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1

Radionuclide imaging of infection.  

PubMed

Although our understanding of microorganisms has advanced significantly and antimicrobial therapy has become increasingly available, infection remains a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The role of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of the patient suspected of harboring an infection varies with the situation. For example, in the postoperative patient, radionuclide imaging is complementary to CT and is used to help differentiate postoperative changes from infection. In the case of the painful joint replacement, in contrast, radionuclide studies are the primary diagnostic imaging modality for differentiating infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Several tracers are available for imaging infection: (99m)Tc-diphosphonates, (67)Ga-citrate, and (111)In- and (99m)Tc-labeled leukocytes. At the moment, in immunocompetent patients, labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice for detecting most infections. There are, unfortunately, significant limitations to the use of labeled leukocytes. The in vitro labeling process is labor intensive, is not always available, and involves direct handling of blood products. For musculoskeletal infection, the need to frequently perform complementary marrow or bone imaging adds complexity and expense to the procedure and is an inconvenience to patients. Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to the search for alternatives to this procedure, including in vivo methods of labeling leukocytes, (18)F-FDG PET, and radiolabeled antibiotics. This article reviews the current status of nuclear medicine infection imaging and the potential of a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody, fanolesomab, that is currently under investigation. Upon completion of this article, the reader will be familiar with the physical characteristics and uptake mechanisms of tracers currently approved for infection imaging, the indications for the uses of these tracers, and the characteristics and potential indications for a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody under investigation. PMID:15175400

Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

2004-06-01

2

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

3

Radionuclide based imaging of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. Early detection of PCa by blood tests for elevated levels of prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) has lead to early treatment and a reduction in death rates. However, PSA level alone does not distinguish between PCa and normal conditions that cause elevated PSA. Furthermore, because PCa can be a very slow growing cancer, even confirmation of PCa cells in a biopsy gives no indication whether the PCa will progress into active disease within the individual's lifetime. As a result many patients receive treatment that they may not need. Imaging is an attractive modality for the detection and characterization of disease because most techniques are non- or minimally invasive, nondestructive, provide dynamic real-time data, and allow for repeat measurements. In PCa, advanced imaging techniques could be useful for accurate staging of primary disease, restaging of recurrent disease, detection of metastatic lesions, and predicting the aggressiveness of the disease. This paper reviews the radionuclide based imaging agents for planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging currently used in the clinic and those under development for PCa. The former includes the bone agents technetium diphosphonates and F-18 fluoride, the metabolic agents 2-[¹?F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and receptor targeted radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies including ProstaScint. The latter agents include C-11 acetate, C-11 and F-18 choline, C-11 and F-18 labeled 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid, radiolabeled androgen receptor binding compounds, radiolabeled peptides and small molecules for receptors over expressed either on prostate cancer itself or on the associated tumor neovasculature. Coregistration of PET or SPECT images with CT or MRI scans, improvements in imaging cameras, and image reconstruction algorithms have improved the quality of the images to the point where dual modality (radionuclide/CT or MRI) imaging with several agents can now be considered for staging of PCa. In addition, the high selectivity and rapid localization of many of the new agents under development portends promise for a greater use of radionuclide imaging for prostate cancer detection, characterization, and treatment monitoring. PMID:20583988

Mease, Ronnie C

2010-01-01

4

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

5

Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

1981-10-01

6

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOEpatents

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18

7

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

8

Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets  

SciTech Connect

One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the field of young-star identification, we carried out a systematic near-infrared search for young planetary companions to {approx}200 young stars. We also carried out targeted high-sensitivity observations of selected stars surrounded by circumstellar dust rings. We developed advanced image processing techniques to allow detection of even fainter sources buried in the noisy halo of scattered starlight. Even with these techniques, around most of our targets our search was only sensitive to planets in orbits significantly wider than our solar system. With some carefully selected targets--very young dusty stars in the solar neighborhood--we reach sensitivities sufficient to see solar systems like our own. Although we discovered no unambiguous planets, we can significantly constrain the frequency of such planets in wide (>50 AU) orbits, which helps determine which models of planet formation remain plausible. Successful modeling of our observations has led us to the design of a next-generation AO system that will truly be capable of exploring solar systems resembling our own.

Macintosh, B

2005-04-11

9

Value of radionuclide imaging techniques in assessing cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide imaging techniques add an important dimension to the diagnosis, classification and management of myocardial disease. The gated blood pool scan provides information allowing determination of the functional type of cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) as well as evaluation of ventricular performance. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 is useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and also in depicting septal abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide techniques also prove useful in following progression of disease and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

Goldman, M.R. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.); Boucher, C.A. (Harvard University, Boston, Mass.)

1980-12-18

10

Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

1994-03-01

11

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

1981-01-01

12

Radionuclide imaging in metabolic and systemic skeletal diseases.  

PubMed

Radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m diphosphonates is not an effective method for detecting or ruling out most osteoporotic diseases including senile osteoporosis or accelerated postmenopausal osteoporosis, and the slow loss of bone tissue generally remains undetected by this modality. Nonetheless, it frequently surpasses or supplements radiographic findings in evaluating the focal complications of metabolic bone disease, including fractures, microfractures, stress fractures, vertebral compressions, Milkman-Looser zones, aseptic necrosis, and acute infarction. In contrast to its secondary role in osteoporosis, bone imaging is of prime importance in investigating hypercalcemia, because the major cause of this abnormality is skeletal metastatic malignancy. In defective bone mineralization due to hyperparathyroidism or osteomalacia, a general increase in diphosphonate skeletal uptake is detected more frequently than radiographic abnormalities. However, normal skeletal images do not rule out metabolic bone disease. Biochemical testing is more reliable in detecting primary hyperparathyroidism. On the other hand, in renal osteodystrophy, biochemical abnormalities are variable and bone imaging is helpful in assessing the severity of skeletal involvement, but not its etiology. Many methods of quantitating the kinetics of Tc-99m diphosphonates have been explored, such as plasma clearance, bone-to-soft-tissue ratios, 24-hour total body retention and 24-hour urinary excretion. None of these have been widely accepted. The value of bone imaging is established in other systemic diseases, most notably in Paget's disease, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, sickle cell disease, fibrous dysplasia, and sympathetic dystrophy. PMID:3317847

McAfee, J G

1987-10-01

13

False-positive radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging following cystic duct stone removal  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case in which a radionuclide hepatobiliary image was falsely indicative of cystic duct obstruction in a patient with an indwelling cholecystostomy tube and an externalized gallbladder-duodenal stent. Cystic duct patency was demonstrated radiographically shortly before and after the radionuclide study. The authors recommend that cystic duct obstruction indicated by a radionuclide hepatobiliary image be confirmed by another means if a cholecystostomy tube is present, or if the patient recently has undergone percutaneous gallbladder or cystic duct manipulations.

Zagoria, R.J.; Cowan, R.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Herrera, M.

1989-03-01

14

Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

1984-01-01

15

Dynamic radionuclide determination of regional left ventricular wall motion using a new digital imaging device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 47 men with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease comparative studies of left ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion were made with radionuclide data obtained from the image intensifier camera computer system and with contrast cineventriculography. The radionuclide data was digitized and the images corresponding to left ventricular end-diastole and end-systole were identified from the left ventricular time-activity curve. The left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic images were subtracted to form a silhouette difference image which described wall motion of the anterior and inferior left ventricular segments. The image intensifier camera allows manipulation of dynamically acquired radionuclide data because of the high count rate and consequently improved resolution of the left ventricular image.

Steele, P.; Kirch, D.

1975-01-01

16

Incidental discovery of asplenia syndrome, with situs inversus and a normal heart by radionuclide biliary imaging. A case report  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99m/Tc biliary imaging was performed on a 34-year-old woman who was being investigated for suspected cholelithiasis. A left-sided liver was detected. On subsequent radionuclide imaging, partial visceral situs inversus and asplenia were demonstrated. Extensive roentgenographic investigation, ECG, echocardiogram, and laparotomy confirmed the radionuclide findings. Asplenia syndrome may exist without cardiovascular abnormalities and thus be undiscovered. Radionuclide imaging is important in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

Hauser, G.J.; Silberman, C.

1982-12-01

17

Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Allston, MA)

1984-06-04

18

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging: nonvisualization of the gallbladder secondary to prolonged fasting  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging demonstrated nonvisualization of the gallbladder in four patients who were studied after fasting from 14 hr to 12 days. Two patients subsequently had normal gallbladders at autopsy, and two gave normal gallbladder visualization on repeat imaging studies after fasts of 2 to 3 hr. These findings suggest that prolonged fasting may be a cause for nonvisualization of a normal gallbladder.

Larsen, M.J.; Klingensmith, W.C. III; Kuni, C.C.

1982-11-01

19

Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

1983-01-01

20

Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in heptatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

1983-01-01

21

CloudSat First Image of a Warm Front Storm Over the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

CloudSat's first image, of a warm front storm over the Norwegian Sea, was obtained on May 20, 2006. In this horizontal cross-section of clouds, warm air is seen rising over colder air as the satellite travels from right to left. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water droplets (or rain) or larger ice crystals (or snow), while the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The blue line below the Cloud Profiling Radar image indicates that the data were taken over water. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared image taken at nearly the same time.

2006-01-01

22

Detecting the warm core of a hurricane from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm core is a typical structure of hurricanes and typhoons. It is a result of huge release of latent heat from the warm and moist inflow near the surface to form clouds and precipitation during the upward movement. The anomalistic high temperature to the ambient environment and the area of warm core correlate to the precipitation of hurricanes. The larger area and the higher temperature anomaly of the warm core is, the more precipitation from hurricanes is produced. This study uses the fourth channel of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) onboard the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite to study the warm core of hurricanes Katrina and Rita which occurred in the fall of 2005. The channel is sensitive to the atmospheric layer between upper and middle troposphere and the brightness temperature from this channel reflects the effective layer temperature there. By investigating a time series of the satellite observations for hurricanes Katrina and Rita, we show that the warm core strengthens when the hurricanes reach maturity and that the warm core spreads and weakens after the landfall of the hurricanes.

Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

2006-03-01

23

The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is one of the most common yet diverse neurologic disorders, affecting almost 1%-2% of the population. Presently, radionuclide imaging such as PET and SPECT is not used in the primary diagnosis or evaluation of recent-onset epilepsy. However, it can play a unique and important role in certain specific situations, such as in noninvasive presurgical localization of epileptogenic brain regions in intractable-seizure patients being considered for epilepsy surgery. Radionuclide imaging can be particularly useful if MR imaging is either negative for lesions or shows several lesions of which only 1 or 2 are suspected to be epileptogenic and if electroencephalogram changes are equivocal or discordant with the structural imaging. Similarly, PET and SPECT can also be useful for evaluating the functional integrity of the rest of the brain and may provide useful information on the possible pathogenesis of the neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities frequently observed in these patients. PMID:23970368

Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

2013-10-01

24

Need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent systic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

1984-06-01

25

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI  

SciTech Connect

The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

1985-05-01

26

High-resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging with radionuclides: The coded aperture option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging with radionuclides is a very sensitive technique because it allows to obtain images with nanomolar or picomolar concentrations. This has generated a rapid growth of interest in radionuclide imaging of small animals. Indeed radiolabeling of small molecules, antibodies, peptides and probes for gene expression enables molecular imaging in vivo, but only if a suitable imaging system is used. Detecting small tumors in humans is another important application of such techniques. In single gamma imaging, there is always a well known tradeoff between spatial resolution and sensitivity due to unavoidable collimation requirements. Limitation of the sensitivity due to collimation is well known and affects the performance of imaging systems, especially if only radiopharmaceuticals with limited uptake are available. In many cases coded aperture collimation can provide a solution, if the near field artifact effect can be eliminated or limited. At least this is the case for "small volumes" imaging, involving small animals. In this paper 3D-laminography simulations and preliminary measurements with coded aperture collimation are presented. Different masks have been designed for different applications showing the advantages of the technique in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The limitations of the technique are also discussed.

Cusanno, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Santavenere, F.; Lanza, R. C.; Majewski, S.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Orsini Cancelli, V.; De Notaristefani, F.; Bollini, D.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.

2006-12-01

27

Physiologic considerations in radionuclide imaging of the extrahepatic biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Scintigraphy of the biliary system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enables the clinician to assess kinetics of bile flow through the gallbladder, common bile duct, and sphincter of Oddi. We review some aspects of biliary tract physiology and imaging which may be of interest to the physicians ordering and performing these studies. 56 references.

Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.

1988-01-01

28

Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

2008-01-01

29

Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

1985-05-01

30

The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.  

PubMed

Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies. PMID:21600822

Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

2011-01-01

31

Radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors: historical perspectives and newer techniques  

SciTech Connect

The increasing use of automated blood chemistry screens for serum calcium levels along with improved methods in measuring parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have made the diagnosis of parathyroid disease a common clinical problem. Parathyroid adenomas account for the majority of primary hyperparathyroidism with diffuse hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma occurring less frequently. Early scintigraphic techniques to identify enlarged parathyroids used selenomethionine-75 which was considered to be incorporated into PTH. In general, the sensitivity of scanning the neck using this tracer was related to the size of the enlarged parathyroid, but in large series, the overall sensitivity was less than 50%. Recent work by Ferlin et al, using a Technetium-99m/Thallium-201 subtraction scintigraphic technique has yielded a sensitivity of 92% in identifying pathologically enlarged parathyroid glands. Winzelberg et al modified this technique to allow imaging the mediastinum plus simplifying the subtraction method. In a prospective study with high-resolution sonography, similar sensitivities and specificities were found with sonography and scintigraphy. Tl-201/Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy appears to be an accurate technique in identifying pathologic parathyroid enlargement. Its ultimate role in the evaluation of patients with suspected hyperparathyroidism still needs to be determined. 37 references.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Hydovitz, J.D.

1985-04-01

32

An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Department of Radiology, Université Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6 (Canada); Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J. [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [Department of Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)

2013-11-15

33

The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

1984-06-01

34

Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

1989-07-18

35

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management. PMID:23843898

Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

2013-01-01

36

Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

Kuhl, D.E.

1981-03-03

37

Registration of serial SPECT/CT images for three-dimensional dosimetry in radionuclide therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For radionuclide therapy, individual patient pharmacokinetics can be measured in three dimensions by sequential SPECT imaging. Accurate registration of the time series of images is central for voxel-based calculations of the residence time and absorbed dose. In this work, rigid and non-rigid methods are evaluated for registration of 6-7 SPECT/CT images acquired over a week, in anatomical regions from the head-and-neck region down to the pelvis. A method for calculation of the absorbed dose, including a voxel mass determination from the CT images, is also described. Registration of the SPECT/CT images is based on a CT-derived spatial transformation. Evaluation is focused on the CT registration accuracy, and on its impact on values of residence time and absorbed dose. According to the CT evaluation, the non-rigid method produces a more accurate registration than the rigid one. For images of the residence time and absorbed dose, registration produces a sharpening of the images. For volumes-of-interest, the differences between rigid and non-rigid results are generally small. However, the non-rigid method is more consistent for regions where non-rigid patient movements are likely, such as in the head-neck-shoulder region.

Sjögreen-Gleisner, K.; Rueckert, D.; Ljungberg, M.

2009-10-01

38

U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform  

PubMed Central

Background In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. Methods An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc?+?tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Results Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). Conclusions We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images. PMID:25386389

2014-01-01

39

Intrathoracic splenosis: evaluation by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide scintigraphy.  

PubMed

Splenosis represents the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue after either splenic trauma or surgery. Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and the left hemidiaphragm. We report a case of splenosis in a 41-year-old male patient who had experienced severe thoracoabdominal injury including rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm and post-traumatic splenectomy 20 years previously. Abnormal opacities in the cardiac region were noted on a chest radiograph at an annual checkup. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated multiple, well-circumscribed pleura-based nodules at the posterior base of the left hemithorax and the left subdiaphragmatic area. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), the lesions showed decreased signal intensity but remained slightly hyperintense relative to liver parenchyma on T2-weighted images. (99m)Tc-labeled Sn colloid scintigraphy revealed multiple areas of increased activity consistent with the lesions on the CT and MRI scans. In addition to the history of splenic trauma and left hemothorax, SPIO-enhanced MRI and radionuclide scintigraphy, which can demonstrate phagocytic ability in the ectopic splenic tissue, were useful for confirming the diagnosis. PMID:19943149

Ishibashi, Mana; Tanabe, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Hidenao; Matusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide

2009-11-01

40

Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods  

SciTech Connect

Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

1983-08-01

41

Detecting the warm core of a hurricane from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm core is a typical structure of hurricanes and typhoons. It is a result of huge release of latent heat from the warm and moist inflow near the surface to form clouds and precipitation during the upward movement. The anomalistic high temperature to the ambient environment and the area of warm core correlate to the precipitation of hurricanes. The larger

Quanhua Liu; Fuzhong Weng

2006-01-01

42

Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium  

SciTech Connect

A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

1983-03-01

43

Bone stress: a radionuclide imaging perspective. [\\/sup 99m\\/Tc-pyrophosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five college athletes with lower leg pain underwent radiography and radionuclide studies to rule out a stress fracture. Their asymptomatic extremities and 13 pain-free athletes served as controls. Four main patterns were observed: (a) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and positive radiographs; (b) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and negatives radiographs; (c) ill-defined scintigraphic abnormalities and negative radiographs; and (d) negative radionuclide

L. W. Roub; L. W. Gumerman; E. N. Jr. Hanley; M. W. Clark; M. Goodman; D. L. Herbert

1979-01-01

44

Peptide-loaded Nanoparticles and Radionuclide Imaging for Individualized Treatment of Myocardial Ischemia.  

PubMed

Purpose To determine whether chitosan hydrogel nanoparticles loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) peptides (81-91 fragments) capable of targeting the ischemic myocardium enhance angiogenesis and promote therapeutic effects and whether radionuclide image-guided dosage control is feasible. Materials and Methods Experimental procedures and protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Rats (n = 32, eight per group) were subjected to myocardial ischemia (control group) and received chitosan hydrogel nanoparticles with VEGF165 proteins (chitosan VEGF) or VEGF81-91 peptides (chitosan peptides) via apical puncture. Ischemic hearts receiving chitosan without angiogenic factors served as the chitosan control. Myocardial perfusion was examined 7 days after surgery by using technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) tetrofosmin (37 MBq) autoradiography, and changes in vascular density with immunohistochemical staining were reviewed. Kruskal-Wallis test and Bonferroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test were used for multiple comparisons. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare myocardial retention of (99m)Tc chitosan. Results Thirty minutes of myocardial ischemia resulted in perfusion defects (median, 54%; interquartile range [IQR], 41%-62%). Chitosan VEGF decreased perfusion defect extent (median, 68%; IQR, 63%-73%; P = .006 vs control) and increased vascular density (median, 81 vessels per high-power field; IQR, 72-100; P = .009 vs control). Administration of chitosan peptides reduced the degree of perfusion defects (median, 66%; IQR, 62%-73%; P = .006 vs control) and increased vascular density (median, 82 vessels; IQR, 78-92; P = .006 vs control). The effects of chitosan peptides on perfusion and vascular density were comparable to those seen with chitosan VEGF proteins (P = .713 and P = .833, respectively). Chitosan radiolabeled with (99m)Tc was administered twice at reperfusion with a 1-hour interval to determine whether image-guided dosage control is feasible. The hearts initially retained 4.6% (IQR, 4.1%-5.0%) of (99m)Tc chitosan administered and 9.2% (IQR, 6.6%-12.7%; P = .068) with subsequent injection. Conclusion VEGF peptides have angiogenic potential and resulted in therapeutic effectiveness. Adjunct use of single photon emission computed tomography was also demonstrated for individualized treatment of myocardial ischemia by further tailoring the therapeutic dosing. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24927328

Hwang, Hyosook; Kwon, Jeongll; Oh, Phil-Sun; Lee, Tai-Kyoung; Na, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

2014-10-01

45

THERANOSTICS: From Molecular Imaging Using Ga-68 Labeled Tracers and PET/CT to Personalized Radionuclide Therapy - The Bad Berka Experience  

PubMed Central

The acronym THERANOSTICS epitomizes the inseparability of diagnosis and therapy, the pillars of medicine and takes into account personalized management of disease for a specific patient. Molecular phenotypes of neoplasms can be determined by molecular imaging with specific probes using positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or optical methods, so that the treatment is specifically targeted against the tumor and its environment. To meet these demands, we need to define the targets, ligands, coupling and labeling chemistry, the most appropriate radionuclides, biodistribution modifiers, and finally select the right patients for the personalized treatment. THERANOSTICS of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) using Ga-68 labeled tracers for diagnostics with positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT), and using Lu-177 or other metallic radionuclides for radionuclide therapy by applying the same peptide proves that personalized radionuclide therapy today is already a fact and not a fiction. PMID:22768024

Baum, Richard P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.

2012-01-01

46

The value of combined radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and conservative management of minimal or localized osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis is helpful for a successful conservative treatment. The value of bone scanning combined with granulocytes labeled with hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) granulocyte-Tc99m (GN) radionuclide imaging (combined [RI]) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis was assessed in 24 diabetic patients with foot ulcers. Evidence of osteomyelitis was based on the presence of at

Lydia Vesco; Hatem Boulahdour; Selim Hamissa; Sandrine Kretz; Jean-Luc Montazel; Leon Perlemuter; Michel Meignan; Alain Rahmouni

1999-01-01

47

Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator.  

PubMed

Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries. PMID:24819280

Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C

2014-06-01

48

Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries.

Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

2014-06-01

49

Small-animal radionuclide luminescence imaging of thyroid and salivary glands with Tc99m-pertechnetate.  

PubMed

The in vitro and in vivo detection of visible photons from radioisotopes using optical techniques is a fast-growing field in molecular imaging. Tc99m-pertechnetate is used as an alternative to I123 in imaging of the thyroid and is generally imaged with gamma cameras or single photon emission tomography instruments. The uptake in the thyroid tissue is mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein that actively mediates iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells and several extrathyroidal tissues. The luminescence of the gamma emitter Tc99m-pertechnetate in order to visualize its biodistribution in healthy small living animals by using a commercial optical imaging system is investigated. Here we show that in Nu/Nu mice, the uptake of Tc99m-pertechnetate in the thyroid gland and in salivary glands is very detectable by using radionuclide luminescence imaging. We also found light emission from the stomach in accordance with the literature. The localization of the light signals in the anatomical regions where the radiopharmaceutical is expected, confirmed by resections, shows that it is possible to image NIS-expressing tissues. PMID:23843083

Boschi, Federico; Pagliazzi, Marco; Rossi, Barbara; Cecchini, Maria Paola; Gorgoni, Giancarlo; Salgarello, Matteo; Spinelli, Antonello E

2013-07-01

50

Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease  

SciTech Connect

Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

1984-01-01

51

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

52

Tomographic and planar radionuclide imaging in patients suspected meniscal injury: Arthroscopic correlation  

SciTech Connect

In patients (pts) with knee pain which may be related to meniscal tears, clinical judgment is used to determine whether medical management or arthroscopy is indicated. Based on the assumption that meniscal injury will result in adjacent changes in Tc-99m MDP bone images, studies using both planar and tomographic techniques were performed in 12 pts referred for arthroscopy. Planar imaging was performed in the anterior, posterior, and posterior medial and lateral oblique positions of the symptomatic knee. Single photon emission computed tomography was performed using a 64 view 360/sup 0/ acquisition of both knees. In this series, both imaging techniques were accurate in identifying abnormality, but analysis of transaxial tomographic data showed greater contrast and facilitated localization because of the better spatial orientation provided by this method. Thus, tomographic bone imaging appears valuable in defining areas of localized abnormality in the knees of pts with meniscal injury.

Fajman, W.A.; Diehl, M.; Dunaway, E.; Stephenson, R.; Eisner, R.; Riggins, R.S.; Berger, H.J.

1985-05-01

53

Direct Imaging of Radionuclide-Produced Electrons and Positrons with an Ultrathin Phosphor  

PubMed Central

Current electron detectors are either unable to image in vivo or lack sufficient spatial resolution because of electron scattering in thick detector materials. This study was aimed at developing a sensitive high-resolution system capable of detecting electron-emitting isotopes in vivo. Methods The system uses a lens-coupled charge-coupled-device camera to capture the scintillation light excited by an electron-emitting object near an ultrathin phosphor. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the system were measured with a 3.7-kBq 90Y/90Sr ?-source and a 70-µm resin bead labeled with 99mTc. Finally, we imaged the 99mTc-pertechnetate concentration in the mandibular gland of a mouse in vivo. Results Useful images were obtained with only a few hundred emitted ? particles from the 90Y/90Sr source or conversion electrons from the 99mTc bead source. The in vivo image showed a clear profile of the mandibular gland and many fine details with exposures of as low as 30 s. All measurements were consistent with a spatial resolution of about 50 µm, corresponding to 2.5 detector pixels with the current camera. Conclusion Our new electron-imaging system can image electron-emitting isotope distributions at high resolution and sensitivity. The system is useful for in vivo imaging of small animals and small, exposed regions on humans. The ability to image ? particles, positrons, and conversion electrons makes the system applicable to most isotopes. PMID:18552136

Chen, Liying; Gobar, Lisa S.; Knowles, Negar G.; Liu, Zhonglin; Gmitro, Arthur F.; Barrett, Harrison H.

2008-01-01

54

Precise topographic surface measurements of warm and cold large image detectors for astronomical instrumentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes ESO's surface measurement device for large image detectors in astronomy. The machine was equipped with a sub-micrometer laser displacement sensor and is fully automated with LabView. On the example of newly developed curved CCDs, which are envisaged for future astronomical instruments, it was demonstrated that this machine can exactly determine the topographic surfaces of detectors. This works even at cryogenic temperatures through a dewar window. Included is the calculation of curvature radii from these cold curved CCDs after spherical fitting with MATLAB. In addition (and interesting for calibration of instruments) the micro-movements of the detector inside the cryostat are mapped.

Deiries, Sebastian; Iwert, Olaf; Stroebele, Stefan

2014-07-01

55

The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, part 2: epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

PET and SPECT can play an important role in the evaluation of various epileptic syndromes, particularly those with unknown causes, by revealing various underlying abnormalities that may not be fully appreciated from MR imaging studies. In some cases, PET and SPECT provide crucial data that guide surgical resections of the epileptogenic zone for medically refractory epilepsy. In other cases, these neuroimaging modalities preclude a surgical option and can guide genetic studies. Longitudinal PET and SPECT studies may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy syndromes and provide a clearer picture of the natural history of neurologic progression. PMID:24029652

Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

2013-11-01

56

Cell-SELEX Aptamer for Highly Specific Radionuclide Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common and highly oncogenic EGFR mutant in GBM. With the aim to generate specific molecular probes able to target EGFRvIII with high affinity, we selected four DNA aptamers (U2, U8, U19 and U31) specifically bound to U87-EGFRvIII cells that over expressed EGFRvIII with Kd values in the nanomole range by a cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) process. U87MG cells were introduced as control cells for counter selection. We further affirmed U2 and U8 identified EGFRvIII on the surface of target cells specifically. Then we radiolabeled U2 with 188Re to serve as a molecular imaging probe and observed 188Re -labeled U2 significantly targeted EGFRvIII over-expressing glioblastoma exnografts in mice. In conclusion, aptamers obtained from whole cell-SELEX strategy have great potential as molecular imaging probes that are probably beneficial to GBM diagnoses. PMID:24603483

Tan, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Li, Shuji; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Guiping; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Xingmei

2014-01-01

57

Radionuclide bone imaging in spondylolysis of the lumbar spine in children  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy and radiography were performed in seven children with back pain. Six of the children with radiographic evidence of a pars interarticularis defect also had abnormal scintigrams. Increased uptake of the bone imaging agent occurred at six of the ten sites of radiographic pars interarticularis defects, implying increased bone metabolic activity. However, the location of scintigraphic abnormalities did not correspond to the location of radiographic abnormalities in several cases. Possible explanations for the discordant findings are: (a) normal bone metabolism at the site of an old spondylolysis and (b) radiographically inapparent stress fractures. Measurements of absorbed radiation dose indicate that plain radiography, including oblique views where appropriate, has a lower absorbed radiation dose than scintigraphy or tomography and should be performed prior to these studies.

Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

1981-07-01

58

Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

Hileman, Bette

1989-01-01

59

Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to DOTA chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten binding affinity of 100 picomolar (pM) is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nanomolar (nM) to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2 ± 1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals. PMID:21315278

Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin; Bhushan, Kumar R; Frangioni, John V; Wittrup, K Dane

2014-01-01

60

Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

1989-11-01

61

Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

Hoffer, P. B.

1980-06-10

62

Are We Warming Earth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the culminating activity of this investigation, students write an editorial entitled, Are We Warming Earth?, in which they attempt to persuade readers to take global warming seriously. Leading up to that activity, students read background material and interpret a variety of supporting graphs, diagrams and charts. The supplemental material focuses on global warming- the causes, effects on physical systems, and effects on human systems. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 3 of three found in the Grades 9-12 Module 3 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 3, while related, can be done independently.

63

Finding a Cold Needle in a Warm Haystack: Infrared Imaging Applied to Locating Cryocooled Crystals in Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate the use of inbred imaging to locate crystals mounted in cryoloops and cryopreserved in a nitrogen gas stream at 100K. In the home laboratory crystals are clearly seen in the infrared images with light transmitting through the sample while irradiating the crystal from behind, and with illumination from a direction perpendicular to the direction of view. The crystals transmit and reflect infrared radiation differently from the surrounding mother liquor and loop. Because of differences in contrast between crystals and their surrounding mother liquor, it is possible to clearly identify the crystal position. In use at the synchrotron, with robotically mounted crystals the small depth of field of the lens required the recording of multiple images at different focal points. Image processing techniques were then used to produce a clear image of the crystal. The resulting infrared images and intensity profiles show that infrared imaging can be a powerful complement to visual imaging in locating crystals in cryocooled loops.

Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Miller, M. D.; Deacon, A. M.

2004-01-01

64

Compare and contrast warm and cold fronts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of Earth science animations show students what happens at cold and warm fronts as clouds are formed by the interaction of warm air and cool air. The cool front animation depicts cumulonimbus clouds forming as a cold front moves into a region of warm air and forces the warm air to rise. In contrast, the warm front animation shows how warm air, moving over cold air, causes a progression of nimbostratus to cirrus clouds to form. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animations, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

65

RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

66

Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery  

SciTech Connect

Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. (Cardiology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-08-01

67

Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface

John Houghton

2005-01-01

68

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

69

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

70

Finding the Cold Needle in a Warm Haystack: Infrared Imaging Applied to Locating Cryo-cooled Crystals in Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally imaging the cryocooling processes of crystals has been demonstrated showing the progression of a cold wave through a crystal from the face closest to the origin of the coldstream ending at the point furthest away. During these studies large volume crystals were clearly distinguished from the loop holding them. Large volume crystals, used for neutron studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. The different infrared transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the cryo-protectant are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast making the crystal visible. As an application of the technology to locating crystals, more small crystals of lysozyme and a bFGF/dna complex were cryo-protected and imaged in large loops. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution. In the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to enable the crystal to be seen in the visible spectrum. These preliminary results will be presented along with advantages and disadvantages of the technique and a discussion of how it might be applied.

Snell, Edward; vanderWoerd, Mark

2003-01-01

71

Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

1988-03-01

72

100 years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

73

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

74

Upper tropospheric warming intensifies sea surface warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the robust features in the future projections made by the state-of-the-art climate models is that the highest warming rate occurs in the upper-troposphere especially in the tropics. It has been suggested that more warming in the upper-troposphere than the lower-troposphere should exert a dampening effect on the sea surface warming associated with the negative lapse rate feedback. This study, however, demonstrates that the tropical upper-tropospheric warming (UTW) tends to trap more moisture in the lower troposphere and weaken the surface wind speed, both contributing to reduce the upward surface latent heat flux so as to trigger the initial sea surface warming. We refer to this as a `top-down' warming mechanism. The rise of tropospheric moisture together with the positive water vapor feedback enhance the downward longwave radiation to the surface and facilitate strengthening the initial sea surface warming. Meanwhile, the rise of sea surface temperature (SST) can feed back to intensify the initial UTW through the moist adiabatic adjustment, completing a positive UTW-SST warming feedback. The proposed `top-down' warming mechanism and the associated positive UTW-SST warming feedback together affect the surface global warming rate and also have important implications for understanding the past and future changes of precipitation, clouds and atmospheric circulations.

Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Lauer, Axel; Lee, June-Yi; Ding, Qinghua

2014-07-01

75

global warming's six americas  

E-print Network

global warming's six americas in september 2012 #12;Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012, G. & Howe, P. (2013) Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012. Yale University and George Mason and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11

Haller, Gary L.

76

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

77

Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient. PMID:25024857

2014-01-01

78

Radionuclide cisternography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) that was investigated using cranial MRI and radionuclide cisternography. Radionuclide imaging was remarkable, showing direct signs of diffuse asymmetric leakage and indirect signs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension consisting of slow CSF circulation to the convexity and rapid appearance of urinary bladder activity. The MRI appearance was also suggestive of SIH, with diffuse meningeal enhancement. Treatment with autologous blood injection at the level of the radionuclide spinal leakage was useful, resulting in disappearance of SIH symptoms. PMID:9509927

Benamor, M; Tainturier, C; Graveleau, P; Pierot, L

1998-03-01

79

Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery.Discussion   The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of

Filip Gemmel; Nicolas Dumarey; Christopher J. Palestro

2006-01-01

80

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

.ipcc.ch) IPCC Climate Models Thursday, January 24, 2013 #12;U.S. Climate Change Science Program (2008) Warming warming models applicable to Southern California. Findings: UCLA Center for Climate Change Solutions 2012Understanding Global Warming Math 483 Spring Semester, 2013 California State University, Northridge

Klein, David

81

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

on record. -- NOAA Global Warming is Real Thursday, January 23, 2014 #12;Temperature Anomalies RelativeUnderstanding Global Warming Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge Thursday, January a period of six months to assess aspects of 25 global warming models applicable to Southern California

Klein, David

82

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

Schwartz, Stephen E.

83

Global Warming --What's Your  

E-print Network

Global Warming -- What's Your Score? In the United States, a typical household of two peopleEd PEr YEar #12;aCtions You Can takE Global Warming -- What Can You Do? If you took all of the actionslbs./year HomeHeating Transportation ElectricityUse Global Warming -- WhatCanYouDo? Waste Disposal #12

84

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND�t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

85

Production of Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity and in 1934 Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie-Joliot discovered artificial\\u000a radioactivity. Most natural radionuclides are produced through one of four radioactive decay chains, each chain fed by a long-lived\\u000a and heavy parent radionuclide. The vast majority of currently known radionuclides, however, are man-made and artificially\\u000a produced through a process of nuclear activation which

Ervin B. Podgoršak

86

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

87

Global warming: A myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in the concentration of several greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during the last few decades has warmed up the\\u000a atmosphere, a phenomena popularly known as ‘global warming’. There are people who believe that ‘global warming’ does not exist,\\u000a or will have negligible consequences on the earth and its biosphere, if at all it exists. Satellite record over the past

Deepanjan Majumdar

2001-01-01

88

Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

1984-04-01

89

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

90

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve CLIMATE, Ph.D. Climate Change and Energy Use in Today's World Some Chilling Considerations About Global Warming by Stephen E. Schwartz, Ph.D., Brookhaven National Laboratory A view of Brookhaven National Lab

Schwartz, Stephen E.

91

Global Warming Observations  

E-print Network

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

Schofield, Jeremy

92

Dosimetry of administered radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides the Proceedings of the Symposium on Dosimetry of Administered Radionuclides held September 21 and 22, 1989 in Washington DC. The sixteen individual presentations are indexed and abstracted separately for the database.

Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I. (eds.) (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

93

Biology of radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. (eds.) (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Raventos, A. (ed.) (Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

94

Commonly Encountered Radionuclides  

MedlinePLUS

... Which nuclides are radioactive? Unstable nuclides of any element can exist. However, almost all elements that are heavier than bismuth, which has 83 ... found in Superfund Sites. Please note : Where an element is listed rather than an individual radionuclide, the ...

95

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

96

Method and apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides. It comprises: a reactor vessel including wall members defining a reactor chamber adapted to receive a mixture of the radionuclides and non-radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; the radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization higher than a first temperature; the non-radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization lower than a second temperature; means for heating the mixture in the chamber to a temperature greater than the second temperature but less than the first temperature to drive the non-radionuclides to a vapor phase while retaining the radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; and means for removing the vapors of the non-radionuclides from the chamber. Whereby substantially all of the non-radionuclides exist the chamber in a vapor phase while the radionuclides remain within the chamber in a solid or liquid phase. Also described is a method for disposing of radionuclides present in a mixture of non-radionuclides and radionuclides.

Harp, R.J.

1990-01-09

97

Climate Warming Postpones Senescence in High Arctic Tundra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lengthening of the growing season at high latitudes, observed by satellites with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been ascribed to climate warming. To test this assumption, and to verify whether changes in vegetation greenness are quantitative or qualitative, we experimentally warmed patches of High Arctic tundra with infrared heating in Northeast Greenland. By analyzing digital images of the

Fleur L. Marchand; Ivan Nijs; Mark Heuer; Sofie Mertens; Fred Kockelbergh; Jean-Yves Pontailler; Ivan Impens; Louis Beyens

2004-01-01

98

Imaging of the Urinary Tract  

MedlinePLUS

... reduced kidney function and eventually kidney failure. CT Scans Computerized tomography scans use a combination of x ... cysts, tumors, and traumatic injuries. CT scan Radionuclide Scans A radionuclide scan is an imaging technique that ...

99

Televised news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

100

Clouds and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real clouds may moderate global warming by negative feedback, or may work the other way. Comparison between observations and predictions suggests that clouds are cooling influences outside the tropics.

John Maddox

1990-01-01

101

Is Earth Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part two of a seven-part National Academies series, Climate Change: Lines of Evidence. The video outlines, with the use of recent research and historical data, how we know that the Earth is warming.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

102

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

103

Cows Causing Global Warming  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

Hacker, Randi

2008-08-06

104

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

Schwartz, Stephen E.

105

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-print Network

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

106

Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

2002-01-01

107

Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose. PMID:24213114

Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

2011-01-01

108

Evaluation of radionuclide transport: Effect of radionuclide sorption and solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors involved in evaluating the suitability of the Columbia River basalts for the siting of a nuclear waste repository is the assessment of the ability of the basalt geohydrologic system to retard the transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Solubility limited release of radionuclides and sorption of radionuclides on basalt and its associated secondary minerals

P. F. Salter; G. K. Jacobs

1982-01-01

109

A study of warm rain detection using ATrain satellite data Ruiyue Chen,1,2  

E-print Network

for using cloud microphysical parameters for estimating warm rain. The CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR for detecting warm rain events and estimating the rain rates. Key parameters for estimating warm rain using estimation include passive microwave radiometers, infrared (IR) imagers, and cloud/precipitation radars. [3

Li, Zhanqing

110

Global Warming: Undo It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Warming: Undo It is a national campaign developed by Environmental Defense "to ramp up the fight against global warming, the most critical environmental issue we face." The Web site contains a multimedia tutorial of sorts, where users can learn more about global warming and lifestyle changes they can make cut down on their carbon dioxide production. The site also includes a multimedia gallery, with video clips of the campaign's television commercials, an interview with Environmental Defense president Fred Drupp and another with Senator John McCain, and more. Users may also choose to sign an e-petition to help get the McCain-Lieberman bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act passed in Congress.

111

Global Warming News Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news page, provided by space.com, posts news stories and other current information related to global warming. Touching on topics ranging from industrial pollution to jet contrails to glacier meltings, this Website attempts to centralize news about many of the recent advances in our understanding of global warming. In many cases, news articles mention the scientific resource(s) upon which the findings are based, serving as a helpful hint for readers wishing to delve deeper into the science behind the news story.

1999-01-01

112

Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

1983-07-01

113

Structure-Driven Design of Radionuclide Tracers for Non-Invasive Imaging of uPAR and Targeted Radiotherapy. The Tale of a Synthetic Peptide Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Research performed during the last two decades has provided a wealth of information to highlight the role of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in the progression and dissemination of invasive and metastatic cancer. In parallel, our perception of the structure-function relationships in uPAR has been refined to such a level that a rational design of uPAR function as well as compounds specifically targeting defined functions of uPAR are now realistic options. This knowledge opens new avenues for developing therapeutic intervention regimens targeting uPAR as well as for monitoring the effects of such treatments by non-invasive imaging using e.g. positron emission tomography. This mini-review will focus on recent advancements in translational research devoted to non-invasive targeting of uPAR, with a view to molecular imaging of its expression in live individuals as well as specific eradication of these cells by targeted radiotherapy. PMID:23843894

Ploug, Michael

2013-01-01

114

Warm-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Warm-ups are questions I assign on the reading. Students read the text, do the questions, and turn one copy of the answers at the beginning of every class. They also keep one copy. The questions range from very objective to extremely subjective, but I generally keep them more concrete and less speculative. In class, we will go over the answers at the point in the lecture they best apply. They make corrections (if needed) as we discuss the questions in class. At that point, I'm also very explicit about what a good answer entails and we even discuss how I might ask this on an exam. As the exam comes up, they know what questions are most important, because we've covered them in the warm-ups. If there was information that I could not cover in a warm-up but could only provide in lecture, I will point that out. In brief, Warm-ups help to accomplish the following things: They help get students to read before class, They provide another source of points based on rewarding them for what they should already be doing, They are the main source of exam questions, They indicate to students what is most important to learn, They provide students a format for assembling information and practicing answers for questions that will be on the exam, and They help break my lecture into shorter segments interspersed with student interaction and feedback.

Price, Paul

115

Weathering warming in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the results of a field experiment heating patches of a subalpine meadow in the Rocky Mountains to determine what will weather and what will weather under projected global warming. The problems with actually measuring the feedback is discussed, along with the changes which come as the meadow is heated.

Gillis, A.M.

1996-03-01

116

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University;)

2002-10-01

117

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

118

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Learn, Windows T.; National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)

119

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

Schwartz, Stephen E.

120

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

121

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

122

-induced continental warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

2014-11-01

123

Kidney Dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy: Influence of Image Timing, Time-Activity Integration Method, and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Kidney dosimetry in 177Lu and 90Y PRRT requires 3 to 6 whole-body/SPECT scans to extrapolate the peptide kinetics, and it is considered time and resource consuming. We investigated the most adequate timing for imaging and time-activity interpolating curve, as well as the performance of a simplified dosimetry, by means of just 1-2 scans. Finally the influence of risk factors and of the peptide (DOTATOC versus DOTATATE) is considered. 28 patients treated at first cycle with 177Lu DOTATATE and 30 with 177Lu DOTATOC underwent SPECT scans at 2 and 6 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after the radiopharmaceutical injection. Dose was calculated with our simplified method, as well as the ones most used in the clinic, that is, trapezoids, monoexponential, and biexponential functions. The same was done skipping the 6?h and the 3?d points. We found that data should be collected until 100?h for 177Lu therapy and 70?h for 90Y therapy, otherwise the dose calculation is strongly influenced by the curve interpolating the data and should be carefully chosen. Risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) cause a rather statistically significant 20% increase in dose (t-test, P < 0.10), with DOTATATE affecting an increase of 25% compared to DOTATOC (t-test, P < 0.05). PMID:23865075

Guerriero, F.; Ferrari, M. E.; Botta, F.; Fioroni, F.; Grassi, E.; Versari, A.; Sarnelli, A.; Pacilio, M.; Amato, E.; Strigari, L.; Bodei, L.; Paganelli, G.; Iori, M.; Pedroli, G.; Cremonesi, M.

2013-01-01

124

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

125

3, 13551366, 2006 Warming mobilises  

E-print Network

discussed proposition, would imply that global warming leads to an even stronger increaseBGD 3, 1355­1366, 2006 Warming mobilises young and old soil carbon equally F. Conen et al. Title Warming mobilises young and old soil carbon equally F. Conen1 , J. Leifeld2 , B. Seth1 , and C. Alewell1 1

Boyer, Edmond

126

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests  

E-print Network

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A Historical Perspective Carlos Jaramillo and Andr´es C) in the face of global warming. Will TRFs collapse? The fossil record can inform us about that. Our compilation during global warm events, even though temperatures were appropriate for doing so, suggesting that solar

Collin, Rachel

127

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots  

E-print Network

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots from Causes to Solutions* Jim Hansen 26 February 2007 National://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/worldwatch_nov2006.pdf) 5. Communicating dangers and opportunities in global warming, Amer-16, 2006. (http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2006/2006_Hansen.pdf) 8. Global warming: Connecting the dots from

Hansen, James E.

129

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part interactive feature illustrates principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human factors. In the first part, students explore climate at Mono Lake in California. They will estimate the temperature for a particular time period by computing the surface energy in the area, and use the model to estimate temperature for any month, in modern and ice age climates, and to predict future temperatures. In the second part, they use data on fossil fuel emissions, gross domestic product, energy types, land use, and other gas emissions to model temperature changes in different world cities for a selected month and year. The exercise includes assessment materials for teachers and tutorials on global warming.

130

Global Warming Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn firsthand how society and environment might be impacted by global warming and how to help people make better decisions regarding all the complicated issues surrounding climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Students will take on the role of scientist, business leader, or policy maker and be part of a climate action team, which will make some of the same discoveries and decisions that are made in the âreal worldâ every day.

2007-01-01

131

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

132

The management of painful bone metastases with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on the management of painful bone metastases, with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy, and introduces oligometastases and quantitative imaging evaluations for clinical trials. METHODS: The current use of radionuclides, alone and in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for painful bone metastases, is discussed, including toxicity, cost and overall outcomes. RESULTS: Radionuclide therapy is shown to be a useful and cost-effective means of alleviating bone pain in metastatic disease and may be more effective when combined with chemotherapy, bisphosphonates and radiation therapy. Early use of radionuclides in pain therapy may limit cancer progression by inhibiting oligometastases development. Thus, radionuclides can significantly decrease patient morbidity, prolong patient survival, and may decrease the occurrence of new bone metastases. CONCLUSION: Palliative pain therapy is critical for effectively managing bone metastases, with treatment options including analgesics, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy and radionuclides. Radionuclide therapy is underutilized. Recent studies using radionuclides with chemotherapy and bisphosponates, or using newer radionuclides or combinations of radionuclides and treatment paradigms (e.g., higher activities, repetitive or cyclic administration, chemo sensitization, chemo supplementation), are encouraging. A comprehensive, inter-disciplinary clinical approach is needed. Clinical collaborations will optimize radionuclide therapy for pain palliation and increase awareness of its benefits. PMID:17668645

Hillegonds, Darren J.; Franklin, Stephen; Shelton, David K.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vani

2007-01-01

133

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

De Nie, Michael W.

134

Global warming - A reduced threat  

SciTech Connect

Issues associated with global warming are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial warming from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.

Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (United States))

1992-10-01

135

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

136

Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

1992-10-01

137

Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific Warm Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in observed sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature are analyzed for the tropical Pacific during 1955–2003. Since\\u000a 1955, the western Pacific Warm Pool has significantly warmed and freshened, whereas SSS has been increasing in the western\\u000a Coral Sea and part of the subtropical ocean. Waters warmer than 28.5°C warmed on average by 0.29°C, and freshened by 0.34\\u000a pss per

Sophie Cravatte; Thierry Delcroix; Dongxiao Zhang; Michael McPhaden; Julie Leloup

2009-01-01

138

Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gr...

B. Macintosh

2005-01-01

139

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

140

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree  

SciTech Connect

The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

1981-08-01

141

RHIC warm-bore systems  

SciTech Connect

Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and warm-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable warm-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and warm-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to warm-bore regions of the machine.

Welch, K.M.

1994-07-01

142

Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning  

SciTech Connect

Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

1980-10-01

143

The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Oncology, Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G1Z2 (Canada)

2008-08-11

144

The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A.

2008-08-01

145

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These materials illustrate the principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human-caused factors. They include a set of activities on the Earth's energy budget and future climate change. The energy budget model uses Mono Lake, California as an example. The future climate change activity uses the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data for six scenarios can be examined and comparisons can be observed by selecting a change or stabilization in emissions. The tools in the activity can generate data that examine predicted changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global and regional temperatures, sea level, and flooding. There are also tutorials on a variety of topics, such as Milankovitch Cycles, Earth's seasons, the Carbon cycle, and others. An assessment tool is included so that instructors can determine how well learning objectives are being met.

146

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

147

Is the Arctic Ocean warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent high-quality hydrographic measurements in the Arctic Ocean have revealed a warming of up to 1 K of the Atlantic Layer when compared with Russian climatologies of the 1940s to 1970s. About half of this warming can be attributed to the different methods by which the two data sets were obtained: the climatologies are based on discrete bottle data in

Kerstin Grotefendt; Kai Logemann; Detlef Quadfasel; Stephanie Ronski

1998-01-01

148

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

149

Biology of radionuclide therapy. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. [eds.] [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Raventos, A. [ed.] [Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States); Burt, R.W. [ed.] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1989-12-31

150

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

151

Transition warming and cooling remanences in magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insight into the size and morphology of assemblages of magnetite particles can be gained by comparing temperature variations of remanence or susceptibility after zero-field cooling (ZFC) and after field cooling (FC) through the Verwey transition around Tv = 120 K. At 10 K a sample is demagnetized following ZFC, but in the FC initial state before warming the sample has a transition cooling remanence (TrCRM) acquired in crossing Tv. The matching transition warming remanence (TrWRM) acquired as a result of heating a demagnetized sample from low temperature across Tv is often called inverse thermoremanent magnetization (ITRM). In TrCRM experiments, initially demagnetized samples were cooled in a 2 mT field from 300 K to 10 K. Magnetization M was measured at 1 K to 5 K intervals, the highest-resolution data being taken between 140 K and 90 K. The field was zeroed at 10 K, and the TrCRM was monitored during zero-field warming back to 300 K. The properties of TrCRMs are generally similar to those of TrWRMs produced by heating a ZFC sample in a 2 mT field from 10 K. In 10 of 12 samples (grain sizes from 0.6 to 135 ?m), M of monoclinic magnetite produced by field cooling through Tv exactly equals M of cubic magnetite produced by field warming through Tv, even though the ultimate TrCRM and TrWRM values when H ? 0 are entirely different. Mirror-image symmetry was observed between in-field warming curves tracking the acquisition of TrWRM and zero-field warming curves of TrCRM between 10 and 300 K. The symmetry, with increases in the field-on M curves mirroring decreases in the field-off Mr curves, was almost perfect from 10 to 110 K. Approximate symmetry was also observed between in-field cooling curves tracking TrCRM production and zero-field cooling curves of TrWRM between 300 K and Tv. Detailed study of the properties and mechanism(s) of transition remanences will help clarify why the ZFC/FC method is diagnostic in some instances and not in others.

Dunlop, David J.

2007-11-01

152

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high

Manfred Fischer; Willm U. Kampen

2012-01-01

153

Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

Kriss, J. P.

1973-01-01

154

How the West Was Warmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

155

Recent Warming of Lake Kivu  

PubMed Central

Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

2014-01-01

156

Understanding Public Perceptions of Global Warming.  

E-print Network

??In this dissertation, I investigate the determinants on Americans perceptions of global warming and individuals environmentally significant behaviors to reduce global warming. Specially, I examine… (more)

Shao, Wanyun

2012-01-01

157

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

158

Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.  

PubMed

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

2012-01-01

159

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

160

Recent warming (2000-2010) and coral growth in the Western Pacific warm pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the oxygen isotopic variations in coral from Chuuk Atoll located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), with the goal to understand interannual variability of the WPWP and its influence on distant regions. Examination of X-ray images and stable oxygen isotopic values indicate that the coral records cover the period of the last 50 years approximately. The record of Pu activity also supports this age determination. The oxygen isotopic values of the coral skeleton illustrate the seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of sea surface condition which represent significant oceanographic changes of thermal and hydrologic variations in the region. For example, they were heavy for El Nino years and light values for La Nina years due to cool temperature and drier condition for El Nino period and warm temperature and increased precipitation for La Nina in the WPWP. Especially during the last 10 years (2000-2010) when the WPWP is characterized by a warming and freshening trend, the coral growth appears to be altered. X-ray images illustrate no distinctive annual band during these stressful years. Instead, micro layers are dominant. Coral skeletal density records also show light values for the period. We attribute the growth changes to environmental stress (warmer, fresher, possibly lower pH). In further studies we hope to identify these long-term environmental trends and their effects on the Chuuk Atoll corals.

Lee, K.; Wagner, A. J.; Lee, S. H.; Anderson, D. M.; Kim, J.

2012-12-01

161

Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...

162

Global warming continues in 1989  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current rate of global warming it will take another 10 years or so to be confident that the greenhouse effect is with us. Although the global warming trend is consistent with an increasing contribution by the greenhouse effect, direct signs that the greenhouse effect is intensifying are still hard to come by in the temperature record. Greenhouse models agree that if that is happening, the temperature increase should be most pronounced around the Arctic. Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Siberia warmed sharply in the 1980s, but the region from eastern Canada through Greenland and into Scandinavia cooled markedly.

Kerr, R.A.

1990-02-02

163

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

164

Active Warming During Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that 15 min of forced-air prewarming, combined with intraoperative warm- ing, prevents hypothermia and shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. We simulta- neously tested the hypothesis that maintaining ma- ternal normothermia increases newborn tempera- ture, umbilical vein pH, and Apgar scores. Thirty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to forced-air warming or to

Ernst-Peter Horn; Frank Schroeder; Daniel I. Sessler; Natascha Hiltmeyer; Thomas Standl; Jochen Schulte Esch

2002-01-01

165

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

166

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

167

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

168

[Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50?% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90?%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >?30?% and symptom control in almost 80?% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. PMID:25269725

Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

2014-10-01

169

Active Movement Warm-Up Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

2011-01-01

170

Warm Up to a Good Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most choral directors in schools today have been exposed to a variety of warm-up procedures. Yet, many do not use the warm-up time effectively as possible. Considers the factors appropriate to a warm-up exercise and three basic warm-up categories. (Author/RK)

Tovey, David C.

1977-01-01

171

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-print Network

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

172

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

173

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

174

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

Lau, William; Wu, H. T.; Agu

175

The Great Warming Brian Fagan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

Fagan, B. M.

2010-12-01

176

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

177

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

178

Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†  

PubMed Central

Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

Dixit, Manish

2013-01-01

179

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

SciTech Connect

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Research, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

2006-10-01

180

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

181

Warming early Earth and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to warm early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to warm the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars warm with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface warming. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have warmed the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.

Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-05-23

182

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

183

Imaging.  

PubMed

Imaging of the musculoskeletal system includes many modalities and is an area that is changing rapidly. Selection of the most accurate techniques and avoidance of duplication are vital to both good patient care and cost containment. PMID:3466135

Wilkinson, R

1986-12-01

184

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

185

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

E-print Network

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

2007-06-28

186

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24

187

Global warming at the summit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

Showstack, Randy

188

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

189

Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the "Holy Gray"  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

2007-01-01

190

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

191

Warming up to solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

Biondo, B.

1996-07-01

192

Warm Working of Armor Plate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taking advantage of warm working to improve the toughness of armor plate requires that the plates be able to be rolled on present day mills. Calculations indicated that a 50 inch wide steel plate with hardnesses in excess of 400 BHN could not be rolled th...

E. J. Ripling, N. N. Breyer, R. P. O'Shea

1967-01-01

193

Global Warming, Irreversibility and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of economists have argued that the literature on the irreversibility effect implies that current abatement of greenhouse gas emissions should be greater when there is the possibility of obtaining better information in the future about the potential damages from global warming than when there is no possibility of obtaining better information. In this paper the authors show that

Alistair Ulph; David Ulph

1997-01-01

194

Warming trends: A flatter Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regular beat of the seasons and between day and night are far more noticeable than recent increases in surface temperature. Researchers now show that these rhythms are changing in a way that parallels the pattern of long-term surface warming.

Stine, Alexander R.

2014-11-01

195

Global Warming: Is it Real?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the Why Files discusses research that provides new evidence for a century-long warming trend. The research is based on records of lake and river ice melting and freezing dates over a 150-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. Researcher John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison published his results in the journal Science.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-09-11

196

Global warming and nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to give a review of reasons for believing that the problem of global warming is more urgent than widely assumed, largely following the lead of a recent book by Lovelock. It is argued that increased use of nuclear power is the best course, especially if fusion power can be achieved. A short note is appended

Alex M. Andrew

2007-01-01

197

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

Schwartz, Stephen E.

198

Global warming continues in 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current

R. A. Kerr

1990-01-01

199

Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale warming, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that warming and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface warming. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of warming will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of warming, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.

Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.

2012-07-01

200

Tropical Cyclogenesis Factors in a Warming Climate  

E-print Network

Understanding the underlying causes of tropical cyclone formation is crucial to predicting tropical cyclone behavior in a warming environment, given the Earth's current warming trend. This study examines two sets of simulations from the National...

Cathey, Stephen Christopher

2012-02-14

201

Global warming debates: the reading course  

E-print Network

of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

Huybers, Peter

202

Biomonitoring Radionuclide Deposition with Lichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aboveground nuclear tests conducted in the fifties and sixties of the 20th century gave rise to large amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr in the environment. Both radionuclides have physical half-lives of approximately 30 years and are still found in parts\\u000a of the ecosystem. The long-lived fission products persist, especially in alpine and circumpolar environments characterised\\u000a by a very slow biological

Georg Heinrich; Klaus Remele

203

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

204

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

205

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

206

Global warming and its astro-causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the problem of global warming from the viewpoint of wholeness. That is, the problem of global warming will be looked at in a comprehensive study considering several aspects of the cosmos, the Earth, and the phenomenon of life. With such a broad understanding in mind, first analyzes both the disadvantageous and advantageous aspects of the current global warming.

Zhenqiu Ren; Yi Lin

2001-01-01

207

The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance  

E-print Network

The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood qualitatively using the two concepts: Greenhouse effect: natural, beneficial consequence of an atmosphere Global warming: our (possible) enhancement of the greenhouse effect Two important Definitions #12;Observed

Blais, Brian

208

Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

1974-01-01

209

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

210

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

211

Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues  

E-print Network

Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues. 1a). Global surface air warming in the past 25 years is now about 0.5°C, and in the past century Bay and extended south and southeast of Greenland (1), have given way to warm anomalies in the past

212

The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and  

E-print Network

The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

Reed, Christopher A.

213

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

214

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a history of research on global warming. It supplements a short monograph that tells the history of climate change research as a single story. The web site contains essays on a wide range of topics including factors that influence climate, data on climate changes, theories and models of climate, and societal issues. This material can be used as a resource for teaching about physics issues impacting society, sustainability, or scientific methods.

Weart, Spencer

2013-06-13

215

Economic Theory and Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hirofumi Uzawa's theoretical framework addresses three major problems concerning global warming and other environmental hazards. First, it considers all phenomena involved with global environmental issues that exhibit externalities of one kind or another. Secondly, it covers global environmental issues involving international and intergenerational equity and justice. Lastly, it deals with global environmental issues concerning the management of the atmosphere, the oceans, water, soil, and other natural resources having to be decided by a consensus of affected countries.

Uzawa, Hirofumi

2003-08-01

216

Large warm worked, alloy article  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large, austenitic, non-magnetic, stainless steel, alloy article which has been significantly warm worked between about 1500° F. and 1650° F. but not subsequently annealed, which has a 0.2% yield strength of at least about 90 ksi, and which, when formed into a U-bend, does not undergo stress corrosion cracking within about 700 hours in boiling saturated aqueous sodium chloride

T. A. DeBold; J. H. Magee

1985-01-01

217

Global Warming and Coastal Erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most certain consequences of global warming is an increase of global (eustatic) sea level. The resulting inundation\\u000a from rising seas will heavily impact low-lying areas; at least 100 million persons live within one meter of mean sea level\\u000a and are at increased risk in the coming decades. The very existence of some island states and deltaic coasts

Keqi Zhang; Bruce C. Douglas; Stephen P. Leatherman

2004-01-01

218

Global warming and economic externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite worldwide policy efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) remains a negative externality.\\u000a Economic equilibrium paths in the presence of such an uncorrected externality are inefficient; as a consequence, there is\\u000a no real economic opportunity cost to correcting this externality by mitigating global warming. Mitigation investment using\\u000a resources diverted from conventional investments can raise

Armon Rezai; Duncan K. Foley; Lance Taylor

2012-01-01

219

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the schoolâs traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles, and developed solutions to the traffic problem. Their solutions, if implemented, will reduce their schoolâs carbon footprint. Completing this project made other students in the school aware of the severity of the global climate change problem.

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

220

Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

2012-01-01

221

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

222

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

223

The threat of global warming  

SciTech Connect

If the scientific predictions of global warming hold true, there`s trouble ahead for much of the world`s fresh water - and for people living in low-lying areas. The phenomenon, first described in the 1980`s, attributes projected rises in global temperatures to the emission of carbon dioxide and other {open_quotes}greenhouse gases,{close_quotes} so called because they trap the sun`s solar energy close to the Earth`s surface, much as a glass roof helps keep a greenhouse warm. The overwhelming source of these emission is the burning of fossil fuels such as oil, gasoline, coal and natural gas, the principal power sources of modern industry and transportation. In 1988, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the validity and potential effects of global warming. The panel, composed of an international group of climate scientists, issued a report in June 1990 predicting a nearly two-degree rise in the globe`s average temperature by 2020. At that unprecedented rate of increase, the panel found, humankind would be living in a hotter environment that ever before.

NONE

1995-12-15

224

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

225

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

226

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid  

E-print Network

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

Hansen, James E.

227

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

228

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

229

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

230

Warm Spray Forming of Ti-6Al-4V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm spray (WS) is a modification of high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, in which the temperature of the supersonic gas flow generated by the combustion of kerosene and oxygen is controlled by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. The inert gas is injected into the mixing chamber placed between the combustion chamber and the powder feed ports, thus the temperature of the propellant gas can be controlled from ~700 to 2,000 K. Since WS allows for higher particle temperatures in comparison to cold spray, warm sprayed particles are more softened upon impact, thus resulting in greater deformation facilitating the formation of shear instability for bonding. Recently, the combustion pressure of WS has been increased from 1 (low-pressure warm spray) to 4 MPa (high-pressure warm spray) in order to increase the velocity of sprayed particles. Effects of spray parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties, and splats formation of Ti-6Al-4V were systematically studied. Obtained coatings were examined by analyzing the coating cross-section images, microhardness as well as oxygen content. In addition, flattening ratio of splats was calculated as a function of nitrogen flow rate. It was found that the increased particle velocity caused by the increased combustion pressure had significant beneficial effects in terms of improving density and controlling the oxygen level in the sprayed Ti-6Al-4V coatings.

Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

2014-01-01

231

Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

2002-01-01

232

Simulated sudden stratospheric warming - Synoptic evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of a sudden stratospheric warming event which occurred spontaneously during a general circulation model simulation of the global atmospheric circulation. Two separate warming pulses exhibit the same dynamical evolution with a 'cycle' of about two weeks. Two distinct phases of the warming cycle are apparent: (1) the generation of an intense localized warm cell in conjunction with significant adiabatic heating associated with cross-isobar flow which has been induced by vertically propagating long wave disturbances; and (2) the northward transport of that warm cell via advection by the essentially geostrophic windfield corresponding to an intense, offset polar cyclone, in conjunction with a strong Aleutian anticyclone. During the first warming pulse in January, a moderate Aleutian anticyclone was in place prior to the warming cycle and was intensified by interaction with an eastward traveling anticyclone induced by the differential advection of the warm cell. The second warming pulse occurred in early February with a strong Aleutian anticyclone already established. In contrast to the January event, the warming in February culminated with reversal of the zonal westerlies to easterlies over a significant depth of the stratosphere.

Blackshear, W. T.; Grose, W. L.; Turner, R. E.

1987-01-01

233

I'm Warm Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to make students aware of just how much clean fresh water is wasted while waiting for the water to become warm in our spigots. They will make predictions of the amount of time and the quantity of water wasted, collect data for the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and calculate the class average of time and water wasted per sink. They are then introduced to the concept of projections, based on the population of the city, state, and country per day, month, and year, construct a graph showing these projections, and discuss possible solutions.

Weldon, Carylon

234

Tumor Hypoxia Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to measure tumor hypoxia in assessing the aggressiveness of tumor and predicting the outcome of therapy. A\\u000a number of invasive and noninvasive techniques have been exploited to measure tumor hypoxia, including polarographic needle\\u000a electrodes, immunohistochemical staining, radionuclide imaging (positron emission tomography [PET] and single-photon emission\\u000a computed tomography [SPECT]), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging (bioluminescence and

Xilin Sun; Gang Niu; Nicholas Chan; Baozhong Shen; Xiaoyuan Chen

2011-01-01

235

Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic sorbents are often used in separation of metals and radionuclides in radioanalytical application and they were also used in technological scale for separation of radionuclides in cleanup of Three Mile Island NPP. Inorganic sorbents become popular in the last years because no problem with organic contamination, there are stable against radiation, sorption efficiency can be tailor made for selective

P. Rajec; L'. Mátel; J. Orechovská; J. Šúcha; I. Novák

1996-01-01

236

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE APPLICATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

required for each Radionuclides which will be used under the Permit: Radionuclide Experimental Limit (mCi) Possession Limit (mCi) Per Shipment Limit (mCi) Annual Shipment Limit (mCi) #12;List the make, model with atomic number greater than 83, the use of greater than 25mCi in a single experiment, the use

Firestone, Jeremy

237

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

238

Anthropogenic radionuclides in Peter the Great bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of radionuclide distributions in seawater and bottom sediments of Peter the Great bay was conducted in September–October 1994. Sampling sites were chosen close to potential radioactivity sources as well as in fishing and recreational areas. The results have shown that the main sources of radionuclides in Peter the Great bay are still global atmospheric fallout and the

A. V Tkalin; E. L Chaykovskaya

2000-01-01

239

Warm gas TVC design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

240

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

Ibanez, Ines; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

241

Spatial Distribution of Warm Dust in Early-Type Galaxies  

E-print Network

Images taken with the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope show that the spatial distribution of warm dust emission in lenticular galaxies is often organized into dynamically-stable structures strongly resembling spiral arms. These galaxies have bulge-to-disk-ratios and colors for their stellar content appropriate for their morphological classification. Two of the three galaxies with warm dust detected at 8.0 um also show far-IR emission expected from that dust. More importantly, the [5.8]-[8.0] color of the dust emission matches the colors found for late-type, star-forming galaxies, as well as theoretical predictions for PAH emission from dust grains. The spatially resolved dust structures may be powerful indicators of the evolutionary history of the lenticular class of galaxies, either as a tracer of on-going quiescent star formation or as a fossil record of a previous episode of more active star formation.

Pahre, M A; Fazio, G G; Willner, S P

2004-01-01

242

Spatial Distribution of Warm Dust in Early-Type Galaxies  

E-print Network

Images taken with the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope show that the spatial distribution of warm dust emission in lenticular galaxies is often organized into dynamically-stable structures strongly resembling spiral arms. These galaxies have bulge-to-disk-ratios and colors for their stellar content appropriate for their morphological classification. Two of the three galaxies with warm dust detected at 8.0 um also show far-IR emission expected from that dust. More importantly, the [5.8]-[8.0] color of the dust emission matches the colors found for late-type, star-forming galaxies, as well as theoretical predictions for PAH emission from dust grains. The spatially resolved dust structures may be powerful indicators of the evolutionary history of the lenticular class of galaxies, either as a tracer of on-going quiescent star formation or as a fossil record of a previous episode of more active star formation.

M. A. Pahre; M. L. N. Ashby; G. G. Fazio; S. P. Willner

2004-06-16

243

Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts  

E-print Network

will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming © Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

2001-01-01

244

Arctic Oscillation Induced Warming and Terrestrial Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a simplified land surface and vegetation dynamics model to investigate the response of the Eurasian boreal region to continued warming through a continued trend in the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The primary period of influence for the AO is winter and spring, and thus the response of the system to warming during this period may be distinctly different from across season secular warming (i.e., anthropgenica global warming). This preliminary work serves as stepping stone towards a fully integrated investigation of interactions and feedbacks between climate, ecosystem processes (vegetation dynamics, carbon cycling), and the terrestrial cryosphere (permafrost, snow cover).

Cook, B. I.; Epstein, H. E.; Smith, T. M.; Mann, M. E.

2005-12-01

245

Ecological stability in response to warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under warming remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in warmed microcosms were explained in terms of warming-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that warming stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated warming effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that warming stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, warming caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: warming should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.

Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.

2014-03-01

246

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

247

[Theory study: warming-dredging and warming-reinforcing of moxibustion].  

PubMed

Through analysis of the basic mechanism and principle of moxibustion, it is found that the most basic characteristic of moxibustion on acupoints of human body rests with its warm stimulation. The multi-effect of the warm stimulation of moxibustion can be generalized into the following 2 aspects: 1) warming-dredging: to dredge meridians with warming through regulation of qi and blood circulation, and removing stagnation in meridians and collaterals. 2) warming-reinforcing: to reinforce with warming through strengthening of yang qi as well as tonifying yin through reinforcing of yang. The two effects are inter-depending and inter-acting on each other. The mechanism of warming-dredging and warming-reinforcing is different from that of the materia medica, and it has its own specific connotation. PMID:23213987

Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Huan-Gan; Hu, Ling; Chang, Xiao-Rong; Song, Xiao-Ge; Ma, Xiao-Peng

2012-11-01

248

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

249

Characteristics of Arabian Sea mini warm pool and Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool (ASMWP) is a part of the Indian Ocean Warm Pool and formed in the eastern Arabian Sea prior to the onset of the summer monsoon season. This warm pool attained its maximum intensity during the pre-monsoon season and dissipated with the commencement of summer monsoon. The main focus of the present work was on the triggering of the dissipation of this warm pool and its relation to the onset of summer monsoon over Kerala. This phenomenon was studied utilizing NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric and Research) re-analysis data, TRMM Micro wave Imager (TMI) and observational data. To define the ASMWP, sea surface temperature exceeding 30.25°C was taken as the criteria. The warm pool attained its maximum dimension and intensity nearly 2 weeks prior to the onset of summer monsoon over Kerala. Interestingly, the warm pool started its dissipation immediately after attaining its maximum core temperature. This information can be included in the present numerical models to enhance the prediction capability. It was also found that the extent and intensity of the ASMWP varied depending on the type of monsoon i.e., excess, normal, and deficient monsoon. Maximum core temperature and wide coverage of the warm pool observed during the excess monsoon years compared to normal and deficient monsoon years. The study also revealed a strong relationship between the salinity in the eastern Arabian Sea and the nature of the monsoon.

Neema, C. P.; Hareeshkumar, P. V.; Babu, C. A.

2012-05-01

250

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.  

E-print Network

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected. 2. Very likely (>90% certainty), humans are causing most of the warming. 3. No single technology are very likely to impose net annual costs, which will increase over time as global temperatures increase

Minnesota, University of

251

Reports from a Warming Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Never afraid to take on controversial topics, American RadioWorks has recently released this special report on the early signs of climate change. For this particular report, they brought together a team of eleven young reporters who were led by noted environmental journalist Sandy Tolan. Their assignment was to identify different places around the world where global warming was making changes to both âÂÂlife and landscapeâÂÂ. Visitors to the site can listen to the entire radio documentary, or they can also read about some of the individual locations profiled in this presentation. Some of these areas include the fabled snows of Kilimanjaro, the island of Tuvalu in the Pacific Ocean, and the town of Churchill in Upper Manitoba, which has been known as âÂÂThe Polar Bear Capital of the Worldâ for decades.

2005-01-01

252

Modern Physics and Warm Friendship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of warm friendship...

Yang, Chen Ning

2013-05-01

253

Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

2010-01-01

254

How the public engages with global warming: A social representations approach.  

PubMed

The present study utilises social representations theory to explore common sense conceptualisations of global warming risk using an in-depth, qualitative methodology. Fifty-six members of a British, London-based 2008 public were initially asked to draw or write four spontaneous "first thoughts or feelings" about global warming. These were then explored via an open-ended, exploratory interview. The analysis revealed that first thoughts, either drawn or written, often mirrored the images used by the British press to depict global warming visually. Thus in terms of media framings, it was their visual rather than their textual content that was spontaneously available for their audiences. Furthermore, an in-depth exploration of interview data revealed that global warming was structured around three themata: self/other, natural/unnatural and certainty/uncertainty, reflecting the complex and often contradictory nature of common sense thinking in relation to risk issues. PMID:23832882

Smith, Nicholas; Joffe, Helene

2013-01-01

255

Mankind Can Strive Against the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most likely the cause of the global warming can be carbon dioxide venting into the atmosphere as a result of organic fuel burning though it isn’t proved rigorously. Now it is clear that mankind is in charge of the beginning of the global warming and must prevent it. The point of bifurcation- the point of the loss of stability can’t

Michel E. Gertsenstein; Boris N. Shvilkin

256

Warm multiaxial forging of AISI 1016 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the microstructural evolution in AISI 1016 steel processed by using warm multiaxial forging technique is studied. With increase in multiaxial forging strain, a finer substructure evolved. Structural evolution in pearlite phase is addressed in detail considering the strain paths and strain rate. Pearlitic cementite fragmented into ultrafine particles of about 100–300nm size. Warm multiaxial forging process also

A. K. Padap; G. P. Chaudhari; V. Pancholi; S. K. Nath

2010-01-01

257

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming--  

E-print Network

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming-- Potential Linkages and Consequences" --ROGER PIELKE JR LANDSEA NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Miami, Florida --MAX MAYFIELD Tropical Prediction Center appreciate the effort taken by Anthes et al. (2006) to respond to our paper "Hurricanes and global warming

Colorado at Boulder, University of

258

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

259

Will afforestestion strategies help mitigate global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow down and mitigate global warming. Deforestation releases CO2 to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, and evapotranspiration with associated changes in the cloud cover, also affect climate. While

K. Caldeira; M. Wickett; T. Phillips; D. Lobell

2006-01-01

260

Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the warm dark matter (WDM) model using high resolution N-body simulations, and identified a number of distinctive observational signatures. We find that replacing cold with warm dark matter has the following effects: 1. Smoothing of massive halo cores, lowering core densities and increasing core radii. 2. Lowering greatly the characteristic density of low mass halos. 3. Reduction

Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

2000-01-01

261

The economic fundamentals of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

If unpriced emission of greenhouse gases imposes real costs on future generations, both present and future generations can enjoy a higher con- sumption of economic goods and services through the correction of this unpriced externality, so there is no real economic opportunity cost to mitigation of global warming. The misperception that control of global warming is costly rests on the

Duncan K. Foley

2007-01-01

262

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

263

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to

W. M. Washington

1993-01-01

264

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

265

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

266

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

267

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

268

Group Work: Global warming & natural variability  

E-print Network

Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

Allan, Richard P.

269

Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming  

E-print Network

Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming What factors influence cause change on decadal, warming due to greenhouse gases began to exceed natural climate variability, so that global meanC, but affect global mean temperatures by much less, ~0.1 oC for about 2-3 years. Produce SO2 aerosols

Toohey, Darin W.

270

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College;)

2003-08-01

271

Warm Inflation and its Microphysical Basis  

E-print Network

The microscopic quantum field theory origins of warm inflation dynamics are reviewed. The warm inflation scenario is first described along with its results, predictions and comparison with the standard cold inflation scenario. The basics of thermal field theory required in the study of warm inflation are discussed. Quantum field theory real time calculations at finite temperature are then presented and the derivation of dissipation and stochastic fluctuations are shown from a general perspective. Specific results are given of dissipation coefficients for a variety of quantum field theory interaction structures relevant to warm inflation, in a form that can readily be used by model builders. Different particle physics models realising warm inflation are presented along with their observational predictions.

Arjun Berera; Ian G. Moss; Rudnei O. Ramos

2008-08-13

272

Improving Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Using Nuclear Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

. The general formulae can be applied to any tumor size, any radionuclide, and any pharmacokinetic nanoparticle distribution throughout the body, ultimately allowing a quick method of approximating the necessary activation time and treatment dosage parameters...

Evans, Jordan Andrew

2013-05-03

273

Cloud clusters and superclusters over the oceanic warm pool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study aimed at examining the size distributions of cloud clusters and the temperature distributions within them as functions of location, year, phase of the ISV, and time of day is considered. IR satellite images of tropical convection over the oceanic warm pool were processed to reveal cloud clusters, connected areas with cloud-top temperatures lower than a given threshold value. Results were obtained for a very cold threshold (208 K), corresponding roughly to the radar echo area within Australian monsoon cloud clusters, and for a moderately cold threshold (235 K) frequently used in climatic rainfall estimation.

Mapes, Brian E.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

1993-01-01

274

Migration of radionuclides in the enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of transport and retaidation processes, chemistry and migration behaviour of radionuclides of fission products\\u000a and actinides in engineered barriers, especially bentonites, have been summarised. A “critical group of radionuclides” is\\u000a proposed for thorough investigation of their retardation properties in natural sorbents. The evaluation of accessible data\\u000a of retardation and transport parameters relevant for the conditions of underground deep

V. Jedináková-K?ižová

1998-01-01

275

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

276

Behaviour of the Radionuclides in Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of theoretical and experimental studies a method of assessment and prognosis of the radionuclides migration soils\\u000a has been created.\\u000a \\u000a Experimental methods for the determination of transfer characteristics and their assessment, and also the methods for prediction\\u000a of radionuclide migration in frozen grounds should provide a clear distinction between driving forces and fluxes of the convection\\u000a and diffusion

G. Brovka; I. Dedulya; E. Rovdan

277

(Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

Hoffman, F.O.

1990-12-28

278

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming  

E-print Network

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

Kuang, Zhiming

279

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-print Network

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

280

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2010-04-01

281

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2012-04-01

282

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2011-04-01

283

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2013-04-01

284

21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device —(1)...

2014-04-01

285

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

286

Wave Signatures in the Polar Mesopause Region during the January, 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on a two minute cadence at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, 80N) with an all sky imager and a Doppler Imaging Interferometer were taken during the January, 2009 major stratospheric warming. These observations complement temperature and irradiance measurments previously reported from the same location. Oscillations with periods of 4 days, 2.5 days, 24 hours, 16 hours 12 hours and 8 hours are observed during this warming period. In addition shorter period oscillations in the airglow observations and wind observations are observed. This paper summarizes these observations and delineates the evolution of these features and the large scale winds during this warming event.Meridional winds from Doppler shifts in the oxygen green line airglow observed with the ERWIN II instrument from January 16-31, 2009. Individual points are observations every 2 minutes with an error of 2 m/s.

Ward, W. E.; Kristoffersen, S.; Vail, C.

2012-12-01

287

Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these materials and many conventional processes are adapted including the temperature as a new parameter. In addition to this option, warm hydroforming technology for the lightweight materials is currently emerging to achieve reduced number of manufacturing steps and part consolidation. The warm hydroforming process makes use of the improved formability at elevated temperature and it also utilizes the fluid to transport the forming action as well as heat. In the present work, the authors have studied the warm hydroforming process using two different numerical approaches in order to simulate it. The first software is traditionally used in metal stamping simulations (also warm and hot) unlike the second. The analyzed material is an Al 6061 alloy 2,03 mm thick. Process responses such as: bulge height, thickness reduction and strain distribution have been evaluated different temperature levels (room temperature, equal to 23° C, 100° C and 200° C). The obtained results have been used to study the accuracy of the second software in sheet warm hydroforming simulation. The authors have also defined the more reliable numerical environment in order to develop material damage models in warm forming conditions.

Del Prete, A.; Papadia, G.; De Vitis, A. A.; Primo, T.

2011-05-01

288

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

289

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

290

Activity thresholds for patient instruction and release for positron emission tomography radionuclides.  

PubMed

The use of unconventional or novel radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming more prevalent in both nuclear medicine diagnosis and therapy. Many of these radionuclides are produced in cyclotrons or are further eluted from generators. Although half-lives from many of these unconventional PET radionuclides are considered relatively short (minutes to hours, but some are days) and the intent of their use is often as a diagnostic imaging agent, patient release criteria and patient radiation safety instruction regulatory requirements are based on estimated dose to a member of the public. This paper reviews a method referenced routinely for patient release criteria as found in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance, estimates fundamental quantities used in the method, compares estimated quantities with the published literature, and calculates release and patient radiation safety instruction criteria for several novel PET radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. It should be recognized that some quantities of novel PET radionuclides in use today reach the threshold for patient safety instruction using conservative model procedures for patient release. PMID:25208011

Williamson, Matthew J; Dauer, Lawrence T

2014-03-01

291

Effects of dose, intervention time, and radionuclide on sodium iodide symporter (NIS)-targeted radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into thyrocytes and is the molecular basis of thyroid radioiodine therapy. We previously have shown that NIS gene transfer into the F98 rat gliomas facilitated tumor imaging and increased survival by radioiodine. In this study, we show that: (1) the therapeutic effectiveness of (131)I in prolonging the survival time of rats bearing F98/hNIS gliomas is dose- and treatment-time-dependent; (2) the number of remaining NIS-expressing tumor cells decreased greatly in RG2/hNIS gliomas post (131)I treatment and was inversely related to survival time; (3) 8 mCi each of (125)I/(131)I is as effective as 16 mCi (131)I alone, despite a smaller tumor absorbed dose; (4) (188)ReO(4), a potent beta(-) emitter, is more efficient than (131)I to enhance the survival of rats bearing F98/hNIS gliomas. These studies demonstrate the importance of radiopharmaceutical selection, dose, and timing of treatment to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness of NIS-targeted radionuclide therapy following gene transfer into gliomas. PMID:14712300

Shen, D H Y; Marsee, D K; Schaap, J; Yang, W; Cho, J-Y; Hinkle, G; Nagaraja, H N; Kloos, R T; Barth, R F; Jhiang, S M

2004-01-01

292

EK Draconis: Warm Coronal Rain?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable FUV spectrum of young solar analog EK Draconis {G1.5V} was taken by COS in Cycle 17. The mere 20-min SNAPshot captured two distinct Si IV flares {T 60,000 K}; very broad profiles of Si IV and C II {T 30,000 K}; and prominent Fe XXI coronal forbidden line emission {T 10 MK}. Curiously, the bright Si IV features were significantly redshifted, suggesting that warm gas must be continually accreting onto the lower atmosphere. This possibly meshes with a new understanding of the solar "coronal heating paradox," whereby the lacy loop-like magnetic structures that define the Sun's "quiet" corona {away from active regions} are very close to potential, and thus cannot carry enough magnetic free energy to heat themselves: the heating must come from elsewhere. That elsewhere possibly has been discovered recently: needle-like jets of hot gas, called Type II Spicules, have been observed blasting from deep in the chromosphere out into the corona, where the ambient magnetic loops trap the upward streaming hot gas, which then cools and eventually falls back to the surface. Ironically, then, the corona was the wrong place to seek the roots of coronal heating: the chromosphere is where the action really is. The EK Dra redshifts perhaps are a glimpse of a super-sized version of the cooling phase of the solar process. The purpose of this proposal is to utilize STIS and COS to solidify the observational basis for the apparent coronal downdrafts on EK Dra. If the "coronal rain" hypothesis is borne out, it will be an important step toward resolving the long-standing mystery of coronal heating in the Sun and stars.

Ayres, Thomas

2011-10-01

293

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

294

Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage  

E-print Network

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

295

Warm Spitzer Characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Warm Spitzer photometric imaging DDT observations of Comet ISON, as part of a worldwide observing campaign led by NASA of the comet. Warm Spitzer's 3 and 4 um near-IR passbands will provide unique scattering and emissivity information for the comet's nucleus and dust, and allow us to detect CO_2 gas emission from the comet. Spitzer holds a unique place in the solar system to observe the comet, right before it enters the region of rapid water ice sublimation after spending millions of years in the deep freeze of the Oort Cloud. It is likely the comet will undergo a rapid outburst soon after the time of the proposed observations in the week of June 7 - 14, 2013, and understanding its baseline behavior is critical to understanding the evolution of its activity, as is Spitzer's unique ability to detect CO_2 sublimation and outgassing activity from ISON. As for our previous Spitzer observations of comets Tempel 1 and Hartley 2, we will bootstrap from HST DDT imaging lightcurve and spectroscopic measurements taken over in April - May 2013. The combination of the two datasets will place strong constraints on the comet's coma morphology, and thus its pattern of outgassing jets and the rotation state of the nucleus, and the amount and kind of dust and gas emitted by the comet.

Lisse, Carey; Bauer, James; Fernandez, Yan; Kelley, Michael; Knight, Matthew; Li, Jian-Yang; Meech, Karen; Reach, William; Sitko, Michael

2013-05-01

296

Managing Warm-season Improved Pastures  

E-print Network

M anaging Warm-season Improved Pastures Charles Stichler, Eric Prostko, Steve Livingston* he quality and quantity of forage in pastures can vary greatly and are constantly changing throughout the year. The goal of forage management is to provide...M anaging Warm-season Improved Pastures Charles Stichler, Eric Prostko, Steve Livingston* he quality and quantity of forage in pastures can vary greatly and are constantly changing throughout the year. The goal of forage management is to provide...

Stichler, Charles; Prostko, Eric P.; Livingston, Stephen

1998-10-09

297

Issues in-depth: Inside global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last 15 years, much attention has been given to global warming, and whether the increase in the Earth's temperature in recent decades threatens the survival of life on Earth. As such, it's important that science teachers understand the basics behind the scientific phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the topic, and how to discuss and explore global warming with their students. This comprehensive discussion includes suggestions, activities, and resources that are designed for use in the middle school science classroom.

Greitz-Miller, Roxanne

2006-10-01

298

"Warming hole" in the midwestern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A regional climate model was used to estimate current and future climate scenarios to examine the effect of low-level circulation patterns in the midwestern United States on that part of the country's resistance to warming seen over the rest of North America at that time. A "warming hole" was found in the central U.S. during June-September that is not reflected in previously examined global climate models.

Al., Pan E.; Agu

299

Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges  

PubMed Central

Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

300

Dosimetric model for antibody targeted radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid  

SciTech Connect

Although encouraging results have been obtained using systemic radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, it is likely that regional applications may prove more effective. One such strategy is the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal instillation of targeting or nontargeting beta particle emitting radionuclide carriers. The beta particle dosimetry of the spine is assessed, assuming that the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment can be adequately represented by a cylindrical annulus. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Cu, and {sup 199}Au. It is shown that the radiation dose to the cord can be significantly reduced using short range beta particle emitters and that there is little advantage in using targeting carriers with these radionuclides. {sup 199}Au and {sup 67}Cu also have the advantage of having a suitable gamma emission for imaging, permitting pretherapy imaging and dosimetric calculations to be undertaken prior to therapy. If these methods prove successful, it may be possible to replace the external beam component used in the treatment of central nervous system leukemia in children by intrathecal radionuclide therapy, thus reducing or avoiding side effects such as growth and intellectual impairment.

Millar, W.T.; Barrett, A. (Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (England))

1990-02-01

301

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

302

Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America  

PubMed Central

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

2014-01-01

303

Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.  

PubMed

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

2014-01-01

304

Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report  

SciTech Connect

The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

George Sgouros, Ph.D.

2007-03-20

305

Coral growth characteristics and marine environments during Pliocene warm period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global mean temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 5-3 Ma) were substantially high as much as those predicted for near-term climate change. Experimental and model studies are suggesting that recent past and future global warming and ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would have dramatically influenced on the calcification processes of marine organisms. However, few direct evidences have existed to address how warming and acidification would play it for marine ecosystem. Tropical corals could record long term growth histories in annual bands of their skeletons as well as marine environments during their growth periods up to several hundreds years. We discovered well-preserved fossil Porites corals at the muddy sand layer of Tartaro formation in Luzon island, the northern part of Philippine during the middle of PWP (3.5-3.8Ma); one of the most possible periods for analog to Earth's climate future. We screened and selected two exceptionally well-preserved fossil specimens for signs of diagenetic alternation using microanalysis of thin sections using the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with microstructural observation by scanning electronic microscopy and optical microscopic observation (Watanabe et al., 2011). We then present 70 years geochemical records with monthly resolution (?18O, ? 13C, Strontium/Calcium ratio, and other elemental concentrations) from this two fossil PWP corals in order to address the relationship between marine environments and coral growth characteristics. The detail profiles of carbon and oxygen isotopes of two series of corals indicate that significant reduced growth rate occurred in summer during the two different environments of PWP. Our coral geochemical and physiological data from this unique time window confirm future predictions that temperature rising and ocean acidification may lead to severely reduced coral growth but also imply the possibility that corals can still survive even in such marine environments of future warming climate with shifting the growth seasonal characteristics if the future climate change could provide enough intervals for tropical coral to be adapted. We will discuss in the presentation about other possible stresses for coral growth such as nutrient and marine pollution facing differently on modern and PWP corals to understand more realistically expected future images of marine ecosystems. Reference Watanabe, T., Suzuki, A., Minobe, S., Kawashima, T., Kameo, K., Minoshima, K., Aguilar, Y.M., Wani, R., Kawahata, H., Sowa, K., Nagai, T., Kase, T. (2010) Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence, Nature 471, 209-211

Watanabe, T.; Ohmori, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kase, T.

2011-12-01

306

Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview  

SciTech Connect

Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

De Nardo, Sally J. [Radiodiagnosis and Therapy, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: sjdenardo@ucdavis.edu; De Nardo, Gerald L. [Radiodiagnosis and Therapy, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

2006-10-01

307

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

308

Global warming: a vicious circle.  

PubMed

The problem of global warming (GW) is larger than it was originally suspected. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (ME), and nitrous oxide (NO2) by the activities of humans will do more than simply raise the global temperature. It will also trigger a variety of feedback loops that will accelerate the GW process. The extent of these feedback loops is currently impossible to incorporate into the computer models because they are not fully understood. But, from what we do know, it is clear that reductions in greenhouse gas (GG) emissions must be halted immediately. We are already committed to regional droughts, storms, water shortages, fishery disruptions and plant and animal extinctions. But the response of the oceans, forest, and ice masses has not yet been incorporated into our predictions. Almost all the feedbacks identified promise to increase GG concentrations. The carbon cycle is going to be affected in a variety of ways. Plants and soil store almost 3 times the CO2 as found in the atmosphere. Increased temperatures will increase plant respiration, thus increasing CO2 emissions. Forests will die, permafrost will melt and the result will be increased releases of CO2 and ME. The oceans and plankton can not absorb as much CO2 as the water temperature rises. At present levels GG concentrations will double by 2025. Thus scientists are calling for an immediate 60-80% reduction in CO2 and other GG emissions. It is up to the industrialized nations to solve this problem since they are the ones who created it. 75% of all human made CO2 comes from these countries. They also have the ability to help developing nations to do the same. 20 nations have already announced plans to stabilize or reduce their GG emissions, but it is attitudes and lifestyles that must be changed. This is the largest problem to ever face the human race and never before have we acted as we now must act in order to avoid a worldwide catastrophe. PMID:12285369

Sinclair, J

1991-01-01

309

The recent warming of permafrost in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports results of an experiment initiated in 1977 to determine the effects of climate on permafrost in Alaska. Permafrost observatories with boreholes were established along a north-south transect of Alaska in undisturbed permafrost terrain. The analysis and interpretation of annual temperature measurements in the boreholes and daily temperature measurements of the air, ground and permafrost surfaces made with automated temperature loggers are reported. Permafrost temperatures warmed along this transect coincident with a statewide warming of air temperatures that began in 1977. At two sites on the Arctic Coastal Plain, the warming was seasonal, greatest during "winter" months (October through May) and least during "summer" months (June through September). Permafrost temperatures peaked in the early 1980s and then decreased in response to slightly cooler air temperatures and thinner snow covers. Arctic sites began warming again typically about 1986 and Interior Alaska sites about 1988. Gulkana, the southernmost site, has been warming slowly since it was drilled in 1983. Air temperatures were relatively warm and snow covers were thicker-than-normal from the late 1980s into the late 1990s allowing permafrost temperatures to continue to warm. Temperatures at some sites leveled off or cooled slightly at the turn of the century. Two sites (Yukon River Bridge and Livengood) cooled during the period of observations. The magnitude of the total warming at the surface of the permafrost (through 2003) was 3 to 4 °C for the Arctic Coastal Plain, 1 to 2 °C for the Brooks Range including its northern and southern foothills, and 0.3 to 1 °C south of the Yukon River. While the data are sparse, permafrost is warming throughout the region north of the Brooks Range, southward along the transect from the Brooks Range to the Chugach Mountains (except for Yukon River and Livengood), in Interior Alaska throughout the Tanana River region, and in the region south of the Alaska Range from Tok westward to Gulkana (in the Copper River Valley) and beyond to the Talkeetna Mountains. Thermal offset allows permafrost to survive in the presence of positive annual mean ground surface temperatures and was observed repeatedly since 1987 at two sites. The observed warming has not produced an increasing trend in maximum active layer thicknesses due to its seasonality. Near Healy, permafrost has been thawing at the top since the late 1980s at about 10 cm/yr. At Gulkana, permafrost was thawing from the bottom at a rate of 4 cm/yr that accelerated to 9 cm/yr after 2000.

Osterkamp, T. E.

2005-12-01

310

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

311

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

312

Use of therapeutic radionuclides in medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to follow the course of historical development in the use of radiopharmaceuticals as a therapeutic tool in nuclear medicine. This chapter is designed to point out the different phases of the development of therapeutic nuclear medicine, pointing out the events which most shaped its history along the way. Those events included the discovery of radioactivity, the development of the cyclotron and nuclear reactor as a method of delivering high specific activity radioactive sources, and a few significant therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I and 32P. The most significant therapeutic radionuclide was radium, which is treated very extensively in this paper from an historical viewpoint. It is only recently that attention of the nuclear medicine community turned to new therapeutic agents, such as bone pain palliation agents, monoclonal antibodies, and others. It may be that the next growth phase of nuclear medicine will revolve around therapy with these radionuclides. PMID:7558861

Early, P J; Landa, E R

1995-11-01

313

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

314

State of radionuclides in natural waters  

SciTech Connect

This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

1987-03-01

315

Scoping analysis for radionuclide migration test  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to conduct an in situ test of radionuclide migration in fractured granite. Radionuclides are to be injected into a fracture in the Climax Stock of the Nevada Test Site, then transported by fluid motion and subsequently withdrawn. The fluid will be injected through a borehole intersecting a near vertical fracture and withdrawn through a second borehole that intersects the fracture directly below the first. The scoping calculations presented here are intended to aid planning this experiment. In the absence of a detailed fracture description, this analysis treats the fracture as the space between parallel flat plates; the flow is a Hele-Shaw flow. The calculations predict the conditions for breakthrough of radionuclides at the outlet hole and describe the subsequent concentration history of fluid flowing from the fracture. The effects of advection, sorption, and geometric dispersion are treated.

Morrison, F.A. Jr.

1982-01-01

316

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

317

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

318

Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension  

PubMed Central

In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension. PMID:23087854

Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

2012-01-01

319

Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude  

E-print Network

and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest. biodiversity fitness global warming physiology tropical Global warmingImpacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude Curtis A. Deutsch* , Joshua J

Huey, Raymond B.

320

OIKOS 97: 5258, 2002 Artificial climate warming positively affects arbuscular  

E-print Network

of global warming, responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to climate warm- ing are poorly. of Washington, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA. The occurrence of global warming, the increase in near-mitigation poli- cies, the 90% probability interval for 1990­2100 global- mean warming is 1.7­4.9°C (Wigley

Rilli, Matthias C.

321

Hummingbirds pay a high cost for a warm drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotherms must warm ingested food to body temperature. Food warming costs may be especially high for nectar-feeding birds, which can ingest prodigious volumes. We formulated a mathematical model to predict the cost of warming nectar as a function of nectar temperature and sugar concentration. This model predicts that the cost of warming nectar should: (1) decrease as a power function

C. N. Lotz; C. Martínez del Rio; S. W. Nicolson

2003-01-01

322

[Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

2012-01-01

323

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

324

Image Recoloring Induced by Palette Color Associations Gary R. Greenfield  

E-print Network

" Cezanne, "Skulls" Van Gogh to Cezanne Figure 1: Two low resolution test images and an image recoloring to the other. This would hold out the possibility that "Starry Night" could be transformed into a warm peaceful

House, Donald H.

325

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-print Network

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

326

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

327

Intrathoracic kidney on radionuclide renography. A case report  

SciTech Connect

A child with an asymptomatic mass in the lower right thorax was evaluated with sonography, intravenous urography, and radionuclide renography. High renal ectopia was only diagnosed with radionuclide renography.

Williams, A.G. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

1983-09-01

328

Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag ? 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

2012-03-01

329

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

330

Splenic-gonadal fusion: identification by radionuclide scanning  

SciTech Connect

Splenic-gonadal fusion is an unusual congenital anomaly resulting from the fusion of the splenic and gonadal anlagen at approximately the sixth week of gestation. A 14-mo-old male presenting with signs and symptoms of testicular torsion underwent scrotal exploration, and ectopic splenic tissue was found adjacent to the left testis. The operative diagnosis of splenic-gonadal fusion prompted abdominal scanning with /sup/sup 99/m/Tc-sulfur colloid. The radionuclide image demonstrated an unusual pattern of activity that was consistent with surgical description of the intraabdominal appearance of this disorder. It is suggested that /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scanning may prove to be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with this anomaly.

McLean, G.K.; Alavi, A.; Ziegler, M.M.; Pollack, H.M.; Duckett, J.W.

1981-08-01

331

Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.  

PubMed

Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J

2005-01-11

332

Warm-season severe wind events in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs. Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events. Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

Gatzen, Christoph

2013-04-01

333

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water

Kahook

1992-01-01

334

Radionuclide Cisternography. The Value of Radionuclide Cisternography in the Diagnosis and Management of Hydrocephalus and Possibly Associated Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cis...

H. H. Song

1980-01-01

335

Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

2014-06-01

336

FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing

Bruce Simpson; Steven Judge

2007-01-01

337

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

338

REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

339

LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of a project at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for development of a generalized technique for evaluating the adequacy of solid radioactive waste disposal sites is outlined. A major part of the project is the modeling of environmental processes which may result in the release of radionuclides to the environs. The structure of the environmental transport modeling

W. J. II Smith; A. F. Gallegos; L. J. Johnson

1977-01-01

340

Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases

J. Sedlet; N. W. Golchert

1980-01-01

341

Warm Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a warm inflationary model in the context of relativistic D-brane inflation in a warped throat, which has Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term and is coupled to radiation through a dissipation term. The perturbation freezes at the sound horizon and the power spectrum is determined by a combination of the dissipative parameter and the sound speed parameter. The thermal dissipation ameliorates the eta problem and softens theoretical constraints from the extra-dimensional volume and from observational bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The warm DBI model can lead to appreciable non-Gaussianity of the equilateral type. As a phenomenological model, ignoring compactification constraints, we show that large-field warm inflation models do not necessarily yield a large tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Cai Yifu; Dent, James B. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Easson, Damien A. [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2011-05-15

342

Stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stratospheric warmings during February and March 1993 are described using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) analyses, calculated potential vorticity (PV) and diabetic heating, and N2O observed by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The first warming affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N2O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N2O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N2O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the warmings.

Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.

1994-01-01

343

Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

2012-05-01

344

ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.  

PubMed

The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research. PMID:19451357

Hendel, Robert C; Berman, Daniel S; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Heidenreich, Paul A; Henkin, Robert E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pohost, Gerald M; Williams, Kim A

2009-06-01

345

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

346

Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

2013-09-01

347

Source inversion for the CTBTO radionuclide network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support its mission of monitoring compliance with the treaty banning nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates four global networks of, respectively, seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic sensors and air samplers accompanied with radionuclide detectors. The role of the International Data Centre (IDC) of CTBTO is to associate the signals detected in the monitoring networks with the physical phenomena which emitted these signals, by forming events. One of the aspects of associating detections with emitters is the problem of inferring the sources of radionuclides from the detections made at CTBTO radionuclide network stations. This task is particularly challenging because the average transport distance between a release point and detectors is large. Complex processes of turbulent diffusion are responsible for efficient mixing and consequently for decreasing the information content of detections with an increasing distance from the source. The problem is generally addressed in a two-step process. In the first step, an atmospheric transport model establishes a link between the detections and the regions of possible source location. In the second step this link is inverted to infer source information from the detections. In this presentation, we will discuss enhancements of the presently used regression-based inversion algorithm to reconstruct a source of radionuclides. To this aim, modern inversion algorithms accounting for prior information and appropriately regularizing an under-determined reconstruction problem will be briefly introduced. Emphasis will be on the CTBTO context and the choice of inversion methods. An illustration of the first tests will be provided using a framework of twin experiments, i.e. fictitious detections in the CTBTO radionuclide network generated with an atmospheric transport model.

Krysta, M.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Carter, J. A.

2013-12-01

348

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.  

PubMed

During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 ?m, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 ?m. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other. PMID:23542231

Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

2013-08-01

349

On the consistency of warm inflation  

E-print Network

Conditions are obtained for the existence of a warm inflationary attractor in the system of equations describing an inflaton coupled to radiation. These conditions restrict the temperature dependence of the dissipative terms and the size of thermal corrections to the inflaton potential, as well as the gradient of the inflaton potential. When these conditions are met, the evolution approaches a slow-roll limit and only curvature fluctuations survive on super-horizon scales. Formulae are given for the spectral indices of the density perturbations and the tensor/scalar density perturbation amplitude ratio in warm inflation.

Ian G Moss; Chun Xiong

2008-08-02

350

Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric warmings that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these warmings the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.

1973-01-01

351

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, A.; Mao, J.

1992-01-01

352

Analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations  

SciTech Connect

The present paper is concerned with analytic models of warm plasma dispersion relations for electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Specifically, effects of finite betas on two slow modes, namely, the left-hand circularly polarized ion-cyclotron mode and the right-hand circularly polarized whistler mode, are investigated. Analytic models of the warm plasma dispersion relations are constructed on the basis of conjecture and upon comparisons with numerically found roots. It is shown that the model solutions are good substitutes for actual roots. The significance of the present work in the context of nonlinear plasma research is discussed.

Seough, J. J.; Yoon, P. H. [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-09-15

353

Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden warmings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during warming events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.

Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.

1986-01-01

354

Diagnosis of Men-I Syndrome on (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and Role of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With (177)Lu-DOTATATE.  

PubMed

MEN-I is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells. We present a case of MEN-I syndrome diagnosed using predominantly nuclear medicine imaging followed by radionuclide therapy, thus emphasizing the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN-I. PMID:23843835

Kumar Gupta, Santosh; Singla, Suhas; Damle, Nishikant A; Agarwal, Krishankant; Bal, Chandersekhar

2012-01-01

355

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

356

Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

357

What's behind the warming signals in eastern China megacity areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization doubtlessly has been the most significant demographic trend in the world for at least a century and promises to become even more significant in the future. The population of Asia has increased rapidly over the last three decades. In 1995, there were five megacities in Asia. Nowadays, half of the world's megacities are in Asia, population centers with more than 10 million people living in them. Urban development often causes great modification of land surface properties, landscape pattern, and even local climate through changing land use and cover. Urban expansion resulted by economic development and population growth has changed land surface properties in urban and surrounding area, including green vegetation cover, surface albedo, surface roughness, and emissivity in many parts of the world, especially in East Asia. The expansion of so-called urban heat island (UHI) is considered as a direct climate consequence of urbanization, as solar radiation is sequestered by urban architecture. Urban heat island is a unique micro-climate characteristic in urban areas, and it varied widely in different area due to varied weather or anthropogenic influence factors. Here, we investigated spatial pattern and temporal variety of urban heat island in the Bohai coastal region with multi-scale thermal infrared satellite data, including MTSAT, NOAA/AVHRR, Terra/MODIS, and Landsat/TM, along with hand-held thermal imager. We try to find the most optimal scale among those satellite platforms according to the thermal landscape properties and scale independent principles of thermal remote sensing. The influence of surface parameters on urban heat island effect and the seasonal changes of UHI were also investigated. Higher land surface temperatures were detected over city limits, especially in major cities compared to nearby rural areas in the Bohai Region. In some cases, the land surface temperature can get 2.5°C higher in city center than nearby green areas. There was a significant correlation between spatial patterns of land surface temperature and fraction of buildup. Meanwhile, both satellite and meteorological data indicated greater warming trends along urban-rural transition areas where major increases of buildup were detected in past 10 years. Because of rapid urbanization, urban warming has become an important part of regional warming signals and in many cases dominates warming trends detected by met stations densely located in urban areas.

Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

2010-12-01

358

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

359

WARM WATER SCALE MODEL EXPERIMENTS FOR MAGNESIUM DIE CASTING  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure die casting (HPDC) involves the filling of a cavity with the molten metal through a thin gate. High gate velocities yield jet break-up and atomization phenomena. In order to improve the quality of magnesium parts, the mold filling pattern, including atomization phenomena, needs to be understood. The goal of this study was to obtain experimental data on jet break-up characteristics for conditions similar to that of magnesium HPDC, and measure the droplet velocity and size distribution. A scale analysis is first presented in order to identify appropriate analogue for liquid magnesium alloys. Based on the scale analysis warm water was chosen as a suitable analogue and different nozzles were manufactured. A 2-D component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and 2-D component particle image velocimetry (PIV) were then used to obtain fine particle diameter and velocity distributions in 2-D plane.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2006-01-01

360

The Design of Cold to Warm Transitions of the LHC  

E-print Network

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the next accelerator being constructed on the CERN site, will accelerate and collide 7 TeV protons and heavier ions up to lead. More than 1700 cryomagnets working at 1.9 or 4.5 k will form part of the magnetic lattice of the LHC. The beam pipe passage from cryogenic temperatures to room temperature zones will be achieved by 200 cold to warm transitions (CWTs). The CWTs will compensate for longitudinal and transversal displacements between beam screens and cold bores, ensuring vacuum continuity without limiting the aperture for the beam. The transverse impedance contribution is kept below the assigned total budget of 1 MO/m by means of a 4 µm thick Cu coating that also minimises the dynamic heat load through image currents. Tests have been performed that confirm that the static heat load per CWT to the cryomagnets remains below 2.5 W, hence validating the design.

Knaster, J R; Ramos, D; Ratcliffe, G; Veness, R J M

2004-01-01

361

PRINCETON//989 Princeton WarmBore Magnet  

E-print Network

and telemetry of an optional sealed cold volume. In our warm bore configuration, most of these are not used is separated by another vacuum gap from the outer wall. The coil volume lies below the Helium reservoir. While segment of the conductor is made resistive by means of a small heating coil. This arrangement is known

McDonald, Kirk

362

Amplified Warming Rates in High Elevation Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ground-based and satellite-retrieved observations in conjunction with output from global climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine whether warming rates in high elevation regions are significantly different than in their lower elevation surroundings. In addition, for regions where there is enhanced warming at higher elevations, we investigate several of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to this enhancement. For the mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the multi-model ensemble indicates that warming rates during the 21st century will be enhanced at high elevations relative to their lower elevation counterparts at the same latitude. This effect is most pronounced for daily minimum temperatures during the cold season in the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayan region. A neural network analysis is used to identify and quantify some of the potential mechanisms responsible for enhanced warming rates, including the effects of variables such as atmospheric water vapor, clouds, snow cover, and aerosols on the radiation and surface heat budgets. We also demonstrate that satellite retrievals can be used to expand the often sparse ground-based observations in such regions and that they provide the correct relationships between variables. Please fill in your abstract text.

Miller, James; Naud, Catherine; Chen, Yonghua; Ghatak, Debjani; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric

2014-05-01

363

Americansâ Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents results from a national study of what Americans understand about how the climate system works, and the causes, impacts, and potential solutions to global warming. Among other findings, the study identifies a number of important gaps in public knowledge and common misconceptions about climate change.

Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward; Renouf, Connie R.; Feinberg, Geoff; Howe, Peter

2013-01-01

364

Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming  

PubMed Central

Because the flowering and fruiting phenology of plants is sensitive to environmental cues such as temperature and moisture, climate change is likely to alter community-level patterns of reproductive phenology. Here we report a previously unreported phenomenon: experimental warming advanced flowering and fruiting phenology for species that began to flower before the peak of summer heat but delayed reproduction in species that started flowering after the peak temperature in a tallgrass prairie in North America. The warming-induced divergence of flowering and fruiting toward the two ends of the growing season resulted in a gap in the staggered progression of flowering and fruiting in the community during the middle of the season. A double precipitation treatment did not significantly affect flowering and fruiting phenology. Variation among species in the direction and magnitude of their response to warming caused compression and expansion of the reproductive periods of different species, changed the amount of overlap between the reproductive phases, and created possibilities for an altered selective environment to reshape communities in a future warmed world. PMID:17182748

Sherry, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Xuhui; Gu, Shiliang; Arnone, John A.; Schimel, David S.; Verburg, Paul S.; Wallace, Linda L.; Luo, Yiqi

2007-01-01

365

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

366

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25°C-250°C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; García, C.

2007-05-01

367

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

368

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

369

Abrupt warming of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

2011-07-01

370

Feasibility of warm drawing of aluminium products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is carried out on the feasibility of using warm forming at temperatures from 100 to 250°C in order to improve the makeability of aluminium sheet components. Drawing tests are performed on 1050, 5754 and 6016 series aluminium sheets. Both box shaped and conical rectangular products are made with a tool with heated die and blankholder. The effect of

P. J Bolt; N. A. P. M Lamboo; P. J. C. M Rozier

2001-01-01

371

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C. [Mondragon Goi Eskola Politeknikoa (MGEP), Manufacturing Department, Loramendi 4, 20500, Mondragon (Spain)

2007-05-17

372

Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these

A. Del Prete; G. Papadia; A. A. de Vitis; T. Primo

2011-01-01

373

Warm work processing for iron base alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for producing heavy, thick-section precipitation age hardenable iron base superalloy forgings is described comprising: (a) recrystallizing to provide a known uniform starting microstructure; (b) warm working under conditions which do not permit recrystallization; and (c) precipitation heat treating; whereby the resultant material has a minimum yield strength of about 140,000 psi and a minimum tensile strength of about

F. P. Cone; J. A. Miller; B. J. Cryns; R. Zanoni

1993-01-01

374

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in

Alan Robock; Jianping Mao

1992-01-01

375

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

376

Global Warming as a Public Bad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of the economic analysis of global - warming is that emissions of greenhouse gases are a negative externality, a real consequence of economic decisions for which decision makers see no market price signal. The purpose of the following work is to solve for the intertemporal allocation of capital with such an uncorrected externality and compare it to the

Armon Rezai; Duncan K. Foley; Lance Taylor

377

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming  

E-print Network

Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming Pieter De Frennea,b,1 , Francisco and Environmental Sciences, Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Landscapes Division, Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland; aa Department

Vellend, Mark

378

Wind increase above warm Agulhas Current eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify warm mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation superior to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of 2500 instantaneous charts of equivalent stability neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with sea surface temperature and sea level anomaly show stronger wind speed above warm eddies than surrounding water at all wind directions in about 800 of the 2500 cases. For those cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, we do not find any relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the sea surface temperature perturbation. Sea surface temperature perturbations that we consider range from 1 to 5.5 °C. Sizes of eddies range from 100 to 250 km diameter. Mean background wind speed is about 11 m s-1 with a mean increase above the eddy of 2 m s-1. Wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above warm eddies is not uncommon.

Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.

2014-10-01

379

Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is

A. Aginagalde; A. Orus; J. A. Esnaola; I. Torca; L. Galdos; C. García

2007-01-01

380

NPR: Atmospheric Dry Spell Eases Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from NPR explains why the effects of global warming may not have been noticeable during the past few years. The article warns that there are several factors, such as ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor levels, that mask the problem of rising global temperatures.

2010-03-12

381

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

382

Global warming: solar variability and energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements support evidence for short-term global warming of the earth's surface. The average trend of the earth's surface anomaly as a function of the time was fitted by a simple thermodynamical model including short-term variation of the solar irradiance as well as anthropogenic forcing.

Nigro, A.; Pagano, A.; Zuccarello, F.

383

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

SciTech Connect

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

384

Antarctica Gives Mixed Signals on Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News investigates trends in the Antarctic Ice Cap that seem to give contradictory information about global warming. The results of various studies do not seem useful in predicting future climate development for the rest of the planet.

Trivedi, Bijal P.; News, National G.

385

Advanced Review Drought under global warming  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous

Dai, Aiguo

386

Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenland coastal temperatures have followed the early 20th century global warming trend. Since 1940, however, the Greenland coastal stations data have undergone predominantly a cooling trend. At the summit of the Greenland ice sheet the summer average temperature has decreased at the rate of 2.2 °C per decade since the beginning of the measurements in 1987. This suggests that

Petr Chylek; Jason E. Box; Glen Lesins

2004-01-01

387

Global warming and the hydrologic cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse warming, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surface—atmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up

Hugo A. Loaiciga; Juan B. Valdes; Richard Vogel; Jeff Garvey; Harry Schwarz

1996-01-01

388

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

389

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

390

Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions).

Spasennykh, M.Yu. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Apps, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

391

Impact of warm winters on microbial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-warmed plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been warm-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in environmental factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the warmed and ambient plot.

Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

2014-05-01

392

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides. Progress report, July 1, 1988--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

393

SDO AIA and Hinode EIS observations of "warm" loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simultaneous observations of active region "warm" (1 MK) loops using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Sample EIS spectra for a loop footpoint and a lop leg region are presented, and are used to describe the spectral lines which contribute to the six AIA EUV channels, both directly and predicted with DEM modeling. We find good overall agreement between observed and predicted count rates for the 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å bands, but highlight a number of problems, partly to be ascribed to inter-calibration issues, partly due to the fact that a large number of lines remain unidentified for the 94 Å, 171 Å, and 211 Å bands. We also found that the 335 Å band is severely affected by cross-talk with the 131 Å band and by second order contributions. We extend our previous work where we highlighted the multi-thermal nature of the SDO AIA bands to show that emission from lines formed at typical transition region temperatures (log T[K] = 5.0-5.8) can be significant for all the EUV channels, and even dominant in some cases. We also assess the possibility of deriving accurate emission measures from the AIA observations. We have found that the inversion of the AIA data to obtain a description of the thermal characteristics of warm loops is unreliable. We highlight the need for further work on the relevant atomic data before the AIA data can be reliably used for plasma diagnostic purposes. Appendices A-C are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Del Zanna, G.; O'Dwyer, B.; Mason, H. E.

2011-11-01

394

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

395

Blood warming: current applications and techniques.  

PubMed

Active blood warming is a recent practice and arises out of conflicting needs. On the one hand, the safety and preservation of blood require refrigerated storage and delivery up to the moment of transfusion. On the other hand, modern methods of very rapid transfusion in resuscitation would cause clinically dangerous hypothermia if unmodified, ice-cold blood were to be so transfused. These needs must be reconciled in the interest of adequate patient care--hence the need for blood warming. Nevertheless, blood warming creates risks of its own and should not be used without justifying clinical indications. Within limits that extend somewhat above normal body temperature, the application of heat does no harm to stored RBC, a fact that is not reflected in current standards for blood warmers. Bearing in mind the human tendency to "stretch" standards and the fallibility of mechanical devices, caution is always wise. But perhaps the time has come for reconsideration of the present upper limit of 38 degrees C. Many varieties of blood warmers are available in the US, but none at this time is based on electromagnetic activity. The most common systems now in use are in-line warmers, most of which are not adequate for the type of rapid-transfusion systems currently available. Countercurrent in-line blood warmers and the method of rapid warm saline admixture can both be used successfully for rapid, massive transfusions. Blood warming is seldom necessary or desirable for elective transfusions at conventional rates, even for patients with cold autoagglutinins. PMID:1853451

Iserson, K V; Huestis, D W

1991-01-01

396

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

397

Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

2009-05-18

398

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

2012-01-01

399

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

S. M. Vakulovsky; E. G. Tertyshnik; A. I. Kabanov

2012-11-15

400

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

SciTech Connect

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

Babain, V.; Smirnov, I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alyapyshev, M. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paulenova, A. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2008-07-01

401

Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?  

E-print Network

mentioned ‘global warming’ in 1992, climate change was notglobal warming highly increased awareness of climate changeglobal warming, it made America visualize the potential consequences of climate change.

Jankowska, Marta Maja

2006-01-01

402

Global warming and state-corporate crime: the politicalization of global warming under the Bush administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is one of the most significant and difficult issues facing the world today. As result, researchers in a number\\u000a of disciplines have directed their attention to addressing issues relevant to the study of and responses to global warming.\\u000a This has been less true in the social sciences, and especially within specific social sciences such as criminology, in comparison

Michael J. Lynch; Ronald G. Burns; Paul B. Stretesky

2010-01-01

403

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s

M. J. Rudin; A. M. Meyers; W. H. Johnson

1996-01-01

404

Separation of Radionuclides by Polyurethane Foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 103Pd, 110Ag and 203Hg radionuclides by polyurethane foam (PUF) was investigated and optimized with respect to the selection of appropriate sorptive medium, metal, thiocyanate ions (except for 110Ag) and PUF concentration and equilibration time. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption of each metal was examined. The sorption data subjected to

S. M. Hasany; M. M. Saeed; M. Ahmed

2000-01-01

405

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

406

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

407

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the \\

C. Fabara; B. Hoeneisen

2005-01-01

408

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

409

Central issues in the negotiations on limiting greenhouse warming  

E-print Network

The three central questions in the international negotiations on greenhouse warming are: (1) How much global warming should be tolerated? (2) How much responsibility for past emissions should be assigned to present ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1992-01-01

410

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and flow structure of the climate, however, means \\

John Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

2002-01-01

411

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and flow structure of the climate, however, means \\

John Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

2003-01-01

412

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-print Network

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01

413

Intensified Arctic warming under greenhouse warming by vegetation–atmosphere–sea ice interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and modeling studies indicate that enhanced vegetation activities over high latitudes under an elevated CO2 concentration accelerate surface warming by reducing the surface albedo. In this study, we suggest that vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interactions over high latitudes can induce an additional amplification of Arctic warming. Our hypothesis is tested by a series of coupled vegetation-climate model simulations under 2xCO2 environments. The increased vegetation activities over high latitudes under a 2xCO2 condition induce additional surface warming and turbulent heat fluxes to the atmosphere, which are transported to the Arctic through the atmosphere. This causes additional sea-ice melting and upper-ocean warming during the warm season. As a consequence, the Arctic and high-latitude warming is greatly amplified in the following winter and spring, which further promotes vegetation activities the following year. We conclude that the vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interaction gives rise to additional positive feedback of the Arctic amplification.

Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Linderholm, Hans W.; Chen, Deliang; Kim, Baek-Min; Jun, Sang-Yoon

2014-09-01

414

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

415

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

SciTech Connect

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-06-01

416

Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

1989-11-01

417

A fieldable instrument for waterborne radionuclide detection  

SciTech Connect

In monitoring effluent leaving its sites, US DOE assays for alpha- emitting radionuclides (U, transuranics) to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Because alpha emissions can only by detected over a short range in water ({approximately}40{mu}m), the conventional approach is to collect samples for processing in a central laboratory; a time-consuming and cost procedure ensues to separate and measure the radionuclides. Because of the sporadic nature of sampling processes, there is the possibility that a release may go undetected. We are addressing this issue by a developing a real-time, field- deployable instrument which incorporates a proprietary film that selectively binds radionuclides from dilute aqueous samples. By combining the film with an appropriate alpha spectrometer, we have developed a fieldable system that can operate as an autonomous monitor in a batch or continuous manner. Laboratory results to date have been encouraging. Positive identification of U and Pu has been made by resolving the energy spectrum of emitted alphas. Sensitivity for U is at the 10 part per trillion level (15 femtocuries per liter).

Barshick, C.M.; Turner, M.L.; Smith, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Patch, K.D. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States). Tecogen Div.

1996-12-31

418

Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters  

SciTech Connect

The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

,

1981-04-01

419

Ecological Consequences of a Century of Warming in Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep tropical lakes are excellent climate monitors because annual mixing is shallow and flushing rates are low, allowing heat to accumulate during climatic warming. We describe effects of warming on Lake Tanganyika: A sharpened density gradient has slowed vertical mixing and reduced primary production. Increased warming rates during the coming century may continue to slow mixing and further reduce productivity

Piet Verburg; Robert E. Hecky; Hedy Kling

2003-01-01

420

Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new analysis of an expanded data set of ocean temperature profiles dating back to 1955 confirmed the ocean warming trend, which was particularly pronounced in the Atlantic, and identified a decrease in ocean heat content beginning around 1980. The decrease has since rebounded, and the overall warming trend continues in the new millennium. Sources driving ocean warming and cooling trends are attributed.

Levitus, S.; Antonov, J.; Boyer, T.; Agu

421

PHENOLOGICAL SEQUENCES REVEAL AGGREGATE LIFE HISTORY RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic warming is associated with organisms breeding earlier in the season than is typical for their species. In some species, however, response to warming is more complex than a simple advance in the timing of all life history events preceding reproduction. Disparities in the extent to which different components of the reproductive phenology of organisms vary with climatic warming indicate

Eric S. Post; Christian Pedersen; Christopher C. Wilmers; Mads C. Forchhammer

2008-01-01

422

On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun  

E-print Network

-Sun, Williams devoted a third of his piece to a subject I know something about -- global warming -- and there I found that his points were both superficial and just plain wrong. Williams cites some global warming fuels burned in the late 20th century. Stossel's and Williams' implication is that global warming

423

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance  

E-print Network

that global warming may increase aridity in water- limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. WePlants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance Erika S. Zavaleta* , Brian D. Thomas show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced

Zavaleta, Erika

424

Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management  

E-print Network

confidence that an enhanced stratospheric aerosol layer will effectively act to limit global warming, given would cause it to decay quickly, in turn driving rapid global warming as the climate adjusts to the full. These studies suggest that the rates of global warming following SRM cessation could reach 1 C/decade or greater

Battisti, David

425

INTRODUCTION A long period of global warming characterized  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION A long period of global warming characterized late Paleocene to early Eocene time, culminating in the Eocene thermal maximum at about 49 Ma. The warming has two distinct peaks, near Paleocene thermal maximum is recog- nized by a rapid worldwide warming of high- to mid-latitude surface

Bermingham, Eldredge

426

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on  

E-print Network

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

Schmittner, Andreas

427

41JUNE 2005AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | (not shown). This warm,  

E-print Network

Greenland regional temperatures in phase with the global warming pattern. Consider- ing the last 55-yr- perature records around Greenland indicate warming trends since the early 1980s that are large among the entire collection of more than 15 Greenland climate stations. The observed warming has

Box, Jason E.

428

Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster  

E-print Network

Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

Hansen, James E.

429

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds  

E-print Network

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds Yoram Yom-Tov Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ( yomtov@post.tau.ac.il) Global warming may a¡ect the physiology in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule

Yom-Tov, Yoram

430

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-print Network

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

431

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near  

E-print Network

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

Hansen, James E.

432

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming  

E-print Network

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

Bhatt, Uma

433

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1  

E-print Network

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

Wang, Chunzai

434

Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies  

E-print Network

#12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P .............................................. 1.3 1.3 Global Warming Potential Index ................................... 1.6 1.4 Methodology .......................................... 2.9 3. APPLICATION-DEPENDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS 3.1 Introduction

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

435

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

E-print Network

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming William E. Bradshaw observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warm- ing during the latter half- tent with an adaptive evolutionary response to recent global warming. The latter half of the 20th

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

436

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

Haller, Gary L.

437

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong  

E-print Network

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong Minh.Ha.Duong@cmu.edu CNRS, France HDGC, Carnegie Mellon Possible global warming futures ­ p.1/36 #12;SRES: Forecasts or scenarios? +5.5 C in 2100 the controversy using imprecise probabilities, a more general information theory. . . Possible global warming

438

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Todorov, Alex

439

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila  

E-print Network

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

440

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-print Network

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

441

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-print Network

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

442

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust  

E-print Network

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

Rust, Bert W.

443

Changes in solar energy availability for south-eastern Europe with respect to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to estimate projected changes of global radiation parallel to the global warming in south-eastern Europe. As a first step, statistical dependence of global radiation from local cloud indicators is analysed for a short period (1992–1996). Global radiation is derived from METEOSAT visual images, whereas cloud coverage is described in two parallel ways: surface-based visual

Blanka Bartók

2010-01-01

444

Warm and Cold Molecular Gas in Galaxies  

E-print Network

New and archival interferometric 12CO(1->0) datasets from six nearby galaxies are combined with H_2 2.122um and H-alpha maps to explore in detail the interstellar medium in different star-forming galaxies. We investigate the relation between warm (H_2 at T~2000 K) and cold (CO at T~50 K) molecular gas from 100 pc to 2 kpc scales. On these scales, the ratio of warm-to-cold molecular hydrogen correlates with the fnu(60um)/fnu(100um) ratio, a ratio that tracks the star formation activity level. This result also holds for the global properties of galaxies from a much larger sample drawn from the literature. The trend persists for over three orders of magnitude in the mass ratio, regardless of source nuclear activity.

Daniel A. Dale; Kartik Sheth; George Helou; Michael W. Regan; Susanne Huttemeister

2005-01-20

445

Was early Mars warmed by ammonia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff channels and valley networks present on ancient, heavily cratered Martian terrain suggests that the climate of Mars was originally warm and wet. One explanation for the formation of these channels is that the surface was warmed by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere. However, recent work shows that this theory is not consistent for the early period of the solar system. One way to increase the surface temperature predicted is to assume that other greenhouse gases were present in Mars' atmosphere in addition to CO2 and H2O. This possible gas is ammonia, NH3. If ammonia was present in sufficient quantities, it could have raised the surface temperature to 273 K. An adequate source would have been volcanic outgassing if the NH3 produced was shielded from photolysis by an ultraviolet light absorber.

Kasting, J. F.; Brown, L. L.; Acord, J. M.; Pollack, J. B.

1992-12-01

446

Early Eocene climate warming increased petroleum production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the late Paleocene, about 58 million years ago, to the early Eocene, about 51 million years ago, Earth's surface temperatures warmed by about 5°-10°C. Also in the early Eocene, there was an increase of carbon-13-depleted carbon in the oceans that cannot be accounted for by changes in carbon cycling at the surface. To better understand the source of that carbon, Kroeger and Funnell modeled the thermal evolution of four sedimentary basins in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The authors show that the rising surface temperatures of the early Eocene eventually led to warming of the sedimentary beds deep beneath the surface. Petroleum can be produced at only a certain range of temperatures; rising temperatures at greater depths would bring more potential source rocks into temperature conditions under which oil and gas can be produced and released.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

447

Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming  

SciTech Connect

Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

2010-12-08

448

The importance of being warm (during inflation)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplitude of primordial curvature perturbations is enhanced when a radiation bath at a temperature T>H is sustained during inflation by dissipative particle production, which is particularly significant when a non-trivial statistical ensemble of inflaton fluctuations is also maintained. Since gravitational modes are oblivious to dissipative dynamics, this generically lowers the tensor-to-scalar ratio and yields a modified consistency relation for warm inflation, as well as changing the tilt of the scalar spectrum. We show that this alters the landscape of observationally allowed inflationary models, with for example the quartic chaotic potential being in very good agreement with the Planck results for nearly-thermal inflaton fluctuations, whilst essentially ruled out for an underlying vacuum state. We also discuss other simple models that are in agreement with the Planck data within a renormalizable model of warm inflation.

Bartrum, Sam; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Cerezo, Rafael; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.

2014-05-01

449

Stratospheric Warmings During February and March 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stratospheric warnings during February and March 1993 are described using UKMO analyses, calculated PV and diabatic heating, and N2O observed by the CLAES instrument on the UARS. The first warming affected temperatures over a larger region. while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N2O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N2O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N2O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the warmings.

Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.

1994-01-01

450

Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change  

PubMed Central

It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

2012-01-01

451

Early Mars: how warm and how wet?  

PubMed

Early in its history, Mars underwent fluvial erosion that has been interpreted as evidence for a warmer, wetter climate. However, no atmosphere composed of only CO2 and H2O appears capable of producing mean planetary temperatures even close to 0 degrees C. Rather than by precipitation, aquifer recharge and ground water seepage may have been enabled by hydrothermal convection driven by geothermal heat and heat associated with impacts. Some climatic warming was probably necessary to allow water to flow for long distances across the surface. Modest warming could be provided by even a low-pressure CO2 atmosphere if it was supplemented with small amounts of CH4, NH3, or SO2. Episodic excursions to high obliquities may also have raised temperatures over some portions of the planet's surface. PMID:11539185

Squyres, S W; Kasting, J F

1994-08-01

452

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-16

453

Cerenkov imaging - a new modality for molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging hybrid modality that utilizes the light emission from many commonly used medical isotopes. Cerenkov radiation (CR) is produced when charged particles travel through a dielectric medium faster than the speed of light in that medium. First described in detail nearly 100 years ago, CR has only recently applied for biomedical imaging purposes. The modality is of considerable interest as it enables the use of widespread luminescence imaging equipment to visualize clinical diagnostic (all PET radioisotopes) and many therapeutic radionuclides. The amount of light detected in CLI applications is significantly lower than other that in other optical imaging techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence. However, significant advantages include the use of approved radiotracers and lack of an incident light source, resulting in high signal to background ratios. As well, multiple subjects may be imaged concurrently (up to 5 in common bioluminescent equipment), conferring both cost and time benefits. This review summarizes the field of Cerenkov luminescence imaging to date. Applications of CLI discussed include intraoperative radionuclide-guided surgery, monitoring of therapeutic efficacy, tomographic optical imaging capabilities, and the ability to perform multiplexed imaging using fluorophores excited by the Cerenkov radiation. While technical challenges still exist, Cerenkov imaging has materialized as an important molecular imaging modality. PMID:23133811

Thorek, Daniel Lj; Robertson, Robbie; Bacchus, Wassifa A; Hahn, Jaeseung; Rothberg, Julie; Beattie, Bradley J; Grimm, Jan

2012-01-01

454

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

455

Salt release from warming sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field study in the Arctic, ejection of dense, saline plumes was observed 1 m below warm land-fast first-year sea ice, under conditions where the heat balance at the ice-ocean interface predicted melting. We describe the observed momentum, heat and salt fluxes in the boundary layer under the ice and the structure of the plume events. Measured downward salt

Karolina Widell; Ilker Fer; Peter M. Haugan

2006-01-01

456

Electrical conductivity of warm expanded aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic and ionic structures of warm expanded aluminum are determined self-consistently using an average-atom formalism based on density-functional theory and Gibbs–Bogolyubov inequality. Ion configurations are generated using a least-square fit of the pair distribution function deduced from the average-atom model calculations. The electrical conductivity of the system is computed from the Kubo–Greenwood formula for the optical conductivity implemented in

Gerald Faussurier; Christophe Blancard; Patrick Renaudin; Pier-Luigi Silvestrelli

2006-01-01

457

Likely cause found for global warming "hiatus"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Atlantic current may be the cause of the recent warming "hiatus" observed since the beginning of the 21st century, according to new research published last week in the journal Science (doi:10.1126/science.1254937). The conclusion is based on observations of deep-sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, from floats that sample water down to 2000 meters deep and from looking at historical records from the mid- to late 20th century.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

458

Special issue on: Accounting for global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper opens a debate, in the accounting literature, on global warming. This debate began, in earnest, in the 1970's, with the Club of Rome's alert that we were depleting non-renewable resources. Since then, depletion rates have increased—unabated. However a recently convergence of events—tsunami threats, increased cyclone, hurricane and tornado activity, Katrina, ice cap melt, Sky-rocketing oil prices, decline in

Aida Sy

2008-01-01

459

Global warming: Take action or wait?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious split in opinion exists with regard to how to deal with the ongoing buildup of CO2 in our atmosphere. One group contends that, until the warming has more clearly expressed itself, we should put off costly\\u000a actions. The other group contends that, even if we were to take immediate action, the buildup of CO2 is likely to reach

W. S. Broecker

2006-01-01

460

Positron emission reconstruction tomography for the assessment of regional myocardial metabolism by the administration of substrates labeled with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A positron emission transverse tomograph device was developed which provides transaxial sectional images of the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the heart. The images provide a quantitative three-dimensional map of the distribution of activity unencumbered by the superimposition of activity originating from regions overlying and underlying the plane of interest. PETT is used primarily with the cyclotron-produced radionuclides oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11. Because of the participation of these atoms in metabolism, they can be used to label metabolic substrates and intermediary molecules incorporated in myocardial metabolism.

Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Hoffman, E. J.; Weiss, E. S.; Coleman, R. E.; Phelps, M. E.; Welch, M. J.; Sobel, B. E.

1975-01-01

461

Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

Mark Smith

2007-01-11

462

Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters warm. Recent UK government reports state that winter warming will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters warm with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.

Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.

2014-03-01

463

Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean warming.  

PubMed

In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of warming is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's environmental and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid warming over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued warming might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia. PMID:22036178

Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D

2011-11-01

464

Tiny warming of residual anthropogenic CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions which has not been captured by carbon sinks and remains in the atmosphere, is estimated by two independent experimental methods which support each other: the 13C/12C ratio and the temperature-independent fraction of d(CO2)/dt on a yearly scale after subtraction of annual fluctuations the amplitude ratio of which reaches a factor as large as 7. The anthropogenic fraction is then used to evaluate the additional warming by analysis of its spectral contribution to the outgoing long-wavelength radiation (OLR) measured by infrared spectrometers embarked in satellites looking down. The anthropogenic CO2 additional warming extrapolated in 2100 is found lower than 0.1°C in the absence of feedbacks. The global temperature data are fitted with an oscillation of period 60 years added to a linear contribution. The data which support the 60-year cycle are summarized, in particular sea surface temperatures and sea level rise measured either by tide gauge or by satellite altimetry. The tiny anthropogenic warming appears consistent with the absence of any detectable change of slope of the 130-year-long linear contribution to the temperature data before and after the onset of large CO2 emissions.

Gervais, François

2014-03-01

465

Drought and Freshwater Resources under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the big concerns associated with global warming is the potential change to drought and freshwater resources that could greatly impact our society. How drought and freshwater supply have changed during recent past and how it might change in the coming decades is increasingly becoming a great concern as global warming continues and more severe droughts are reported in the media. In this talk, I will present results from analyses of historical precipitation and streamflow data and drought indices to show that there is a drying trend and a decrease in river flow during the last 50-60 years over many low-latitude land areas. These changes have been caused mainly by decreases in precipitation over Africa, East and South Asia, the Mediterranean region, and eastern Australia. However, rapid warming since the 1980s may also have contributed significantly to the recent drying over many land areas. The recent drying and decreases in streamflow at low latitudes are consistent with model-predicted streamflow changes in the 21st century, although the models predict increased streamflow for northern high-latitude rivers due to increased precipitation there. For more details, see Dai et al. (2009, J. Climate, 22, 2773-2791) and Dai (2011, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 45-65).

Dai, A.

2011-12-01

466

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1993-12-31

467

Cashing-in on Risk Claims: On the For-profit Inversion of Signifiers for “Global Warming”  

Microsoft Academic Search

International environmental groups and a few Western governments have invested considerable resources in the social marketing of risk claims about global warming and climate change. These claims appear in novel forms of public service adverts that combine images and text in dramatic narratives of warning, natural disaster and moral responsibility. Although a few narratives mention government's regulatory role in mitigation,

Stephen H. Linder

2006-01-01