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  1. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  2. Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Warm-water Heat Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaser; Chiarot, Paul

    2015-11-01

    For cooling in large data-centers and supercomputers, water is increasingly replacing air as the working fluid in heat sinks. Utilizing water provides unique capabilities; for example: higher heat capacity, Prandtl number, and convection heat transfer coefficient. The use of warm, rather than chilled, water has the potential to provide increased energy efficiency. The geometric and operating parameters of the heat sink govern its performance. Numerical modeling is used to examine the influence of geometry and operating conditions on key metrics such as thermal and flow resistance. This model also facilitates studies on cooling of electronic chip hot spots and failure scenarios. We report on the optimal parameters for a warm-water heat sink to achieve maximum cooling performance.

  4. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  6. Numerical simulation of life cycles of advection warm fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Vaughan, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The formation, development and dissipation of advection warm fog is investigated. The equations employed in the model include the equation of continuity, momentum and energy for the descriptions of density, wind component and potential temperature, respectively, together with two diffusion equations for the modification of water-vapor mixing ratio and liquid-water mixing ratios. A description of the vertical turbulent transfer of heat, moisture and momentum has been taken into consideration. The turbulent exchange coefficients adopted in the model are based on empirical flux-gradient relations.

  7. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  8. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  9. Analyzing numerics of bulk microphysics schemes in community models: warm rain processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of bulk cloud microphysics (BLK) parameterizations in atmospheric models of different scales has gained momentum in the last two decades. Utilization of these parameterizations in cloud-resolving models when timesteps used for the host model integration are a few seconds or less is justified from the point of view of cloud physics. However, mechanistic extrapolation of the applicability of BLK schemes to the regional or global scales and the utilization of timesteps of hundreds up to thousands of seconds affect both physics and numerics. We focus on the mathematical aspects of BLK schemes, such as stability and positive-definiteness. We provide a strict mathematical definition for the problem of warm rain formation. We also derive a general analytical condition (SM-criterion) that remains valid regardless of parameterizations for warm rain processes in an explicit Eulerian time integration framework used to advanced finite-difference equations, which govern warm rain formation processes in microphysics packages in the Community Atmosphere Model and the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The SM-criterion allows for the existence of a unique positive-definite stable mass-conserving numerical solution, imposes an additional constraint on the timestep permitted due to the microphysics (like the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition for the advection equation), and prohibits use of any additional assumptions not included in the strict mathematical definition of the problem under consideration. By analyzing the numerics of warm rain processes in source codes of BLK schemes implemented in community models we provide general guidelines regarding the appropriate choice of time steps in these models.

  10. Public responses to global warming in Newcastle, Australia: Environmental values and environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkeley, H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper seeks to address tile social and cultural dimensions of the global warming issue through an analysis of `public` responses in Newcastle, Australia, based on recent research undertaken for a PhD thesis. Given the history of Australian involvement in the F.C.C.C process this case-study will provides an interesting context in which to analyse discourses of environmental values. It is argued that these discourses shape and are shaped by public responses to global environmental issues in ways which have important implications for the definition of issues as `problems` with acceptable solutions, for the implementation of such solutions and for their political consequences.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effect on Thickness Distribution in Warm Hydroforming of Aluminum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Moslemi Naeini, Hassan; Liaghat, Gholamhosein; Azizi Tafti, Roohollah; Rahmani, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of weight and increase of corrosion resistance are among the advantageous applications of aluminum alloys in automotive industry. Producing complicated components with several parts as a uniform part not only increases their strength but also decreases the production sequences and costs. However, achieving this purpose requires sufficient formability of the material. Tube hydroforming is an alternative process to produce complex products. In this process, the higher the material formability the more uniform will be the thickness distribution. In this research, tube hydroforming of aluminum alloy (AA1050) at various temperatures has been investigated numerically to study temperature effect on thickness distribution of final product. Also a warm hydroforming set-up has been designed and manufactured to evaluate numerical results. According to numerical and experimental results in the case of free bulging, unlike the constrained bulging, increase of the process temperature causes more uniform thickness distribution and therefore increases the material formability.

  12. "Fatties Cause Global Warming": Fat Pedagogy and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance; Cameron, Erin; Socha, Teresa; McNinch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education is one site of many that reinforces dominant obesity discourses and weight-based oppression through privileging fit, able bodies. Using personal narratives and insights from the nascent field of fat studies, we offer a critical analysis of obesity discourse in environmental writing in general and environmental education in…

  13. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy. PMID:19860158

  14. A numerical study on the formation of the Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G. H.; Tak, Y. J.; Cho, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Yellow Sea (YS) is a semi-enclosed marginal sea located between China and the Korean peninsula. The mouth of the YS is open to the East China Sea. The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) has been shown prominent in winter and previous studies suggest that the main force driving the YSWC is northwesterly winds. The northwesterly wind results in sea level differences between northern and southern areas by decreasing and increasing the sea level respectively in the northern and southern areas. The northward pressure gradient induces the northward intrusion of the YSWC. However, the sensitivity tests of the numerical model used in this study show that the YSWC flows into the YS without northerly winds due to the density difference between the northern fresh water and the southern saline Tsushima Current. Model experiments also show that the northward flow of the YSWC is accelerated by the northerly wind in winter. The model used for the sensitivity test is Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The model grid is 0.1degree horizontal resolution with 40 vertical levels. The sea surface forcing of the model is forced using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis data.

  15. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  16. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  17. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  18. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause Tornado Outbreaks in the Warm Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochimoto, Eigo; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The differences in structural and environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclones (hereafter, ECs) that cause tornado outbreaks and those that do not were examined through composite analyses of the newly-released Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-55) and idealized numerical experiments. ECs that developed in the United States in April and May between 1995 and 2012 are categorized into two groups: ECs accompanied by 15 or more tornadoes (hereafter, outbreak cyclones (OCs)) and ECs accompanied by 5 or less tornadoes (non-outbreak cyclones (NOCs)). 55 OCs and 41 NOCs that are of similar strength as OCs are selected in this study. The composite analyses show significant differences in convective environmental parameters between OCs and NOCs. For OCs, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) are larger and the areas in which these parameters have significant values are wider in the warm sector. The larger CAPE in OCs is due to larger amount of low-level water vapor, while the larger SREH in OCs due to stronger southerly wind at low levels. A piecewise potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics (Davis and Emanuel, 1991) indicates that low- to mid-level PV anomalies mainly contribute to the difference in the low-level winds between OCs and NOCs. On the other hand, the low-level winds associated with upper-level PV anomalies are not the major contributor to the difference. The results of the idealized numerical experiments for OCs and NOCs (hereafter, referred to as OC-CTL and NOC-CTL, respectively) using WRF ver. 3.4 show that the characteristics of the low-level wind fields and SREH distributions for the simulated ECs in OC-CTL and NOC-CTL are similar to those for OCs and NOCs, respectively. In OC-CTL, SREH and low-level winds in the east-southeast region of the EC center is larger than those in NOC-CTL, respectively. It is suggested that these differences are due to the structures of jetstream. The structure of

  19. Numerical simulations of dust transport into northern high latitudes during a Martian polar warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the polar laminated terrain depends on rates of dust transport to the polar caps. A simplified dynamical model is shown similar to models used to simulate terrestrial stratospheric polar warmings could simulate certain observed features of the circulation during Martian global dust storms. Model simulations of dust transport showed that substantial quantities of dust, enough to produce optical depths of approx. 1, could reach the pole during these storms.

  20. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  1. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

  2. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  3. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  4. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  5. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  6. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming. PMID:25343296

  7. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Energy extraction from ocean tides via hydrokinetic turbines has recently attracted scientists and engineers attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. However, since the most promising locations in terms of resources and proximity to the end users are in fragile estuarine ecosystems, numerous issues concerning the environmental impact of this technology need to be addressed a priori before large scale deployment. In this work we use numerical simulations to study the possible environmental effects of hydrokinetic turbines through their influence on physical flow variables such as pressure and velocity. The velocity deficit created in the turbulent wake of a turbine affects the settling of suspended sediment in the water column and can lead to deposition into artificial patterns that will alter the benthic ecosystem. On the other side of the spectrum, pressure fluctuation through turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device, particularly for small juveniles that behave like Lagrangian trackers. We present sedimentation statistics to understand the sensitivity of this phenomena to turbine operating conditions and sediment properties. We also show pressure history for slightly buoyant Lagrangian particles moving through the turbine and correlations with damage thresholds obtained from laboratory experiments.

  8. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  9. Environmental magnetic evidence for a dynamic Taylor Glacier during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Florindo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The current understanding of the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is limited spatially and temporally by a paucity of sedimentary records. This has led to the assumption that the Antarctic Glacio-climatic system has been in stasis since middle Miocene times and such an interpretation is not in conflict with deep-sea stable isotope records. However, rare stratified glacigene deposits exposed in the Transantarctic mountains and recovered from beneath Antarctic fjords by drilling suggest a more dynamic history of the EAIS. We apply environmental magnetic methods to drill cores previously collected from McMurdo Sound in an effort to track processes, transport methods and conditions and environments of deposition through the late Neogene. Additionally, we assess the robustness of the earlier magnetostratigraphies from the DVDP-10 and -11 cores by undertaking the first comprehensive paleomagnetic study of discrete paleomagnetic samples with complete thermal and alternating field demagnetisation and polarity determinations from principal component analysis. Here we present results from an investigation of the magnetic properties of the DVDP-10 and DVDP-11 drill cores from New Harbour, southern Victoria Land. Magnetic properties were determined for 400 samples by measuring their magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetism and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetism (NRM/ARM) at the Otago Paleomagnetic Research Facility and hysteresis and isothermal remanent magnetism (IRM) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy. The initial analyses indicate that only minimal diagenetic alteration has occurred and that a primary environmental magnetic signal is intact. We divide these records into three intervals based on magnetic characteristics. The upper interval (Interval I) comprises latest Pliocene to Pleistocene age Ross Sea Ice derived sediments which have high concentrations of fine grained magnetite reflecting the contribution

  10. Precession Control on Precipitation in the Western Pacific Warm Pool Inferred from Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has highest water temperature in the global ocean, and its spatiotemporal variations have significant impacts on large-scale atmospheric circulation and global hydrology. An environmental magnetic study was conducted on sediment cores of late Pleistocene age taken from the West Caroline Basin (WCB) offshore northern New Guinea in order to constrain hydrological variability over the WPWP on orbital timescales. Magnetite dominates magnetic mineral assemblages of the sediments. This is evidenced by that IRM acquisition curves are mostly explained by a low-coercivity component, and that the Verwey transition was obvious in low-temperature measurements. Existence of the sharp central ridges on FORC diagrams and TEM images indicate the occurrence of biogenic magnetite. Compared with pelagic sediments from other regions, however, FORC diagrams show a larger contribution of an interacting PSD and MD component, and the ratios of ARM susceptibility to SIRM (kARM/SIRM) are lower, which suggests a larger proportion of the terrigenous component. This is probably due to a large terrigenous sediment input from nearby land, New Guinea, induced by high precipitation in the intertropical convergence zone. Magnetic susceptibility (k) and kARM/SIRM well correlate with northern-hemisphere summer insolation. Maxima in k and minima in kARM/SIRM correspond to insolation minima, which suggests a larger terrigenous input caused by higher precipitation at these times. Interestingly, in the western part of WCB, k variations are dominated by the eccentricity periodicity and mimic δ18O curves, but the precession periodicity prevails in kARM/SIRM. These cores were taken at depths close to the CCD, and thus the k variations cannot be explained by dilution with carbonates. Sedimentation influenced by global sea-level changes may control the k variations; this part of the basin is adjacent to a wider continental shelf compared with the eastern part of WCB.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.

    2010-12-01

    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the

  12. Numerical Simulation on Measurement of Optical and Thermal Properties for Warm Dense Matter Generated by Isochoric Heating with Pulsed Power Discharge Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIKUCHI, Takashi; HAYASHI, Ryota; TAKAHASHI, Takuya; TAMURA, Fumihiro; TAKAHASHI, Kazumasa; SASAKI, Toru; ASO, Tsukasa; HARADA, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    Property data in warm dense matter (WDM) are important to optimize implosion dynamics in a fuel pellet of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A table-top pulsed power discharge device with isochoric heating using a sapphire hollow capillary was proposed, and was used to generate the extreme state of matter with a well-defined condition. We investigated numerically to generate the WDM by using the pulsed power discharge device. The numerical model was developed by time-dependent one-dimensional thermal diffusion with radiative transfer of multi-group approximation, and the numerical simulation was carried out according with the experimental condition. The achieved temperature of the numerical simulation result was confirmed by the previous experimental result. Also, the radiation energy density was shown at each group of the wavelength of emission.

  13. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  14. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  15. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  16. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  17. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Godbold, Jasmin A; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  18. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  19. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.

    1997-05-05

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.

  1. Hydrogeologic influence on changes in snowmelt runoff with climate warming: Numerical experiments on a mid-elevation catchment in the Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Meadows, M. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The role of hydrogeology in mediating long-term changes in mountain streamflow, resulting from reduced snowfall in a potentially warmer climate, is currently not well understood. We explore this by simulating changes in stream discharge and evapotranspiration from a mid-elevation, 1-km2 catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA) in response to reduced snowfall under warmer conditions, for a plausible range in subsurface hydrologic properties. Simulations are performed using a numerical watershed model, the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), constrained by observations from a meteorological station, stream gauge, and eddy covariance tower. We predict that the fraction of precipitation occurring as snowfall would decrease from approximately 47% at current conditions to 25%, 12%, and 5% for air temperature changes of +2, +4, and +6 °C. For each of these warming scenarios, changes in mean annual discharge and evapotranspiration simulated by the different plausible soil models show large ranges relative to averages, with coefficients of variation ranging from -3 to 3 depending on warming scenario. With warming and reduced snowfall, substrates with greater storage capacity show less soil moisture limitation on evapotranspiration during the late spring and summer, resulting in greater reductions in annual stream discharge. These findings indicate that the hydrologic response of mountain catchments to atmospheric warming and reduced snowfall may substantially vary across elevations with differing soil and regolith properties, a relationship not typically accounted for in approaches relying on space-for-time substitution. An additional implication of our results is that model simulations of annual stream discharge in response to snowfall-to-rainfall transitions may be relatively uncertain for study areas where subsurface properties are not well constrained.

  2. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  3. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  4. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  5. 3D Numerical Simulation of the Geothermal Field of Permafrost at Salluit in Nunavik, Québec, in Response to Climate Warming. Research in Progress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, R.; Allard, M.; Gagnon, O.

    2002-12-01

    survey aims at providing information on the geological and geotechnical characteristics of permafrost. Thermistor cables in deep boreholes, meteorological stations, dataloggers for the measurement of surface temperature, and thermal probes have been also installed in the valley. Air photographs will be used to produce a digital terrain model of the valley. This integrated multi-technique approach is essential for properly assessing the permafrost conditions in the valley. The study will provide the data needed for the development of a 3D model of permafrost conditions in the valley. A 3D numerical simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in the valley will be then undertaken. This simulation is a major challenge giving the size of the thermal field and the variability in permafrost conditions. The impacts of climate warming on the thermal field of permafrost will be simulated and predicted by forcing the surface temperature to increase following different scenarios of climate warming. It is planned to combine the geotechnical properties and the simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in order to define threshold values of permafrost strength and slope instability and set a pre-warning scheme of permafrost temperature in case of further warming in the coming years. The monitoring of permafrost temperature will be continued in the future. If the scheme is reached, actions can be then undertaken to mitigate the impacts of climate warming on the infrastructures and protect the population of Salluit.

  6. A numerical modeling study of the East Australian Current encircling and overwashing a warm-core eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">Warm</span>-core eddies (WCEs) often form in the meanders of Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). WCEs are frequently overwashed with less dense waters sourced from the WBC. We use the Regional Ocean Modelling System to investigate the ocean state during the overwashing of one such WCE in October 2008 in the East Australian Current (EAC). Comparisons of model outputs with satellite sea surface temperature and vertical profiles show that the model provides a realistic simulation of the eddy during the period when the EAC encircled and then overwashed the eddy. During the encircling stage, an eddy with closed circulation persisted at depth. In the surface EAC water entered from the north, encircled the eddy and exited to the east. The overwashing stage was initiated by the expulsion of cyclonic vorticity. For the following 8 days after the expulsion, waters from the EAC washed over the top of the eddy, transferring heat and anticyclonic vorticity radially-inward. After approximately one rotation period of overwashing, the eddy separated. The overwashing creates a two-layer system that forms a subsurface maximum velocity at the interface of the two layers. Analysis of water mass properties, Eulerian tracer dynamics, and Lagrangian particle tracks show that the original eddy sinks 10-50 m during the overwashing period. Overwashing has been observed in many WBCs and occurs in most WCEs in the western Tasman Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac oxygen limitation during an acute thermal challenge in the European perch: effects of chronic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> and experimental hyperoxia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sandblom, Erik</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Oxygen supply to the heart has been hypothesized to limit cardiac performance and whole animal acute thermal tolerance (CTmax) in fish. We tested these hypotheses by continuously measuring venous oxygen tension (Pvo2) and cardiovascular variables in vivo during acute <span class="hlt">warming</span> in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area during summer (18°C) and a chronically heated area (Biotest enclosure) that receives <span class="hlt">warm</span> effluent water from a nuclear power plant and is normally 5-10°C above ambient (24°C at the time of experiments). While CTmax was 2.2°C higher in Biotest compared with reference perch, the peaks in cardiac output and heart rate prior to CTmax occurred at statistically similar Pvo2 values (2.3-4.0 kPa), suggesting that cardiac failure occurred at a common critical Pvo2 threshold. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> hyperoxia (200% air saturation) increased Pvo2 across temperatures in reference fish, but heart rate still declined at a similar temperature. CTmax of reference fish increased slightly (by 0.9°C) in hyperoxia, but remained significantly lower than in Biotest fish despite an improved cardiac output due to an elevated stroke volume. Thus, while cardiac oxygen supply appears critical to elevate stroke volume at high temperatures, oxygen limitation may not explain the bradycardia and arrhythmia that occur prior to CTmax Acute thermal tolerance and its thermal plasticity can, therefore, only be partially attributed to cardiac failure from myocardial oxygen limitations, and likely involves limiting factors on multiple organizational levels. PMID:27280433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> up to the idea: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is here</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lynch, C.F.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This article summarizes recent information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Freddie Fish. A Primary <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study of Basic <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kraynak, Ola</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide and study guide are an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the <span class="hlt">numerals</span> 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889639"><span id="translatedtitle">On the formulation of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fugacity models and their <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bates, Michael L; Bigot, Marie; Cropp, Roger A; Engwirda, Darren; Friedman, Carey L; Hawker, Darryl W</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Multimedia models based on chemical fugacity, solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>, play an important role in investigating and quantifying the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fate of chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants. These models have been used extensively in studying the local and global distribution of chemicals in the environment. The present study describes potential sources of error that may arise from the formulation and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fugacity models. The authors derive a general fugacity equation for the rate of change of mass in an arbitrary volume (e.g., an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> phase). Deriving this general equation makes clear several assumptions that are often not articulated but can be important for successfully applying multimedia fugacity models. It shows that the homogeneity of fugacity and fugacity capacity in a volume (the homogeneity assumption) is fundamental to formulating discretized fugacity models. It also shows that when using the fugacity rather than mass as the state-variable, correction terms may be necessary to accommodate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as varying phase temperatures and volume. Neglecting these can lead to conservation errors. The authors illustrate the manifestation of these errors using heuristic multimedia fugacity models. The authors also show that there are easily avoided errors that can arise in mass state-variable models if variables are not updated appropriately in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration scheme. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2182-2191. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscale intraspecific variation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity: analysis of cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zone abundance, mortality, and regeneration distributions of four eastern US tree species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Anantha M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>I test for macroscale intraspecific variation of abundance, mortality, and regeneration of four eastern US tree species (Tsuga canadensis,Betula lenta,Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus prinus) by splitting them into three climatic zones based on plant hardiness zones (PHZs). The primary goals of the analysis are to assess the differences in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and demographic responses among climatic zones, map regional species groups based on decision tree rules, and evaluate univariate and multivariate patterns of species demography with respect to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. I use the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) data to derive abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices and split the range into three climatic zones based on USDA PHZs: (1) cold adapted, leading region; (2) middle, well-adapted region; and (3) <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing region. I employ decision tree ensemble methods to assess the importance of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictors on the abundance of the species between the cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zones and map zonal variations in species groups. Multivariate regression trees are used to simultaneously explore abundance, mortality, and regeneration in tandem to assess species vulnerability. Analyses point to the relative importance of climate in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing zone (especially moisture) compared to the cold adapted, leading zone. Higher mortality and lower regeneration patterns in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> trailing zone point to its vulnerability to growing season temperature and precipitation changes that could figure more prominently in the future. This study highlights the need to account for intraspecific variation of demography in order to understand <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and differential adaptation. It provides a methodology for assessing the vulnerability of tree species by delineating climatic zones based on easily available PHZ data, and FIA derived abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices as a proxy for overall growth and fitness. Based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Attitude Using Climate Change Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change generally and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........10Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........10Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Xiaoyan</p> <p></p> <p>Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among <span class="hlt">environmental</span> organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200"><span id="translatedtitle">Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9738525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9738525"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional brain heating during microwave exposure (2.06 GHz), <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water immersion, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heating and exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walters, T J; Ryan, K L; Belcher, J C; Doyle, J M; Tehrany, M R; Mason, P A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Nonuniform heating may result from microwave (MW) irradiation of tissues and is therefore important to investigate in terms of health and safety issues. Hypothalamic (Thyp), cortical (Tctx), tympanic (Tty), and rectal (Tre) temperatures were measured in rats exposed in the far field, k-polarization (i.e., head pointed toward the transmitter horn and E-field in vertical direction) to two power densities of 2.06 GHz irradiation. The high-power density (HPM) was 1700 mW/cm2 [specific absorption rate (SAR): hypothalamus 1224 W/kg; cortex 493 W/kg]; the low-power density (LPM) was 170 mW/cm2 (SAR: hypothalamus 122.4 W/kg; cortex 49.3 W/kg). The increase (rate-of-rise, in degrees C/s) in Thyp was significantly greater than those in Tctx or Tre when rats were exposed to HPM. LPM produced more homogeneous heating. Quantitatively similar results were observed whether rats were implanted with probes in two brain sites or a single probe in one or the other of the two sites. The qualitative difference between regional brain heating was maintained during unrestrained exposure to HPM in the h-polarization (i.e., body parallel to magnetic field). To compare the temperature changes during MW irradiation with those produced by other modalities of heating, rats were immersed in <span class="hlt">warm</span> water (44 degrees C, WWI); exposed to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> ambient environment (50 degrees C, WSED); or exercised on a treadmill (17 m/min 8% grade) in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> ambient environment (35 degrees C, WEX). WWI produced uniform heating in the regions measured. Similar rates-of-rise occurred among regions following WSED or WEX, thus maintaining the pre-existing gradient between Thyp and Tctx These data indicate that HPM produced a 2-2.5-fold difference in the rate-of-heating within brain regions that were separated by only a few millimeters. In contrast, more homogeneous heating was recorded during LPM or nonmicrowave modalities of heating. PMID:9738525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. PMID:25103965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPSJ...85f4003T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPSJ...85f4003T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Information Engines: A <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Katsuaki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We conduct <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=water+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63257182&CFTOKEN=20327858','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=water+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63257182&CFTOKEN=20327858"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: ASynopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I"><span id="translatedtitle">Flux variations and vertical distributions of microzooplankton (Radiolaria) in the western Arctic Ocean: <span class="hlt">environmental</span> indices in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikenoue, T.; Bjørklund, K. R.; Kruglikova, S. B.; Onodera, J.; Kimoto, K.; Harada, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The vertical distribution of radiolarians was investigated using a vertical multiple plankton sampler (100-0, 250-100, 500-250 and 1000-500 m water depths, 62 μm mesh size) at the Northwind Abyssal Plain and southwestern Canada Basin in September 2013. To investigate seasonal variations in the flux of radiolarians in relation to sea-ice and water masses, time series sediment trap system was moored at Station NAP (75°00' N, 162°00' W, bottom depth 1975 m) in the western Arctic Ocean during October 2010-September 2012. We showed characteristics of fourteen abundant radiolarian taxa related to the vertical hydrographic structure in the western Arctic Ocean. We found the Ceratocyrtis histricosus, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic water species, in net samples, indicating that it has extended its habitat into the Pacific Winter Water. The radiolarian flux was comparable to that in the North Pacific Oceans. Amphimelissa setosa was dominant during the open water and the beginning and the end of ice cover seasons with well-grown ice algae, ice fauna and with alternation of stable water masses and deep vertical mixing. During the sea-ice cover season, however, oligotrophic and cold-water tolerant Actinommidae was dominant and the productivity of radiolaria was lower and its species diversity was greater, which might be associated with the seasonal increase of solar radiation that induce the growth of algae on the ice and the other phytoplankton species under the sea-ice. These indicated that the dynamics of sea-ice was a major factor affecting the productivity, distribution, and composition of radiolarian fauna.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Simulated <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Rain Formation to Collision and Coalescence Efficiencies, Breakup, and Turbulence: Comparison of Two Bin-Resolved <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fridlind, Ann; Seifert, Axel; Ackerman, Andrew; Jensen, Eric</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models that resolve cloud particles into discrete mass size distributions on an Eulerian grid provide a uniquely powerful means of studying the closely coupled interaction of aerosols, cloud microphysics, and transport that determine cloud properties and evolution. However, such models require many experimentally derived paramaterizations in order to properly represent the complex interactions of droplets within turbulent flow. Many of these parameterizations remain poorly quantified, and the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> methods of solving the equations for temporal evolution of the mass size distribution can also vary considerably in terms of efficiency and accuracy. In this work, we compare results from two size-resolved microphysics models that employ various widely-used parameterizations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution methods for several aspects of stochastic collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFMED31A1364S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFMED31A1364S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating an informed citizenry through SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Filippelli, G. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Creating an informed citizenry through the promotion of the earth sciences as a long-term educational and employment option has become increasingly difficult: In recent years less than 7% of high school students and less than 12% of 8th graders in our nation have participated in an earth science course. These percentages are even lower among students of color, who often lack role models in the sciences. SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show; is a dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program that selects and empowers 11th and 12th graders from science magnet programs to teach well-known and tested climate change curricula to 8th graders from local feeder schools. This program, which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation, focuses on a student population comprised of 75% non-white students and above 50% students on free or reduced lunch, and will be supported by an expert team consisting of university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> provides an outstanding "teachable moment" in that the processes leading to it are straightforward, but the net rate of impact and the human response are not so simple. This topic is also media- friendly (being politically sensitive, but also easy to translate in terms of rising temperatures and sea level, melting of ice sheets, possible increases in hurricane activity), and nearly all students have been exposed to information about climate change. However, students are probably not as aware of the geologic context of climate change, which provides nearly all of the scenarios for the potential impacts of future climate change. The 8th grade curriculum for this program is being developed primarily using Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Greenhouse Effect (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990). The expert team will supplement and further develop this 15 year old curriculum with recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; What needs to be done</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>This paper names global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a high-level risk. However, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s risk status is a point of debate in some circles, reflecting one of the complexities of using risk-based criteria to establish priorities for action. The position that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> trend that must be halted. In this paper, argument son both sides of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue are presented to illustrate the difficulties associated with establishing the existence and magnitude of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and health risks, an issue that must be faced if the SAB recommendations for EPA policy change are implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed flowering and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but their responses to winter and spring <span class="hlt">warming</span> are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, W. Payton; Susong, David D.; Solomon, D. Kip; Heasler, Henry P.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heat and fluid flow fields are simulated for several conceptual permeability fields and compared to processes inferred from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in springs around Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Large hydrothermal basins require specific permeability distributions in the upper crust. High permeability connections must exist between the land surface and high-temperature environments at depths of up to 5 km. The highest modeled temperatures are produced with a vertical conduit permeability of 10-15m2. Permeability at depths of 3-5 km must be within one order of magnitude of the near-surface permeability and must be ≥10-16m2. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> tracers from springs are used to develop a plausible <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the local to regional groundwater flow field for the Norris Geyser Basin area. The model simulations provide insight into the dynamics of heat and fluid flow in a large regional hydrothermal system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Boundaries for Methanogenesis in Serpentinizing Systems using a Cell-scale <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Serpentinizing systems occur where liquid water reacts with ultramafic minerals. The reaction releases heat and produces an alkaline fluid that is rich in H2. The abundant H2 suggests that the energetics of methane production by CO2 reduction is highly favorable (ΔG ~ -102 kJ/mol CH4 for [H2] ~ 10-2 M). Given the possibility of subsurface water and ultramafic minerals on Mars, methanogenesis in serpentinizing systems has been considered as a possible model for photosynthesis-independent, extraterrestrial life. However, the high pH (9 - 11) and possibly elevated temperature have a negative impact on the overall cellular energy balance by increasing the cell's maintenance energy and reducing the concentration of CO2 substrate. We developed a reaction-transport model on the scale of a methanogen cell to investigate how the overall bioenergetics of methane production is influenced by the interplay between pH, temperature, and H2 and CO2 concentration. The model differentiates the cell into three basic structural units (cell wall, cell membrane with gated ion channels, and cytoplasm) and employs both thermodynamic and kinetic controls to estimate an upper-limit energy yield as a function of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The model provides a map of the range of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> extremes for which the energy balance for microbial methane production is positive. The model also provides a tool for exploring the energetics of different metabolic strategies that methanogens could use to cope with stresses associated with life in an alkaline, low-CO2 environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W"><span id="translatedtitle">OneRTM: an online real-time modelling platform for the next generation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Kingdon, Andrew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modelling has been applied in many fields to better understand and predict the behaviours of different processes. In our increasingly dynamic world there is an imperative to identify potential stresses and threats in the environment and to respond quickly with sound decisions. However, the limitations in traditional modelling methodologies make it difficult to respond quickly to rapidly developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> events, such as floods, droughts and pollution incidents. For example, it is both time consuming and costly to keep model data up-to-date and also to disseminate models results and modelled output datasets to end-users. Crucially it is difficult for people who has limited <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling skills to understand and interact with models and modelled results. In response to these challenges, a proof-of-concept online real-time modelling platform (OneRTM) has been developed as a mechanism for maintaining and disseminating <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and datasets. This automatically keeps models current for the most recent input data, links models based on data flow; it makes models and modelled datasets (historic, real-time and forecasted) immediately available via the internet as easy-to-understand dynamic GIS layers and graphs; and it provides online modelling functions to allow non-modellers to manipulate model including running pre-defined scenarios with a few mouse clicks. OneRTM has been successfully applied and tested in the Chalk groundwater flow modelling in the Thames Basin, UK. The system hosts and links groundwater recharge and groundwater flow models in the case study area, and automatically publishes the latest groundwater level layers on the internet once the current weather datasets becomes available. It also provides online functions of generating groundwater hydrograph and running groundwater abstraction scenarios. Although OneRTM is currently tested using groundwater flow modelling as an example, it could be further developed into a platform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the response of the California Current system to global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Final report to the National Institute for Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change (August 1993)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pares-Sierra, A.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This is the final report for the project ``Modeling the Response of the California Current System to Global Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>,`` supported 1990 and 1991 by NIGEC. The scientists involved are Dr. Richard C.J. Somerville and Alejandro Paries-Sierra of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD. A copy of papers submitted to the Journal of Physical Oceanography, and Geofisica Internacional that were supported in part or whole by WEST-GEC, as well as a summary of a talk delivered at the XX General Assembly of the IUGG, Vienna (1991) are appended to this report. The objective of the research was to improve the understanding of the response of the California Current system to the large-scale anomalous forcing thought to be associated with greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The authors viewed this as a necessary initial step in the study of the California climate response to global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ404495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ404495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up with Skill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Too little time is often spent on <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities in the school or recreation class. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77951974&CFTOKEN=32020018','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77951974&CFTOKEN=32020018"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064"><span id="translatedtitle">Televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues, specifically global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376230"><span id="translatedtitle">Television news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues, specifically global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>/cold cloud processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdle, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&pg=5&id=EJ601591','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&pg=5&id=EJ601591"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mingguang, Yang</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=Catastrophes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCatastrophes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=Catastrophes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCatastrophes"><span id="translatedtitle">Sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> as catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, W. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are <span class="hlt">numerically</span> demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Economic policy responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mannlein, Sally</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate models projected stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> elucidated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The meaning of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A21B0007L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A21B0007L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> be Stopped?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luria, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been reported in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282090"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic models of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seough, J. J.; Yoon, P. H.</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>The present paper is concerned with analytic models of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations for electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Specifically, effects of finite betas on two slow modes, namely, the left-hand circularly polarized ion-cyclotron mode and the right-hand circularly polarized whistler mode, are investigated. Analytic models of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations are constructed on the basis of conjecture and upon comparisons with <span class="hlt">numerically</span> found roots. It is shown that the model solutions are good substitutes for actual roots. The significance of the present work in the context of nonlinear plasma research is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper explores one of the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCC...5...37T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCC...5...37T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Acting green elicits a literal <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> policies are often based on the assumption that people only act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow could express itself quite literally: people who act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-<span class="hlt">environmental</span> actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647"><span id="translatedtitle">CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and enhance plant available water. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridges+AND+type&pg=5&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridges+AND+type&pg=5&id=EJ1002704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675"><span id="translatedtitle">Light accelerates plant responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced changes in forest floor plant communities. PMID:27250675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion acoustic solitons in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, K.K.; Ray, D.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Kalita and Bujarbarua (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 439 (1983)) obtained a set of equations to describe the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma and made a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> study of these equations for particular values of the physical parameters. In this paper a rigorous and general analytical study is presented. Some simple necessary and sufficient conditions for solitary wave solutions are derived and it is also shown that cavity solutions are not possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..502W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..502W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climates in Earth History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Gary</p> <p></p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are two key, inter-related topics that receive near-constant attention in the international press. Why? Because the political agencies that direct national and international economies are reluctant to admit that we may be conducting our own global scale experiment in atmospheric pollution. Perhaps they are right to do so. However, the arguments can only be tested properly by carefully documenting the natural climate system and by comparing recent and predicted future regional and global climate change with high-resolution geologic records of past changes and reorganization in response to climatic forcing. Geologic records on their own, though, are limited in their regional and global application and can only be properly applied to understanding the global climate system by integration with computer models and simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+storage&pg=4&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+storage&pg=4&id=EJ932287"><span id="translatedtitle">Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015HydJ...23..533M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015HydJ...23..533M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569"><span id="translatedtitle">A Transient <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B. R. Orr</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global <span class="hlt">warming</span> into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Local cooling despite global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari</p> <p></p> <p> such as, the strength of the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), temperatures of the ocean and atmosphere, mass transports, salinity, and ocean--atmosphere heat fluxes. Model results show that a reduced AMOC transport due to an increased freshwater flux causes cooling in both the atmosphere and ocean in the North Atlantic (NA) deep--water formation region. Cooling in both the ocean and atmosphere can cause a reduction of the ocean--atmosphere temperature difference, which in turn reduces heat fluxes in both the ocean and atmosphere. For present day climate parameters, the calculated critical freshwater flux needed to arrest AMOC is 0.14 Sv. Assuming a constant atmospheric zonal flow, there is both minimal reduction in the AMOC strength, as well as minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the ocean and atmosphere. This model provides a conceptual framework for a dynamically sound response of the ocean and atmosphere to AMOC variability as a function of increased freshwater flux. The results are qualitatively consistent with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> realistic coupled <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of varying complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721"><span id="translatedtitle">PERENNIAL <span class="hlt">WARM</span>-SEASON GRASSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about <span class="hlt">warm</span> season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-seas...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting protesting and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. PMID:24091158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Garment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> loop for different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - A reduced threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Issues associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial <span class="hlt">warming</span> from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted <span class="hlt">warming</span>, could drastically alter the debate on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> -- Science and anti-science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up - continuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameters of human discomfort in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on <span class="hlt">warm</span> discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127"><span id="translatedtitle">Policies on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ozone depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Green, B.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of land-use changes on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yield in Shikoku, western Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, Ryuhei; Iizumi, Toshichika; Nishimori, Motoki; Yokozawa, Masayuki</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We evaluated the impacts of historical land-use changes (LUCs) from 1987 to 2006 on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yields on the island of Shikoku, Japan. We performed two types of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations (with historical LUCs and with fixed land uses) using a regional atmospheric model (JMA-NHM) and a large-area rice-growth model (PRYSBI). During our study period in Shikoku, the area of paddy fields decreased markedly and the area of building lots and roads increased. Our evaluation suggests that these LUCs caused <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in and around paddy fields that were five times those in and around other land uses. The simulated rice yield in 2006 was 0.27% lower (0.012 t ha-1) than in 1987 in response to the change in thermal and solar radiation conditions. These results suggest that decreases of crop yield due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> deterioration will be found in other regions where similar LUCs are occurring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC22A..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC22A..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Accelerating?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been observed during the twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Inflation Model Building</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun</p> <p></p> <p>We review the main aspects of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673"><span id="translatedtitle">Some economics of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schelling, T.C. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too <span class="hlt">numerous</span> and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853"><span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, K.M.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore regions of the machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems and the urban environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ntelekos, Alexandros Anastasios</p> <p></p> <p>The consequences of a flood are amplified when it occurs in urban environments by virtue of the large concentration of people and wealth affected. This dissertation is devoted to advancing the understanding of the ways that <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems interact with the urban environment to produce flooding. The area of study is the northeastern United States with particular focus over the urban environments of Baltimore, Washington, DC, and New York City. The complex topography of the northeastern United States, with the Appalachian Mountains to the west, and the land-ocean boundary to the east of the heavily urbanized northeastern corridor, presents the analyses with great challenges. At the same time, it increases their relevance since most of the world's urban cores are built close to complex terrain. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season thunderstorm systems that produce short-duration, high-intensity rain-fall events are shown to be the major flash flooding agents over the urban corridor of the northeastern US. Established theories of inadvertent weather modification by urban environments are put to the test with the use of advanced models and multiple observational techniques. The results reveal unexplored links of inadvertent weather modification arising from synergies between the urban canopy layer and the land-ocean boundary. Aerosols are also shown to play an important role in rain-fall enhancement, under certain <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions that are examined through combined observational analyses and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model experiments. The last part of this dissertation is devoted to synthesizing the links between flooding and the urban environment to perform a critical review of the US flood policy framework. Projections of end-of-the 21st Century annual flood costs are made, and recommendations are provided for a modernization of the policy framework to more efficiently mitigate the effects of floods in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> waters, bleached corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, L.</p> <p>1990-10-12</p> <p>Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hengeveld, H. )</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887"><span id="translatedtitle">Interacting <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> threatens world cultural heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cazenave, Anny</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppock, Rob</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043579&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043579&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog and its application to <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog prediction and modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The considered theoretical model describes the evolution of potential temperature, water vapor content, liquid water content, and horizontal and vertical winds as determined by the processes of vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection for momentum, energy, and moisture, as well as radiation cooling, growth of water droplets based on microphysical processes, and drop sedimentation. The mathematical model is two-dimensional in the X-Z plane. The diffusivity coefficient is the same for liquid water droplets as for vapor. The fundamental equations governing the macrophysical processes of the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content, and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion transfer, turbulent momentum transfer, and turbulent energy transfer are expressed by three sets of conservation equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCAP...06..025B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCAP...06..025B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for Planck</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|nt|, where nt is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93k5135V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93k5135V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense crystallography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "<span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span> (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for Planck</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Claims, Science, and Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gould, Laurence I.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. <small>To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6</small></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178"><span id="translatedtitle">Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia. PMID:22036178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.W. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> events have been the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the December 1998 Stratospheric Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, G. L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Swinbank, R.; ONeill, A.; Connew, P. M.; Zurek, R. W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Prior to 1991, major <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (defined by increasing zonal mean temperatures and zonal mean easterly winds from 60degN to the pole at 10 hPa) typically occurred approximately once every two Arctic winters; a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> in mid-Dec. 1998 was the first since Feb. 1991. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> was also the second earliest on record. The earliest, and the only other major <span class="hlt">warming</span> on record before the end of Dec. was in early Dec 1987; prior to that, the earliest was in late Dec./early Jan. 1984-85. The 1984-85 and 1987 <span class="hlt">warmings</span> resulted in the warmest and weakest lower stratospheric polar vortices in the 20 years before 1998-99. Fig. 1 compares temperatures and vortex strength in 1998-99 with those in the previous 20 years, using the US National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) record; 1987-88 and 1984-85 are also highlighted. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a more pronounced effect on mid-stratospheric temperatures than the Dec. 1987 <span class="hlt">warming</span> (Fig. 1a), although smaller than that of <span class="hlt">warmings</span> later in winter (e.g., 1984-85). 10-hPa temperatures fell well below average again in late Jan. 1999 and remained unusually low until an early final <span class="hlt">warming</span> began in late Feb. 840 K PV gradients (Fig. 1c) set a record minimum in Jan. 1999, but were near average in Feb before the final <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The effect of the Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> on lower stratospheric temperatures was comparable to that of other major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>; there was a brief period of record-high minimum 46-hPa temperatures in early Jan 1999 (Fig. 1b), and temperatures then fell to near average for a short period in mid-Feb. Lower stratospheric PV gradients were the weakest on record during the 1998-99 winter (Fig. 1d). The evolution of the vortex and minimum temperatures during 1998-99 was remarkably similar to that during 1987-88, the only previous year when a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> was observed before the end of Dec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Manila clam growth and its food sources to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a subarctic lagoon in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Seokjin; Abe, Hiroya; Kishi, Michio J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Akkeshi Lake is a subarctic shallow brackish lagoon located in Hokkaido, Japan. The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is cultured in sandy sediments at the shallow, intertidal flat near the mouth of the lake. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as water temperature and food availability on the growth of the Manila clam and to estimate the responses of Manila clam growth and food availability to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Akkeshi Lake, we developed a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model by coupling a three-dimensional ecosystem model with a bioenergetics model for the growth of the Manila clam. We ran the model under two different conditions: the present condition and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. For the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, water temperature was increased by 2 °C at the open boundary for the entire computational period. The growth of the Manila clam was limited by water temperature and food availability. The Manila clam grew up to 1.33 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake mouth (station A) for 5 years, whereas it grew up to 1.00 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake center (station B). The difference in the biomass of the Manila clam between two stations was due to the difference in food availability. Under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, the water temperature limitation for the Manila clam was relaxed with a water temperature increase. The Manila clam grew up to 1.55 g dry weight ind.-1 at station A and 1.10 g dry weight ind.-1 at station B. While the growth of the Manila clam was improved in the lake under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, its food sources, especially phytoplankton, decreased because of ingestion increases of grazers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM"><span id="translatedtitle">Weird <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spot on Exoplanet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation illustrates an unexpected <span class="hlt">warm</span> spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for the FE-Simulation of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Metal Forming Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tong, L.; Stahel, S.; Hora, P.</p> <p>2005-08-05</p> <p>Better formability, less forming force and satisfactory quality are the most important characteristics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. However, the material models for either cold forming or hot forming cannot be directly adopted for the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. Supplement and modification are necessary. Based on the Zener-Hollomon formulation, additional terms are proposed in the presented work to describe the softening effect observed during <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes as well as the strain hardening effect. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation provides detailed information about the history and distribution of both deformation and temperature, the phase transformation can then also be evaluated, provided the experimental data are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Brian Fagan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, B. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Five centuries of irregular <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> argues that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinguishing <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought from drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">warm</span> days increase belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global <span class="hlt">warming</span> attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ925234"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Movement <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routines can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up to a Good Sound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tovey, David C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Most choral directors in schools today have been exposed to a variety of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures. Yet, many do not use the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up time effectively as possible. Considers the factors appropriate to a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercise and three basic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up categories. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in <span class="hlt">warmings</span> is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in relation to man's activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004666"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of comfort <span class="hlt">warming</span> on preoperative patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Doreen; Byrne, Michelle; Kolcaba, Katharine</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>THERMAL COMFORT IS ONE DIMENSION of overall patient comfort, and it usually is addressed by covering the patient with <span class="hlt">warmed</span> cotton blankets. <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> HELPS A PATIENT maintain normothermia and appears to decrease patient anxiety. AN STUDY WAS CONDUCTED in a preoperative setting to compare the effects of preoperative <span class="hlt">warming</span> with <span class="hlt">warmed</span> cotton blankets versus patient-controlled <span class="hlt">warming</span> gowns on patients' perceptions of thermal comfort and anxiety. BOTH <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> INTERVENTIONS had a positive effect on patients' thermal comfort and sense of well-being. Patients who used the patient-controlled <span class="hlt">warming</span> gown also experienced a significant reduction in preoperative anxiety. PMID:17004666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0–8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> early Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasting, J.F.</p> <p>1997-05-23</p> <p>Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars <span class="hlt">warm</span> with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016421"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of Mars atmospheric water into high northern latitudes during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments were conducted with a simplified tracer transport model in order to attempt to examine the poleward transport of Mars atmospheric water during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> like that which occurred during the winter solstice dust storm of 1977. The flow for the transport experiments was taken from <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations with a nonlinear beta-plane dynamical model. Previous studies with this model have demonstrated that a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> having essential characteristics like those observed during the 1977 dust storm can be produced by a planetary wave mechanism analogous to that responsible for terrestrial sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Several <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments intended to simulate water transport in the absence of any condensation were carried out. These experiments indicate that the flow during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> can transport very substantial amounts of water to high northern latitudes, given that the water does not condense and fall out before reaching the polar region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development&pg=5&id=ED565890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development&pg=5&id=ED565890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.</p> <p>2008-01-24</p> <p>Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle <span class="hlt">warming</span> variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150"><span id="translatedtitle">[Passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW) system, its design and <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jin; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Yun-lu; Dong, Wen-jun; Zhang, Wei-jian</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Based on the technique of passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW), a convenient and energy-saving PNW facility was designed for a rice-wheat cropping system in Danyang, Jiangsu Province. The facility could guarantee 15.75 m2 effective sampling area, with a homogeneous amplitude of increased temperature, and making the nighttime canopy temperature during whole rice growth season increased averagely by 1.1 degrees C and the nighttime canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during whole winter wheat growth period increased averagely by 1.3 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C, respectively. During the operation period of the facility, the variation trends of the canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during the whole growth periods of rice and winter wheat in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots were similar to those of the control. Though the facility slightly decreased the soil moisture content during winter wheat growth period, wheat growth was less impacted. The application of this facility in our main production areas of rice and winter wheat showed that the facility could advance the initial blossoming stages of rice and winter wheat averagely by 3 d and 5 d, respectively. In despite of the discrepancy in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect among different regions and seasons, this energy-saving facility was reliable for the field research on crop responses to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, when the homogeneity of increased temperature, the effective area, and the effects on crop growth period were taken into comprehensive consideration. PMID:21265150</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the summit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a late Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> and humid climate period and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> characteristics in the arid zones of northwest China during 2.2 ˜ 1.8 kyr B.P.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bao, Yang; Braeuning, Achim; Yafeng, Shi; Fahu, Chen</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Natural archives like ice cores, tree rings, river and lake sediments, lake terraces, and paleosols and also historical documents witness aspects of climate change in northwestern China during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). Reconstructions of decadal averages of annual mean temperature and precipitation fluctuations were derived from variations of δ18O and net accumulation rates in the Guliya ice core. They revealed a period of higher temperatures and higher precipitation than today, which affected vast areas of northwestern China during the period of interest until the fifth century A.D. These conditions resulted in a marked increase in the discharge of big endorheic river systems, such as the Tarim, the Keriya and the Manas rivers. As a consequence, water levels in appendant terminal lakes rose, e.g., at Lop Nor, Manas Lake, and Baijian Hu. Lake surface areas expanded, and lake desalting occurred also at lakes in intermontane basins, such as Balikun Hu and Qinghai Lake. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist conditions during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties might have been responsible for the large-scale agricultural production and the local socioeconomic boom that is documented by the occurrence of the famous ruin groups of Loulan, Niya, and Keriya. The following desiccation phase led to a deterioration of water resources, and most oases tended to dry out and were finally abandoned. The appearance, development, flourishing, and final abandonment of each great ruin group are closely associated with regional climate change at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC33A1273S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC33A1273S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Updated Climate Accounting to Slow Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Before 2035</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The current and projected worsening of climate impacts make clear the urgency of limiting the global mean temperature to 2°C over preindustrial levels. But while mitigation policy today may slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the century, it will not keep global <span class="hlt">warming</span> within these limits. This failure arises in large part from the climate accounting system used to inform this policy, which does not factor in several scientific findings from the last two decades, including: The urgent need to slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035. This can postpone the time the +1.5°C limit is passed, and is the only way to avoid the most serious long-term climate disruptions. That while it may mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the end of the century, reducing emissions of CO2 alone, according to UNEP/WMO[1], will do "little to mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the next 20-30 years," and "may temporarily enhance near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> as sulfate [cooling] is reduced." That the only emissions reductions that can slow <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035 are focused on short-lived climate pollutants. A small increase in current mitigation funding could fund these projects, the most promising of which target emissions in regional climate "hot spots" like the Arctic and India.[2] To ensure policies can effectively slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035, a new climate accounting system is needed. Such an updated system is being standardized in the USA,[3] and has been proposed for use in ISO standards. The key features of this updated system are: consideration of all climate pollutants and their multi-faceted climate effects; use of time horizons which prioritize mitigation of near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>; a consistent and accurate accounting for "biogenic" CO2; protocols ensuring that new scientific findings are incorporated; and a distinct accounting for emissions affecting regional "hot spots". This accounting system also considers <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts outside of climate change, a feature necessary to identify "win-win" projects with climate benefits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact of bioenergy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up to solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biondo, B.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> can enhance invasion success through asymmetries in energetic performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penk, Marcin R; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Minchin, Dan; Donohue, Ian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Both climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders' performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M. salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H. anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under <span class="hlt">warming</span> climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios. PMID:26618450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric predictability and sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stan, Cristiana; Straus, David M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A comparative study of the limit of predictability in the stratosphere and troposphere in a coupled general circulation model is carried out using the National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Interactive Ensemble (CFSIE). In "identical twin experiments", we compare the forecast errors of zonal wind and potential temperature in the troposphere and stratosphere for various wave groups. The results show smaller intrinsic error growth in the lower stratosphere compared with troposphere. The limit of predictability of sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events, measured by the errors in the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux, is dominated by the amplification of small errors in the individual fields due to differences between the phase of the waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the potential of causing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227666-warming-trends-adapting-nonlinear-change','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227666-warming-trends-adapting-nonlinear-change"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> trends: Adapting to nonlinear change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jonko, Alexandra K.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> more than others. Research suggests that whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic climate change: Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> unleashed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016mecs.conf..375L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016mecs.conf..375L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Surfactant <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt Construction Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix agent to produce <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian description of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Antarctic waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW <span class="hlt">warming</span> are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Debris Disks from WISE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Padgett, Deborah L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>"The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This <span class="hlt">warm</span> excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0175S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0175S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Atlas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sjoberg, J. P.; Butler, A. H.; Seidel, D. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (SSWs) are large and rapid temperature increases in the polar stratosphere associated with a complete reversal of the climatological westerly winds in wintertime. These extreme events can have substantial impacts on wintertime surface climate, such as cold air outbreaks over North America and Eurasia, or anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Greenland. Here we promote our progress towards a new atlas of historical SSW events and their impacts on the surface. The SSW atlas contains a variety of metrics, time series, maps, and animations for individual SSW events. The atlas will allow users to examine the structure and development of individual SSWs, the variability between events, the surface impacts in temperature and precipitation, and the impacts of SSWs during years with certain tropospheric signatures, like El Niño or La Niña winters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999wceh.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999wceh.book.....H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climates in Earth History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Wing, Scott L.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>The study of greenhouse climates in the earth's past leads to a greater understanding of the factors that influence today's climate. In this fully integrated volume, leading experts in paleoclimatology present cutting edge paleontological, geological, and theoretical research to assess intervals of global warmth. Coverage examines <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate intervals during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic from the same perspectives: oceanic and terrestrial, theoretical and observational. This approach illuminates the differences and, more importantly, the commonalities of <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate intervals. The book also provides a comprehensive overview of the advantages and limitations of different types of climate models that are currently used, and it discusses major factors that have caused global climatic change across geologic time scales. Central problems that remain unresolved are clearly identified. The book will be of great interest to researchers in paleoclimatology, and it will also be useful as a supplementary text in advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses in paleoclimatology and earth science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Norman L.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..144a2014E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..144a2014E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">MCCB <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment testing concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the world <span class="hlt">warming</span> or not?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1995-02-03</p> <p>Articles in the popular press indicate controversy surrounding the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However greenhouse models predict more <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is presently apparent. For climate change to live up to predictions, the minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the 1980`s will have to accelerate into the next millenium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The details of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sozio, Gerry</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Senior secondary students cover <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Brelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Brelativity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D</p> <p>2004-04-21</p> <p>This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In the Meado<span class="hlt">Warm</span> project we conduct an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the last glacial cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M., Jr.; Stepanova, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling to show that the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Historical and Experimental Data to Reveal <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Effects on Ant Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Diamond, Sarah E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Levey, Douglas J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976–2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010–2011 were ∼2.7°C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼1.5–5.5°C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364"><span id="translatedtitle">Using historical and experimental data to reveal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on ant assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L; Stuble, Katharine L; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Diamond, Sarah E; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Levey, Douglas J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976-2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010-2011 were ∼ 2.7 °C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼ 1.5-5.5 °C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Phylogenetic Assignment of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sequences of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA and <span class="hlt">Numerically</span> Abundant Culturable Bacteria from an Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hengstmann, Ulf; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Janssen, Peter H.; Liesack, Werner</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We used both cultivation and direct recovery of bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences to investigate the structure of the bacterial community in anoxic rice paddy soil. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of 19 saccharolytic and cellulolytic strains are described in the accompanying paper (K.-J. Chin, D. Hahn, U. Hengstmann, W. Liesack, and P. H. Janssen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5042–5049, 1999). Here we describe the phylogenetic positions of these strains in relation to 57 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA clone sequences. Close matches between the two data sets were obtained for isolates from the culturable populations determined by the most-probable-number counting method to be large (3 × 107 to 2.5 × 108 cells per g [dry weight] of soil). This included matches with 16S rDNA similarity values greater than 98% within distinct lineages of the division Verrucomicrobia (strain PB90-1) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group (strains XB45 and PB90-2), as well as matches with similarity values greater than 95% within distinct lines of descent of clostridial cluster XIVa (strain XB90) and the family Bacillaceae (strain SB45). In addition, close matches with similarity values greater than 95% were obtained for cloned 16S rDNA sequences and bacteria (strains DR1/8 and RPec1) isolated from the same type of rice paddy soil during previous investigations. The correspondence between culture methods and direct recovery of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA suggests that the isolates obtained are representative geno- and phenotypes of predominant bacterial groups which account for 5 to 52% of the total cells in the anoxic rice paddy soil. Furthermore, our findings clearly indicate that a dual approach results in a more objective view of the structural and functional composition of a soil bacterial community than either cultivation or direct recovery of 16S rDNA sequences alone. PMID:10543822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for <span class="hlt">warming</span> field plots from 1 to 100 m</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a need to study the likely effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystems with experimental treatments as representative as possible of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. One approach that shows much promise is the use of hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters to <span class="hlt">warm</span> canopies of vegetation. This appr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rühland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rühland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527"><span id="translatedtitle">Cutaneous <span class="hlt">warming</span> promotes sleep onset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin <span class="hlt">warming</span> and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was <span class="hlt">warmed</span>. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361..289N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361..289N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">High dissipative nonminimal <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, Masoomeh</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study a model of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in which both inflaton field and its derivatives are coupled nonminimally to curvature. We survey the spectrum of the primordial perturbations in high dissipative regime. By expanding the action up to the third order, the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity is studied both in the equilateral and orthogonal configurations. Finally, by adopting four sort of potentials, we compare our model with the Planck 2015 released observational data and obtain some constraints on the model's parameters space in the high dissipation regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738U0031F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738U0031F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">New efficient optimizing techniques for Kalman filters and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Famelis, Ioannis; Galanis, George; Liakatas, Aristotelis</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The need for accurate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictions and simulations beyond the classical meteorological forecasts are increasing the last years due to the great number of applications that are directly or not affected: renewable energy resource assessment, natural hazards early warning systems, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions on the climate change can be listed among them. Within this framework the utilization of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather and wave prediction systems in conjunction with advanced statistical techniques that support the elimination of the model bias and the reduction of the error variability may successfully address the above issues. In the present work, new optimization methods are studied and tested in selected areas of Greece where the use of renewable energy sources is of critical. The added value of the proposed work is due to the solid mathematical background adopted making use of Information Geometry and Statistical techniques, new versions of Kalman filters and state of the art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> analysis tools.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span id="translatedtitle">From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation. PMID:24904161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseasons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseasons"><span id="translatedtitle">Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season QPF be Improved?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for <span class="hlt">numerous</span> reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=cell+evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bevolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=cell+evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bevolution"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> - Synoptic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blackshear, W. T.; Grose, W. L.; Turner, R. E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is presented of a sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event which occurred spontaneously during a general circulation model simulation of the global atmospheric circulation. Two separate <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulses exhibit the same dynamical evolution with a 'cycle' of about two weeks. Two distinct phases of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle are apparent: (1) the generation of an intense localized <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell in conjunction with significant adiabatic heating associated with cross-isobar flow which has been induced by vertically propagating long wave disturbances; and (2) the northward transport of that <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell via advection by the essentially geostrophic windfield corresponding to an intense, offset polar cyclone, in conjunction with a strong Aleutian anticyclone. During the first <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse in January, a moderate Aleutian anticyclone was in place prior to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle and was intensified by interaction with an eastward traveling anticyclone induced by the differential advection of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell. The second <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse occurred in early February with a strong Aleutian anticyclone already established. In contrast to the January event, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in February culminated with reversal of the zonal westerlies to easterlies over a significant depth of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> gas TVC design study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moorhead, S. B., Jr.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=AMERICAN+AND+pETROLEUM+AND+iNSTITUTE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77722846&CFTOKEN=41176773','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=AMERICAN+AND+pETROLEUM+AND+iNSTITUTE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77722846&CFTOKEN=41176773"><span id="translatedtitle">A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> AND FOSSIL FUEL USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D"><span id="translatedtitle">Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994"><span id="translatedtitle">Mach reflection in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, J. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilde, B. H.; Hartigan, P.; Perry, T. S.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>The phenomenon of irregular shock-wave reflection is of importance in high-temperature gas dynamics, astrophysics, inertial-confinement fusion, and related fields of high-energy-density science. However, most experimental studies of irregular reflection have used supersonic wind tunnels or shock tubes, and few or no data are available for Mach reflection phenomena in the plasma regime. Similarly, analytic studies have often been confined to calorically perfect gases. We report the first direct observation, and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling, of Mach stem formation for a <span class="hlt">warm</span>, dense plasma. Two ablatively driven aluminum disks launch oppositely directed, near-spherical shock waves into a cylindrical plastic block. The interaction of these shocks results in the formation of a Mach-ring shock that is diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. The data are modeled using radiation hydrocodes developed by AWE and LANL. The experiments were carried out at the University of Rochester's Omega laser [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] and were inspired by modeling [A. M. Khokhlov, P. A. Hoeflich, E. S. Oran et al., Astrophys J. 524, L107 (1999)] of core-collapse supernovae that suggest that in asymmetric supernova explosion significant mass may be ejected in a Mach-ring formation launched by bipolar jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248"><span id="translatedtitle">Exceptional <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Funk, Christopher C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Indian–Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441388"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of partial cloudiness in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain parameterization: A subgrid-scale precipitation scheme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechtold, P.; Pinty, J.P.; Mascart, P.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>A method is proposed on how to handle the effects of partial cloudiness in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain microphysical scheme and how to generate subgrid-scale precipitation. The method is simple and concerns essentially two ideas: The use of the vertical distribution of the partial cloudiness and the use of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and cloud-scale values for the thermodynamic variables instead of their grid-mean values. It applies to any microphysical scheme. The method has been applied to a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain parameterization scheme that has been implemented in a mesoscale model using a statistical partial cloudiness scheme. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> tests have been done for two one-dimensional cases of boundary-layer cloudiness: A cumulus case and a case of a decoupled stratocumulus layer. The results show that the correct coupling of a partial cloudiness scheme and a microphysical scheme allows for a better description of the actual cloudiness and precipitation fields by ensuring a consistent computation of partial cloudiness, cloud water, and rainwater in partly cloudy regions. 20 refs., 14 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span id="translatedtitle">Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting wildlife response to rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Alaskan Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Problems in assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longstreth, J.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to result in a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> and lunar tide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a large-scale disturbance in the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that the effect of stratospheric sudden warnings extends well into the upper atmosphere. A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is often accompanied by an amplification of lunar tides in the ionosphere/theremosphere. However, there are occasionally winters when a stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs without an enhancement of the lunar tide in the upper atmosphere, and other winters when large lunar tides are observed without a strong stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We examine the winters when the correlation breaks down and discuss possible causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological stability in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under <span class="hlt">warming</span> remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> microcosms were explained in terms of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: <span class="hlt">warming</span> should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428"><span id="translatedtitle">DPIS for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.</p> <p>2010-05-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.160S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.160S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> set stage for deadly heat wave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the summer of 2010, soaring temperatures and widespread forest fires ravaged western Russia, killing 55,000 and causing $15 billion in economic losses. In the wake of the record-setting heat wave, two studies sought to identify the contribution that human activities made to the event. One showed that temperatures seen during the deadly heat wave fell within the bounds of natural variability, while another attributed the heat wave to human activity, arguing that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the chance of record-breaking temperatures occurring. Merging the stances of both studies, Otto et al. sought to show that while human contributions to climate change did not necessarily cause the deadly heat wave, they did play a role in setting the stage for its occurrence. Using an ensemble of climate simulations, the authors assessed the expected magnitude and frequency of an event like the 2010 heat wave under both 1960s and 2000s <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The authors found that although the average temperature in July 2010 was 5°C higher than the average July temperature from the past half decade, the deadly heat wave was within the natural variability of 1960s, as well as 2000s, climate conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216"><span id="translatedtitle">Halocarbon ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Concern over the global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global <span class="hlt">warming</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Since plant species show individual responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We <span class="hlt">warmed</span> an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the community level occur only when <span class="hlt">warming</span> is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span>: mechanism and latitude dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present <span class="hlt">warming</span> of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ445277','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ445277"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups: Creating a <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up That Works.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Proper <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Madden-Julian Oscillation in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chuing-Wen June; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Keenlyside, Noel; Tsuang, Ben-Jei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate models remain challenged by accurate simulation of the Madden- Julian oscillation (MJO). This has limited the study of the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on this phenomenon. He we apply the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT coupled model that is able simulate the MJO with realistic strength, structure, period, and propagation speed. The model consists of a high-resolution one-column ocean model (SIT) coupled to the ECHAM5 atmospheric model. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments were conducted to explore the changes in the MJO by the end of 21st Century under the RCP8.5 scenario. In the <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, the MJO remains wavenumber-one structure with larger amplitude and stronger circumglobal propagation, and faster eastward propagation. The convection develops higher in the upper troposphere and the overturning circulation expands zonally but contracts meridionally. The shallow and deep convective heating are both enhanced and a stronger low-level convergence enhances westward tilting with height. Enhancement of MJO amplitude and extent can be explained by enhanced intraseasonal low-level convergence and increased mean moisture under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The moister mean state contributes to the enhancement of deep convection, which excites stronger Kelvin waves. This reinforces low-level convergence through the enhanced Frictional Convergence Mechanism and leads to the more efficient and timely preconditioning of the deep convection, and therefore to a faster development and enhancement of the deep convection in MJO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stellar evolution on migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frewen, S. F. N.; Hansen, B. M. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> jupiters are an unexpected population of extrasolar planets that are too near to their host to have formed in situ, but distant enough to retain a significant eccentricity in the face of tidal damping. These planets are curiously absent around stars larger than two solar radii. We hypothesize that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters are migrating due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, which lead to transient episodes of high eccentricity and a consequent tidal decay. As their host evolves, such planets would be rapidly dragged in or engulfed at minimum periapse, leading to a dramatic depletion of this population with increasing stellar radius, as is observed. Using <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, we determine the relationship between periapse distance and orbital migration rate for planets 0.1-10 Jupiter masses and with orbital periods between 10 and 100 d. We find that Kozai-Lidov oscillations effectively result in planetary removal early in the evolution of the host star, possibly accounting for the observed deficit. While the observed eccentricity distribution is inconsistent with the simulated distribution for an oscillating and migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiter population, observational biases may explain the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+biodiversity&pg=3&id=EJ502198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+biodiversity&pg=3&id=EJ502198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A resource for teaching about the consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear electron oscillations in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+cause&pg=3&id=EJ502195','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+cause&pg=3&id=EJ502195"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and unequal <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chlorofluorocarbon&pg=2&id=EJ410863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chlorofluorocarbon&pg=2&id=EJ410863"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: How Much and Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanouette, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the history of the study of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=thesis+waters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthesis%2Bwaters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=thesis+waters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthesis%2Bwaters"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the tropical water budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Betts, Alan K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=density&pg=6&id=EJ1094559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=density&pg=6&id=EJ1094559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Water in a Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Students' Ideas about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+fatigue&pg=3&id=EJ255711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+fatigue&pg=3&id=EJ255711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+depletion&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+depletion&id=EJ912888"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2"><span id="translatedtitle">Catching a Cold When It's <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s <span class="hlt">Warm</span> What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s <span class="hlt">warm</span>? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal biases and vulnerability to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the world's marine fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Barrett, Neville S; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Bates, Amanda E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and combine these with projected ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> data to predict <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss. PMID:26560025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled Soil <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Disks from Giant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X"><span id="translatedtitle">Can biomass responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies had investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal Extraction - <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without <span class="hlt">environmental</span> costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066706&hterms=causes+homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcauses%2Bhomogenization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066706&hterms=causes+homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcauses%2Bhomogenization"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixing processes following the final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hess, Peter G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An investigation is made of the dynamics responsible for the mixing and dissolution of the polar vortex during the final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. The dynamics and transport during a Northern Hemisphere final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> are simulated via a GCM and an associated offline N2O transport model. The results are compared with those obtained from LIMS data for the final <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1979, with emphasis on the potential vorticity evolution in the two datasets, the modeled N2O evolution, and the observed O3 evolution. Following each <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the remnants of the originally intact vortex are found to gradually homogenize with the atmosphere at large. Two processes leading to this homogenization are identified following the final <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, namely, the potential vorticity field becomes decorrelated from that of the chemical tracer, and the vortex remnants begin to tilt dramatically in a vertical direction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhTea..48..525H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhTea..48..525H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of Arkansas have developed a conceptual understanding of energy and of electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic spectrum, I devote a lecture (and a textbook section) to ozone depletion and another lecture (and section) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Humankind came together in 1986 and quickly solved, to the extent that humans can solve it, ozone depletion. We could do the same with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but we haven't and as yet there's no sign that we will. The parallel between the ozone and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> cases, and the difference in outcomes, are striking and instructive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S"><span id="translatedtitle">Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Observations show that the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep <span class="hlt">warming</span> is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, insurance losses and financial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. How global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation regime drives soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in temperate steppes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments have been done to examine the impacts of elevated temperature on soil microbial actives, most of them were based on responses from a single site. To investigate how precipitation regime regulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s effects on carbon cycle, field manipulative <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments were conducted at 3 types of steppes (desert, typical and meadow steppe) along a precipitation gradient in northern China. Soil temperature, moisture, dissolved organic C (DOC), inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration, microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and respiration (MR) were measured once a year from 2006 to 2009. The results showed that soil moisture was significantly decreased in the typical steppe whereas not affected in the desert and meadow steppe, respectively. Across the 4 years, <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased MBC and MR in the desert and typical steppe while did not affect them in the meadow steppe. The magnitude of reductions in <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced MBC and MR declined with increasing precipitation gradient at a regional scale. Across the precipitation gradient, all changes in soil MBC, MBN and MR were positively correlated with both annual precipitation and changes in belowground net primary productivity (BNPP), suggesting that soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> may be regulated by annual precipitation and substrate availability. However, the lab-incubation revealed that soil moisture is more important in regulating soil microbial activities than substrate across the 3 steppes. In addition, soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed year-to-year variations during the first 4 years coincided with the fluctuations in annual precipitation across the 3 steppes. Our results suggested that precipitation regime controls the spatial and interannual responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mainly by regulating soil moisture and substrate availability. With the increase in precipitation, the positive responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span> started to outweigh the negative impacts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing ice discharge through West Antarctic Gateways: Weddell vs. Amundsen Sea <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. A.; Levermann, A.; Winkelmann, R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Future changes in Antarctic ice discharge will be largely controlled by the fate of the floating ice shelves, which exert a back-stress onto Antarctica's marine outlet glaciers. Ice loss in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Amundsen Sea has been observed and investigated as a potential trigger for the marine ice-sheet instability. Recent observations and simulations suggest that the Amundsen Sea Sector might already be unstable which would have strong implications for global sea-level rise. At the same time, regional ocean projections show much stronger <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water intrusion into ice-shelf cavities in the Weddell Sea compared to the observed Amundsen <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we present results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice sheet modelling with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) which show that idealized, step-function type ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Weddell Sea leads to more immediate ice discharge with a higher sensitivity to small <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels than the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Amundsen Sea. This is consistent with the specific combination of bedrock and ice topography in the Weddell Sea Sector which results in an ice sheet close to floatation. In response to even slight ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases rapidly, peaks and declines within one century. While the cumulative ice loss in the Amundsen Sea Sector is of similar magnitude after five centuries of continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases at a slower pace and only for significantly higher <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels. Although there is more marine ice stored above sea level in close vicinity of the grounding line compared to the Weddell Sea Sector, the ice sheet is farther from floatation and the grounding line initially retreats more slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> research in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morellato, L. P. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse tube stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A pulse tube type stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction. PMID:15831755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal pollution causes global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nordell, Bo</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/544224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/544224"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestress data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface-flawed specimens, eight subclad-flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional 7% additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full-scale pressure vessel WPS experiments. All but one of the 174 experiments considered lie above the lower 2{sigma} estimate of the regressions. The experiments all supported Type I WPS, i.e., there was no fracture during cooling until reloading occurred. However, the regression equations apply to the reload and are inapplicable to Type I WPS.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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