-Vitro Radioiodine Uptake Estimation and RT-PCR in the Evaluation of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression and Functionality in Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a common malignancy in females, which is considered as a systemic disease, whose treatment involves combined modality including systemic as well as local treatment. Recent studies have shown that breast cancer also expresses Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) gene, like in the thyroid, which is the factor responsible for the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, enabling radioiodine therapy of thyroid disorders. This study aimed to evaluate various radionuclide imaging characteristics, in vitro radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and evaluation of NIS expression by using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to explore sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression and iodine uptake in breast cancer and to explor e whether radioiodine can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Ways of differential regulation of NIS expression in breast cancer has also been explored. Female patients with palpable breast lump and histologically proven infiltrating duct carcinoma were taken up for the study, which included 50 females of mean age 49 years. (range: 23-73 years). The patients were categorized into different groups, depending on the type of the study performed. The uptake patterns in various imaging modalities were analyzed and compared with invitro and RT-PCR studies. 68 % of breast cancer cases showed (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake at the initial images. This finding could partly be due to tumor vascularity, which is usually higher compared to the normal tissues. The uptake in the delayed imaging could be related to that due to NIS in the breast. Use of perchlorate or stable iodine did not alter the pertechnetate uptake pattern in breast tumor. Good correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake in breast cancer was demonstrated. In vitro radioactive iodine uptake in the breast tumor was significantly higher than that in the normal breast tissue. Only 42 % of breast tumor samples studied using RT-PCR showed NIS expression. Correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake and NIS expression could not be well established. Further studies with higher dose of radioiodine and/or mechanisms of differentially blocking the thyroid are required to assess the feasibility of radioiodine therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24426705

Joseph, J K; Patel, R B; Damle, A A; Nair, N; Badwe, R A; Basu, S

2013-03-01

142

The management of painful bone metastases with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on the management of painful bone metastases, with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy, and introduces oligometastases and quantitative imaging evaluations for clinical trials. METHODS: The current use of radionuclides, alone and in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for painful bone metastases, is discussed, including toxicity, cost and overall outcomes. RESULTS: Radionuclide therapy is shown to be a useful and cost-effective means of alleviating bone pain in metastatic disease and may be more effective when combined with chemotherapy, bisphosphonates and radiation therapy. Early use of radionuclides in pain therapy may limit cancer progression by inhibiting oligometastases development. Thus, radionuclides can significantly decrease patient morbidity, prolong patient survival, and may decrease the occurrence of new bone metastases. CONCLUSION: Palliative pain therapy is critical for effectively managing bone metastases, with treatment options including analgesics, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy and radionuclides. Radionuclide therapy is underutilized. Recent studies using radionuclides with chemotherapy and bisphosponates, or using newer radionuclides or combinations of radionuclides and treatment paradigms (e.g., higher activities, repetitive or cyclic administration, chemo sensitization, chemo supplementation), are encouraging. A comprehensive, inter-disciplinary clinical approach is needed. Clinical collaborations will optimize radionuclide therapy for pain palliation and increase awareness of its benefits. PMID:17668645

Hillegonds, Darren J.; Franklin, Stephen; Shelton, David K.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vani

2007-01-01

143

Variability of thermocline hydrography for IMAGES Core MD05-2925 at the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the past 170 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent, mainly originates from the northward transport of the New Guinea Coastal Underwater from the Solomon Sea, has been provoked as a major source to fuel intense primary production in the eastern equatorial Pacific. However, little is known about the glacial-interglacial (G/IG) variability of thermocline hydrographic history in the Solomon Sea. Here we present stable isotopes and Mg/Ca paleotemperature records of surface-dwelling foraminiferas Globigerinoides sacculifer and thermocline-dwelling Pulleniatina obliqulioculata for Core MD05-2925 ( 9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E) at the southern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. P. obliqulioculata is considered to live at the upper thermocline layer, and therefore, its geochemistry proxies reflect hydrological variations of the thermocline through time. The oxygen isotope ratios of G. sacculifer and P. obliqulioculata fluctuated with an amplitude of 2 permil over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The carbon isotope ratios of P. obliqulioculata decreased by ~ 0.3 permil during the two deglaciations. The d13C of G. sacculifer decreased ~ 0.2 permil during the Termination I but increased ~ 0.4 permil during the Termination II. The Mg/Ca ratios of G.sacculifer and P. obliqulioculata fluctuate with a range of ~ 1.3 and ~ 1.1 mmol/mol, respectively, corresponding to a ~ 3 and ~ 5oC change in temperature. Spectral analyses of d13C and Mg/Ca-derived upper thermocline temperature (UTT) suggest a strong influence of Antarctic on the sub-surface hydrographic changes at this site. UTT reached its highest peak at the beginning of the IG periods, namely, MIS 5e and early Holocene, and decreased rapidly by 3 - 5 oC afterwards. Similar pattern has been reported recently in the Timor Sea at Terminations I and II by Xu et al. (2006 & 2008). The decoupling of surface and sub-surface water in temperature during the early IG periods can be explained by the dramatically thickening of mixed layer and deepening of the thermocline during the second half of the Terminations, assuming that the dwelling depth of P. obliqulioculata did not change much. The good similarity in d18Ow between surface and sub-surface species implies that the stratification is mainly caused by temperature gradient rather than salinity. However, the relationship between the southern high-latitude climate and the sub-surface waters in the WPWP during the G/IG needs further examination.

Lee, M.-Y.; Lo, L.; Lin, Y.-C.; Mii, H.-S.; Wei, K.-Y.

2009-04-01

144

Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming  

E-print Network

1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

Lovejoy, Shaun

145

Warm, sunny days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each change in the seasons brings a certain sense of excitement. Perhaps, after a long, cold winter, the most pleasant change of all is when the signs of Spring begin to appear: warm, windy weather; tiny shoots of green peeking through the melting snow; budding trees and bushes; the first robin; rainstorms and puddles; and a chance to go outside

Carolyn Buhai Haas

1983-01-01

146

Warm Springs Creek, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

147

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

148

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

. In case the effect of anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases, aerosols) on the radiative balance and ocean surface temperature show a warming of 0.85°C from 1880 to 2012 · The atmospheric concentrations with a complete forcing which includes changes in greenhouse gases, aerosols, observed volcanic eruptions

Klein, David

149

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Windows to the Universe/NBC Learn

150

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University; )

2002-10-01

151

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

152

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of three-hundred and fifty event and sub-event (~3 mm resolution) ground level precipitation samples were collected near West Lafayette, IN. They included most of the significant precipitation events occurring between April 18, 1992 and August 31, 1993. The cosmogenic radionuclide ( ^7Be(t_{1/2} = 53 d), ^{10}Be(t_{1/2} = 1.5 My), and ^{36}Cl(t_ {1/2} = 0.3 My)), anion (Cl ^-, NO_3^-, SO_4 ^{2-}), and cation (Na ^+, K^+, Mg^{2+}, and Ca^{2+}) concentrations were measured in selected samples. Accelerator mass spectrometry was used to determine the ^{10 }Be and ^{36}Cl content. We used these data along with other standard meteorological data bases to investigate relationships between the cosmogenic radionuclides in mid-latitude wet deposition and storm type, air mass history, and season. Understanding the circumstances that lead to local variations in the ratio of ^{10}Be to ^{36}Cl should aid other investigators in unlocking information stored in form of this ratio in the ice sheets, and thereby gain a better understanding of paleoclimates. In addition, the source functions for these radionuclides and how they vary with differing meteorological conditions are needed for ground water (^{36}Cl) and erosion rate (^{10}Be) studies. A departure from the ^{10}Be/^{36}Cl ratio of 40 predicted by Lal et al. 1967 is seen. Using a new semiempirical cross section formula, we estimated the production ratio to be ~9. Our mean ^{10}Be/^ {36}Cl ratio is 11.4 and typically varies from 4 to 40. We see a higher mean ^ {10}Be/^{36}Cl ratio in stratiform precipitation (14), and a lower mean ratio in convective precipitation (9.7). The estimated ^{10}Be flux from re-suspended soil is 10% of the total ^{10 }Be flux.

Knies, David L.

153

Accelerator Production of Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many radioactive isotopes in use today are found in nature, many more are artificially produced by irradiating target materials with nuclear particles. Two different technologies can provide the energetic particles needed: nuclear reactors, which produce a flux of neutrons, and particle accelerators, which produce a flux of charged particles. This chapter will deal with the important aspects of the production of radionuclides with accelerators, along with some details on their applications, commercially-available accelerator systems used for this purpose, and the size of the equipment business.

Schlyer, David J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

2012-06-01

154

-induced continental warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

2014-11-01

155

[Use of gold radionuclide markers implanted into the prostate for image-guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer: side effects caused by the marker implantation].  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to introduce the use of the gold radiopaque markers implanted into the prostate for image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer patients and to present the side effects caused by the marker implantation. Between November 2011 and November 2013, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers (Best Medical International, Springfield, VA, USA, 1.0 mm x 3.0 mm) were implanted transperineally into the prostate of 60 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Local anaesthesia was performed in all patients. A week after the procedure the patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nycturia, rectal bleeding, haematuria, haematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. The pain caused by the intervention was scored on a 1-10 scale, where 1 was a very weak and 10 was an unbearable pain. Ten days after the implantation a treatment planning CT was performed and subsequently patients started intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) within one week. During the treatments markers were used for daily verification and correction of patient's setup. No patients experienced fever or infection. Based on the questionnaires nobody experienced dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 60 patients studied, five (8 %) had haematospermia, nine (15 %) haematuria, which lasted in average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score on 1-10 scale was 4.2 (range: 0-9). After the marker implantation 18 patients (30%) reported less, 10 patients (17%) more, and 27 patients (45%) equal amount of pain compared to biopsy. Five patients, who had a biopsy performed under general anaesthesia, did not answer this question. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. The gold marker implantation implemented for image-guided radiotherapy was well tolerated under a local anaesthesia. The complications were limited, rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. After implantation, the patients did not require analgesics. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. PMID:25260082

Kliton, Jorgo; Ágoston, Péter; Szabó, Zoltán; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

2014-09-01

156

Climate science: Pacemakers of warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first decades of the twentieth century, the Earth warmed rapidly. A coral-based climate proxy record of westerly winds over the equatorial Pacific suggests that wind strength and warming rate were linked, as they are today.

Brönnimann, Stefan

2015-02-01

157

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT?CT and PET?CT scanners. PMID:18697529

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

2008-01-01

158

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15

159

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

E-print Network

Forecasting phenology under global warming Ine´s Iba´n~ez1,*, Richard B. Primack2, Abraham J in phenology. Keywords: climate change; East Asia, global warming; growing season, hierarchical Bayes; plant is shifting, and these shifts have been linked to recent global warming (Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al

Silander Jr., John A.

161

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part interactive feature illustrates principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human factors. In the first part, students explore climate at Mono Lake in California. They will estimate the temperature for a particular time period by computing the surface energy in the area, and use the model to estimate temperature for any month, in modern and ice age climates, and to predict future temperatures. In the second part, they use data on fossil fuel emissions, gross domestic product, energy types, land use, and other gas emissions to model temperature changes in different world cities for a selected month and year. The exercise includes assessment materials for teachers and tutorials on global warming.

162

Global Warming Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn firsthand how society and environment might be impacted by global warming and how to help people make better decisions regarding all the complicated issues surrounding climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Students will take on the role of scientist, business leader, or policy maker and be part of a climate action team, which will make some of the same discoveries and decisions that are made in the “real world” every day.

2007-01-01

163

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

164

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

165

Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning  

SciTech Connect

Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

1980-10-01

166

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

167

The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Oncology, Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G1Z2 (Canada)

2008-08-11

168

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

169

Natural warm inflation  

SciTech Connect

We derive the requirements that a generic axion-like field has to satisfy in order to play the role of the inflaton field in the warm inflation scenario. Compared to the parameter space in ordinary Natural Inflation models, we find that the parameter space in our model is enlarged. In particular, we avoid the problem of having an axion decay constant f that relates to the Planck scale, which is instead present in the ordinary Natural Inflation models; in fact, our model can easily accommodate values of the axion decay constant that lie well below the Planck scale.

Visinelli, Luca, E-mail: u0583682@utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

2011-09-01

170

Radionuclide methods to evaluate percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide angiocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging with exercise are valuable methods to assess patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Successful angioplasty results in improvement in ventricular systolic and diastolic function and regional perfusion. Complications of angioplasty, such as periprocedural infarction and side branch occlusion, can be documented noninvasively. Radionuclide methods have also been demonstrated to be of prognostic value in predicting coronary artery restenosis and recurrent cardiac symptoms. However, to avoid underestimating the success of coronary revascularization, studies must be scheduled long enough following angioplasty to allow transient abnormalities associated with artery dilation to resolve. 37 references.

DePuey, E.G. (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1991-04-01

171

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

172

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree  

SciTech Connect

The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

1981-08-01

173

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

J. Houseworth

2004-09-22

174

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

175

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

2007-11-15

176

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

177

Is detection of additional lesions in post-peptide receptor radionuclide therapy scans with respect to diagnostic imaging only due to different affinity of ligands?: a report of discordance between diagnostic and posttherapy imaging using the same ligand.  

PubMed

It is known that different affinity profiles for somatostatin receptor subtypes among different radiopharmaceuticals result in different organ and tumor uptakes and even in different sensitivities in the detection of lesions. Such differences are considered main factors explaining cases of detecting additional lesions in posttherapy scans with respect to diagnostic imaging. We show a posttherapy scan revealing more lesions--namely, a diffuse bone involvement with many small focal bony uptake areas--than the diagnostic scan using the same radiopharmaceutical (111In-pentetreotide) in a 71-year-old man with metastases from a well-differentiated ileal neuroendocrine tumor. PMID:22785522

Minutoli, Fabio; Herberg, Astrid; Sindoni, Alessandro; Cardile, Davide; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Baldari, Sergio

2012-08-01

178

Warm waters, bleached corals  

SciTech Connect

Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse warming. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.

Roberts, L.

1990-10-12

179

Global Warming FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research is dedicated to understanding the atmosphereâ??the air around usâ??and the interconnected processes that make up the Earth system, from the ocean floor to the Sun's core. The National Center for Atmospheric Research and the UCAR Office of Programs provide research, observing and computing facilities, and a variety of services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. Here, they have helpfully provided a series of frequently asked questions about Climate Change. Each question provides a clear and concise answer and provides links to further information. In addition, the site includes a special inset on Global Warming, a "Ask a Scientist" section, and links at the bottom of the page to learn more.

180

Radionuclide Migration Project 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report discusses the hydrogeologic settings and histories of studies associated with the Cheshire (U20n), Cambric (U5e), Nash (UE2ce), Bilby (U3cn), Bourbon (U7n), and Faultless (UC1) Events. Radionuclide and some chemical data are presented for water samples from cavity or chimney wells associated with the Cheshire, Cambric, and Bilby Events, and from satellite wells at the Cambric, Nash, Bibly, Bourbon, and Faultless Event sites. The report also gives the results of studies of specific sampling or analytical methodologies. These studies demonstrated that the apparent migration of (155)Eu is an artfact of spectrometric misidentification of gamma- and X-ray peaks from other constituents. A potential problem with atmospheric contamination of samples collected with evacuated thief samples was also identified. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to some of the Cheshire cavity samples collected, and preliminary results suggest that substantial amounts of activity may be associated with colloidal particles in the size range of 0.006 to 0.45 (MU)m. A study has begun of the recharge of effluent water from RNM-25 (Cambric satellite well) into the desert floor as a result of nine years of continuous pumping. This report gives the initial results of unsaturated zone studies showing the propagation of moisture and tritium fronts through the shallow soil. Geochemical modeling of the behavior of ruthenium and technetium was carried out, with particular emphasis on the identification of ionic species that would be potentially mobile under NTS ground-water conditions. The report compares the results with observations of ruthenium migration to the Cambric satellite well.

Buddemeier, R. W.; Isherwood, D.

1985-04-01

181

Interacting warm dark matter  

SciTech Connect

We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear ??{sub m}{sup ?}?{sub e}{sup ?} form, where ?{sub m} and ?{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters ? and ? are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (?,?,?) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ?CDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (?,?,?) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo, E-mail: norman.cruz@usach.cl, E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl, E-mail: david.zambrano@gmail.com, E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx [Departamento de Física, DCI, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, CP. 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico)

2013-05-01

182

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

183

Space Weather and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will give discussions of the broad topic of Space Weather, and of Global Warming (these have some associations, as well as differences). Both have the Sun as the major energy source; short-term differences in solar activity are the sources of space weather (which affects the entire solar system, not just our Earth), whereas global warming is a longer-term

George Carruthers

2009-01-01

184

Is the Arctic Ocean warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent high-quality hydrographic measurements in the Arctic Ocean have revealed a warming of up to 1 K of the Atlantic Layer when compared with Russian climatologies of the 1940s to 1970s. About half of this warming can be attributed to the different methods by which the two data sets were obtained: the climatologies are based on discrete bottle data in

Kerstin Grotefendt; Kai Logemann; Detlef Quadfasel; Stephanie Ronski

1998-01-01

185

Pleistocene Reindeer and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns for the future of reindeer and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus )i nthe far north under conditions of global warming focus on the increased energetic and predation costs associated with warmer winters and on vegetation change and increased insect harassment caused by warmer summers. At the Grotte XVI archaeological site (Dordogne, southwestern France), episodes of summer warming between about

DONALD K. GRAYSON; FRANCOISE DELPECH

2005-01-01

186

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

187

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

188

Radionuclide injury to the lung  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references.

Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

1984-04-01

189

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

190

Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references.

Beller, G.A.

1984-08-01

191

Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

2002-06-01

192

Images  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Images Images:  Cancer Biology Image: Cell with DNA 72 DPI | 300 DPIDrawing depicting DNA molecule unwinding from a chromosome inside the nucleus of a cell. NHGRI >> View All Cancer Pathology/Imaging Image: Female

193

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

194

SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, New York Global Warming Perspectives An Interdisciplinary Lecture Series on Global Warming Stony Brook University 12 Carbondioxidemixingratio,ppm 2000195019001850180017501700 Law Dome (Antarctica) Siple (Antarctica) Mauna Loa (Hawaii) Law

Schwartz, Stephen E.

195

Recent warming of lake Kivu.  

PubMed

Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

2014-01-01

196

Recent Warming of Lake Kivu  

PubMed Central

Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

2014-01-01

197

How the West Was Warmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

198

Warming up for Planck  

SciTech Connect

The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. Warm inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.

Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rosa, João G., E-mail: s.bartrum@sms.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and I3N, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

2013-06-01

199

Explaining Warm Coronal Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warn (- 1 INK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. Both the excess densities and relatively long lifetimes of the loops can be explained with bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to very high temperatures. Since neighboring strands are at different stages of cooling, the composite loop bundle is multi-thermal, with the distribution of temperatures depending on the details of the "nanoflare storm." Emission hotter than 2 MK is predicted, but it is not clear that such emission is always observed. We consider two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense warm loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct plasma heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We present numerical hydro simulations of both of these possibilities and explore the observational consequences, including the production of hard X-ray emission and absorption by cool material in the corona.

Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Patsourakos, Spiros

2008-01-01

200

Basic Information about the Radionuclides Rule  

MedlinePLUS

... of Air and Radiation has additional information about radioactivity and specific types of radionuclides. Understanding Radiation Radionuclides ... risk of getting cancer. Beta Particle and Photon Radioactivity 4 mrem/year (look-up table) (1976) May ...

201

The investigation of renal disease using radionuclides  

PubMed Central

The use of radioactive labels for tracers is an important part of the investigation of renal disease. These techniques seldom replace, but often complement radiographic techniques. Generally, the radionuclide methods provide functional and dynamic information in a non-invasive, non-traumatic type of examination. The examinations usually are relatively simple to perform and carry a very low risk of untoward reaction. The past decade has seen significant advances in radiopharmaceutical design and instrumentation. It is expected that the next decade will produce an even greater advance in this field. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602129

Atkins, Harold L.; Freeman, Leonard M.

1973-01-01

202

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

203

Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†  

PubMed Central

Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

Dixit, Manish

2013-01-01

204

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

205

TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

206

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

207

International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) held its most recent series of meetings during 5 to 9 June 1989 in Braunschweig, FRG, at the invitation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The meeting began with a personal welcome from Professor D. Kind, President of PTB.

Christmas, P.

1989-12-01

208

RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

209

Soil Microbes and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, discover how warmer winters in Alaska may cause soil microbes to release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2009-02-26

210

Warming of the World Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantify the interannual-to-decadal variability of the heat content (mean temperature) of the world ocean from the surface through 3000-meter depth for the period 1948 to 1998. The heat content of the world ocean increased by ~2 × 1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s, representing a volume mean warming of 0.06°C. This corresponds to a warming rate of 0.3

Sydney Levitus; John I. Antonov; Timothy P. Boyer; Cathy Stephens

2000-01-01

211

The heated debate. [Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming

Balling; R. C. Jr

1992-01-01

212

Warm-core rings, streamers and their role on the fishing ground formation around Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy-shedding areas of the Kuroshio, the Oyashio and the Tsushima-Tsugaru Warm Currents are localized near the ridges of the stationary anticyclonic loop path of these ocean currents. Warm or cold streamers are entrained in the periphery of the warm-core ring, which form excellent fishing grounds for pelagic fish, such as skipjack, mackerel, flying squid and saury. Appearance and movement of the fishing grounds associated with the warm-core rings and streamers are discussed, using satellite thermal images and fish catch data.

Sugimoto, Takashige; Tameishi, Hideo

1992-03-01

213

Paving the way to personalized medicine: production of some theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a relatively novel paradigm that involves specific individual radionuclides or radionuclide pairs that have emissions that allow pre-therapy low-dose imaging plus higher-dose therapy in the same patient. We have made an attempt to sort out and organize a number of such theragnostic radionuclides and radionuclide pairs that may potentially bring us closer to the age-long dream of personalized medicine for performing tailored low-dose molecular imaging (SPECT/CT or PET/CT) to provide the necessary pre-therapy information on biodistribution, dosimetry, the limiting or critical organ or tissue, and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), etc. If the imaging results then warrant it, it would be possible to perform higher-dose targeted molecular therapy in the same patient with the same radiopharmaceutical. A major problem that remains yet to be fully resolved is the lack of availability, in sufficient quantities, of a majority of the best candidate theragnostic radionuclides in a no-carrier-added (NCA) form. A brief description of the recently developed new or modified methods at BNL for the production of four theragnostic radionuclides, whose nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics seem to show great promise for personalized cancer therapy are described.

Srivastava S. C.

2011-06-06

214

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

215

Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

2007-01-01

216

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.  

E-print Network

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

Rathbun, Julie A.

217

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-print Network

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

218

Active Movement Warm-Up Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

2011-01-01

219

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

Global warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world, putting millions of people at risk from floods, droughts and lack of drinking water. It is a complex issue full of uncertainties and controversies. This article discusses amongst cause of global warming and consequences of global warming on the environment. Keywords:Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Global environment, Atmosphere.

Pharm Res; Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt; Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt; Corresponding Ranjana Bhatt

220

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

William Lau

221

The Great Warming Brian Fagan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

Fagan, B. M.

2010-12-01

222

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

223

Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a  

E-print Network

Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a Post Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 3 Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World Worry About Global Warming.. 14 Everybody Loses on Fuel Efficiency

224

Warming early Earth and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to warm early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to warm the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars warm with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface warming. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have warmed the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.

Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-05-23

225

Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.  

PubMed

The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

Izrael, Yury A

2007-11-01

226

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

227

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

228

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01

229

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01

230

Global Warming Materials for Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Materials available at this site include a set of educational toolkits about ecosystems, a global warming map, a renewable energy teaching guide, and two reports. Each of the toolkits focuses on a specific ecosystem service, such as water purification or forest carbon storage. The map (and accompanying curriculum guide) shows where the fingerprints and harbingers of global warming have occurred in recent years. The teaching guide includes hands-on activities, games, action projects, and a resource guide. The reports focus on climate change impacts in California and in the Gulf Coast region. Corresponding teaching guides consist of multiple activities that are closely tied to and build upon the reports.

231

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

232

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

233

[Passive nighttime warming (PNW) system, its design and warming effect].  

PubMed

Based on the technique of passive nighttime warming (PNW), a convenient and energy-saving PNW facility was designed for a rice-wheat cropping system in Danyang, Jiangsu Province. The facility could guarantee 15.75 m2 effective sampling area, with a homogeneous amplitude of increased temperature, and making the nighttime canopy temperature during whole rice growth season increased averagely by 1.1 degrees C and the nighttime canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during whole winter wheat growth period increased averagely by 1.3 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C, respectively. During the operation period of the facility, the variation trends of the canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during the whole growth periods of rice and winter wheat in the warming plots were similar to those of the control. Though the facility slightly decreased the soil moisture content during winter wheat growth period, wheat growth was less impacted. The application of this facility in our main production areas of rice and winter wheat showed that the facility could advance the initial blossoming stages of rice and winter wheat averagely by 3 d and 5 d, respectively. In despite of the discrepancy in the warming effect among different regions and seasons, this energy-saving facility was reliable for the field research on crop responses to climate warming, when the homogeneity of increased temperature, the effective area, and the effects on crop growth period were taken into comprehensive consideration. PMID:21265150

Chen, Jin; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Yun-lu; Dong, Wen-jun; Zhang, Wei-jian

2010-09-01

234

Chelators for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals†  

PubMed Central

The development of chelating agents for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals has been a highly active and important area of study in recent years. The rapid evolution of chelators has resulted in highly specific copper chelators that can be readily conjugated to biomolecules and efficiently radiolabeled to form stable complexes in vivo. Chelators are not only designed for conjugation to monovalent biomolecules but also for incorporation into multivalent targeting ligands such as theranostic nanoparticles. These advancements have strengthened the role of copper radionuclides in the fields of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. This review emphasizes developments of new copper chelators that have most greatly advanced the field of copper-based radiopharmaceuticals over the past 5 years. PMID:24347474

Cai, Zhengxin; Anderson, Carolyn J.

2014-01-01

235

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

236

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

237

Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images are very important in the remainder of this book. They may be formed by the eye, a camera, an xray machine, a nuclear\\u000a medicine camera, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. The concepts developed in Chapter 11 can be used to understand\\u000a and describe image quality. The same concepts are also used to reconstruct computed tomographic or magnetic resonance slice

Russell K. Hobbie; Bradley J. Roth

238

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13

239

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

240

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

241

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

242

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

1991-01-01

243

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

Berg, T.F.

1991-09-01

244

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and

Norman L

2009-01-01

245

3, 13551366, 2006 Warming mobilises  

E-print Network

to warming (Melillo et al., 2002), any feedback between climate change and soil carbon would be minor climate change because soils store 2­3 times the amount of atmospheric carbon. Of particular controversy of the carbon cycle on15 climate change are driven equally by young and old soil organic carbon. 1 Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

246

Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by

Yury Barkin

2010-01-01

247

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the school's traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched green

Christopher Blough

2009-11-01

248

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

249

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

SciTech Connect

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: (a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; (b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and (c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: (a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; (b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and (c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: (a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; (b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and (c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, X.; Wai, C.M.; Fisher, D.R.

2000-06-13

250

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

251

Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale warming, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that warming and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface warming. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of warming will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of warming, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.

Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.

2012-07-01

252

Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Now research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

Jonko, Alexandra K.

2015-02-01

253

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 ...892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A radionuclide test pattern phantom is a device that consists of an...

2010-04-01

254

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2014-04-01

256

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2010-04-01

257

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2011-04-01

258

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2012-04-01

259

Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

1974-01-01

260

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

261

Global warming debates: the reading course  

E-print Network

Global warming debates: the reading course Spring 2014 Instructors: Peter Huybers and Eli Tziperman of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

Huybers, Peter

262

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

263

Global warming and its astro-causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the problem of global warming from the viewpoint of wholeness. That is, the problem of global warming will be looked at in a comprehensive study considering several aspects of the cosmos, the Earth, and the phenomenon of life. With such a broad understanding in mind, first analyzes both the disadvantageous and advantageous aspects of the current global warming.

Zhenqiu Ren; Yi Lin

2001-01-01

264

GLOBAL WARMING IS GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global air temperature increase is an inadequate measure of global warming, which rather should be considered in terms of energy. The ongoing global warming means that heat has been accumulating since 1880, in air, ground, and water. Before explaining this warming by external heat sources the net heat emissions on Earth must be considered. Such emissions, from e.g. the

Bo Nordell; Bruno Gervet

2008-01-01

265

The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and  

E-print Network

The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

Reed, Christopher A.

266

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

267

Radionuclide angiocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disorders  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide angiocardiography provides a noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and blood flow through the heart and lungs. During the past three years, this procedure has been used at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of 343 patients with congenital heart disorders. A review of this experience shows tat the resulting data were frequently useful in the surgical management of these patients. In patients with abnormal blood flow patterns, noninvasive imaging of blood flow was useful before and after operative correction. Radionuclide measurements of left-to-right intracardiac shunts were sufficiently accurate for use in the initial evaluation of patients with murmurs and to document the absence of shunt after operative closure of intracardiac septal defects. Moreover, measurements of right-to-left cardiac shunts were of benefit in the management of children with cyanotic heart disease. Measurements of left ventricular function obtained during rest and exercise were most useful in patients with origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and in patients with congenital valvular insufficiency. This experience demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides important measurements of central hemodynamics and cardiac function which are useful in the management of patients with congenital heart disorders.

Jones, R.H.; Austin, E.H.; Peter, C.A.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

1981-06-01

268

Multidecadal warming of Antarctic waters.  

PubMed

Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. Warming at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW warming are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461

Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru

2014-12-01

269

Lagrangian description of warm plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

Kim, H.

1970-01-01

270

Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

2012-01-01

271

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, numerous conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global warming science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).

MacCracken, Michael C.

2004-07-01

272

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

273

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

274

Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy performed on the mastectomized chest wall  

SciTech Connect

Lymphatic flow in the anterior chest wall of 64 patients who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma was studies on images of lymphoscintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-rhenium colloid. Scintigraphic images taken 4 hours after the intradermal injection of radionuclides along both sides of the surgical wound frequently made it possible to visualize the contralateral axillary lymph nodes. In particular, among 20 patients with local chest wall recurrence after the mastectomy, the contralateral axillary nodes were demonstrated in 13. Stimulated lymphatic flow seems to be manifested around the site of local recurrence over the chest wall. On the precise analysis of lymphographic images, faint lymphatic drainages were occasionally identified up to the contralateral axillary lymph nodes at various levels of the anterior chest wall. It is essential that the radiation field be made large towards the area including the downstream of the lymphatic flow. Additionally, accumulation of radionuclides in the lymph nodes appeared to be slowly impaired by the postoperative irradiation after the completion of radiotherapy.

Matsubara, S.; Umehara, I.; Shibuya, H.; Okuyama, T.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ebuchi, M.

1986-09-15

275

Pelvic radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

A pelvic radionuclide angiogram (PRAG) was obtained in addition to Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell scans in 18 studies (16 patients) of gastrointestinal bleeding. A bleeding focus adjacent to the bladder was found in the four studies in which the bladder region was seen on the PRAG; no perivesicular bleeding site was found in the 14 studies with a normal PRAG. It is concluded that the PRAG can be useful in locating pelvic bleeding sites, which can be missed on delayed images because of the superimposed bladder, and may be a useful addition to Tc-99m RBC studies for gastrointestinal bleeding.

Wahl, R.L.; Lee, M.E.

1984-06-01

276

Pelvic radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

A pelvic radionuclide angiogram (PRAG) was obtained in addition to Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell scans in 18 studies (16 patients) of gastrointestinal bleeding. A bleeding focus adjacent to the bladder was found in the four studies in which the bladder region was seen on the PRAG; no perivesicular bleeding site was found in the 14 studies with a normal PRAG. It is concluded that the PRAG can be useful in locating pelvic bleeding sites, which can be missed on delayed images because of the superimposed bladder, and may be a useful addition to Tc-99m RBC studies for gastrointestingal bleeding.

Wahl, R.; Lee, M.E.

1984-06-01

277

Radionuclide studies of bone metabolism: Do bone uptake and bone plasma clearance provide equivalent measurements of bone turnover?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative radionuclide imaging using 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (18F-PET) or 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scans provides a novel tool for studying regional and whole skeleton bone turnover that complements the information provided by biochemical markers. Radionuclide bone scans can be quantified by measuring either tracer uptake or, if blood sampling is performed, bone plasma clearance. This study examines whether these

Glen M. Blake; Musib Siddique; Michelle L. Frost; Amelia E. B. Moore; Ignac Fogelman

2011-01-01

278

Radionuclides in surface and groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

Campbell, Kate M.

2009-01-01

279

Warm Spray Forming of Ti-6Al-4V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm spray (WS) is a modification of high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, in which the temperature of the supersonic gas flow generated by the combustion of kerosene and oxygen is controlled by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. The inert gas is injected into the mixing chamber placed between the combustion chamber and the powder feed ports, thus the temperature of the propellant gas can be controlled from ~700 to 2,000 K. Since WS allows for higher particle temperatures in comparison to cold spray, warm sprayed particles are more softened upon impact, thus resulting in greater deformation facilitating the formation of shear instability for bonding. Recently, the combustion pressure of WS has been increased from 1 (low-pressure warm spray) to 4 MPa (high-pressure warm spray) in order to increase the velocity of sprayed particles. Effects of spray parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties, and splats formation of Ti-6Al-4V were systematically studied. Obtained coatings were examined by analyzing the coating cross-section images, microhardness as well as oxygen content. In addition, flattening ratio of splats was calculated as a function of nitrogen flow rate. It was found that the increased particle velocity caused by the increased combustion pressure had significant beneficial effects in terms of improving density and controlling the oxygen level in the sprayed Ti-6Al-4V coatings.

Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

2014-01-01

280

Prospective study of left ventricular function using radionuclide scans in patients receiving mitoxantrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective Phase II study to evaluate the effects of mitoxantrone on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been carried out in patients treated with 12 mg\\/m2 every three weeks. Gated radionuclide cardiac blood pool imaging with assessment of LVEF and wall motion prior to and during graded exercise was performed before the first and every other mitoxantrone course. Ten

Matti S. Aapro; David S. Alberts; James M. Woolfenden; Cindy Mackel

1983-01-01

281

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

282

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

283

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

1988-01-01

284

Images  

Cancer.gov

Images can be a powerful and direct means of communicating ideas and feelings about an organization and can create a personal connection with an audience. Imagery used for the main NCI website has been selected to give a consistent look throughout the site. Here are some recommended attributes for NCI website imagery.

285

Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references.

Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

1988-10-01

286

RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN TUFF UNDER UNSATURATED CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated tuffaceous material is essential in assessing the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Migration experiments with conservative and chemically reactive non-radioactive tracers have been performed at the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone underground facility, SE of Yucca Mountain, and with radionuclides in columns of crushed tuff at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this paper, complementary radionuclide migration experiments, performed under unsaturated conditions in a small block of tuff excavated from Busted Butte, are described.

T.T. Vandergraaf

2000-10-25

287

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

288

I'm Warm Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to make students aware of just how much clean fresh water is wasted while waiting for the water to become warm in our spigots. They will make predictions of the amount of time and the quantity of water wasted, collect data for the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and calculate the class average of time and water wasted per sink. They are then introduced to the concept of projections, based on the population of the city, state, and country per day, month, and year, construct a graph showing these projections, and discuss possible solutions.

Carylon Weldon

289

Warm/cold cloud processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting warm cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A numerical feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.

Bowdle, D. A.

1979-01-01

290

Trends in hemispheric warm and cold anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of temperature anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Linear trends in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but warming occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, trends also were consistently positive, with warm anomalies having much larger warming rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent trend has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global warming, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate trends reliably, cooling was evident in NH warm and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to warm.

Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.

2014-12-01

291

Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.  

PubMed

A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides. PMID:23982608

Alrefae, Tareq

2013-10-01

292

System and method for assaying a radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

2014-12-23

293

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

294

Warm Oceans Raise Land Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2004, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were the third warmest in the past 125 years, land surface temperatures were the fourth warmest, and globaly averaged temperatures likewise ranked fourth highest [Levinson, 2005]. This article presents evidence that SSTs contributed significantly to the widespread terrestrial and global tropospheric warmth. Every ocean witnessed warm sea surface conditions in 2004, with only the middle latitudes of the Southern Ocean experiencing below average values (Figure 1, top). Much of this warmth was concentrated north of 30°S and included a weak El Niño event in the tropical central Pacific. Terrestrial warmth in 2004 was seen at all locations between 45°N and 45°S. The greatest departures from average temperatures occurred over interior Eurasia and western North America, which experienced increases of up to 2°C (Figure 1, middle). Consistent with the considerable warmth of ocean and land surfaces, much of the global troposphere was also warm in 2004. The thermal expansion of the tropospheric column, whose top is roughly at the 200-milli-bar pressure surface, is demonstrated by the increase in elevation of that surface world-wide (Figure 1, bottom).

Hoerling, Martin P.; Xu, TaiYi; Bates, Gary; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bhaskar

2006-05-01

295

Warm gas TVC design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

296

Dynamics of warm-core mesoscale eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear model of a warm-core ring is presented here. The model treats the warm core ring as a confined lens of fluid rotating\\u000a on anf plane. A simple polynomial expansion of the hydrodynamic field variables about the center of mass of the lens provides the\\u000a basis for an exact reduction of the hydrodynamic equations. Observations from two warm-core rings

Juping Liu; A. D. Kirwan

1990-01-01

297

Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

1981-04-01

298

Ecological stability in response to warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under warming remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in warmed microcosms were explained in terms of warming-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that warming stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated warming effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that warming stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, warming caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: warming should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.

Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.

2014-03-01

299

Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg11)CCMSH (188Re-[Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]-?-MSH3-13), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11)]-?-MSH3-13) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

300

Radionuclides in an underground environment  

SciTech Connect

In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-08-01

301

Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis  

SciTech Connect

Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

1984-01-01

302

Reports from a Warming Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Never afraid to take on controversial topics, American RadioWorks has recently released this special report on the early signs of climate change. For this particular report, they brought together a team of eleven young reporters who were led by noted environmental journalist Sandy Tolan. Their assignment was to identify different places around the world where global warming was making changes to both â??life and landscapeâ?. Visitors to the site can listen to the entire radio documentary, or they can also read about some of the individual locations profiled in this presentation. Some of these areas include the fabled snows of Kilimanjaro, the island of Tuvalu in the Pacific Ocean, and the town of Churchill in Upper Manitoba, which has been known as â??The Polar Bear Capital of the Worldâ? for decades.

2005-01-01

303

Warm gas in protoplanetary disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a study of warm CO, [OI] and H2 gas coming from the disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These various gas tracers are each a proxy for a different radial and vertical region of the PP disk surface. Our sample consists of disks whose shape (based on modeling of the the disk dust emission) can be divided into flaring and self-shadowed (flat). We find [1] evidence for the vertical decoupling of gas and dust in one disks (Chapter 2); [2] That disk geometry has a large influence on the spatial distribution and excitation mechanism of the CO emission (chapters 3,4); [3] Near-IR H 2 emission around 2 (out of 14) HAEBE stars, probably originating from large (±50AU) radii of the disk (chapter 5). In chapter 6 we investigate the trends between CO emission and disk geometry as noted in Chapter 3 and 4.

van der Plas, Gerrit

2010-12-01

304

Modern Physics and Warm Friendship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of warm friendship...

Yang, Chen Ning

2013-05-01

305

Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

2010-01-01

306

Anomalous radionuclide content of three altered igneous dikes at Little Rock, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray spectroscopy shows anomalous radionuclide contents for two altered alkalic dikes in Little Rock, Arkansas, while a third dike shows normal values. These Cretaceous dikes, locally termed phonolites, are pervasively altered to kaolinite. Samples from the contacts of the two anomalous dikes with the Big Fork Chert show average uranium values of 40 ppm and average thorium values of 22.7 ppm. Samples from the center of the dikes have average values of 30.3 ppm U and 23.1 ppm Th. A third altered dike has average radionuclide values of 11.6 ppm U and 12.8 ppm Th. Leaching experiments with 1N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] removed only 40% of the uranium while H[sub 2]O removed 12%. The anomalous radionuclide values are due to phases high in uranium located in the volcanic glasses and possible rare earth minerals of the original phonolite. Alteration of the dikes occurred during the Tertiary as warm, tropical groundwaters decomposed the feldspars, feldspathoids, micas, and volcanic glass.

Bonner, J.B. (Baylor Geology Dept., Waco, TX (United States)); Martin, R.C.; Ledger, E.B. (SFASU Geology Dept., Nacogdoches, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

307

Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of

Thomas J. Crowley

2006-01-01

308

Response of ocean ecosystems to climate warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine six different coupled climate model simulations to determine the ocean biological response to climate warming between the beginning of the industrial revolution and 2050. We use vertical velocity, maximum winter mixed layer depth, and sea ice cover to define six biomes. Climate warming leads to a contraction of the highly productive marginal sea ice biome by 42 in

J. L. Sarmiento; R. Slater; R. Barber; L. Bopp; S. C. Doney; A. C. Hirst; J. Kleypas; R. Matear; U. Mikolajewicz; P. Monfray; V. Soldatov; S. A. Spall; R. Stouffer

2004-01-01

309

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

310

Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the warm dark matter (WDM) model using high resolution N-body simulations, and identified a number of distinctive observational signatures. We find that replacing cold with warm dark matter has the following effects: 1. Smoothing of massive halo cores, lowering core densities and increasing core radii. 2. Lowering greatly the characteristic density of low mass halos. 3. Reduction

Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

2000-01-01

311

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming--  

E-print Network

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming-- Potential Linkages and Consequences" --ROGER PIELKE JR LANDSEA NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Miami, Florida --MAX MAYFIELD Tropical Prediction Center appreciate the effort taken by Anthes et al. (2006) to respond to our paper "Hurricanes and global warming

Colorado at Boulder, University of

312

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

313

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

314

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

315

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

316

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College; )

2003-08-01

317

Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change simulations made with coupled global climate models typically show a marked hemispheric asymmetry with more warming in the northern high lati- tudes than in the south. This asymmetry is ascribed to heat uptake by the ocean at high southern latitudes. A re- cent version of the CCCma climate model exhibits a much more symmetric warming, compared to an

G. M. Flato; G. J. Boer

2001-01-01

318

Mankind Can Strive Against the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most likely the cause of the global warming can be carbon dioxide venting into the atmosphere as a result of organic fuel burning though it isn’t proved rigorously. Now it is clear that mankind is in charge of the beginning of the global warming and must prevent it. The point of bifurcation- the point of the loss of stability can’t

Michel E. Gertsenstein; Boris N. Shvilkin

319

Global warming policy: some economic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many analysts believe that the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity are contributing to global warming, but the linkage is highly uncertain. The largest such source of these gases is carbon dioxide (CO2) from the growing consumption of fossil fuels. Consequently, the conservation of fossil fuels figures prominently in any strategy to reduce the threat of global warming.

Stephen P. A. Brown

1998-01-01

320

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

321

Stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993 are described using UKMO analyses, calculated PV and diabatic heating, and N[sub 2]O observed by the CLAES instrument on the UARS. The first warming affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar

G. L. Manney; R. W. Zurek; A. ONeill; R. Swinbank; J. B. Kumer; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche

1994-01-01

322

Imaging in targeted delivery of therapy to cancer.  

PubMed

We review the current status of imaging as applied to targeted therapy with particular focus on antibody-based therapeutics. Antibodies have high tumor specificity and can be engineered to optimize delivery to, and retention within, the tumor. Whole antibodies can activate natural immune effector mechanisms and can be conjugated to beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides, toxins, enzymes, and nanoparticles for enhanced therapeutic effect. Imaging is central to the development of these agents and is used for patient selection, performing dosimetry and assessment of response. gamma- and positron-emitting radionuclides may be used to image the distribution of antibody-targeted therapeutics While some radionuclides such as iodine-131 emit both beta and gamma radiation and are therefore suitable for both imaging and therapy, others are more suited to imaging or therapy alone. Hence for radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, patients can be selected for therapy on the basis of gamma-emitting indium-111-octreotide imaging and treated with beta-emitting yttrium-90-octreotate. Positron-emitting radionuclides can give greater sensitivity that gamma-emitters but only a single radionuclide can be imaged at one time and the range of radionuclides is more limited. The multiple options for antibody-based therapeutic molecules, imaging technologies and therapeutic scenarios mean that very large amounts of diverse data are being acquired. This can be most effectively shared and progress accelerated by use of common data standards for imaging, biological, and clinical data. PMID:19838639

Dancey, Gairin; Begent, Richard H; Meyer, Tim

2009-09-01

323

Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

1996-12-31

324

Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

2003-11-13

325

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

326

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

1987-10-01

327

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

328

Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges  

PubMed Central

Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

329

Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report  

SciTech Connect

The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

George Sgouros, Ph.D.

2007-03-20

330

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-print Network

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

331

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2010-04-01

332

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2011-04-01

333

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2012-04-01

334

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2013-04-01

335

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2014-04-01

336

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

Haller, Gary L.

337

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

338

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

339

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

340

Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis.

Winn, M.; Weissmann, H.S.; Sprayregen, S.; Freeman, L.M.

1983-09-01

341

Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations  

SciTech Connect

Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

1999-08-03

342

Analysis of warm prestress data  

SciTech Connect

Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or warm prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface-flawed specimens, eight subclad-flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional 7% additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full-scale pressure vessel WPS experiments. All but one of the 174 experiments considered lie above the lower 2{sigma} estimate of the regressions. The experiments all supported Type I WPS, i.e., there was no fracture during cooling until reloading occurred. However, the regression equations apply to the reload and are inapplicable to Type I WPS.

Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W. [Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States); McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-12-01

343

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

344

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

345

Global warming: The complete briefing  

SciTech Connect

John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global warming. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.

Houghton, J.

1994-12-31

346

Mechanisms of delayed Southern Ocean warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delayed surface warming of the Southern Ocean (SO) is a robust feature of the climate response to greenhouse gas forcing. It is seen in in-situ and satellite-based observations, and is simulated within coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs). The observed cooling and associated sea ice expansion around Antarctica in recent decades is in stark contrast to the rapid warming and sea ice loss seen in the Arctic, yet the processes responsible for these divergent behaviors are not well understood. The SO warming delay has been widely attributed to deep mixed layers and efficient deep ocean heat uptake processes, while the observed cooling is often attributed to changes in upper ocean stratification or surface winds. We argue here that while these mechanisms do play a role, delayed SO warming is primarily a consequence of the mean SO circulation: Ekman upwelling of unmodified water from depth acts to anchor sea surface temperatures over multi-centennial timescales; equatorward transport of surface waters acts to advect the anomalous temperature signal out of the SO, where it is subducted on the equatorward flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, driving an anomalous northward ocean heat transport that largely balances the increased air-sea heat flux into the SO under global warming. We explore the relative roles of the mechanisms of delayed SO warming within a variety of GCMs and observations. The observed spatial structure of upper ocean and surface warming is found to be well represented by an ocean-only GCM forced radiatively at the surface, but with no changes in surface winds or salinity. Within this model framework, the active versus passive nature of ocean heat uptake, and its influence on SO circulation, is explored. We further consider the consequences of delayed SO warming for (i) changes in atmospheric meridional energy transport with global warming, and (ii) the global top-of-atmosphere energy budget, via the delayed activation of destabilizing SO radiative feedbacks.

Armour, K.; Marshall, J.; Donohoe, A.; Scott, J. R.

2013-12-01

347

Observation-based estimate of the Fukushima radionuclide in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminated waters from Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) were discharged directly into the North Pacific Ocean in March 2011. Coastal current system in this region and time scale of the water exchange with the open ocean is not well understood, however both observational evidence and numerical model simulation results indicate relatively rapid advection of contaminants eastward into the highly energetic mixed water region in the confluence of the Kuroshio and Oyashio. Surface drifters deployed near the FNPP in early summer 2011 show trajectories crossing the North Pacific generally following the large scale ocean circulation after one year. Previously obtained cesium (Cs) samples from multiple cruises near FNPP and off shore region between 2011 and 2013 are collected and evaluated to diagnose the propagating Cs signal crossing North Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we use radionuclides of Fukushima origin as a tracer to understand the North Pacific circulation and mixing process after two years of release. Large numbers of the observation are repeatedly took place near shore where Cs shows still relatively higher about 10-30 Bq/m3 in 2013. Temperature-salinity (T-S) properties for the available hydrographic data indicate that the majority of the samples were obtained in the region where the water is highly influenced by the warm-salty Kuroshio origin water. Depth profiles of 35N section in March-May 2013 cruise of the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability and Carbon (CLIVAR) repeat Hydrography sections are examined to track the radionuclide penetration into the subsurface ocean and the subduction pathways along isopycnal surfaces. Available large drifter datasets that accumulated over decades of field work can guide us in estimating the spread of these radionuclides. By applying an innovative statistical analysis to the drifter data, we investigate the spreading of radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean over 5-year time scales.

Yoshida, Sachiko; Jayne, Steven; Macdonald, Alison; Buesseler, Ken; Rypina, Irina

2014-05-01

348

[Prevention and therapy of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

After accidental incorporation of radionuclides in the organism uptake in the whole-body and in critical organs can be either reduced or blocked (prevention) by appropriate medication and behaviour. Effective half-lives after incorporation in critical organs can be shortened (therapy). For different fallout-radionuclides a variety of preparations exists for such purposes. For large-scale prevention only iodine administration seems appropriate to block the uptake of the generally occurring 131-I in the thyroid. Such an iodine prophylaxis, however, seems only necessary when drinking water concentrations exceed 5000 nCi/l. Excessive amounts of iodine can influence thyroid function significantly. PMID:3577639

Riccabona, G; Zechmann, W

1986-01-01

349

On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.  

PubMed

The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:25725453

Grubich, Andry

2015-05-01

350

MARSAME Appendix C C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON RADIONUCLIDES  

E-print Network

) Fission products (e.g., 90 Sr, 137 Cs) Transuranics (e.g., 237 Np, 239 Pu) Oil and Gas 226 Ra and progeny Optical Glass Facility Thorium series radionuclides Uranium series radionuclides Paint and Pigment

351

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it. PMID:22217735

Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

2012-01-21

352

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

2012-01-01

353

Automated method and system for the alignment and correlation of images from two different modalities  

DOEpatents

A method and system for the computerized registration of radionuclide images with radiographic images, including generating image data from radiographic and radionuclide images of the thorax. Techniques include contouring the lung regions in each type of chest image, scaling and registration of the contours based on location of lung apices, and superimposition after appropriate shifting of the images. Specific applications are given for the automated registration of radionuclide lungs scans with chest radiographs. The method in the example given yields a system that spatially registers and correlates digitized chest radiographs with V/Q scans in order to correlate V/Q functional information with the greater structural detail of chest radiographs. Final output could be the computer-determined contours from each type of image superimposed on any of the original images, or superimposition of the radionuclide image data, which contains high activity, onto the radiographic chest image.

Giger, Maryellen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Chen, Chin-Tu (Lisle, IL); Armato, Samuel (Chicago, IL); Doi, Kunio (Willowbrook, IL)

1999-10-26

354

Satellite and Oceanographic Observations of the Warm Coastal Current in the Chukchi Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected infrared images obtained by the NOAA satellites have increased our understanding of the formation and extent of the Alaskan Coastal Current, a movement of relatively warm water from the vicinity of Bering Strait northward along the Alaskan coast past Point Barrow and eventually into the Arctic Ocean where it disperses. Oceanographic measurements made from an icebreaker during the same

K. AHLNASI; G. R. GARRISON

355

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

356

The gravitino problem in supersymmetric warm inflation  

SciTech Connect

The warm inflation paradigm considers the continuous production of radiation during inflation due to dissipative effects. In its strong dissipation limit, warm inflation gives way to a radiation dominated Universe. High scale inflation then yields a high reheating temperature, which then poses a severe gravitino overproduction problem for the supersymmetric realisations of warm inflation. In this paper we show that, in a certain class of supersymmetric models, the dissipative dynamics of the inflaton is such that the field can avoid its complete decay after inflation. In some cases, the residual energy density stored in the inflaton field oscillations may come to dominate over the radiation bath at a later epoch. If the inflaton field finally decays much later than the onset of this matter dominated phase, the entropy produced from its decay may be sufficient to counteract the excess of gravitinos produced during the last stages of warm inflation.

Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada-18071 (Spain); Berera, Arjun [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kohri, Kazunori, E-mail: jcbueno@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: mbg@ugr.es, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: konst.dimopoulos@lancaster.ac.uk, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2011-03-01

357

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

358

What happens during vocal warm-up?  

PubMed

Most singers prefer to warm up their voices before performing. Although the subjective effect is often considerable, the underlying physiological effects are largely unknown. Because warm-up tends to increase blood flow in muscles, it seems likely that vocal warm-up might induce decreased viscosity in the vocal folds. According to the theory of vocal-fold vibration, such a decrease should lead to a lower phonation threshold pressure. In this investigation the effect of vocal warm-up on the phonation threshold pressure was examined in a group of male and female singers. The effect varied considerably between subjects, presumably because the vocal-fold viscosity was not a dominating factor for the phonation-threshold pressure. PMID:7757149

Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

1995-03-01

359

Earth’s Albedo and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, learn about Earth's albedo (the ratio of reflected vs. incident solar radiation), how pollution alters albedo, and how ice-albedo feedback may accelerate global warming.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2008-01-17

360

The Warming Trend and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average temperature. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming trend.

2010-11-12

361

Warm Spitzer Characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Warm Spitzer photometric imaging DDT observations of Comet ISON, as part of a worldwide observing campaign led by NASA of the comet. Warm Spitzer's 3 and 4 um near-IR passbands will provide unique scattering and emissivity information for the comet's nucleus and dust, and allow us to detect CO_2 gas emission from the comet. Spitzer holds a unique place in the solar system to observe the comet, right before it enters the region of rapid water ice sublimation after spending millions of years in the deep freeze of the Oort Cloud. It is likely the comet will undergo a rapid outburst soon after the time of the proposed observations in the week of June 7 - 14, 2013, and understanding its baseline behavior is critical to understanding the evolution of its activity, as is Spitzer's unique ability to detect CO_2 sublimation and outgassing activity from ISON. As for our previous Spitzer observations of comets Tempel 1 and Hartley 2, we will bootstrap from HST DDT imaging lightcurve and spectroscopic measurements taken over in April - May 2013. The combination of the two datasets will place strong constraints on the comet's coma morphology, and thus its pattern of outgassing jets and the rotation state of the nucleus, and the amount and kind of dust and gas emitted by the comet.

Lisse, Carey; Bauer, James; Fernandez, Yan; Kelley, Michael; Knight, Matthew; Li, Jian-Yang; Meech, Karen; Reach, William; Sitko, Michael

2013-05-01

362

Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.  

PubMed

Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

1984-02-01

363

Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between

Stefano Loppi; Alberto Malfatti; Mauro Sani; Neil E. Whitehead

1997-01-01

364

SOIL REDISTRIBUTION AND FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDE: A BACKGROUND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measurements of the spatial patterns of environmental radionuclides can be used to measure soil erosion and sediment deposition on the landscape. This is the only technique that can be used to make actual measurements of soil loss and redeposition quickly and efficiently to design programs to conser...

365

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

366

Radionuclide evaluation of skeletal metastases: Practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indications for radionuclide bone scanning to evaluate possible metastatic disease are reviewed. The causes of false-positive and falsenegative interpretations are discussed and illustrated. Since breast cancer leads all malignant tumors in incidence of skeletal metastases found at autopsy, the efficacy of preoperative bone scans in patients with breast cancer is analyzed in detail. A routine preoperative bone scan for

Richard H. Gold; Lawrence W. Bassett

1986-01-01

367

PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

368

In League: Global Warming And Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What relationship exists between the phenomena of global warming and globalization? How can a small grassroots organization promote green living and cultural food traditions through environmental education?\\u000aExamination of the relationship between global warming and globalization has required a process of basic research of pre-written texts; resulting in a theoretical analysis on selected journalism within this field of research. The

Allissa Beth Cloer

2008-01-01

369

"Warming hole" in the midwestern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A regional climate model was used to estimate current and future climate scenarios to examine the effect of low-level circulation patterns in the midwestern United States on that part of the country's resistance to warming seen over the rest of North America at that time. A "warming hole" was found in the central U.S. during June-September that is not reflected in previously examined global climate models.

Pan et al.

370

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01

371

Global Health Threats: Global Warming in Perspective  

E-print Network

Some authorities have claimed that global warming is one of the most—if not the most—important public health threat of this century. They do not, however, support this assertion by comparative analysis of the relative magnitude and severity of various health threats. Such an analysis, presented here, shows that other global health threats outrank global warming at present, and are likely to continue to do so through the foreseeable future, even under the warmest scenario developed by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Exaggerated and unsupported claims about the importance of global warming risk skewing the world’s public health priorities away from real, urgent health problems. Policies curbing global warming would, moreover, increase energy prices and reduce its usage, retarding both economic development and advances in human wellbeing. That would slow advances in society’s adaptive capacity to deal not only with the effects of global warming, but all other sources of adversity. Through the foreseeable future, global health would be advanced farther, faster, more surely, and more economically if efforts are focused not on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but on reducing vulnerability to today’s urgent health problems that may be exacerbated by global warming, while increasing adaptive capacity, particularly of developing countries, through economic development.

Indur M. Goklany, Ph.D.

372

Warming shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America  

PubMed Central

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

2014-01-01

373

Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

2014-11-01

374

Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.  

PubMed

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

2014-01-01

375

Suprarenal abscess in the neonate. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging  

SciTech Connect

Although suprarenal abscess in a newborn is rare, a prompt diagnosis is essential for proper patient management. The findings obtained with Tc-99m glucoheptonate renal imaging in a newborn with a right adrenal abscess are reported. A radionuclide renal imaging sequence over a 15-hour period demonstrated a rim sign which can be used to suggest the diagnosis. Radionuclide and ultrasound imaging of neonatal adrenal masses is discussed.

Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Hodgson, N.B.

1986-01-01

376

Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

377

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

378

Freeform source optimization for improving litho-performance of warm spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As lithography moves into lower k1 imaging, traditional illumination "source" shapes may perform marginally in resolving complex layouts. Subsequently hot-spots or warm-spots can result, leading to yield loss in production. Typically, lithographers solve such problems by modifying the local layout instead of optimizing the DOE (diffractive optical element) illumination shape. FlexRayTM can easily implement freeform source shapes and allows a high degree of freedom in source optimization. Therefore, it becomes practical to use pixelated freeform sources to resolve hot spots or warm spots. In this paper, we investigate the use of freeform source optimization (SO) on a critical dynamic random access memory (DRAM) layer with warm spots to verify the effectiveness of a SO only flow using Tachyon SMO. In order to improve the warm spots without changing baseline performance for other patterns, we optimized not only the warm spot patterns of concern but also the critical reference patterns. Since the optimization minimizes EPE (edge placement error) and maximizes imaging quality for all enclosed patterns, the final optimized source shape performs similar to the baseline source for the base patterns while improving the performance of the warm spot pattern areas. Although the SO source is similar in shape to the baseline source, the optimized source provides enhanced depth of focus (DoF) for all warm spot patterns without suffering degradation in the normalized image log-slope (NILS) performance. Evaluation of the optimized SO source shows no obvious negative impact on modeled CDs across an array of L/S pattern combinations which cover all the pitches appearing in the periphery. Finally, the optimized source is demonstrated using ASML's FlexRayTM for on-wafer evaluation. According to the observations from on-wafer experiments, consistent results to simulation are verified. Overall DoF for the identified warm spot patterns is definitely improved and no obvious pattern shape changes are found, as well. From the positive demonstration in simulation and on-wafer verification, the vast flexibility of the freeform source enables the SO flow with more powerful capability to improve local hot spot or warm spot problems without negatively impacting the other patterns.

Wu, Chun-Wei; Liao, Chun-Cheng; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Hsu, Stephen; Liu, Hua-Yu; Li, Zhipan

2011-11-01

379

Coral growth characteristics and marine environments during Pliocene warm period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global mean temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 5-3 Ma) were substantially high as much as those predicted for near-term climate change. Experimental and model studies are suggesting that recent past and future global warming and ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would have dramatically influenced on the calcification processes of marine organisms. However, few direct evidences have existed to address how warming and acidification would play it for marine ecosystem. Tropical corals could record long term growth histories in annual bands of their skeletons as well as marine environments during their growth periods up to several hundreds years. We discovered well-preserved fossil Porites corals at the muddy sand layer of Tartaro formation in Luzon island, the northern part of Philippine during the middle of PWP (3.5-3.8Ma); one of the most possible periods for analog to Earth's climate future. We screened and selected two exceptionally well-preserved fossil specimens for signs of diagenetic alternation using microanalysis of thin sections using the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with microstructural observation by scanning electronic microscopy and optical microscopic observation (Watanabe et al., 2011). We then present 70 years geochemical records with monthly resolution (?18O, ? 13C, Strontium/Calcium ratio, and other elemental concentrations) from this two fossil PWP corals in order to address the relationship between marine environments and coral growth characteristics. The detail profiles of carbon and oxygen isotopes of two series of corals indicate that significant reduced growth rate occurred in summer during the two different environments of PWP. Our coral geochemical and physiological data from this unique time window confirm future predictions that temperature rising and ocean acidification may lead to severely reduced coral growth but also imply the possibility that corals can still survive even in such marine environments of future warming climate with shifting the growth seasonal characteristics if the future climate change could provide enough intervals for tropical coral to be adapted. We will discuss in the presentation about other possible stresses for coral growth such as nutrient and marine pollution facing differently on modern and PWP corals to understand more realistically expected future images of marine ecosystems. Reference Watanabe, T., Suzuki, A., Minobe, S., Kawashima, T., Kameo, K., Minoshima, K., Aguilar, Y.M., Wani, R., Kawahata, H., Sowa, K., Nagai, T., Kase, T. (2010) Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence, Nature 471, 209-211

Watanabe, T.; Ohmori, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kase, T.

2011-12-01

380

Analysis of warm prestress data  

SciTech Connect

Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or warm prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface flawed specimens, eight subclad flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional seven percent additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip 3-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. Crack tip 3DEPFE analysis indicated that partially unloaded and completely unloaded data should be treated separately, and that the amount of unloading is unimportant for partially unloaded data. The regression models, which use K{sub I} at WPS (K{sub Iwps}) and K{sub Ic} as independent variables, better represented the WPS benefit than did the more complicated Chell model. An adequate accounting was made for constraint in the WPS experiments. The subclad flaw data support the use of the partial unload regression model, provided that some care is taken to represent the effect of intact cladding if present. The effect of strain aging at or below 260 C (500 F) on WPS benefit was of no consequence for the pressure vessel steels and WPS temperatures used to derive the regression models. The presence of ductile tearing precludes the use of the regression models. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full scale pressure vessel WPS experiments. All but one of the 174 experiments considered lie above the lower 2{sigma} estimate of the regressions. The experiments all supported Type I WPS, i.e., there was no fracture during cooling until reloading occurred. However, the regression equations apply to the reload, and are inapplicable to Type I WPS.

Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W. [Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States); McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-06-01

381

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

382

The dynamic response of warm units in human skin nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological recordings were made from 12 specific warm receptors in the sensory nerves of human hairy skin. In all cases examined, single warm fibers were spontaneously active at normal skin temperature from about 32°C upwards, while touch, stretching, vibration or pricking the skin did not elicit any response within the receptive fields of warm units. Moderate warming of the skin

F. Konietzny; H. Hensel

1977-01-01

383

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming,

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Knut Makowski

2007-01-01

384

Hummingbirds pay a high cost for a warm drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotherms must warm ingested food to body temperature. Food warming costs may be especially high for nectar-feeding birds, which can ingest prodigious volumes. We formulated a mathematical model to predict the cost of warming nectar as a function of nectar temperature and sugar concentration. This model predicts that the cost of warming nectar should: (1) decrease as a power function

C. N. Lotz; C. Martínez del Rio; S. W. Nicolson

2003-01-01

385

Review Article CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

Global warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world, putting millions of people at risk from floods, droughts and lack of drinking water. It is a complex issue full of uncertainties and controversies. This article discusses amongst cause of global warming and consequences of global warming on the environment. Keywords:Global warming, Green housages, Global environment, Atmosphere.

Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt

386

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements

Robert A. Ashworth

387

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements confirm

R. A. Ashworth

2008-01-01

388

Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

389

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals. PMID:18538888

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

390

Radionuclide methods of identifying patients who may require coronary artery bypass surgery  

SciTech Connect

Myocardial thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography performed in conjunction with exercise stress testing can provide clinically useful information regarding the functional significance of underlying coronary artery stenoses in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Knowledge of type, location, and extent of myocardial /sup 201/Tl perfusion abnormalities or the severity of exercise-induced global and regional dysfunction has prognostic value. Risk stratification can be undertaken with either radionuclide technique by consideration of the magnitude of the ischemic response and may assist in the selection of patients for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In patients with coronary artery disease, delayed /sup 201/Tl redistribution observed on exercise or dipyridamole /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy, particularly when present in multiple vascular regions and associated with increased lung /sup 201/Tl uptake, has been shown to be predictive of an adverse outcome, whereas patients with chest pain and a normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigram have a good prognosis with medical treatment. Similarly, a marked fall in the radionuclide ejection fraction from rest to exercise has been found to correlate with high-risk anatomic disease. Another important application of radionuclide imaging in patients being considered for CABG (particularly those with a depressed resting left ventricular ejection fraction) is the determination of myocardial viability and potential for improved blood flow and enhanced regional function after revascularization. 69 references.

Beller, G.A.; Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.

1985-12-01

391

Radionuclide analysis of the forearm venous pressure-volume relationship: response to nitroglycerin  

SciTech Connect

By means of equilibrium radionuclide forearm venous occlusion plethysmography, we studied 12 adult men without heart failure. By using stepwise increases in venous occlusion pressure (0, 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg), we found that the relationship between venous cuff pressure and forearm radionuclide volume was consistently linear (r greater than 0.985). When sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was administered (0.8 mg), the venous pressure-volume relationship was consistently shifted rightward (reducing the slope and increasing the intercept). This resulted in large increases in venous capacitance, as shown by other workers using alternative techniques. Increased venous distensibility due to NTG was caused by an entire shift of the venous pressure-volume relationship rather than increased capacitance at one occlusion pressure. Equilibrium radionuclide venous occlusion plethysmography is a sensitive way to characterize venous pressure-volume relations. In addition, by using radionuclide blood pool component imaging to evaluate venous compliance, concern over fluid transudation seen with standard strain gauge venous plethysmographic techniques can be ignored, particularly at higher occlusion pressures.

Dittrich, H.C.; Slutsky, R.A.

1984-04-01

392

The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition  

PubMed Central

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-01-01

393

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

394

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

395

Radionuclide Imaging of Dual Ectopic Thyroid in a Preadolescent Girl  

PubMed Central

Ectopic thyroid is a congenital defect in which the thyroid gland is located away from the usual pretracheal location. Dual ectopic thyroid, which consists of two foci of thyroid tissue, is very rare. In this case dual ectopic thyroid with subclinical hypothyroidism in a 10-year-old-girl was reported. The absence of the thyroid gland in the pretracheal location was revealed by ultrasonography (USG). Two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue and infrahyoid region were determined by Technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. It can be concluded that if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG, ectopic thyroid tissue should be evaluated with scintigraphy. PMID:25541934

Y?ld?r?m, ?ule; At?lgan, Hasan ?kbal; Korkmaz, Meliha; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan

2014-01-01

396

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-print Network

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

397

B4WARMED: Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger Principal Investigator: Peter Reich (Regents Professor)  

E-print Network

: august, 2010] How will Minnesota tree species respond to a warming climate? The global climate system point of potential climate warming impacts because it sits at the transition ­ orecotone-- betweenB4WARMED: Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger Principal Investigator: Peter Reich

Amin, S. Massoud

398

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

399

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

400

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides. Progress report, July 1, 1988--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

401

FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics through in-depth review articles. We are indeed indebted to them for accepting this difficult and t

Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

2007-08-01

402

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

403

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

404

Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

Coates Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2010-05-25

405

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

406

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

S. M. Vakulovsky; E. G. Tertyshnik; A. I. Kabanov

2012-11-15

407

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

2012-01-01

408

MIRD Pamphlet No. 23: Quantitative SPECT for Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Dosimetry in Internal Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification–based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry. PMID:22743252

Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George; Brill, A. Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

409

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

410

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01

411

Biosorption of radionuclides by Rhizopus arrhizus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of various radionuclides viz. 233U, 239Pu, 241Am, 144Ce, 147Pm, 152+154Eu and 95Zr from aqueous nitrate medium has been studied using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus. The biosorption of 233U and 239Pu was found to be maximum at pH 6-7 whereas for other trivalent actinides and fission products viz. 241Am, 144Ce, 147Pm, 152+154Eu and tetravalent 95Zr, it was more effective at

P. S. Dhami; V. Gopalakrishnan; R. Kannan; A. Ramanujam; Neeta Salvi; S. R. Udupa

1998-01-01

412

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

413

Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The

R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

1989-01-01

414

Radionuclide partitioning across Great Lakes natural interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983-1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of ¹³⁷Cs, ²¹°Pb, and

R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

2009-01-01

415

Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983–1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra.

R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

1989-01-01

416

Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

1989-11-01

417

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

418

Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2008-10-01

419

Inflation, modulation and baryogenesis with warm directions  

E-print Network

There are many flat directions in SUSY models, which may dissipate their energy and source the radiation background during inflation. However, the only possibility that has been studied in this direction is warm inflation, which uses "warm" (or "dissipative" if we consider more modest situation) direction as the inflaton. In this talk we discuss other significant possibilities of such directions which are dissipative and may or may not be "warm". Affleck-Dine (AD) mechanism and other cosmological scenarios are discussed in the light of "dissipative field", instead of using the conventional light field with mass protection. We sometimes consider Morikawa-Sasaki coefficient for the non-thermal background, which is important because the dissipation calculated for a naive thermal background with $T\\to 0$ is not enough to discuss the dissipation with the non-thermal background.

Tomohiro Matsuda

2010-01-26

420

Warm Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a warm inflationary model in the context of relativistic D-brane inflation in a warped throat, which has Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term and is coupled to radiation through a dissipation term. The perturbation freezes at the sound horizon and the power spectrum is determined by a combination of the dissipative parameter and the sound speed parameter. The thermal dissipation ameliorates the eta problem and softens theoretical constraints from the extra-dimensional volume and from observational bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The warm DBI model can lead to appreciable non-Gaussianity of the equilateral type. As a phenomenological model, ignoring compactification constraints, we show that large-field warm inflation models do not necessarily yield a large tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Cai Yifu; Dent, James B. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Easson, Damien A. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2011-05-15

421

Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

2012-05-01

422

Stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Two stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993 are described using UKMO analyses, calculated PV and diabatic heating, and N[sub 2]O observed by the CLAES instrument on the UARS. The first warming affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N[sub 2]O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N[sub 2]O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N[sub 2]O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the warmings. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Manney, G.L.; Zurek, R.W. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); O'Neill, A. (Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)); Swinbank, R. (Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom)); Kumer, J.B.; Mergenthaler, J.L.; Roche, A.E. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-05-01

423

Prospects in Folate Receptor-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radionuclide therapy is based on systemic application of particle-emitting radiopharmaceuticals which are directed toward a specific tumor-associated target. Accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in targeted cancer cells results in high doses of absorbed radiation energy whereas toxicity to non-targeted healthy tissue is limited. This strategy has found widespread application in the palliative treatment of neuroendocrine tumors using somatostatin-based radiopeptides. The folate receptor (FR) has been identified as a target associated with a variety of frequent tumor types (e.g., ovarian, lung, brain, renal, and colorectal cancer). In healthy organs and tissue FR-expression is restricted to only a few sites such as for instance the kidneys. This demonstrates why FR-targeting is an attractive strategy for the development of new therapy concepts. Due to its high FR-binding affinity (KD?imaging have been developed. However, in spite of the large number of cancer patients who could benefit of a folate-based radionuclide therapy, a therapeutic concept with folate radioconjugates has not yet been envisaged for clinical application. The reason is the generally high accumulation of folate radioconjugates in the kidneys where emission of particle-radiation may result in damage to the renal tissue. Therefore, the design of more sophisticated folate radioconjugates providing improved tissue distribution profiles are needed. This review article summarizes recent developments with regard to a therapeutic application of folate radioconjugates. A new construct of a folate radioconjugate and an application protocol which makes use of a pharmacological interaction allowed the first preclinical therapy experiments with radiofolates. These results raise hope for future application of such new concepts also in the clinic. PMID:24069581

Müller, Cristina; Schibli, Roger

2013-01-01

424

Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions.  

PubMed

In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background. PMID:24754713

Steinhauser, Georg

2014-05-01

425

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Bruce Allen

426

On the consistency of warm inflation  

E-print Network

Conditions are obtained for the existence of a warm inflationary attractor in the system of equations describing an inflaton coupled to radiation. These conditions restrict the temperature dependence of the dissipative terms and the size of thermal corrections to the inflaton potential, as well as the gradient of the inflaton potential. When these conditions are met, the evolution approaches a slow-roll limit and only curvature fluctuations survive on super-horizon scales. Formulae are given for the spectral indices of the density perturbations and the tensor/scalar density perturbation amplitude ratio in warm inflation.

Ian G Moss; Chun Xiong

2008-10-27

427

Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2008-07-01

428

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

1992-01-01

429

Sudden stratospheric warmings forced by mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global, quasigeostrophic model of planetary wave interaction with the mean zonal flow has been used to simulate sudden stratospheric warmings forced by mean tropospheric zonal winds interacting with orography. Planetary waves m = 1 and 2 are simultaneously computed and interact with each other only through the mean zonal flow. An increase in the jet stream maximum from 36 to 48 m/sec is sufficient to initiate repeated major warmings with an approximate 80 day cycle. These results are in agreement with the observed anticorrelation of the annual variation of the winter monthly averaged jet stream strength and polar night jet strength.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Strobel, D. F.

1980-01-01

430

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

431

MATISSE: warm optics integration and performance in laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the spectro-interferometer of the European Southern Observatory VLT operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and, combining four beams from the unit or auxiliary telescopes. The concept constitutes an evolution of the two-beam interferometric instrument MIDI operating on the VLTI. It will give access to the mapping and the distribution of the material, the gas and essentially the dust, in the circumstellar environments and will provide aperture synthesis images in the mid-infrared spectral regime. The Warm OPtics (WOP) of the instrument provides the functions of spectral band separation, optical path equalization and modulation, pupil positioning, beam anamorphosis, beam positioning, and beam commutation. It also allows the alignment function of the beams with the Cold Optics contained in two separate cryostats. This sub-system is presently aligned and tested at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in Nice, France, to validate accuracy and stability. The present paper gives the results of the Warm OPtics laboratory tests.

Robbe-Dubois, S.; Lagarde, S.; Antonelli, P.; Bailet, C.; Marcotto, A.; Ottogalli, S.; Thiam, L.; Lopez, B.; Clausse, J.-M.; Fanteï Caujolle, Y.; Bresson, Y.; Berio, Ph.; Dugué, M.; Petrov, R. G.; Lanz, Th.

2014-07-01

432

Equilibrium radionuclide gated angiography in patients with tricuspid regurgitation  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography was performed in 2 control groups (15 patients with no organic heart disease and 24 patients with organic heart disease but without right- or left-sided valvular regurgitation) and in 9 patients with clinical tricuspid regurgitation. The regurgitant index, or ratio of left to right ventricular stroke counts, was significantly lower in patients with tricuspid regurgitation than in either control group. Time-activity variation over the liver was used to compute a hepatic expansion fraction which was significantly higher in patients with tricuspid regurgitation than in either control group. Fourier analysis of time-activity variation in each pixel was used to generate amplitude and phase images. Only pixels with values for amplitude at least 7% of the maximum in the image were retained in the final display. All patients with tricuspid regurgitation had greater than 100 pixels over the liver automatically retained by the computer. These pixels were of phase comparable to that of the right atrium and approximately 180 degrees out of phase with the right ventricle. In contrast, no patient with no organic heart disease and only 1 of 24 patients with organic heart disease had any pixels retained by the computer. In conclusion, patients with tricuspid regurgitation were characterized on equilibrium gated angiography by an abnormally low regurgitant index (7 of 9 patients) reflecting increased right ventricular stroke volume, increased hepatic expansion fraction (7 of 9 patients), and increased amplitude of count variation over the liver in phase with the right atrium (9 of 9 patients).

Handler, B.; Pavel, D.G.; Pietras, R.; Swiryn, S.; Byrom, E.; Lam, W.; Rosen, K.M.

1983-01-15

433

What's behind the warming signals in eastern China megacity areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization doubtlessly has been the most significant demographic trend in the world for at least a century and promises to become even more significant in the future. The population of Asia has increased rapidly over the last three decades. In 1995, there were five megacities in Asia. Nowadays, half of the world's megacities are in Asia, population centers with more than 10 million people living in them. Urban development often causes great modification of land surface properties, landscape pattern, and even local climate through changing land use and cover. Urban expansion resulted by economic development and population growth has changed land surface properties in urban and surrounding area, including green vegetation cover, surface albedo, surface roughness, and emissivity in many parts of the world, especially in East Asia. The expansion of so-called urban heat island (UHI) is considered as a direct climate consequence of urbanization, as solar radiation is sequestered by urban architecture. Urban heat island is a unique micro-climate characteristic in urban areas, and it varied widely in different area due to varied weather or anthropogenic influence factors. Here, we investigated spatial pattern and temporal variety of urban heat island in the Bohai coastal region with multi-scale thermal infrared satellite data, including MTSAT, NOAA/AVHRR, Terra/MODIS, and Landsat/TM, along with hand-held thermal imager. We try to find the most optimal scale among those satellite platforms according to the thermal landscape properties and scale independent principles of thermal remote sensing. The influence of surface parameters on urban heat island effect and the seasonal changes of UHI were also investigated. Higher land surface temperatures were detected over city limits, especially in major cities compared to nearby rural areas in the Bohai Region. In some cases, the land surface temperature can get 2.5°C higher in city center than nearby green areas. There was a significant correlation between spatial patterns of land surface temperature and fraction of buildup. Meanwhile, both satellite and meteorological data indicated greater warming trends along urban-rural transition areas where major increases of buildup were detected in past 10 years. Because of rapid urbanization, urban warming has become an important part of regional warming signals and in many cases dominates warming trends detected by met stations densely located in urban areas.

Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

2010-12-01

434

Observations of Warm Carbon Chain Chemistry in NGC 3576  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations of warm carbon chain chemistry (WCCC) in NGC 3576, including high angular resolution imaging of an ionization source candidate and the first detection of C5H in a massive star-forming region. In order to investigate the environment associated with birthline emergence, we ask how observed chemical conditions relate to Class 0/1 core differentiation: a systemic shift in peak position between species correlates with giant molecular cloud core gradients in turbulence and age. Emission in several molecular lines including HC3N (11-10), NH3 (1, 1), and C5H supports the G291.3-0.7 ionization front—transitional pre-main-sequence core interaction regulating the WCCC environment.

Saul, M.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Purcell, C. R.

2015-01-01

435

Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage  

SciTech Connect

Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

1985-04-01

436

Positron emission reconstruction tomography for the assessment of regional myocardial metabolism by the administration of substrates labeled with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A positron emission transverse tomograph device was developed which provides transaxial sectional images of the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the heart. The images provide a quantitative three-dimensional map of the distribution of activity unencumbered by the superimposition of activity originating from regions overlying and underlying the plane of interest. PETT is used primarily with the cyclotron-produced radionuclides oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11. Because of the participation of these atoms in metabolism, they can be used to label metabolic substrates and intermediary molecules incorporated in myocardial metabolism.

Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Hoffman, E. J.; Weiss, E. S.; Coleman, R. E.; Phelps, M. E.; Welch, M. J.; Sobel, B. E.

1975-01-01

437

Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming  

PubMed Central

Because the flowering and fruiting phenology of plants is sensitive to environmental cues such as temperature and moisture, climate change is likely to alter community-level patterns of reproductive phenology. Here we report a previously unreported phenomenon: experimental warming advanced flowering and fruiting phenology for species that began to flower before the peak of summer heat but delayed reproduction in species that started flowering after the peak temperature in a tallgrass prairie in North America. The warming-induced divergence of flowering and fruiting toward the two ends of the growing season resulted in a gap in the staggered progression of flowering and fruiting in the community during the middle of the season. A double precipitation treatment did not significantly affect flowering and fruiting phenology. Variation among species in the direction and magnitude of their response to warming caused compression and expansion of the reproductive periods of different species, changed the amount of overlap between the reproductive phases, and created possibilities for an altered selective environment to reshape communities in a future warmed world. PMID:17182748

Sherry, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Xuhui; Gu, Shiliang; Arnone, John A.; Schimel, David S.; Verburg, Paul S.; Wallace, Linda L.; Luo, Yiqi

2007-01-01

438

WARM-SEASON GRASSES FOR RIPARIAN ZONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a previous pot experiment we identified several warm-season grasses with the ability to extend their roots into saturated soils, making them potential candidates for use in riparian zones. In this experiment, we verified results from the pot study by evaluating a range of cultivars under field co...

439

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

440

Warm turkey: other routes to abstinence.  

PubMed

The requirement of immediate and abrupt quitting ("cold turkey") can be an obstacle to the acceptance and accomplishment of abstinence as a long-term outcome. Three alternative "warm turkey" routes to abstinence are discussed: (a) sobriety sampling, (b) tapering down, and (c) trial moderation. Clinical research evidence and case examples are provided in support of these alternative approaches. PMID:1787547

Miller, W R; Page, A C

1991-01-01

441

Global warming - uncertainties, effects, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental policy making is a challenging task. Often the scope of an issue is not fully comprehended, and its future impact is even less well understood. Global warming is one of these environmental issues. The issue is made more complex because, first, there is a question of whether it is a problem at all and, second, unilateral policy making by

Ravi K. Jain; Lloyd V. Urban

1998-01-01

442

The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance  

E-print Network

qualitatively using the two concepts: Greenhouse effect: natural, beneficial consequence of an atmosphere Global warming: our (possible) enhancement of the greenhouse effect Two important Definitions #12;Observed increases (arbitrary energy units) Greenhouse Effect 101: Energy from the Sun #12;30 units of energy output

Blais, Brian

443

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

444

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A

Norman Myers

1993-01-01

445

Wind increase above warm Agulhas Current eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify warm mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation superior to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of 2500 instantaneous charts of equivalent stability neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with sea surface temperature and sea level anomaly show stronger wind speed above warm eddies than surrounding water at all wind directions in about 800 of the 2500 cases. For those cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, we do not find any relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the sea surface temperature perturbation. Sea surface temperature perturbations that we consider range from 1 to 5.5 °C. Sizes of eddies range from 100 to 250 km diameter. Mean background wind speed is about 11 m s-1 with a mean increase above the eddy of 2 m s-1. Wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above warm eddies is not uncommon.

Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.

2014-10-01

446

Accelerators for studies of Warm Dense Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine requirements on ion beam accelerators needed for the study of warm dense matter physics using ion beams to isochorically heat matter to temperatures of order 1 to 10 eV and at 1 to 100 per cent solid density. We estimate the temperature uniformity of the heated foil, and explore the effects of ion beam velocity spread on the

John J. Barnard; Richard J. Briggs; Deborah A. Callahan; Ronald C. Davidson; Alex Friedman; Larry Grisham; Edward P. Lee; Richard W. Lee; B. Grant Logan; Jay N. Marx; David V. Rose; Andy M. Sessler; Max Tabak; Dale R. Welch; Jonathan S. Wurtele; Simon S. Yu

2004-01-01

447

Microbial diseases of corals and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the con- sequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleach- ing of Oculina

Eugene Rosenberg; Yael Ben-Haim

2002-01-01

448

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

449

Compare and Contrast Warm and Cold Fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In weather, fronts are defined as the boundaries between different air masses. Depending on the direction of movement and the characteristics of the air involved, different types of fronts form. This visualization shows the movement of warm and cold fronts as well as the characteristic clouds that are generated by each. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

450

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

451

Modern view of the warm ionized medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the observational evidence that the warm ionized medium (WIM) is a major and physically distinct component of the Galactic interstellar medium. Although up to ~ 20% of the faint, high-latitude H? emission in the Milky Way may be scattered light emitted in midplane Hii regions, recent scattered light models do not effectively challenge the well-established properties of the WIM.

Hill, A.; Reynolds, R.; Haffner, L.; Wood, K.; Madsen, G.

2015-03-01

452

The economic fundamentals of global warming  

E-print Network

If unpriced emission of greenhouse gases imposes real costs on future generations, both present and future generations can enjoy a higher consumption of economic goods and services through the correction of this unpriced externality, so there is no real economic opportunity cost to mitigation of global warming. The misperception that control of global warming is costly rests on the mistaken assumption that the investment allocation of the world economy without mitigation measures is efficient, but in the presence of an externality the world economy is not on its efficiency frontier. Once the externality is corrected, global warming presents no novel issues of the distribution of economic welfare between generations that are not already inherent in other investment choices. The costs of greenhouse gas mitigation can be shifted to future generations by reducing conventional investment, rather than by reducing current standards of living. This suggests financing investments in greenhouse gas emission, including compensation of current generations for the necessary substitution away from carbon intensive energy, through borrowing. The question of the appropriate intergenerational discount rate to apply to the benefits of greenhouse gas emission mitigation is irrelevant to global warming policy. The relevant question is the marginal value future generations will put on a lower stock of atmospheric greenhouse gases relative to conventional capital. This value should determine the composition of the entire capital stock, including the stock of greenhouse gases, current generations bestow on the future.

Duncan K. Foley

2007-01-01

453

Americans’ Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents results from a national study of what Americans understand about how the climate system works, and the causes, impacts, and potential solutions to global warming. Among other findings, the study identifies a number of important gaps in public knowledge and common misconceptions about climate change.

Anthony Leiserowitz

2013-01-01

454

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming.  

PubMed

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., "thermophilization" of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that "climatic lags" may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12-67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of warm-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate warming on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass--e.g., for bioenergy--may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity. PMID:24167287

De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A; Kelly, Daniel L; Kirby, Keith J; Mitchell, Fraser J G; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petrík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S; Woods, Kerry D; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris

2013-11-12

455

Advanced Review Drought under global warming  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous

Dai, Aiguo

456

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming  

PubMed Central

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclim