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Sample records for warming numerous environmental

  1. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  2. Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Warm-water Heat Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaser; Chiarot, Paul

    2015-11-01

    For cooling in large data-centers and supercomputers, water is increasingly replacing air as the working fluid in heat sinks. Utilizing water provides unique capabilities; for example: higher heat capacity, Prandtl number, and convection heat transfer coefficient. The use of warm, rather than chilled, water has the potential to provide increased energy efficiency. The geometric and operating parameters of the heat sink govern its performance. Numerical modeling is used to examine the influence of geometry and operating conditions on key metrics such as thermal and flow resistance. This model also facilitates studies on cooling of electronic chip hot spots and failure scenarios. We report on the optimal parameters for a warm-water heat sink to achieve maximum cooling performance.

  4. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  6. Numerical simulation of life cycles of advection warm fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Vaughan, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The formation, development and dissipation of advection warm fog is investigated. The equations employed in the model include the equation of continuity, momentum and energy for the descriptions of density, wind component and potential temperature, respectively, together with two diffusion equations for the modification of water-vapor mixing ratio and liquid-water mixing ratios. A description of the vertical turbulent transfer of heat, moisture and momentum has been taken into consideration. The turbulent exchange coefficients adopted in the model are based on empirical flux-gradient relations.

  7. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  8. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  9. Public responses to global warming in Newcastle, Australia: Environmental values and environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkeley, H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper seeks to address tile social and cultural dimensions of the global warming issue through an analysis of `public` responses in Newcastle, Australia, based on recent research undertaken for a PhD thesis. Given the history of Australian involvement in the F.C.C.C process this case-study will provides an interesting context in which to analyse discourses of environmental values. It is argued that these discourses shape and are shaped by public responses to global environmental issues in ways which have important implications for the definition of issues as `problems` with acceptable solutions, for the implementation of such solutions and for their political consequences.

  10. Analyzing numerics of bulk microphysics schemes in community models: warm rain processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of bulk cloud microphysics (BLK) parameterizations in atmospheric models of different scales has gained momentum in the last two decades. Utilization of these parameterizations in cloud-resolving models when timesteps used for the host model integration are a few seconds or less is justified from the point of view of cloud physics. However, mechanistic extrapolation of the applicability of BLK schemes to the regional or global scales and the utilization of timesteps of hundreds up to thousands of seconds affect both physics and numerics. We focus on the mathematical aspects of BLK schemes, such as stability and positive-definiteness. We provide a strict mathematical definition for the problem of warm rain formation. We also derive a general analytical condition (SM-criterion) that remains valid regardless of parameterizations for warm rain processes in an explicit Eulerian time integration framework used to advanced finite-difference equations, which govern warm rain formation processes in microphysics packages in the Community Atmosphere Model and the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The SM-criterion allows for the existence of a unique positive-definite stable mass-conserving numerical solution, imposes an additional constraint on the timestep permitted due to the microphysics (like the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition for the advection equation), and prohibits use of any additional assumptions not included in the strict mathematical definition of the problem under consideration. By analyzing the numerics of warm rain processes in source codes of BLK schemes implemented in community models we provide general guidelines regarding the appropriate choice of time steps in these models.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effect on Thickness Distribution in Warm Hydroforming of Aluminum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Moslemi Naeini, Hassan; Liaghat, Gholamhosein; Azizi Tafti, Roohollah; Rahmani, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of weight and increase of corrosion resistance are among the advantageous applications of aluminum alloys in automotive industry. Producing complicated components with several parts as a uniform part not only increases their strength but also decreases the production sequences and costs. However, achieving this purpose requires sufficient formability of the material. Tube hydroforming is an alternative process to produce complex products. In this process, the higher the material formability the more uniform will be the thickness distribution. In this research, tube hydroforming of aluminum alloy (AA1050) at various temperatures has been investigated numerically to study temperature effect on thickness distribution of final product. Also a warm hydroforming set-up has been designed and manufactured to evaluate numerical results. According to numerical and experimental results in the case of free bulging, unlike the constrained bulging, increase of the process temperature causes more uniform thickness distribution and therefore increases the material formability.

  12. "Fatties Cause Global Warming": Fat Pedagogy and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance; Cameron, Erin; Socha, Teresa; McNinch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education is one site of many that reinforces dominant obesity discourses and weight-based oppression through privileging fit, able bodies. Using personal narratives and insights from the nascent field of fat studies, we offer a critical analysis of obesity discourse in environmental writing in general and environmental education in…

  13. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy. PMID:19860158

  14. A numerical study on the formation of the Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G. H.; Tak, Y. J.; Cho, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Yellow Sea (YS) is a semi-enclosed marginal sea located between China and the Korean peninsula. The mouth of the YS is open to the East China Sea. The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) has been shown prominent in winter and previous studies suggest that the main force driving the YSWC is northwesterly winds. The northwesterly wind results in sea level differences between northern and southern areas by decreasing and increasing the sea level respectively in the northern and southern areas. The northward pressure gradient induces the northward intrusion of the YSWC. However, the sensitivity tests of the numerical model used in this study show that the YSWC flows into the YS without northerly winds due to the density difference between the northern fresh water and the southern saline Tsushima Current. Model experiments also show that the northward flow of the YSWC is accelerated by the northerly wind in winter. The model used for the sensitivity test is Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The model grid is 0.1degree horizontal resolution with 40 vertical levels. The sea surface forcing of the model is forced using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis data.

  15. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  16. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  17. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  18. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause Tornado Outbreaks in the Warm Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochimoto, Eigo; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The differences in structural and environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclones (hereafter, ECs) that cause tornado outbreaks and those that do not were examined through composite analyses of the newly-released Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-55) and idealized numerical experiments. ECs that developed in the United States in April and May between 1995 and 2012 are categorized into two groups: ECs accompanied by 15 or more tornadoes (hereafter, outbreak cyclones (OCs)) and ECs accompanied by 5 or less tornadoes (non-outbreak cyclones (NOCs)). 55 OCs and 41 NOCs that are of similar strength as OCs are selected in this study. The composite analyses show significant differences in convective environmental parameters between OCs and NOCs. For OCs, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) are larger and the areas in which these parameters have significant values are wider in the warm sector. The larger CAPE in OCs is due to larger amount of low-level water vapor, while the larger SREH in OCs due to stronger southerly wind at low levels. A piecewise potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics (Davis and Emanuel, 1991) indicates that low- to mid-level PV anomalies mainly contribute to the difference in the low-level winds between OCs and NOCs. On the other hand, the low-level winds associated with upper-level PV anomalies are not the major contributor to the difference. The results of the idealized numerical experiments for OCs and NOCs (hereafter, referred to as OC-CTL and NOC-CTL, respectively) using WRF ver. 3.4 show that the characteristics of the low-level wind fields and SREH distributions for the simulated ECs in OC-CTL and NOC-CTL are similar to those for OCs and NOCs, respectively. In OC-CTL, SREH and low-level winds in the east-southeast region of the EC center is larger than those in NOC-CTL, respectively. It is suggested that these differences are due to the structures of jetstream. The structure of

  19. Numerical simulations of dust transport into northern high latitudes during a Martian polar warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the polar laminated terrain depends on rates of dust transport to the polar caps. A simplified dynamical model is shown similar to models used to simulate terrestrial stratospheric polar warmings could simulate certain observed features of the circulation during Martian global dust storms. Model simulations of dust transport showed that substantial quantities of dust, enough to produce optical depths of approx. 1, could reach the pole during these storms.

  20. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  1. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

  2. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  3. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  4. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  5. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming. PMID:25343296

  6. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Energy extraction from ocean tides via hydrokinetic turbines has recently attracted scientists and engineers attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. However, since the most promising locations in terms of resources and proximity to the end users are in fragile estuarine ecosystems, numerous issues concerning the environmental impact of this technology need to be addressed a priori before large scale deployment. In this work we use numerical simulations to study the possible environmental effects of hydrokinetic turbines through their influence on physical flow variables such as pressure and velocity. The velocity deficit created in the turbulent wake of a turbine affects the settling of suspended sediment in the water column and can lead to deposition into artificial patterns that will alter the benthic ecosystem. On the other side of the spectrum, pressure fluctuation through turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device, particularly for small juveniles that behave like Lagrangian trackers. We present sedimentation statistics to understand the sensitivity of this phenomena to turbine operating conditions and sediment properties. We also show pressure history for slightly buoyant Lagrangian particles moving through the turbine and correlations with damage thresholds obtained from laboratory experiments.

  8. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  9. Environmental magnetic evidence for a dynamic Taylor Glacier during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Florindo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The current understanding of the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is limited spatially and temporally by a paucity of sedimentary records. This has led to the assumption that the Antarctic Glacio-climatic system has been in stasis since middle Miocene times and such an interpretation is not in conflict with deep-sea stable isotope records. However, rare stratified glacigene deposits exposed in the Transantarctic mountains and recovered from beneath Antarctic fjords by drilling suggest a more dynamic history of the EAIS. We apply environmental magnetic methods to drill cores previously collected from McMurdo Sound in an effort to track processes, transport methods and conditions and environments of deposition through the late Neogene. Additionally, we assess the robustness of the earlier magnetostratigraphies from the DVDP-10 and -11 cores by undertaking the first comprehensive paleomagnetic study of discrete paleomagnetic samples with complete thermal and alternating field demagnetisation and polarity determinations from principal component analysis. Here we present results from an investigation of the magnetic properties of the DVDP-10 and DVDP-11 drill cores from New Harbour, southern Victoria Land. Magnetic properties were determined for 400 samples by measuring their magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetism and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetism (NRM/ARM) at the Otago Paleomagnetic Research Facility and hysteresis and isothermal remanent magnetism (IRM) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy. The initial analyses indicate that only minimal diagenetic alteration has occurred and that a primary environmental magnetic signal is intact. We divide these records into three intervals based on magnetic characteristics. The upper interval (Interval I) comprises latest Pliocene to Pleistocene age Ross Sea Ice derived sediments which have high concentrations of fine grained magnetite reflecting the contribution

  10. Precession Control on Precipitation in the Western Pacific Warm Pool Inferred from Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has highest water temperature in the global ocean, and its spatiotemporal variations have significant impacts on large-scale atmospheric circulation and global hydrology. An environmental magnetic study was conducted on sediment cores of late Pleistocene age taken from the West Caroline Basin (WCB) offshore northern New Guinea in order to constrain hydrological variability over the WPWP on orbital timescales. Magnetite dominates magnetic mineral assemblages of the sediments. This is evidenced by that IRM acquisition curves are mostly explained by a low-coercivity component, and that the Verwey transition was obvious in low-temperature measurements. Existence of the sharp central ridges on FORC diagrams and TEM images indicate the occurrence of biogenic magnetite. Compared with pelagic sediments from other regions, however, FORC diagrams show a larger contribution of an interacting PSD and MD component, and the ratios of ARM susceptibility to SIRM (kARM/SIRM) are lower, which suggests a larger proportion of the terrigenous component. This is probably due to a large terrigenous sediment input from nearby land, New Guinea, induced by high precipitation in the intertropical convergence zone. Magnetic susceptibility (k) and kARM/SIRM well correlate with northern-hemisphere summer insolation. Maxima in k and minima in kARM/SIRM correspond to insolation minima, which suggests a larger terrigenous input caused by higher precipitation at these times. Interestingly, in the western part of WCB, k variations are dominated by the eccentricity periodicity and mimic δ18O curves, but the precession periodicity prevails in kARM/SIRM. These cores were taken at depths close to the CCD, and thus the k variations cannot be explained by dilution with carbonates. Sedimentation influenced by global sea-level changes may control the k variations; this part of the basin is adjacent to a wider continental shelf compared with the eastern part of WCB.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.

    2010-12-01

    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the

  12. Numerical Simulation on Measurement of Optical and Thermal Properties for Warm Dense Matter Generated by Isochoric Heating with Pulsed Power Discharge Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIKUCHI, Takashi; HAYASHI, Ryota; TAKAHASHI, Takuya; TAMURA, Fumihiro; TAKAHASHI, Kazumasa; SASAKI, Toru; ASO, Tsukasa; HARADA, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    Property data in warm dense matter (WDM) are important to optimize implosion dynamics in a fuel pellet of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A table-top pulsed power discharge device with isochoric heating using a sapphire hollow capillary was proposed, and was used to generate the extreme state of matter with a well-defined condition. We investigated numerically to generate the WDM by using the pulsed power discharge device. The numerical model was developed by time-dependent one-dimensional thermal diffusion with radiative transfer of multi-group approximation, and the numerical simulation was carried out according with the experimental condition. The achieved temperature of the numerical simulation result was confirmed by the previous experimental result. Also, the radiation energy density was shown at each group of the wavelength of emission.

  13. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  14. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  15. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  16. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  17. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Godbold, Jasmin A; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  18. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  19. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.

    1997-05-05

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.

  1. Hydrogeologic influence on changes in snowmelt runoff with climate warming: Numerical experiments on a mid-elevation catchment in the Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Meadows, M. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The role of hydrogeology in mediating long-term changes in mountain streamflow, resulting from reduced snowfall in a potentially warmer climate, is currently not well understood. We explore this by simulating changes in stream discharge and evapotranspiration from a mid-elevation, 1-km2 catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA) in response to reduced snowfall under warmer conditions, for a plausible range in subsurface hydrologic properties. Simulations are performed using a numerical watershed model, the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), constrained by observations from a meteorological station, stream gauge, and eddy covariance tower. We predict that the fraction of precipitation occurring as snowfall would decrease from approximately 47% at current conditions to 25%, 12%, and 5% for air temperature changes of +2, +4, and +6 °C. For each of these warming scenarios, changes in mean annual discharge and evapotranspiration simulated by the different plausible soil models show large ranges relative to averages, with coefficients of variation ranging from -3 to 3 depending on warming scenario. With warming and reduced snowfall, substrates with greater storage capacity show less soil moisture limitation on evapotranspiration during the late spring and summer, resulting in greater reductions in annual stream discharge. These findings indicate that the hydrologic response of mountain catchments to atmospheric warming and reduced snowfall may substantially vary across elevations with differing soil and regolith properties, a relationship not typically accounted for in approaches relying on space-for-time substitution. An additional implication of our results is that model simulations of annual stream discharge in response to snowfall-to-rainfall transitions may be relatively uncertain for study areas where subsurface properties are not well constrained.

  2. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  3. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  4. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  5. 3D Numerical Simulation of the Geothermal Field of Permafrost at Salluit in Nunavik, Québec, in Response to Climate Warming. Research in Progress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, R.; Allard, M.; Gagnon, O.

    2002-12-01

    survey aims at providing information on the geological and geotechnical characteristics of permafrost. Thermistor cables in deep boreholes, meteorological stations, dataloggers for the measurement of surface temperature, and thermal probes have been also installed in the valley. Air photographs will be used to produce a digital terrain model of the valley. This integrated multi-technique approach is essential for properly assessing the permafrost conditions in the valley. The study will provide the data needed for the development of a 3D model of permafrost conditions in the valley. A 3D numerical simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in the valley will be then undertaken. This simulation is a major challenge giving the size of the thermal field and the variability in permafrost conditions. The impacts of climate warming on the thermal field of permafrost will be simulated and predicted by forcing the surface temperature to increase following different scenarios of climate warming. It is planned to combine the geotechnical properties and the simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in order to define threshold values of permafrost strength and slope instability and set a pre-warning scheme of permafrost temperature in case of further warming in the coming years. The monitoring of permafrost temperature will be continued in the future. If the scheme is reached, actions can be then undertaken to mitigate the impacts of climate warming on the infrastructures and protect the population of Salluit.

  6. A numerical modeling study of the East Australian Current encircling and overwashing a warm-core eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">Warm</span>-core eddies (WCEs) often form in the meanders of Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). WCEs are frequently overwashed with less dense waters sourced from the WBC. We use the Regional Ocean Modelling System to investigate the ocean state during the overwashing of one such WCE in October 2008 in the East Australian Current (EAC). Comparisons of model outputs with satellite sea surface temperature and vertical profiles show that the model provides a realistic simulation of the eddy during the period when the EAC encircled and then overwashed the eddy. During the encircling stage, an eddy with closed circulation persisted at depth. In the surface EAC water entered from the north, encircled the eddy and exited to the east. The overwashing stage was initiated by the expulsion of cyclonic vorticity. For the following 8 days after the expulsion, waters from the EAC washed over the top of the eddy, transferring heat and anticyclonic vorticity radially-inward. After approximately one rotation period of overwashing, the eddy separated. The overwashing creates a two-layer system that forms a subsurface maximum velocity at the interface of the two layers. Analysis of water mass properties, Eulerian tracer dynamics, and Lagrangian particle tracks show that the original eddy sinks 10-50 m during the overwashing period. Overwashing has been observed in many WBCs and occurs in most WCEs in the western Tasman Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac oxygen limitation during an acute thermal challenge in the European perch: effects of chronic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> and experimental hyperoxia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sandblom, Erik</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Oxygen supply to the heart has been hypothesized to limit cardiac performance and whole animal acute thermal tolerance (CTmax) in fish. We tested these hypotheses by continuously measuring venous oxygen tension (Pvo2) and cardiovascular variables in vivo during acute <span class="hlt">warming</span> in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area during summer (18°C) and a chronically heated area (Biotest enclosure) that receives <span class="hlt">warm</span> effluent water from a nuclear power plant and is normally 5-10°C above ambient (24°C at the time of experiments). While CTmax was 2.2°C higher in Biotest compared with reference perch, the peaks in cardiac output and heart rate prior to CTmax occurred at statistically similar Pvo2 values (2.3-4.0 kPa), suggesting that cardiac failure occurred at a common critical Pvo2 threshold. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> hyperoxia (200% air saturation) increased Pvo2 across temperatures in reference fish, but heart rate still declined at a similar temperature. CTmax of reference fish increased slightly (by 0.9°C) in hyperoxia, but remained significantly lower than in Biotest fish despite an improved cardiac output due to an elevated stroke volume. Thus, while cardiac oxygen supply appears critical to elevate stroke volume at high temperatures, oxygen limitation may not explain the bradycardia and arrhythmia that occur prior to CTmax Acute thermal tolerance and its thermal plasticity can, therefore, only be partially attributed to cardiac failure from myocardial oxygen limitations, and likely involves limiting factors on multiple organizational levels. PMID:27280433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> up to the idea: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is here</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lynch, C.F.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This article summarizes recent information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Freddie Fish. A Primary <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study of Basic <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kraynak, Ola</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide and study guide are an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the <span class="hlt">numerals</span> 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889639"><span id="translatedtitle">On the formulation of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fugacity models and their <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bates, Michael L; Bigot, Marie; Cropp, Roger A; Engwirda, Darren; Friedman, Carey L; Hawker, Darryl W</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Multimedia models based on chemical fugacity, solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>, play an important role in investigating and quantifying the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fate of chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants. These models have been used extensively in studying the local and global distribution of chemicals in the environment. The present study describes potential sources of error that may arise from the formulation and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fugacity models. The authors derive a general fugacity equation for the rate of change of mass in an arbitrary volume (e.g., an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> phase). Deriving this general equation makes clear several assumptions that are often not articulated but can be important for successfully applying multimedia fugacity models. It shows that the homogeneity of fugacity and fugacity capacity in a volume (the homogeneity assumption) is fundamental to formulating discretized fugacity models. It also shows that when using the fugacity rather than mass as the state-variable, correction terms may be necessary to accommodate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as varying phase temperatures and volume. Neglecting these can lead to conservation errors. The authors illustrate the manifestation of these errors using heuristic multimedia fugacity models. The authors also show that there are easily avoided errors that can arise in mass state-variable models if variables are not updated appropriately in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration scheme. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2182-2191. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscale intraspecific variation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity: analysis of cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zone abundance, mortality, and regeneration distributions of four eastern US tree species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Anantha M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>I test for macroscale intraspecific variation of abundance, mortality, and regeneration of four eastern US tree species (Tsuga canadensis,Betula lenta,Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus prinus) by splitting them into three climatic zones based on plant hardiness zones (PHZs). The primary goals of the analysis are to assess the differences in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and demographic responses among climatic zones, map regional species groups based on decision tree rules, and evaluate univariate and multivariate patterns of species demography with respect to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. I use the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) data to derive abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices and split the range into three climatic zones based on USDA PHZs: (1) cold adapted, leading region; (2) middle, well-adapted region; and (3) <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing region. I employ decision tree ensemble methods to assess the importance of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictors on the abundance of the species between the cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zones and map zonal variations in species groups. Multivariate regression trees are used to simultaneously explore abundance, mortality, and regeneration in tandem to assess species vulnerability. Analyses point to the relative importance of climate in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing zone (especially moisture) compared to the cold adapted, leading zone. Higher mortality and lower regeneration patterns in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> trailing zone point to its vulnerability to growing season temperature and precipitation changes that could figure more prominently in the future. This study highlights the need to account for intraspecific variation of demography in order to understand <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and differential adaptation. It provides a methodology for assessing the vulnerability of tree species by delineating climatic zones based on easily available PHZ data, and FIA derived abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices as a proxy for overall growth and fitness. Based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Attitude Using Climate Change Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change generally and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........10Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........10Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Xiaoyan</p> <p></p> <p>Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among <span class="hlt">environmental</span> organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200"><span id="translatedtitle">Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9738525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9738525"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional brain heating during microwave exposure (2.06 GHz), <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water immersion, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heating and exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walters, T J; Ryan, K L; Belcher, J C; Doyle, J M; Tehrany, M R; Mason, P A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Nonuniform heating may result from microwave (MW) irradiation of tissues and is therefore important to investigate in terms of health and safety issues. Hypothalamic (Thyp), cortical (Tctx), tympanic (Tty), and rectal (Tre) temperatures were measured in rats exposed in the far field, k-polarization (i.e., head pointed toward the transmitter horn and E-field in vertical direction) to two power densities of 2.06 GHz irradiation. The high-power density (HPM) was 1700 mW/cm2 [specific absorption rate (SAR): hypothalamus 1224 W/kg; cortex 493 W/kg]; the low-power density (LPM) was 170 mW/cm2 (SAR: hypothalamus 122.4 W/kg; cortex 49.3 W/kg). The increase (rate-of-rise, in degrees C/s) in Thyp was significantly greater than those in Tctx or Tre when rats were exposed to HPM. LPM produced more homogeneous heating. Quantitatively similar results were observed whether rats were implanted with probes in two brain sites or a single probe in one or the other of the two sites. The qualitative difference between regional brain heating was maintained during unrestrained exposure to HPM in the h-polarization (i.e., body parallel to magnetic field). To compare the temperature changes during MW irradiation with those produced by other modalities of heating, rats were immersed in <span class="hlt">warm</span> water (44 degrees C, WWI); exposed to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> ambient environment (50 degrees C, WSED); or exercised on a treadmill (17 m/min 8% grade) in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> ambient environment (35 degrees C, WEX). WWI produced uniform heating in the regions measured. Similar rates-of-rise occurred among regions following WSED or WEX, thus maintaining the pre-existing gradient between Thyp and Tctx These data indicate that HPM produced a 2-2.5-fold difference in the rate-of-heating within brain regions that were separated by only a few millimeters. In contrast, more homogeneous heating was recorded during LPM or nonmicrowave modalities of heating. PMID:9738525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. PMID:25103965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPSJ...85f4003T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPSJ...85f4003T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Information Engines: A <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Katsuaki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We conduct <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=water+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63257182&CFTOKEN=20327858','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=water+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63257182&CFTOKEN=20327858"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: ASynopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I"><span id="translatedtitle">Flux variations and vertical distributions of microzooplankton (Radiolaria) in the western Arctic Ocean: <span class="hlt">environmental</span> indices in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikenoue, T.; Bjørklund, K. R.; Kruglikova, S. B.; Onodera, J.; Kimoto, K.; Harada, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The vertical distribution of radiolarians was investigated using a vertical multiple plankton sampler (100-0, 250-100, 500-250 and 1000-500 m water depths, 62 μm mesh size) at the Northwind Abyssal Plain and southwestern Canada Basin in September 2013. To investigate seasonal variations in the flux of radiolarians in relation to sea-ice and water masses, time series sediment trap system was moored at Station NAP (75°00' N, 162°00' W, bottom depth 1975 m) in the western Arctic Ocean during October 2010-September 2012. We showed characteristics of fourteen abundant radiolarian taxa related to the vertical hydrographic structure in the western Arctic Ocean. We found the Ceratocyrtis histricosus, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic water species, in net samples, indicating that it has extended its habitat into the Pacific Winter Water. The radiolarian flux was comparable to that in the North Pacific Oceans. Amphimelissa setosa was dominant during the open water and the beginning and the end of ice cover seasons with well-grown ice algae, ice fauna and with alternation of stable water masses and deep vertical mixing. During the sea-ice cover season, however, oligotrophic and cold-water tolerant Actinommidae was dominant and the productivity of radiolaria was lower and its species diversity was greater, which might be associated with the seasonal increase of solar radiation that induce the growth of algae on the ice and the other phytoplankton species under the sea-ice. These indicated that the dynamics of sea-ice was a major factor affecting the productivity, distribution, and composition of radiolarian fauna.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Simulated <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Rain Formation to Collision and Coalescence Efficiencies, Breakup, and Turbulence: Comparison of Two Bin-Resolved <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fridlind, Ann; Seifert, Axel; Ackerman, Andrew; Jensen, Eric</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models that resolve cloud particles into discrete mass size distributions on an Eulerian grid provide a uniquely powerful means of studying the closely coupled interaction of aerosols, cloud microphysics, and transport that determine cloud properties and evolution. However, such models require many experimentally derived paramaterizations in order to properly represent the complex interactions of droplets within turbulent flow. Many of these parameterizations remain poorly quantified, and the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> methods of solving the equations for temporal evolution of the mass size distribution can also vary considerably in terms of efficiency and accuracy. In this work, we compare results from two size-resolved microphysics models that employ various widely-used parameterizations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution methods for several aspects of stochastic collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFMED31A1364S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFMED31A1364S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating an informed citizenry through SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Filippelli, G. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Creating an informed citizenry through the promotion of the earth sciences as a long-term educational and employment option has become increasingly difficult: In recent years less than 7% of high school students and less than 12% of 8th graders in our nation have participated in an earth science course. These percentages are even lower among students of color, who often lack role models in the sciences. SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show; is a dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program that selects and empowers 11th and 12th graders from science magnet programs to teach well-known and tested climate change curricula to 8th graders from local feeder schools. This program, which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation, focuses on a student population comprised of 75% non-white students and above 50% students on free or reduced lunch, and will be supported by an expert team consisting of university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> provides an outstanding "teachable moment" in that the processes leading to it are straightforward, but the net rate of impact and the human response are not so simple. This topic is also media- friendly (being politically sensitive, but also easy to translate in terms of rising temperatures and sea level, melting of ice sheets, possible increases in hurricane activity), and nearly all students have been exposed to information about climate change. However, students are probably not as aware of the geologic context of climate change, which provides nearly all of the scenarios for the potential impacts of future climate change. The 8th grade curriculum for this program is being developed primarily using Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Greenhouse Effect (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990). The expert team will supplement and further develop this 15 year old curriculum with recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; What needs to be done</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>This paper names global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a high-level risk. However, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s risk status is a point of debate in some circles, reflecting one of the complexities of using risk-based criteria to establish priorities for action. The position that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> trend that must be halted. In this paper, argument son both sides of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue are presented to illustrate the difficulties associated with establishing the existence and magnitude of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and health risks, an issue that must be faced if the SAB recommendations for EPA policy change are implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed flowering and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but their responses to winter and spring <span class="hlt">warming</span> are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, W. Payton; Susong, David D.; Solomon, D. Kip; Heasler, Henry P.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heat and fluid flow fields are simulated for several conceptual permeability fields and compared to processes inferred from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in springs around Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Large hydrothermal basins require specific permeability distributions in the upper crust. High permeability connections must exist between the land surface and high-temperature environments at depths of up to 5 km. The highest modeled temperatures are produced with a vertical conduit permeability of 10-15m2. Permeability at depths of 3-5 km must be within one order of magnitude of the near-surface permeability and must be ≥10-16m2. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> tracers from springs are used to develop a plausible <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the local to regional groundwater flow field for the Norris Geyser Basin area. The model simulations provide insight into the dynamics of heat and fluid flow in a large regional hydrothermal system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Boundaries for Methanogenesis in Serpentinizing Systems using a Cell-scale <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Serpentinizing systems occur where liquid water reacts with ultramafic minerals. The reaction releases heat and produces an alkaline fluid that is rich in H2. The abundant H2 suggests that the energetics of methane production by CO2 reduction is highly favorable (ΔG ~ -102 kJ/mol CH4 for [H2] ~ 10-2 M). Given the possibility of subsurface water and ultramafic minerals on Mars, methanogenesis in serpentinizing systems has been considered as a possible model for photosynthesis-independent, extraterrestrial life. However, the high pH (9 - 11) and possibly elevated temperature have a negative impact on the overall cellular energy balance by increasing the cell's maintenance energy and reducing the concentration of CO2 substrate. We developed a reaction-transport model on the scale of a methanogen cell to investigate how the overall bioenergetics of methane production is influenced by the interplay between pH, temperature, and H2 and CO2 concentration. The model differentiates the cell into three basic structural units (cell wall, cell membrane with gated ion channels, and cytoplasm) and employs both thermodynamic and kinetic controls to estimate an upper-limit energy yield as a function of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The model provides a map of the range of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> extremes for which the energy balance for microbial methane production is positive. The model also provides a tool for exploring the energetics of different metabolic strategies that methanogens could use to cope with stresses associated with life in an alkaline, low-CO2 environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W"><span id="translatedtitle">OneRTM: an online real-time modelling platform for the next generation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Kingdon, Andrew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modelling has been applied in many fields to better understand and predict the behaviours of different processes. In our increasingly dynamic world there is an imperative to identify potential stresses and threats in the environment and to respond quickly with sound decisions. However, the limitations in traditional modelling methodologies make it difficult to respond quickly to rapidly developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> events, such as floods, droughts and pollution incidents. For example, it is both time consuming and costly to keep model data up-to-date and also to disseminate models results and modelled output datasets to end-users. Crucially it is difficult for people who has limited <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling skills to understand and interact with models and modelled results. In response to these challenges, a proof-of-concept online real-time modelling platform (OneRTM) has been developed as a mechanism for maintaining and disseminating <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and datasets. This automatically keeps models current for the most recent input data, links models based on data flow; it makes models and modelled datasets (historic, real-time and forecasted) immediately available via the internet as easy-to-understand dynamic GIS layers and graphs; and it provides online modelling functions to allow non-modellers to manipulate model including running pre-defined scenarios with a few mouse clicks. OneRTM has been successfully applied and tested in the Chalk groundwater flow modelling in the Thames Basin, UK. The system hosts and links groundwater recharge and groundwater flow models in the case study area, and automatically publishes the latest groundwater level layers on the internet once the current weather datasets becomes available. It also provides online functions of generating groundwater hydrograph and running groundwater abstraction scenarios. Although OneRTM is currently tested using groundwater flow modelling as an example, it could be further developed into a platform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the response of the California Current system to global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Final report to the National Institute for Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change (August 1993)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pares-Sierra, A.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This is the final report for the project ``Modeling the Response of the California Current System to Global Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>,`` supported 1990 and 1991 by NIGEC. The scientists involved are Dr. Richard C.J. Somerville and Alejandro Paries-Sierra of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD. A copy of papers submitted to the Journal of Physical Oceanography, and Geofisica Internacional that were supported in part or whole by WEST-GEC, as well as a summary of a talk delivered at the XX General Assembly of the IUGG, Vienna (1991) are appended to this report. The objective of the research was to improve the understanding of the response of the California Current system to the large-scale anomalous forcing thought to be associated with greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The authors viewed this as a necessary initial step in the study of the California climate response to global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ404495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ404495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up with Skill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Too little time is often spent on <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities in the school or recreation class. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77951974&CFTOKEN=32020018','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77951974&CFTOKEN=32020018"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064"><span id="translatedtitle">Televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues, specifically global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376230"><span id="translatedtitle">Television news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues, specifically global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>/cold cloud processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdle, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&pg=5&id=EJ601591','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&pg=5&id=EJ601591"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mingguang, Yang</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=Catastrophes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCatastrophes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=Catastrophes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCatastrophes"><span id="translatedtitle">Sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> as catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, W. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are <span class="hlt">numerically</span> demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Economic policy responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mannlein, Sally</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> elucidated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The meaning of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate models projected stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A21B0007L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A21B0007L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> be Stopped?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luria, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been reported in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282090"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic models of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seough, J. J.; Yoon, P. H.</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>The present paper is concerned with analytic models of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations for electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Specifically, effects of finite betas on two slow modes, namely, the left-hand circularly polarized ion-cyclotron mode and the right-hand circularly polarized whistler mode, are investigated. Analytic models of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma dispersion relations are constructed on the basis of conjecture and upon comparisons with <span class="hlt">numerically</span> found roots. It is shown that the model solutions are good substitutes for actual roots. The significance of the present work in the context of nonlinear plasma research is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper explores one of the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCC...5...37T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatCC...5...37T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Acting green elicits a literal <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> policies are often based on the assumption that people only act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow could express itself quite literally: people who act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-<span class="hlt">environmental</span> actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647"><span id="translatedtitle">CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and enhance plant available water. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridges+AND+type&pg=5&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bridges+AND+type&pg=5&id=EJ1002704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675"><span id="translatedtitle">Light accelerates plant responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced changes in forest floor plant communities. PMID:27250675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..502W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..502W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climates in Earth History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Gary</p> <p></p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are two key, inter-related topics that receive near-constant attention in the international press. Why? Because the political agencies that direct national and international economies are reluctant to admit that we may be conducting our own global scale experiment in atmospheric pollution. Perhaps they are right to do so. However, the arguments can only be tested properly by carefully documenting the natural climate system and by comparing recent and predicted future regional and global climate change with high-resolution geologic records of past changes and reorganization in response to climatic forcing. Geologic records on their own, though, are limited in their regional and global application and can only be properly applied to understanding the global climate system by integration with computer models and simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion acoustic solitons in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, K.K.; Ray, D.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Kalita and Bujarbarua (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 439 (1983)) obtained a set of equations to describe the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma and made a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> study of these equations for particular values of the physical parameters. In this paper a rigorous and general analytical study is presented. Some simple necessary and sufficient conditions for solitary wave solutions are derived and it is also shown that cavity solutions are not possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+storage&pg=4&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+storage&pg=4&id=EJ932287"><span id="translatedtitle">Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569"><span id="translatedtitle">A Transient <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B. R. Orr</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015HydJ...23..533M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015HydJ...23..533M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global <span class="hlt">warming</span> into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Local cooling despite global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari</p> <p></p> <p> such as, the strength of the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), temperatures of the ocean and atmosphere, mass transports, salinity, and ocean--atmosphere heat fluxes. Model results show that a reduced AMOC transport due to an increased freshwater flux causes cooling in both the atmosphere and ocean in the North Atlantic (NA) deep--water formation region. Cooling in both the ocean and atmosphere can cause a reduction of the ocean--atmosphere temperature difference, which in turn reduces heat fluxes in both the ocean and atmosphere. For present day climate parameters, the calculated critical freshwater flux needed to arrest AMOC is 0.14 Sv. Assuming a constant atmospheric zonal flow, there is both minimal reduction in the AMOC strength, as well as minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the ocean and atmosphere. This model provides a conceptual framework for a dynamically sound response of the ocean and atmosphere to AMOC variability as a function of increased freshwater flux. The results are qualitatively consistent with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> realistic coupled <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of varying complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721"><span id="translatedtitle">PERENNIAL <span class="hlt">WARM</span>-SEASON GRASSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about <span class="hlt">warm</span> season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-seas...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting protesting and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. PMID:24091158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Garment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> loop for different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - A reduced threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Issues associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial <span class="hlt">warming</span> from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted <span class="hlt">warming</span>, could drastically alter the debate on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> -- Science and anti-science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up - continuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameters of human discomfort in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on <span class="hlt">warm</span> discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127"><span id="translatedtitle">Policies on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ozone depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Green, B.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of land-use changes on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yield in Shikoku, western Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, Ryuhei; Iizumi, Toshichika; Nishimori, Motoki; Yokozawa, Masayuki</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We evaluated the impacts of historical land-use changes (LUCs) from 1987 to 2006 on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yields on the island of Shikoku, Japan. We performed two types of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations (with historical LUCs and with fixed land uses) using a regional atmospheric model (JMA-NHM) and a large-area rice-growth model (PRYSBI). During our study period in Shikoku, the area of paddy fields decreased markedly and the area of building lots and roads increased. Our evaluation suggests that these LUCs caused <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in and around paddy fields that were five times those in and around other land uses. The simulated rice yield in 2006 was 0.27% lower (0.012 t ha-1) than in 1987 in response to the change in thermal and solar radiation conditions. These results suggest that decreases of crop yield due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> deterioration will be found in other regions where similar LUCs are occurring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC22A..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC22A..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Accelerating?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been observed during the twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Inflation Model Building</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun</p> <p></p> <p>We review the main aspects of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673"><span id="translatedtitle">Some economics of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schelling, T.C. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too <span class="hlt">numerous</span> and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853"><span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, K.M.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore regions of the machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems and the urban environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ntelekos, Alexandros Anastasios</p> <p></p> <p>The consequences of a flood are amplified when it occurs in urban environments by virtue of the large concentration of people and wealth affected. This dissertation is devoted to advancing the understanding of the ways that <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems interact with the urban environment to produce flooding. The area of study is the northeastern United States with particular focus over the urban environments of Baltimore, Washington, DC, and New York City. The complex topography of the northeastern United States, with the Appalachian Mountains to the west, and the land-ocean boundary to the east of the heavily urbanized northeastern corridor, presents the analyses with great challenges. At the same time, it increases their relevance since most of the world's urban cores are built close to complex terrain. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season thunderstorm systems that produce short-duration, high-intensity rain-fall events are shown to be the major flash flooding agents over the urban corridor of the northeastern US. Established theories of inadvertent weather modification by urban environments are put to the test with the use of advanced models and multiple observational techniques. The results reveal unexplored links of inadvertent weather modification arising from synergies between the urban canopy layer and the land-ocean boundary. Aerosols are also shown to play an important role in rain-fall enhancement, under certain <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions that are examined through combined observational analyses and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model experiments. The last part of this dissertation is devoted to synthesizing the links between flooding and the urban environment to perform a critical review of the US flood policy framework. Projections of end-of-the 21st Century annual flood costs are made, and recommendations are provided for a modernization of the policy framework to more efficiently mitigate the effects of floods in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hengeveld, H. )</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> waters, bleached corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, L.</p> <p>1990-10-12</p> <p>Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887"><span id="translatedtitle">Interacting <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> threatens world cultural heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cazenave, Anny</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppock, Rob</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043579&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043579&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog and its application to <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog prediction and modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The considered theoretical model describes the evolution of potential temperature, water vapor content, liquid water content, and horizontal and vertical winds as determined by the processes of vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection for momentum, energy, and moisture, as well as radiation cooling, growth of water droplets based on microphysical processes, and drop sedimentation. The mathematical model is two-dimensional in the X-Z plane. The diffusivity coefficient is the same for liquid water droplets as for vapor. The fundamental equations governing the macrophysical processes of the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content, and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion transfer, turbulent momentum transfer, and turbulent energy transfer are expressed by three sets of conservation equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCAP...06..025B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCAP...06..025B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for Planck</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|nt|, where nt is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93k5135V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93k5135V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense crystallography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "<span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span> (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for Planck</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Claims, Science, and Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gould, Laurence I.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. <small>To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6</small></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178"><span id="translatedtitle">Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia. PMID:22036178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.W. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> events have been the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the December 1998 Stratospheric Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, G. L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Swinbank, R.; ONeill, A.; Connew, P. M.; Zurek, R. W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Prior to 1991, major <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (defined by increasing zonal mean temperatures and zonal mean easterly winds from 60degN to the pole at 10 hPa) typically occurred approximately once every two Arctic winters; a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> in mid-Dec. 1998 was the first since Feb. 1991. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> was also the second earliest on record. The earliest, and the only other major <span class="hlt">warming</span> on record before the end of Dec. was in early Dec 1987; prior to that, the earliest was in late Dec./early Jan. 1984-85. The 1984-85 and 1987 <span class="hlt">warmings</span> resulted in the warmest and weakest lower stratospheric polar vortices in the 20 years before 1998-99. Fig. 1 compares temperatures and vortex strength in 1998-99 with those in the previous 20 years, using the US National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) record; 1987-88 and 1984-85 are also highlighted. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a more pronounced effect on mid-stratospheric temperatures than the Dec. 1987 <span class="hlt">warming</span> (Fig. 1a), although smaller than that of <span class="hlt">warmings</span> later in winter (e.g., 1984-85). 10-hPa temperatures fell well below average again in late Jan. 1999 and remained unusually low until an early final <span class="hlt">warming</span> began in late Feb. 840 K PV gradients (Fig. 1c) set a record minimum in Jan. 1999, but were near average in Feb before the final <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The effect of the Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> on lower stratospheric temperatures was comparable to that of other major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>; there was a brief period of record-high minimum 46-hPa temperatures in early Jan 1999 (Fig. 1b), and temperatures then fell to near average for a short period in mid-Feb. Lower stratospheric PV gradients were the weakest on record during the 1998-99 winter (Fig. 1d). The evolution of the vortex and minimum temperatures during 1998-99 was remarkably similar to that during 1987-88, the only previous year when a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> was observed before the end of Dec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Manila clam growth and its food sources to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a subarctic lagoon in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Seokjin; Abe, Hiroya; Kishi, Michio J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Akkeshi Lake is a subarctic shallow brackish lagoon located in Hokkaido, Japan. The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is cultured in sandy sediments at the shallow, intertidal flat near the mouth of the lake. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as water temperature and food availability on the growth of the Manila clam and to estimate the responses of Manila clam growth and food availability to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Akkeshi Lake, we developed a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model by coupling a three-dimensional ecosystem model with a bioenergetics model for the growth of the Manila clam. We ran the model under two different conditions: the present condition and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. For the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, water temperature was increased by 2 °C at the open boundary for the entire computational period. The growth of the Manila clam was limited by water temperature and food availability. The Manila clam grew up to 1.33 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake mouth (station A) for 5 years, whereas it grew up to 1.00 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake center (station B). The difference in the biomass of the Manila clam between two stations was due to the difference in food availability. Under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, the water temperature limitation for the Manila clam was relaxed with a water temperature increase. The Manila clam grew up to 1.55 g dry weight ind.-1 at station A and 1.10 g dry weight ind.-1 at station B. While the growth of the Manila clam was improved in the lake under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, its food sources, especially phytoplankton, decreased because of ingestion increases of grazers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM"><span id="translatedtitle">Weird <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spot on Exoplanet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation illustrates an unexpected <span class="hlt">warm</span> spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for the FE-Simulation of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Metal Forming Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tong, L.; Stahel, S.; Hora, P.</p> <p>2005-08-05</p> <p>Better formability, less forming force and satisfactory quality are the most important characteristics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. However, the material models for either cold forming or hot forming cannot be directly adopted for the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. Supplement and modification are necessary. Based on the Zener-Hollomon formulation, additional terms are proposed in the presented work to describe the softening effect observed during <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes as well as the strain hardening effect. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation provides detailed information about the history and distribution of both deformation and temperature, the phase transformation can then also be evaluated, provided the experimental data are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Brian Fagan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, B. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Five centuries of irregular <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> argues that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">warm</span> days increase belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global <span class="hlt">warming</span> attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinguishing <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought from drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ925234"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Movement <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routines can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up to a Good Sound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tovey, David C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Most choral directors in schools today have been exposed to a variety of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures. Yet, many do not use the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up time effectively as possible. Considers the factors appropriate to a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercise and three basic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up categories. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in <span class="hlt">warmings</span> is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in relation to man's activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004666"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of comfort <span class="hlt">warming</span> on preoperative patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Doreen; Byrne, Michelle; Kolcaba, Katharine</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>THERMAL COMFORT IS ONE DIMENSION of overall patient comfort, and it usually is addressed by covering the patient with <span class="hlt">warmed</span> cotton blankets. <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> HELPS A PATIENT maintain normothermia and appears to decrease patient anxiety. AN STUDY WAS CONDUCTED in a preoperative setting to compare the effects of preoperative <span class="hlt">warming</span> with <span class="hlt">warmed</span> cotton blankets versus patient-controlled <span class="hlt">warming</span> gowns on patients' perceptions of thermal comfort and anxiety. BOTH <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> INTERVENTIONS had a positive effect on patients' thermal comfort and sense of well-being. Patients who used the patient-controlled <span class="hlt">warming</span> gown also experienced a significant reduction in preoperative anxiety. PMID:17004666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0–8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> early Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasting, J.F.</p> <p>1997-05-23</p> <p>Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars <span class="hlt">warm</span> with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016421"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of Mars atmospheric water into high northern latitudes during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments were conducted with a simplified tracer transport model in order to attempt to examine the poleward transport of Mars atmospheric water during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> like that which occurred during the winter solstice dust storm of 1977. The flow for the transport experiments was taken from <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations with a nonlinear beta-plane dynamical model. Previous studies with this model have demonstrated that a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> having essential characteristics like those observed during the 1977 dust storm can be produced by a planetary wave mechanism analogous to that responsible for terrestrial sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Several <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments intended to simulate water transport in the absence of any condensation were carried out. These experiments indicate that the flow during a polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> can transport very substantial amounts of water to high northern latitudes, given that the water does not condense and fall out before reaching the polar region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.</p> <p>2008-01-24</p> <p>Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle <span class="hlt">warming</span> variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development&pg=5&id=ED565890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development&pg=5&id=ED565890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150"><span id="translatedtitle">[Passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW) system, its design and <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jin; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Yun-lu; Dong, Wen-jun; Zhang, Wei-jian</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Based on the technique of passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW), a convenient and energy-saving PNW facility was designed for a rice-wheat cropping system in Danyang, Jiangsu Province. The facility could guarantee 15.75 m2 effective sampling area, with a homogeneous amplitude of increased temperature, and making the nighttime canopy temperature during whole rice growth season increased averagely by 1.1 degrees C and the nighttime canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during whole winter wheat growth period increased averagely by 1.3 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C, respectively. During the operation period of the facility, the variation trends of the canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during the whole growth periods of rice and winter wheat in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots were similar to those of the control. Though the facility slightly decreased the soil moisture content during winter wheat growth period, wheat growth was less impacted. The application of this facility in our main production areas of rice and winter wheat showed that the facility could advance the initial blossoming stages of rice and winter wheat averagely by 3 d and 5 d, respectively. In despite of the discrepancy in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect among different regions and seasons, this energy-saving facility was reliable for the field research on crop responses to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, when the homogeneity of increased temperature, the effective area, and the effects on crop growth period were taken into comprehensive consideration. PMID:21265150</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the summit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a late Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> and humid climate period and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> characteristics in the arid zones of northwest China during 2.2 ˜ 1.8 kyr B.P.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bao, Yang; Braeuning, Achim; Yafeng, Shi; Fahu, Chen</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Natural archives like ice cores, tree rings, river and lake sediments, lake terraces, and paleosols and also historical documents witness aspects of climate change in northwestern China during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). Reconstructions of decadal averages of annual mean temperature and precipitation fluctuations were derived from variations of δ18O and net accumulation rates in the Guliya ice core. They revealed a period of higher temperatures and higher precipitation than today, which affected vast areas of northwestern China during the period of interest until the fifth century A.D. These conditions resulted in a marked increase in the discharge of big endorheic river systems, such as the Tarim, the Keriya and the Manas rivers. As a consequence, water levels in appendant terminal lakes rose, e.g., at Lop Nor, Manas Lake, and Baijian Hu. Lake surface areas expanded, and lake desalting occurred also at lakes in intermontane basins, such as Balikun Hu and Qinghai Lake. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist conditions during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties might have been responsible for the large-scale agricultural production and the local socioeconomic boom that is documented by the occurrence of the famous ruin groups of Loulan, Niya, and Keriya. The following desiccation phase led to a deterioration of water resources, and most oases tended to dry out and were finally abandoned. The appearance, development, flourishing, and final abandonment of each great ruin group are closely associated with regional climate change at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC33A1273S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC33A1273S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Updated Climate Accounting to Slow Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Before 2035</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The current and projected worsening of climate impacts make clear the urgency of limiting the global mean temperature to 2°C over preindustrial levels. But while mitigation policy today may slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the century, it will not keep global <span class="hlt">warming</span> within these limits. This failure arises in large part from the climate accounting system used to inform this policy, which does not factor in several scientific findings from the last two decades, including: The urgent need to slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035. This can postpone the time the +1.5°C limit is passed, and is the only way to avoid the most serious long-term climate disruptions. That while it may mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the end of the century, reducing emissions of CO2 alone, according to UNEP/WMO[1], will do "little to mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the next 20-30 years," and "may temporarily enhance near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> as sulfate [cooling] is reduced." That the only emissions reductions that can slow <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035 are focused on short-lived climate pollutants. A small increase in current mitigation funding could fund these projects, the most promising of which target emissions in regional climate "hot spots" like the Arctic and India.[2] To ensure policies can effectively slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035, a new climate accounting system is needed. Such an updated system is being standardized in the USA,[3] and has been proposed for use in ISO standards. The key features of this updated system are: consideration of all climate pollutants and their multi-faceted climate effects; use of time horizons which prioritize mitigation of near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>; a consistent and accurate accounting for "biogenic" CO2; protocols ensuring that new scientific findings are incorporated; and a distinct accounting for emissions affecting regional "hot spots". This accounting system also considers <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts outside of climate change, a feature necessary to identify "win-win" projects with climate benefits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact of bioenergy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up to solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biondo, B.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> can enhance invasion success through asymmetries in energetic performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penk, Marcin R; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Minchin, Dan; Donohue, Ian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Both climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders' performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M. salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H. anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under <span class="hlt">warming</span> climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios. PMID:26618450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric predictability and sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stan, Cristiana; Straus, David M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A comparative study of the limit of predictability in the stratosphere and troposphere in a coupled general circulation model is carried out using the National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Interactive Ensemble (CFSIE). In "identical twin experiments", we compare the forecast errors of zonal wind and potential temperature in the troposphere and stratosphere for various wave groups. The results show smaller intrinsic error growth in the lower stratosphere compared with troposphere. The limit of predictability of sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events, measured by the errors in the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux, is dominated by the amplification of small errors in the individual fields due to differences between the phase of the waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the potential of causing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227666-warming-trends-adapting-nonlinear-change','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227666-warming-trends-adapting-nonlinear-change"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> trends: Adapting to nonlinear change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jonko, Alexandra K.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> more than others. Research suggests that whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic climate change: Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> unleashed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016mecs.conf..375L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016mecs.conf..375L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Surfactant <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt Construction Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix agent to produce <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian description of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Antarctic waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW <span class="hlt">warming</span> are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Debris Disks from WISE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Padgett, Deborah L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>"The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This <span class="hlt">warm</span> excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0175S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0175S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Atlas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sjoberg, J. P.; Butler, A. H.; Seidel, D. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (SSWs) are large and rapid temperature increases in the polar stratosphere associated with a complete reversal of the climatological westerly winds in wintertime. These extreme events can have substantial impacts on wintertime surface climate, such as cold air outbreaks over North America and Eurasia, or anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Greenland. Here we promote our progress towards a new atlas of historical SSW events and their impacts on the surface. The SSW atlas contains a variety of metrics, time series, maps, and animations for individual SSW events. The atlas will allow users to examine the structure and development of individual SSWs, the variability between events, the surface impacts in temperature and precipitation, and the impacts of SSWs during years with certain tropospheric signatures, like El Niño or La Niña winters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999wceh.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999wceh.book.....H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climates in Earth History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Wing, Scott L.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>The study of greenhouse climates in the earth's past leads to a greater understanding of the factors that influence today's climate. In this fully integrated volume, leading experts in paleoclimatology present cutting edge paleontological, geological, and theoretical research to assess intervals of global warmth. Coverage examines <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate intervals during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic from the same perspectives: oceanic and terrestrial, theoretical and observational. This approach illuminates the differences and, more importantly, the commonalities of <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate intervals. The book also provides a comprehensive overview of the advantages and limitations of different types of climate models that are currently used, and it discusses major factors that have caused global climatic change across geologic time scales. Central problems that remain unresolved are clearly identified. The book will be of great interest to researchers in paleoclimatology, and it will also be useful as a supplementary text in advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses in paleoclimatology and earth science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Norman L.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..144a2014E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..144a2014E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">MCCB <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment testing concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the world <span class="hlt">warming</span> or not?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1995-02-03</p> <p>Articles in the popular press indicate controversy surrounding the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However greenhouse models predict more <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is presently apparent. For climate change to live up to predictions, the minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the 1980`s will have to accelerate into the next millenium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The details of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sozio, Gerry</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Senior secondary students cover <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Brelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Brelativity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D</p> <p>2004-04-21</p> <p>This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In the Meado<span class="hlt">Warm</span> project we conduct an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the last glacial cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M., Jr.; Stepanova, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling to show that the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Historical and Experimental Data to Reveal <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Effects on Ant Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Diamond, Sarah E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Levey, Douglas J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976–2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010–2011 were ∼2.7°C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼1.5–5.5°C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364"><span id="translatedtitle">Using historical and experimental data to reveal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on ant assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L; Stuble, Katharine L; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Diamond, Sarah E; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Levey, Douglas J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976-2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010-2011 were ∼ 2.7 °C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼ 1.5-5.5 °C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Phylogenetic Assignment of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sequences of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA and <span class="hlt">Numerically</span> Abundant Culturable Bacteria from an Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hengstmann, Ulf; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Janssen, Peter H.; Liesack, Werner</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We used both cultivation and direct recovery of bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences to investigate the structure of the bacterial community in anoxic rice paddy soil. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of 19 saccharolytic and cellulolytic strains are described in the accompanying paper (K.-J. Chin, D. Hahn, U. Hengstmann, W. Liesack, and P. H. Janssen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5042–5049, 1999). Here we describe the phylogenetic positions of these strains in relation to 57 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA clone sequences. Close matches between the two data sets were obtained for isolates from the culturable populations determined by the most-probable-number counting method to be large (3 × 107 to 2.5 × 108 cells per g [dry weight] of soil). This included matches with 16S rDNA similarity values greater than 98% within distinct lineages of the division Verrucomicrobia (strain PB90-1) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group (strains XB45 and PB90-2), as well as matches with similarity values greater than 95% within distinct lines of descent of clostridial cluster XIVa (strain XB90) and the family Bacillaceae (strain SB45). In addition, close matches with similarity values greater than 95% were obtained for cloned 16S rDNA sequences and bacteria (strains DR1/8 and RPec1) isolated from the same type of rice paddy soil during previous investigations. The correspondence between culture methods and direct recovery of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA suggests that the isolates obtained are representative geno- and phenotypes of predominant bacterial groups which account for 5 to 52% of the total cells in the anoxic rice paddy soil. Furthermore, our findings clearly indicate that a dual approach results in a more objective view of the structural and functional composition of a soil bacterial community than either cultivation or direct recovery of 16S rDNA sequences alone. PMID:10543822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for <span class="hlt">warming</span> field plots from 1 to 100 m</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a need to study the likely effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystems with experimental treatments as representative as possible of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. One approach that shows much promise is the use of hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters to <span class="hlt">warm</span> canopies of vegetation. This appr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rühland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rühland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527"><span id="translatedtitle">Cutaneous <span class="hlt">warming</span> promotes sleep onset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin <span class="hlt">warming</span> and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was <span class="hlt">warmed</span>. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361..289N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Ap%26SS.361..289N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">High dissipative nonminimal <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, Masoomeh</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study a model of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in which both inflaton field and its derivatives are coupled nonminimally to curvature. We survey the spectrum of the primordial perturbations in high dissipative regime. By expanding the action up to the third order, the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity is studied both in the equilateral and orthogonal configurations. Finally, by adopting four sort of potentials, we compare our model with the Planck 2015 released observational data and obtain some constraints on the model's parameters space in the high dissipation regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738U0031F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738U0031F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">New efficient optimizing techniques for Kalman filters and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Famelis, Ioannis; Galanis, George; Liakatas, Aristotelis</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The need for accurate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictions and simulations beyond the classical meteorological forecasts are increasing the last years due to the great number of applications that are directly or not affected: renewable energy resource assessment, natural hazards early warning systems, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions on the climate change can be listed among them. Within this framework the utilization of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather and wave prediction systems in conjunction with advanced statistical techniques that support the elimination of the model bias and the reduction of the error variability may successfully address the above issues. In the present work, new optimization methods are studied and tested in selected areas of Greece where the use of renewable energy sources is of critical. The added value of the proposed work is due to the solid mathematical background adopted making use of Information Geometry and Statistical techniques, new versions of Kalman filters and state of the art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> analysis tools.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span id="translatedtitle">From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation. PMID:24904161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseasons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseasons"><span id="translatedtitle">Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season QPF be Improved?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for <span class="hlt">numerous</span> reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=cell+evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bevolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=cell+evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Bevolution"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> - Synoptic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blackshear, W. T.; Grose, W. L.; Turner, R. E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is presented of a sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event which occurred spontaneously during a general circulation model simulation of the global atmospheric circulation. Two separate <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulses exhibit the same dynamical evolution with a 'cycle' of about two weeks. Two distinct phases of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle are apparent: (1) the generation of an intense localized <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell in conjunction with significant adiabatic heating associated with cross-isobar flow which has been induced by vertically propagating long wave disturbances; and (2) the northward transport of that <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell via advection by the essentially geostrophic windfield corresponding to an intense, offset polar cyclone, in conjunction with a strong Aleutian anticyclone. During the first <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse in January, a moderate Aleutian anticyclone was in place prior to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle and was intensified by interaction with an eastward traveling anticyclone induced by the differential advection of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell. The second <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse occurred in early February with a strong Aleutian anticyclone already established. In contrast to the January event, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in February culminated with reversal of the zonal westerlies to easterlies over a significant depth of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> gas TVC design study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moorhead, S. B., Jr.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=AMERICAN+AND+pETROLEUM+AND+iNSTITUTE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77722846&CFTOKEN=41176773','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=AMERICAN+AND+pETROLEUM+AND+iNSTITUTE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77722846&CFTOKEN=41176773"><span id="translatedtitle">A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> AND FOSSIL FUEL USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D"><span id="translatedtitle">Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994"><span id="translatedtitle">Mach reflection in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, J. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilde, B. H.; Hartigan, P.; Perry, T. S.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>The phenomenon of irregular shock-wave reflection is of importance in high-temperature gas dynamics, astrophysics, inertial-confinement fusion, and related fields of high-energy-density science. However, most experimental studies of irregular reflection have used supersonic wind tunnels or shock tubes, and few or no data are available for Mach reflection phenomena in the plasma regime. Similarly, analytic studies have often been confined to calorically perfect gases. We report the first direct observation, and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling, of Mach stem formation for a <span class="hlt">warm</span>, dense plasma. Two ablatively driven aluminum disks launch oppositely directed, near-spherical shock waves into a cylindrical plastic block. The interaction of these shocks results in the formation of a Mach-ring shock that is diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. The data are modeled using radiation hydrocodes developed by AWE and LANL. The experiments were carried out at the University of Rochester's Omega laser [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] and were inspired by modeling [A. M. Khokhlov, P. A. Hoeflich, E. S. Oran et al., Astrophys J. 524, L107 (1999)] of core-collapse supernovae that suggest that in asymmetric supernova explosion significant mass may be ejected in a Mach-ring formation launched by bipolar jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248"><span id="translatedtitle">Exceptional <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Funk, Christopher C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Indian–Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/441388"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of partial cloudiness in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain parameterization: A subgrid-scale precipitation scheme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechtold, P.; Pinty, J.P.; Mascart, P.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>A method is proposed on how to handle the effects of partial cloudiness in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain microphysical scheme and how to generate subgrid-scale precipitation. The method is simple and concerns essentially two ideas: The use of the vertical distribution of the partial cloudiness and the use of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and cloud-scale values for the thermodynamic variables instead of their grid-mean values. It applies to any microphysical scheme. The method has been applied to a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rain parameterization scheme that has been implemented in a mesoscale model using a statistical partial cloudiness scheme. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> tests have been done for two one-dimensional cases of boundary-layer cloudiness: A cumulus case and a case of a decoupled stratocumulus layer. The results show that the correct coupling of a partial cloudiness scheme and a microphysical scheme allows for a better description of the actual cloudiness and precipitation fields by ensuring a consistent computation of partial cloudiness, cloud water, and rainwater in partly cloudy regions. 20 refs., 14 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span id="translatedtitle">Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting wildlife response to rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Alaskan Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Problems in assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longstreth, J.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to result in a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological stability in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under <span class="hlt">warming</span> remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> microcosms were explained in terms of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: <span class="hlt">warming</span> should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> and lunar tide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a large-scale disturbance in the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that the effect of stratospheric sudden warnings extends well into the upper atmosphere. A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is often accompanied by an amplification of lunar tides in the ionosphere/theremosphere. However, there are occasionally winters when a stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs without an enhancement of the lunar tide in the upper atmosphere, and other winters when large lunar tides are observed without a strong stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We examine the winters when the correlation breaks down and discuss possible causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428"><span id="translatedtitle">DPIS for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.</p> <p>2010-05-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216"><span id="translatedtitle">Halocarbon ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Concern over the global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global <span class="hlt">warming</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.160S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.160S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> set stage for deadly heat wave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the summer of 2010, soaring temperatures and widespread forest fires ravaged western Russia, killing 55,000 and causing $15 billion in economic losses. In the wake of the record-setting heat wave, two studies sought to identify the contribution that human activities made to the event. One showed that temperatures seen during the deadly heat wave fell within the bounds of natural variability, while another attributed the heat wave to human activity, arguing that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the chance of record-breaking temperatures occurring. Merging the stances of both studies, Otto et al. sought to show that while human contributions to climate change did not necessarily cause the deadly heat wave, they did play a role in setting the stage for its occurrence. Using an ensemble of climate simulations, the authors assessed the expected magnitude and frequency of an event like the 2010 heat wave under both 1960s and 2000s <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The authors found that although the average temperature in July 2010 was 5°C higher than the average July temperature from the past half decade, the deadly heat wave was within the natural variability of 1960s, as well as 2000s, climate conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Since plant species show individual responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We <span class="hlt">warmed</span> an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the community level occur only when <span class="hlt">warming</span> is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span>: mechanism and latitude dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present <span class="hlt">warming</span> of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ445277','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warm+AND+up&pg=7&id=EJ445277"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups: Creating a <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up That Works.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Proper <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Madden-Julian Oscillation in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chuing-Wen June; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Keenlyside, Noel; Tsuang, Ben-Jei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate models remain challenged by accurate simulation of the Madden- Julian oscillation (MJO). This has limited the study of the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on this phenomenon. He we apply the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT coupled model that is able simulate the MJO with realistic strength, structure, period, and propagation speed. The model consists of a high-resolution one-column ocean model (SIT) coupled to the ECHAM5 atmospheric model. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments were conducted to explore the changes in the MJO by the end of 21st Century under the RCP8.5 scenario. In the <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, the MJO remains wavenumber-one structure with larger amplitude and stronger circumglobal propagation, and faster eastward propagation. The convection develops higher in the upper troposphere and the overturning circulation expands zonally but contracts meridionally. The shallow and deep convective heating are both enhanced and a stronger low-level convergence enhances westward tilting with height. Enhancement of MJO amplitude and extent can be explained by enhanced intraseasonal low-level convergence and increased mean moisture under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The moister mean state contributes to the enhancement of deep convection, which excites stronger Kelvin waves. This reinforces low-level convergence through the enhanced Frictional Convergence Mechanism and leads to the more efficient and timely preconditioning of the deep convection, and therefore to a faster development and enhancement of the deep convection in MJO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stellar evolution on migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frewen, S. F. N.; Hansen, B. M. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> jupiters are an unexpected population of extrasolar planets that are too near to their host to have formed in situ, but distant enough to retain a significant eccentricity in the face of tidal damping. These planets are curiously absent around stars larger than two solar radii. We hypothesize that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters are migrating due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, which lead to transient episodes of high eccentricity and a consequent tidal decay. As their host evolves, such planets would be rapidly dragged in or engulfed at minimum periapse, leading to a dramatic depletion of this population with increasing stellar radius, as is observed. Using <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, we determine the relationship between periapse distance and orbital migration rate for planets 0.1-10 Jupiter masses and with orbital periods between 10 and 100 d. We find that Kozai-Lidov oscillations effectively result in planetary removal early in the evolution of the host star, possibly accounting for the observed deficit. While the observed eccentricity distribution is inconsistent with the simulated distribution for an oscillating and migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiter population, observational biases may explain the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chlorofluorocarbon&pg=2&id=EJ410863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chlorofluorocarbon&pg=2&id=EJ410863"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: How Much and Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanouette, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the history of the study of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=thesis+waters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthesis%2Bwaters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=thesis+waters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthesis%2Bwaters"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the tropical water budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Betts, Alan K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+biodiversity&pg=3&id=EJ502198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+biodiversity&pg=3&id=EJ502198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A resource for teaching about the consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear electron oscillations in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+cause&pg=3&id=EJ502195','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+cause&pg=3&id=EJ502195"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and unequal <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+depletion&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+depletion&id=EJ912888"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2"><span id="translatedtitle">Catching a Cold When It's <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s <span class="hlt">Warm</span> What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s <span class="hlt">warm</span>? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=density&pg=6&id=EJ1094559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=density&pg=6&id=EJ1094559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Water in a Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Students' Ideas about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+fatigue&pg=3&id=EJ255711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+fatigue&pg=3&id=EJ255711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal biases and vulnerability to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the world's marine fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Barrett, Neville S; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Bates, Amanda E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and combine these with projected ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> data to predict <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss. PMID:26560025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal Extraction - <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without <span class="hlt">environmental</span> costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled Soil <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Disks from Giant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X"><span id="translatedtitle">Can biomass responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies had investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S"><span id="translatedtitle">Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Observations show that the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep <span class="hlt">warming</span> is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066706&hterms=causes+homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcauses%2Bhomogenization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066706&hterms=causes+homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcauses%2Bhomogenization"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixing processes following the final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hess, Peter G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An investigation is made of the dynamics responsible for the mixing and dissolution of the polar vortex during the final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. The dynamics and transport during a Northern Hemisphere final stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> are simulated via a GCM and an associated offline N2O transport model. The results are compared with those obtained from LIMS data for the final <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1979, with emphasis on the potential vorticity evolution in the two datasets, the modeled N2O evolution, and the observed O3 evolution. Following each <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the remnants of the originally intact vortex are found to gradually homogenize with the atmosphere at large. Two processes leading to this homogenization are identified following the final <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, namely, the potential vorticity field becomes decorrelated from that of the chemical tracer, and the vortex remnants begin to tilt dramatically in a vertical direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhTea..48..525H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhTea..48..525H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of Arkansas have developed a conceptual understanding of energy and of electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic spectrum, I devote a lecture (and a textbook section) to ozone depletion and another lecture (and section) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Humankind came together in 1986 and quickly solved, to the extent that humans can solve it, ozone depletion. We could do the same with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but we haven't and as yet there's no sign that we will. The parallel between the ozone and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> cases, and the difference in outcomes, are striking and instructive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, insurance losses and financial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. How global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing ice discharge through West Antarctic Gateways: Weddell vs. Amundsen Sea <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. A.; Levermann, A.; Winkelmann, R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Future changes in Antarctic ice discharge will be largely controlled by the fate of the floating ice shelves, which exert a back-stress onto Antarctica's marine outlet glaciers. Ice loss in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Amundsen Sea has been observed and investigated as a potential trigger for the marine ice-sheet instability. Recent observations and simulations suggest that the Amundsen Sea Sector might already be unstable which would have strong implications for global sea-level rise. At the same time, regional ocean projections show much stronger <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water intrusion into ice-shelf cavities in the Weddell Sea compared to the observed Amundsen <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we present results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice sheet modelling with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) which show that idealized, step-function type ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Weddell Sea leads to more immediate ice discharge with a higher sensitivity to small <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels than the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Amundsen Sea. This is consistent with the specific combination of bedrock and ice topography in the Weddell Sea Sector which results in an ice sheet close to floatation. In response to even slight ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases rapidly, peaks and declines within one century. While the cumulative ice loss in the Amundsen Sea Sector is of similar magnitude after five centuries of continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases at a slower pace and only for significantly higher <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels. Although there is more marine ice stored above sea level in close vicinity of the grounding line compared to the Weddell Sea Sector, the ice sheet is farther from floatation and the grounding line initially retreats more slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation regime drives soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in temperate steppes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments have been done to examine the impacts of elevated temperature on soil microbial actives, most of them were based on responses from a single site. To investigate how precipitation regime regulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s effects on carbon cycle, field manipulative <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments were conducted at 3 types of steppes (desert, typical and meadow steppe) along a precipitation gradient in northern China. Soil temperature, moisture, dissolved organic C (DOC), inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration, microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and respiration (MR) were measured once a year from 2006 to 2009. The results showed that soil moisture was significantly decreased in the typical steppe whereas not affected in the desert and meadow steppe, respectively. Across the 4 years, <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased MBC and MR in the desert and typical steppe while did not affect them in the meadow steppe. The magnitude of reductions in <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced MBC and MR declined with increasing precipitation gradient at a regional scale. Across the precipitation gradient, all changes in soil MBC, MBN and MR were positively correlated with both annual precipitation and changes in belowground net primary productivity (BNPP), suggesting that soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> may be regulated by annual precipitation and substrate availability. However, the lab-incubation revealed that soil moisture is more important in regulating soil microbial activities than substrate across the 3 steppes. In addition, soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed year-to-year variations during the first 4 years coincided with the fluctuations in annual precipitation across the 3 steppes. Our results suggested that precipitation regime controls the spatial and interannual responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mainly by regulating soil moisture and substrate availability. With the increase in precipitation, the positive responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span> started to outweigh the negative impacts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> research in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morellato, L. P. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction. PMID:15831755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse tube stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A pulse tube type stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/544224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/544224"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestress data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface-flawed specimens, eight subclad-flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional 7% additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full-scale pressure vessel WPS experiments. All but one of the 174 experiments considered lie above the lower 2{sigma} estimate of the regressions. The experiments all supported Type I WPS, i.e., there was no fracture during cooling until reloading occurred. However, the regression equations apply to the reload and are inapplicable to Type I WPS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal pollution causes global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nordell, Bo</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0773N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0773N"><span id="translatedtitle">Stream Temperature Sensitivity to Climate <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in California's Sierra Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Null, S.; Viers, J. H.; Deas, M.; Tanaka, S.; Mount, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Water temperatures influence the distribution, abundance, and health of aquatic organisms in stream ecosystems. Improving understanding of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the thermal regime of rivers will help water managers better manage instream habitat. This study assesses climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on unregulated stream temperatures in California’s west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds from the Feather River to the Kern River. We used unregulated hydrology to isolate climate induced changes from those of water operations and land use changes. A 21 year timeseries of weekly instream flow estimates from WEAP21, a spatially explicit rainfall-runoff model were passed to RTEMP, a simplified model based on equilibrium temperature theory, to estimate stream temperatures using net heat exchange, coarse river channel geometry, and exposure time of water to atmospheric conditions. Air temperature was uniformly increased by 2○C, 4○C, and 6○C as a sensitivity analysis to bracket the range of likely outcomes for stream temperatures. Other meteorological conditions, including precipitation, were left unchanged from historical values. Overall, stream temperatures increased by an average of 1.6○C for each 2○C rise in air temperature, and increased most at middle elevations. Thermal heterogeneity existed within and between basins (Figure 1). The high watersheds of the southern Sierra Nevada and the Feather River watershed were less vulnerable to changes in the thermal regime of rivers from climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Precipitation as rainfall instead of snowfall, and low flow conditions were two characteristics that drove water temperatures dynamics with climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These results suggest the thermal regime of rivers will change with climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Viable coldwater habitat will shift to higher elevations and will likely be reduced in California. Understanding potential changes to stream temperatures from climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect how fish and wildlife are managed, and must be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Plant Community Composition and Biomass Production to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Nitrogen Deposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:27199978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C31C..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C31C..01D"><span id="translatedtitle">As the West <span class="hlt">Warms</span>: Watching Our Home Burn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diaz, H. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Mountain environments have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they are places with sharp vertical gradients, which result in the stacking of natural ecotones with elevation. The impact of global climate change in mountainous regions may lead to rapid and irreversible changes in a number of areas; these range from major changes in the seasonal hydrographs of meltwater-driven streams affecting communities that depend on the melting of frozen precipitation for their water supplies, to increases in large and intense forest fires, arising from a combination of factors that include increasing temperature and insect outbreaks, to changes in growing seasons and species extinction. In the last 10 years, rising temperatures occurring during a period of diminished precipitation in the western United States has led to unprecedented drought conditions—the most widespread severe drought in the period of instrumental records. An examination of the available climate record suggests that the US, and in particular the West, may be entering, or perhaps is in the midst of a period of rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The combination of much warmer than normal temperature, likely driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and a drier than normal period, regardless of its cause, may result in more frequent and widespread western droughts, with all its attendant consequences of enhanced wildfire risk, water supply problems, and a host of other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats. Results from recent climate model simulations underscores the potential threat to the western United States resulting from greenhouse-gas-induced global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. I will examine the latest set of climate records from both the North and South American Cordillera, highlighting some impacts already evident in many areas. Although some political action has been taken to address the issue of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on western society, the actions to date have been largely in the nature of calls to mitigate some of the expected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-18</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/832857','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/832857"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot/<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Gas Cleanup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bissett, Larry A.</p> <p>2001-11-06</p> <p>Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Estimation from MSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=gas+laws&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528gas%2Blaws%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=gas+laws&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528gas%2Blaws%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium gas flow computations. II - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vinokur, Marcel; Liu, Yen</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for three-dimensional, time-varying grids. The approximations inherent in previous generalizations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DSRI...56.1039S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DSRI...56.1039S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">warm</span>/cold regime shift in the South China Sea: Observation and modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swapna, P.; Gan, Jianping; Lau, Alexis; Fung, Jimmy</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Remote sensing data sets and a high-resolution three-dimensional regional ocean model were utilized to investigate the shifting of <span class="hlt">warm</span>/cold regime and the associated sea level variation in the South China Sea (SCS) during 2000-2003. Both the altimetry data and the model results showed an increase in the sea level (<span class="hlt">warm</span> phase) followed by an abrupt decrease (cold phase) in the SCS during 2000-2003. Heat budget calculations performed with the model revealed excess heat advection from the western Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool into the SCS during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> phase than the cold phase. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> phase, which occurred during La Niña episodes, resulted from the intrusion of abnormally warmer western Pacific water that increased the heat content and thus sea level in the SCS. The cold phase, which occurred during El Niño episodes, was triggered by a reduction in the net atmospheric heat flux followed by cold water advection into the SCS. Decrease in the rate of precipitation minus evaporation ( P-E) also accounted for the falling of sea level during cold phase. The present study integrated the available remote sensing data and advanced <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model to identify the time-dependent three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic forcing that are important in governing the <span class="hlt">warm</span>/cold regime shift in the SCS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up" CSF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" the systems. This article studies such "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. PMID:26713543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A Total Equivalent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact because it is not based solely on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NEF.F2003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NEF.F2003G"><span id="translatedtitle">A Scientific Look at Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glanz, Peter</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Scientists like we should ask ``Where's the Beef?'' when a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> discussion comes up. Current issues like melting glaciers, rising sea levels, disappearing polar bears and increasing tornado activity (among many) are put to the WTB test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon cycle: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> then and now</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stassen, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..OSS.C1002A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..OSS.C1002A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global temperatures and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ``debate''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubrecht, Gordon</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304"><span id="translatedtitle">Chamberless residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnace design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Godfree, J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...07..054V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...07..054V"><span id="translatedtitle">Observational constraints on monomial <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Visinelli, Luca</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision Pt. 98, Subpt. A, Table A-1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision Pt. 98, Subpt. A, Table A-1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Provision Pt. 98, Subpt. A, Table A-1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257561','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257561"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying Poultry Litter in the Fall to Fertilize Corn May not be Advisable Under <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Row crop farmers prefer to apply poultry litter in the fall or winter but whether this practice is safe <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> and effective for production in regions with <span class="hlt">warm</span> fall and winter months is not well researched and documented. Research in Mississippi tested the effectiveness of fall- versus spr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stith T.Gower</p> <p>2010-03-03</p> <p>A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity <span class="hlt">warming</span> (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-<span class="hlt">warming</span> term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (<span class="hlt">warm</span>-season daytime) local <span class="hlt">warming</span>, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With <span class="hlt">warming</span> of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of <span class="hlt">warming</span> gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350937"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestress data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface flawed specimens, eight subclad flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional seven percent additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip 3-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. Crack tip 3DEPFE analysis indicated that partially unloaded and completely unloaded data should be treated separately, and that the amount of unloading is unimportant for partially unloaded data. The regression models, which use K{sub I} at WPS (K{sub Iwps}) and K{sub Ic} as independent variables, better represented the WPS benefit than did the more complicated Chell model. An adequate accounting was made for constraint in the WPS experiments. The subclad flaw data support the use of the partial unload regression model, provided that some care is taken to represent the effect of intact cladding if present. The effect of strain aging at or below 260 C (500 F) on WPS benefit was of no consequence for the pressure vessel steels and WPS temperatures used to derive the regression models. The presence of ductile tearing precludes the use of the regression models. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full scale</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nuclear power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wood, L., LLNL</p> <p>1998-07-10</p> <p>-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42..203D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42..203D"><span id="translatedtitle">Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during 1958-2004 simulated by a climate system model and its mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Wu, Bo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The mechanism responsible for Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature (SST) basin-wide <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend during 1958-2004 is studied based on both observational data analysis and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with a climate system model FGOALS-gl. To quantitatively estimate the relative contributions of external forcing (anthropogenic and natural forcing) and internal variability, three sets of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments are conducted, viz. an all forcing run forced by both anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols) and natural forcing (solar constant and volcanic aerosols), a natural forcing run driven by only natural forcing, and a pre-industrial control run. The model results are compared to the observations. The results show that the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend during 1958-2004 (0.5 K (47-year)-1) is largely attributed to the external forcing (more than 90 % of the total trend), while the residual is attributed to the internal variability. Model results indicate that the anthropogenic forcing accounts for approximately 98.8 % contribution of the external forcing trend. Heat budget analysis shows that the surface latent heat flux due to atmosphere and surface longwave radiation, which are mainly associated with anthropogenic forcing, are in favor of the basin-wide <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend. The basin-wide <span class="hlt">warming</span> is not spatially uniform, but with an equatorial IOD-like pattern in climate model. The atmospheric processes, oceanic processes and climatological latent heat flux together form an equatorial IOD-like <span class="hlt">warming</span> pattern, and the oceanic process is the most important in forming the zonal dipole pattern. Both the anthropogenic forcing and natural forcing result in easterly wind anomalies over the equator, which reduce the wind speed, thereby lead to less evaporation and warmer SST in the equatorial western basin. Based on Bjerknes feedback, the easterly wind anomalies uplift the thermocline, which is unfavorable to SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the eastern basin, and contribute to SST</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293764"><span id="translatedtitle">Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q 10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356"><span id="translatedtitle">Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> to western U.S. streamflow changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season (April-September) <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. A uniform <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NatSR...4E6890E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NatSR...4E6890E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts `worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217098','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217098"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts 'worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016252','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016252"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> studies of frontal dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keyser, Daniel</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Efforts concentrated on the development of a two dimensional primitive equation (PE) model of frontogenesis that simultaneously incorporates the frontagenetical mechanisms of confluence and horizontal shear. Applying this model to study the effects of upper level frontogenesis, it appeared to be dominated by tilting effects associated with cross front variation of vertical motion, in which subsidence is maximized within and to the <span class="hlt">warm</span> side of the frontal zone. Results suggest that aspects characteristic of three-dimensional baroclinic waves may be abstracted to a significant extent in a two dimensional framework. They also show that upper-level frontogenesis and tropopause folding can occur in the absence of three-dimensional curvature effects, commonly believed to be necessary for realistic upper-level frontogenesis. An implication of the dominant tilting effects is that they may have to be adequately resolved by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather prediction models, thus requiring better horizontal and vertical resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will <span class="hlt">warm</span> or on the true impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures. PMID:18268873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players <span class="hlt">warm</span> up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811"><span id="translatedtitle">Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aquatic ectotherms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aquatic ecological responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under <span class="hlt">warm</span> water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213450-numerical-simulation-environmental-impact-hydraulic-fracturing-tight-shale-gas-reservoirs-near-surface-groundwater-background-base-cases-shallow-reservoirs-short-term-gas-water-transport','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213450-numerical-simulation-environmental-impact-hydraulic-fracturing-tight-shale-gas-reservoirs-near-surface-groundwater-background-base-cases-shallow-reservoirs-short-term-gas-water-transport"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-18</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714393C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714393C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Gulf Stream - Troposphere connection: <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold paths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czaja, Arnaud; Sheldon, Luke; Vanniere, Benoit; Parfitt, Rhys</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this talk, the role of moist processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling over the Gulf Stream will be discussed, using ERA interim reanalysis data (1979-2012) and nested simulations with the UK Met Office Unified Model. The focus is on the cold season (December through February). Two types of moist processes will be highlighted. First, shallow convection driven by surface fluxes of heat and moisture, usually found behind the cold front of extra-tropical cyclones. It will be shown that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> flank of the Gulf Stream is instrumental in amplifying these convective events. In addition, it will be suggested that they are also responsible for simulated changes in precipitation found in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with Atmospheric General Circulation Models forced with smoothed and realistic sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. The impact of this type of air-sea interaction on the larger scale is however unclear as it mostly affects low levels (below 700hPa). The second type of moist processes of relevance is that of moist inertial ascent along the cold front of extra-tropical cyclones. It will be shown that such ascent typically occurs 10% of the time in winter and that it is preferentially rooted over the <span class="hlt">warm</span> flank of the Gulf Stream. The moist inertial ascent is intense and narrow, and not compensated within a given synoptic system. As a result, and despite being infrequent, it will be shown to contribute crucially to the time mean upward motion over the Gulf Stream at middle (500hPa) and upper tropospheric levels (300 hPa). This result suggests that <span class="hlt">warm</span> advection by the Gulf Stream acts in effect as a horizontally broad, downward push, on air masses above the boundary layer, a push required to compensate for the upward mass flux in the moist inertial ascent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica during the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dolan, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Haywood, A. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene Epoch (Pliocene 'interglacials') is important for understanding the long-term response of major ice sheets and sea level to current or near future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); as well as global mean temperatures that will be attained during this century. For the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP; ~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) we present a review of current and recent research that has sought to constrain the nature of the Antarctic Ice Sheets using sophisticated <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate and ice-sheet models. It is generally accepted that during <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was largely ice free; however, the contribution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to peak sea level rise during the mPWP is less well understood. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> sources of geological information are available that are capable of placing constraints on the stability of the EAIS during the mPWP, but each has inherent uncertainties and signals can often be difficult to interpret. Therefore, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling is required to test proxy-based assertions of sea-level change and pin-point the likely contributions from the major ice sheets. We present an ensemble of simulations using the Hadley Centre Atmosphere-Ocean Climate Model (HadCM3) coupled offline to the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BASISM) that explores the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 levels during the mid-Pliocene. We show that significant ice sheet retreat is only simulated under <span class="hlt">warm</span> Southern Hemisphere orbital conditions where levels of CO2 are at 400 ppmv or above. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that this result is dependent on necessary a priori assumptions regarding the initial ice sheet configuration within the modelling framework. To diagnose which assumptions give climate simulations that are more consistent with geological proxy data, we evaluate our results against two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767"><span id="translatedtitle">Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During <span class="hlt">warm</span> interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Here we show that, during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024209&hterms=winter+solstice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwinter%2Bsolstice','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024209&hterms=winter+solstice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwinter%2Bsolstice"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical modeling of a planetary wave mechanism for a Martian polar <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The mechanisms involved in the global dust storm and polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> seen in the Martian atmosphere by the Viking IRTM during the winter solstice of 1977 are investigated theoretically by means of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations. A two-component dynamical model (based on the combined action of a zonally symmetric 'Hadley' circulation at low and middle latitudes and a planetary-wave circulation at middle and high latitudes) is constructed by analogy to the model of Holton and Mass (1976) for terrestrial sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. The Viking data and simulation results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. It is demonstrated that a planetary-wave mechanism, based primarily on wavenumber 1 and including a high degree of topographical or thermal wave forcing, can reproduce the observed polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The roles of radiative damping, dissipation, and the transport of dust and water are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature Gradient on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagheriasl, R.; Ghavam, K.; Worswick, M. J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The effect of temperature gradient and forming speed on <span class="hlt">warm</span> formability of aluminum alloy sheet has been studied using a coupled thermal mechanical finite element model of cup deep drawing. A user-defined material model was developed using the Bergstrom temperature and strain-rate dependant hardening model and Barlat YLD2000 anisotropic yield surface, which was implemented within LS-DYNA. The stress-strain curves for AA3003 at elevated temperatures and different strain rates were used to fit the Bergstrom hardening parameters. The anisotropy parameters were considered to be non-temperature dependant. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was validated against experiments from previous work and was found to accurately predict punch force for <span class="hlt">warm</span> deep drawing. Increases in forming speed are shown to have a negative effect on formability. It is concluded that non-isothermal <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming can be used to improve the formability of aluminum alloy sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kallman, Timothy</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFMED33C..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFMED33C..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Settled Science? Unsettled Media Debate??</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, S. H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently assessed the approximate 0.75°C <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1850 as an "unequivocal" trend. This is very rare and strong language for scientists who often lead with their caveats, not with their concerns. Later, the same report says it is "very likely" (i.e.- greater that 90% chance) that most of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the past several decades can be attributed to human activities, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. So far, the science sounds "settled". Furthermore, the IPCC, as well as many other national assessments, assigns very high confidence to projections of further <span class="hlt">warming</span>, intensified tropical cyclones, more extremes of drought and flood, and melting mountain glaciers and arctic sea ice in the twenty-first century. Still sounds settled. However, the likely range of <span class="hlt">warming</span> projected by IPCC to 2100 varies by a whopping factor of 6: 1.1-6.4°C above 1990 levels-- hardly "settled science". Projections of precipitation are equivocal even as to the direction of change. Therefore, IPCC Working Group 2 recommends a "risk management" approach to dealing with the combination of well establish and remaining speculative components of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that nonetheless pose potentially serious risks to human and natural systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649365"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J</p> <p>2005-01-11</p> <p>Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, <span class="hlt">warming</span> the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically <span class="hlt">warms</span> the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural <span class="hlt">warming</span> in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that <span class="hlt">warming</span> the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Natur.421...57R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Natur.421...57R"><span id="translatedtitle">Fingerprints of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wild animals and plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to <span class="hlt">numerous</span> extirpations and possibly extinctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23g3119J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23g3119J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608"><span id="translatedtitle">General dissipation coefficient in low-temperature <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk E-mail: joao.rosa@ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In generic particle physics models, the inflaton field is coupled to other bosonic and fermionic fields that acquire large masses during inflation and may decay into light degrees of freedom. This leads to dissipative effects that modify the inflationary dynamics and may generate a nearly-thermal radiation bath, such that inflation occurs in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> rather than supercooled environment. In this work, we perform a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> computation and obtain expressions for the associated dissipation coefficient in supersymmetric models, focusing on the regime where the radiation temperature is below the heavy mass threshold. The dissipation coefficient receives contributions from the decay of both on-shell and off-shell degrees of freedom, which are dominant for small and large couplings, respectively, taking into account the light field multiplicities. In particular, we find that the contribution from on-shell decays, although Boltzmann-suppressed, can be much larger than that of virtual modes, which is bounded by the validity of a perturbative analysis. This result opens up new possibilities for realizations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in supersymmetric field theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..3117109P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..3117109P"><span id="translatedtitle">Altered hydrologic feedback in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate introduces a ``<span class="hlt">warming</span> hole''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Zaitao; Arritt, Raymond W.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gutowski, William J.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Segal, Moti</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>In the last 25 years of the 20th century most major land regions experienced a summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, but the central U.S. cooled by 0.2-0.8 K. In contrast most climate projections using GCMs show <span class="hlt">warming</span> for all continental interiors including North America. We examined this discrepancy by using a regional climate model and found a circulation-precipitation coupling under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations that occurs on scales too small for current GCMs to resolve well. Results show a local minimum of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the central U.S. (a ``<span class="hlt">warming</span> hole'') associated with changes in low-level circulations that lead to replenishment of seasonally depleted soil moisture, thereby increasing late-summer evapotranspiration and suppressing daytime maximum temperatures. These regional-scale feedback processes may partly explain the observed late 20th century temperature trend in the central U.S. and potentially could reduce the magnitude of future greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21502530','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21502530"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cai Yifu; Dent, James B.; Easson, Damien A.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary model in the context of relativistic D-brane inflation in a warped throat, which has Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term and is coupled to radiation through a dissipation term. The perturbation freezes at the sound horizon and the power spectrum is determined by a combination of the dissipative parameter and the sound speed parameter. The thermal dissipation ameliorates the eta problem and softens theoretical constraints from the extra-dimensional volume and from observational bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> DBI model can lead to appreciable non-Gaussianity of the equilateral type. As a phenomenological model, ignoring compactification constraints, we show that large-field <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation models do not necessarily yield a large tensor-to-scalar ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035278&hterms=diabetic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddiabetic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035278&hterms=diabetic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddiabetic"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> during February and March 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Two stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> during February and March 1993 are described using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) analyses, calculated potential vorticity (PV) and diabetic heating, and N2O observed by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The first <span class="hlt">warming</span> affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N2O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N2O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N2O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25380974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25380974"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature (P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>. PMID:25380974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPTO8009S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPTO8009S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron conductivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The electronic conductivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical structure of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Near-surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of <span class="hlt">warming</span> that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.U41F..03H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.U41F..03H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Communicating the Dangers of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, J. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is not costly and has many subsidiary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429502"><span id="translatedtitle">La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current <span class="hlt">warming</span> in 2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Ming; McPhaden, Michael J; Xie, Shang-Ping; Hafner, Jan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Unprecedented <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were observed off the west coast of Australia in February-March 2011. Peak SST during a 2-week period were 5°C warmer than normal, causing widespread coral bleaching and fish kills. Understanding the climatic drivers of this extreme event, which we dub "Ningaloo Niño", is crucial for predicting similar events under the influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we use observational data and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models to demonstrate that the extreme <span class="hlt">warming</span> was mostly driven by an unseasonable surge of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current in austral summer, which transported anomalously <span class="hlt">warm</span> water southward along the coast. The unusual intensification of the Leeuwin Current was forced remotely by oceanic and atmospheric teleconnections associated with the extraordinary 2010-2011 La Niña. The amplitude of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> was boosted by both multi-decadal trends in the Pacific toward more La Niña-like conditions and intraseasonal variations in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23429502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572450','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572450"><span id="translatedtitle">La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current <span class="hlt">warming</span> in 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Ming; McPhaden, Michael J.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Hafner, Jan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Unprecedented <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were observed off the west coast of Australia in February–March 2011. Peak SST during a 2-week period were 5°C warmer than normal, causing widespread coral bleaching and fish kills. Understanding the climatic drivers of this extreme event, which we dub “Ningaloo Niño”, is crucial for predicting similar events under the influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we use observational data and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models to demonstrate that the extreme <span class="hlt">warming</span> was mostly driven by an unseasonable surge of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current in austral summer, which transported anomalously <span class="hlt">warm</span> water southward along the coast. The unusual intensification of the Leeuwin Current was forced remotely by oceanic and atmospheric teleconnections associated with the extraordinary 2010–2011 La Niña. The amplitude of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> was boosted by both multi-decadal trends in the Pacific toward more La Niña-like conditions and intraseasonal variations in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23429502</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a public health concern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afzal, Brenda M</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:21848352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=eruptions+volcanic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Deruptions%2Bvolcanic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=eruptions+volcanic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Deruptions%2Bvolcanic"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of water in a glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyses the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us to understand the process of convection in the glass and to determine the temperature at which the density of water is maximum. In addition, computational fluid dynamics—CFD modeling is carried out to facilitate better comprehension of the phenomenon observed in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AmJPh..76..608M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AmJPh..76..608M"><span id="translatedtitle">Resource Letter GW-2: Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> [Resource Letter GW-1: Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in North Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, Anais; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeff</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The arctic is the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> region on Earth, but it is also one where there is little historical data. Although summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes melt, the annual temperature trend is dominated by the winter and fall season, which are much less well documented. In addition, the instrumental record relies principally on coastal weather stations, and there are very few direct temperature observations in the interior dating back more than 30 years, especially in North Greenland, where the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is the largest. Here, we present a temperature reconstruction from NEEM (51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, for the last 100 years, which allows us to put the recent trend in the context of the longer term climate. We use a combination of two independent proxies to reconstruct the temperature history at NEEM: borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements in the firn. Borehole temperature takes advantage of the low temperature diffusivity of the snow and ice, which allows the temperature history to be preserved in the ice for several centuries. Temperature gradients in the firn (old snow above the ice) influence the gas isotopic composition: thermal fractionation causes heavy isotopes to concentrate on the cold end of the firn column. We measured the isotopes of inert gases (N2, Ar and Kr), which have a constant atmospheric composition through time, and use the thermal fractionation signal as an additional constraint on the temperature history at the site. We find that NEEM has been <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 0.86±0.22°C/decade over the past 30 years, from -28.55±0.29°C for the 1900-1970 average to -26.77±0.16°C for the 2000-2010 average. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate at NEEM is similar to that of Greenland Summit, and confirms the large <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends in North Greenland (polar amplification) and high altitude sites (tropospheric rather than surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>). Water isotopes show that the recent past has not met the level of the 1928 anomaly; but the average of the past 30 years has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robock, A.; Mao, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these <span class="hlt">warmings</span> the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B31D0576R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B31D0576R"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting and Forecasting Permafrost Degradation in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Kholodov, A. L.; Nicolsky, D.; Marchenko, S. S.; Panda, S. K.; Muskett, R. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The timing and rate of permafrost degradation are two of the major factors in determining the increase of carbon emissions from thawing permafrost. These changes in permafrost vary both temporally and spatially and do not happen everywhere at the same time. A good example of this heterogeneity is provided by our permafrost data collection in Alaska. Most of the permafrost observatories in Alaska show substantial <span class="hlt">warming</span> of permafrost since the 1980s. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">warming</span> varies with location, but is typically between 0.5 and 2°C. However, this <span class="hlt">warming</span> is not linear in time and not spatially uniform. A short warmer period in the early 1980s was followed by a relative cooling in the mid-1980s. From the late-1980s to the late-1990s, the permafrost and active layer temperatures were increasing. During the first half of the 2000s, permafrost temperatures were not changing significantly at almost all sites in Alaska, except for the sites in the Brooks Range and in its southern foothills were temperature was still increasing. Interesting dynamics in permafrost temperatures have been observed in Alaska since the mid-2000s until present. While permafrost <span class="hlt">warming</span> resumed on the North Slope of Alaska with a rate of increase between 0.2 to 0.5°C per decade, permafrost temperatures in the Alaskan Interior began a slight cooling trend that has continued during the first half of the 2010s. Most of these changes can be explained by changes in air temperature and snow cover during the observational period. These observations confirm that the future changes in permafrost temperature, in natural undisturbed conditions, will closely follow the changes in climate and as such can be successfully predicted using <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models forced by established climate change scenarios. In our presentation, we will provide the results from application of our permafrost change models and discuss what this means in terms of potential organic carbon release and its conversion to the greenhouse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780788"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> transforms multiple predator effects in a grassland food web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barton, Brandon T; Schmitz, Oswald J</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This experimental study tests new theory for multiple predator effects on communities by using <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter predator habitat use and hence direct and indirect interactions in a grassland food web containing two dominant spider predator species, a dominant grasshopper herbivore and grass and herb plants. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> further offers insight into how climate change might alter direct and indirect effects. Under ambient <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, spiders used habitat in spatially complementary locations. Consistent with predictions, the multiple predator effect on grasshoppers and on plants was the average of the individual predator effects. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strengthened the single predator effects. It also caused the spider species to overlap lower in the vegetation canopy. Consistent with predictions, the system was transformed into an intraguild predation system with the consequent extinction of one spider species. The results portend climate caused loss of predator diversity with important consequences for food web structure and function. PMID:19780788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which <span class="hlt">warming</span> had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions. PMID:26820060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eggleston, Jack; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eggleston, John R.; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418"><span id="translatedtitle">States' roles in reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Achieving international goals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Feldman, D.L.; Wilt, C.A. . Energy, Environment, and Resources Center)</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>National governments hold major responsibility for reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, some of the most important efforts to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases must occur at sub-national levels. In federal systems composed of states, as well as unitary systems that impose national policies upon regions, smaller administrative units are involved in energy conservation and end-use efficiency programs, CFC reduction activities, and transportation planning. States and regions also provide greenhouse gas emissions and other basic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data needed to comply with international agreements. The authors argue that, for some issues states are better able than national governments to develop innovative, flexible greenhouse gas policies that are administratively feasible and publicly acceptable. International agreements and policy declarations and institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of bottom-up approaches that rely on regionally-based, sustainable development activities to reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. They describe how national energy and pollution-prevention policies in the US invest states with specific responsibilities for reducing greenhouse gases or participating in adaptation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839"><span id="translatedtitle">Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a test at two sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stuble, Katharine L; Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Fowler, David A; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by <span class="hlt">warming</span> than are species inhabiting relatively cooler sites. We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to <span class="hlt">warm</span> intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on foraging at a southern (North Carolina) and northern (Massachusetts) site in eastern North America. We examined the influence of temperature on the abundance and recruitment of foragers as well as the number of different species observed foraging. Finally, we examined the relationship between the mean temperature at which a species was found foraging and the critical thermal maximum temperature of that species, relating functional traits to behavior. We found that forager abundance and richness were related to the experimental increase in temperature at the southern site, but not the northern site. Additionally, individual species responded differently to temperature: some species foraged more under warmer conditions, whereas others foraged less. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species (at least at the Duke Forest site). Species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager densities at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima. Our results indicate that while climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> may alter patterns of foraging activity in predictable ways, these shifts vary among species and between sites. More southerly sites and species with lower critical thermal maxima are likely to be at greater risk to ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:23531642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4940Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4940Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in ocean vertical heat transport with global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zika, Jan D.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Sijp, Willem P.; Nurser, A. J. G.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Heat transport between the surface and deep ocean strongly influences transient climate change. Mechanisms setting this transport are investigated using coupled climate models and by projecting ocean circulation into the temperature-depth diagram. In this diagram, a "cold cell" cools the deep ocean through the downwelling of Antarctic waters and upwelling of warmer waters and is balanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a "<span class="hlt">warm</span> cell," coincident with the interhemispheric overturning and previously linked to wind and haline forcing. With anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the cold cell collapses while the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell continues to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the deep ocean. Simulations with increasingly strong <span class="hlt">warm</span> cells, set by their mean Southern Hemisphere winds, exhibit increasing deep-ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to the same anthropogenic forcing. It is argued that the partition between components of the circulation which cool and <span class="hlt">warm</span> the deep ocean in the preindustrial climate is a key determinant of ocean vertical heat transport with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased frequency of ENSO extremes under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santoso, Agus; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is Earth's largest source of year-to-year climate variability which exerts significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and socio-economic impacts worldwide. The rise of ENSO, signified by large changes in ocean and atmospheric circulations, occurs through a suite of Bjerknes coupled feedback processes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Observations over recent decades have seen some peculiar behaviour of ENSO that has challenged our scientific understanding of this remarkable phenomenon. 1982 and 1997 saw the strongest El Nino events in modern records, uniquely characterised by eastward propagating sea surface temperature anomalies, a behaviour not seen during moderate events and La Nina. The impacts were severe, causing multi billion dollars in damages, thousands of human lives lost, and destruction of marine habitats. The 1997 El Nino was followed by an exceptionally strong 1998 La Nina event which was also catastrophic. Given their significant impacts, one of the most pressing issues our society needs to address is whether and how ENSO will respond to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The increasing breadth of climate models available under the efforts of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has made addressing this issue possible. In contrast to previous finding of no robust ENSO response, recent research utilising the large CMIP database has found intermodel consensus of significant increases in the frequency of both El Nino and La Nina events that are 'extreme like', analogous to the 82, 97, and 98 events. The weakened westward flowing mean equatorial Pacific currents are expected to give rise to more frequent eastward propagating El Nino under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The projected faster <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean than the surrounding regions would make it easier for atmospheric convection to shift eastward to generate rainfall response similar to that during an extreme El Nino. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=density+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=density+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Europa's subsurface water ocean may be <span class="hlt">warm</span>: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C.</p> <p>2007-05-17</p> <p>Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at <span class="hlt">warm</span> working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Data Shows <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest <span class="hlt">warming</span> is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/134960','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/134960"><span id="translatedtitle">Options for <span class="hlt">warm</span> end refrigeration on liquefiers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oakey, J.D.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>The protocols effecting the production of CFC`s has resulted in a switch to the use of gas turbine expansion cycles for <span class="hlt">warm</span> end refrigeration. The superior exergetic performance of the Evans-Perkins process and its derivatives, is such they should be used where the cost of power is significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extreme storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D"><span id="translatedtitle">National contributions to observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ <span class="hlt">warming</span> contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1175A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; García, C.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at <span class="hlt">warm</span> working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25°C-250°C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrera, Ramon</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380"><span id="translatedtitle">Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought on wood formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. PMID:26662380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.2806Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.2806Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Importance of the upper-level <span class="hlt">warm</span> core in the rapid intensification of a tropical cyclone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Da-Lin; Chen, Hua</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the rapid intensification (RI) of tropical cyclone is examined using a 72-h cloud-permitting prediction of Hurricane Wilma (2005) with a record-breaking intensity of 882 hPa. Results show the formation of an upper-level <span class="hlt">warm</span> core from the descending air of stratospheric origin in the eye, which coincides with the onset of RI; it reaches the peak amplitude of more than 18°C from its initial conditions at the time of peak intensity. The descending air is associated with the detrainment of convective bursts in the eyewall, and it appears as (perturbation) cyclonic radial inflows above the upper outflow layer and causes the subsidence <span class="hlt">warming</span> below. We hypothesize that the upper divergent outflow layer favors the generation of a <span class="hlt">warm</span> core by protecting it from ventilation by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows. Use of the hydrostatic equation shows that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core of stratospheric origin contributes more than twice as much as the lower-level <span class="hlt">warm</span> column to the pressure change at the peak intensity of Wilma. Results suggest that more attention be paid to the magnitude of storm-relative flows and vertical wind shear in the upper troposphere, rather than just vertical shear in the typical 850-200 hPa layer, in order to reasonably predict the RI of tropical cyclones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPJCE..10...18D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPJCE..10...18D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A13B0237X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A13B0237X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation Characteristics in <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Convective Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xue, H.; Ma, Y.; Feingold, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The relationship between radar reflectivity factor Z at 9.6 GHz (3 cm) and rain rate R for <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds is studied. The objectives are to obtain a reasonable Z-R relationship for use in weather radar observation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective precipitation, and to analyze factors that affect the Z-R relationship. Rain rate R is calculated from the drop size distributions in a large eddy simulation (LES); the drop size distributions from LES are also used as inputs into Quickbeam, a software package for simulating atmospheric radiative characteristics, to get radar reflectivity factor Z. It is found that a uniform Z-R relationship is not valid for the cumulus cloud population that develops for several hours. The Z-R relationship depends on the stage of cloud development and the height relative to cloud base. As expected, a range of R values can all lead to the same Z. This is due to the complicated drop size distributions and may cause large uncertainty in precipitation measurement in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds using radar data. This study also investigates the Z-R relationship at 94 GHz (3 mm) to evaluate the possibility of measuring precipitation in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds using current millimeter wave cloud radars. Results show that a well-defined Z-R relationship at 94 GHz generally exists when the local rain rate is smaller than 1 mm hour-1. This indicates that a millimeter wave cloud radar can be used to measure light precipitation in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds. When precipitation is stronger, the attenuation of the signal due to precipitation particles is significant and the estimation of R from the reflectivity factor Z has bigger uncertainty. The domain-averaged rain rate R can be parameterized as a function of domain-averaged liquid water path and cloud drop concentration for the LES clouds. The result for <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds in this study is consistent with previous findings for stratiform clouds. This may help to better parameterize the <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1853451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1853451"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood <span class="hlt">warming</span>: current applications and techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iserson, K V; Huestis, D W</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Active blood <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a recent practice and arises out of conflicting needs. On the one hand, the safety and preservation of blood require refrigerated storage and delivery up to the moment of transfusion. On the other hand, modern methods of very rapid transfusion in resuscitation would cause clinically dangerous hypothermia if unmodified, ice-cold blood were to be so transfused. These needs must be reconciled in the interest of adequate patient care--hence the need for blood <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Nevertheless, blood <span class="hlt">warming</span> creates risks of its own and should not be used without justifying clinical indications. Within limits that extend somewhat above normal body temperature, the application of heat does no harm to stored RBC, a fact that is not reflected in current standards for blood warmers. Bearing in mind the human tendency to "stretch" standards and the fallibility of mechanical devices, caution is always wise. But perhaps the time has come for reconsideration of the present upper limit of 38 degrees C. Many varieties of blood warmers are available in the US, but none at this time is based on electromagnetic activity. The most common systems now in use are in-line warmers, most of which are not adequate for the type of rapid-transfusion systems currently available. Countercurrent in-line blood warmers and the method of rapid <span class="hlt">warm</span> saline admixture can both be used successfully for rapid, massive transfusions. Blood <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seldom necessary or desirable for elective transfusions at conventional rates, even for patients with cold autoagglutinins. PMID:1853451</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35733"><span id="translatedtitle">Rational readings on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lehr, J.H.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>This book offers a wide range of insights on the state of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> science today, including many alternative interpretations. Chapters include the following subjects: agricultural chemicals, asbestos, biotechnology; DDT; dioxin; electromagnetic radiation; ground water contamination; nuclear energy; ionizing radiation; global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, population growth, and natural resources for food production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimentel, D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its <span class="hlt">environmental</span> needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral buffering of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a cold-adapted lizard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if <span class="hlt">warming</span> continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly. PMID:27386098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecophysiological responses of three Mediterranean invasive seaweeds (Acrothamnion preissii, Lophocladia lallemandii and Caulerpa cylindracea) to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samperio-Ramos, Guillermo; Olsen, Ylva S; Tomas, Fiona; Marbà, Núria</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot for invasive species and projected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> might affect their future spreading. We experimentally examined ecophysiological responses to the temperature range 23-31 °C in three invasive seaweeds commonly found in the Mediterranean: Acrothamnion preissii, Caulerpa cylindracea and Lophocladia lallemandii. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> range tested encompassed current and projected (for the end of 21st Century) maximum temperatures for the Mediterranean Sea. Optimal ecophysiological temperatures for A. preissii, C. cylindracea and L. lallemandii were 25 °C, 27 °C and 29 °C, respectively. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> below the optimal temperatures enhanced RGR of all studied invasive seaweeds. Although sensitive, seaweed photosynthetic yield was less temperature-dependent than growth. Our results demonstrate that temperature is a key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameter in regulating the ecophysiological performance of these invasive seaweeds and that Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions may affect their invasion trajectory. PMID:25986653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Dynamics and Transport during the September 2002 Antarctic Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Lahoz, Willian A.; Scaife, Adam A.; Randall, Cora E.; Pawson, Steven; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, except that during this <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major <span class="hlt">warmings</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDiscrimination','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDiscrimination"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrimination of a major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span> may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major <span class="hlt">warming</span> with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125852.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125852.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study Areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wert, Jonathan M.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> study areas. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/"><span id="translatedtitle">OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1786.photos.042320p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1786.photos.042320p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CANYON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CANYON TO SANTA ANA RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organizational decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Television is an important source of information for political issues in the eyes of many people. This also holds true for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Television news is also deemed more credible than print news because {open_quotes}seeing is believing{close_quotes}. This research is also buttressed by evidence that one of the primary conversation topics among individuals is television content. So how well does television cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>? Unfortunately, previous research indicates that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. This paper examines the potential impact of this coverage on organizational decisions. Organizations include businesses, government agencies, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> action groups, media organizations, and other parties interested with the environment. The paper proposes framing theory and involvement theory as springboards for organizational decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PrOce.145....1B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PrOce.145....1B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Pteropods on the edge: Cumulative effects of ocean acidification, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bednaršek, Nina; Harvey, Chris J.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Feely, Richard A.; Možina, Jasna</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We review the state of knowledge of the individual and community responses of euthecosome (shelled) pteropods in the context of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. In particular, we focus on their responses to ocean acidification, in combination with ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ocean deoxygenation, as inferred from a growing body of empirical literature, and their relatively nascent place in ecosystem-scale models. Our objectives are: (1) to summarize the threats that these stressors pose to pteropod populations; (2) to demonstrate that pteropods are strong candidate indicators for cumulative effects of OA, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation in marine ecosystems; and (3) to provide insight on incorporating pteropods into population and ecosystem models, which will help inform ecosystem-based management of marine resources under future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001865"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Debris Disk Candidates from WISE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This <span class="hlt">warm</span> excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539185"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Mars: how <span class="hlt">warm</span> and how wet?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Squyres, S W; Kasting, J F</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Early in its history, Mars underwent fluvial erosion that has been interpreted as evidence for a warmer, wetter climate. However, no atmosphere composed of only CO2 and H2O appears capable of producing mean planetary temperatures even close to 0 degrees C. Rather than by precipitation, aquifer recharge and ground water seepage may have been enabled by hydrothermal convection driven by geothermal heat and heat associated with impacts. Some climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> was probably necessary to allow water to flow for long distances across the surface. Modest <span class="hlt">warming</span> could be provided by even a low-pressure CO2 atmosphere if it was supplemented with small amounts of CH4, NH3, or SO2. Episodic excursions to high obliquities may also have raised temperatures over some portions of the planet's surface. PMID:11539185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019787&hterms=gases+effect+greenhouse+H2O&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgases%2Beffect%2Bgreenhouse%2BH2O','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019787&hterms=gases+effect+greenhouse+H2O&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgases%2Beffect%2Bgreenhouse%2BH2O"><span id="translatedtitle">Was early Mars <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by ammonia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kasting, J. F.; Brown, L. L.; Acord, J. M.; Pollack, J. B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Runoff channels and valley networks present on ancient, heavily cratered Martian terrain suggests that the climate of Mars was originally <span class="hlt">warm</span> and wet. One explanation for the formation of these channels is that the surface was <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere. However, recent work shows that this theory is not consistent for the early period of the solar system. One way to increase the surface temperature predicted is to assume that other greenhouse gases were present in Mars' atmosphere in addition to CO2 and H2O. This possible gas is ammonia, NH3. If ammonia was present in sufficient quantities, it could have raised the surface temperature to 273 K. An adequate source would have been volcanic outgassing if the NH3 produced was shielded from photolysis by an ultraviolet light absorber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.125..187Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.125..187Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of drought risk under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289779"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1289779-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1289779-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability frommore » the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463"><span id="translatedtitle">Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin</p> <p>2010-12-08</p> <p>Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70173588/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70173588/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaporation study at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Reservoir, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harris, D.D.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>The mass transfer-water budget method of computing reservoir evaporation was tested on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Reservoir, whose contents and surface area change greatly from early spring to late summer. The mass-transfer coefficient computed for the reservoir is two to three times greater than expected and results in a computed evaporation much greater than that from a land pan. Because of the remoteness of the area, the recommended study technique was modified, which could have reduced the accuracy of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JAtS...43....3R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JAtS...43....3R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold Climates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rind, D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The atmospheric dynamics of five different climate simulations with the GISS GCM are compared to investigate the changes that occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> or cools. There are two ice age simulations, the current and doubled CO2 climates, and a simulation of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Cretaceous. These climates have a range of global average surface air temperature of 13°C. The results are compared with those of other models, as well as to paleoclimate and recent observations.The study shows that many zonally averaged processes do not change systematically as climate changes. In particular, the January Hadley cell, jet stream, mean precipitation patterns and total atmospheric transport show surprisingly little variation among the different climate simulations. While eddy energy increases as climate cools, the effective eddy forcing of the mean zonal wind and temperature fields is not significantly greater. All these features result from balances between competing factors, and while individual processes differ in the cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates, there is much compensation.Additional results show that the relative humidity remains fairly constant as climate changes. The ratio of stationary to transient eddy kinetic energy also remains relatively constant. Eddy energy transports increase in colder climates, primarily due to changes in the stationary eddy transports. Cloud cover decreases as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> due to decreases in low-level clouds. The lapse rate in all the simulations follows the moist adiabatic ,value at low latitudes, and is close to the critical baroclinic adjustment value at upper midlatitudes. The latitudinal temperature gradients at midlatitudes of both the sea surface temperature and the vertically integrated air temperature are very similar in the diverse climates. It is speculated that this is due to the properties of the water molecule, and is the cause for much of the observed compensation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the global upper ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K</p> <p>2010-05-20</p> <p>A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2). PMID:20485432</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10527141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10527141"><span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases the threshold for shivering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iaizzo, P A; Jeon, Y M; Sigg, D C</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>A decrease of 1-2 degrees C core temperature provides protection against cerebral ischemia. However, shivering usually prevents reduction in core temperature in unanesthetized patients. Therefore, it was tested whether facial and airway heating increases the shivering threshold and enables core cooling in unanesthetized patients. Nine trials were performed on seven healthy male volunteers. Each subject was positioned supine on a circulating-water mattress (8-15 degrees C) with a convective-air coverlet (15-18 degrees C) extending from the neck to the feet. A dynamic study protocol governed by individualized physiological responses was used. Focal facial (and airway) <span class="hlt">warming</span> was employed to suppress involuntary motor activity (muscle tensing, shivering) and, thereby, enabling noninvasive cooling to lower the core temperature. The following parameters were monitored: 1) heart rate, 2) blood pressure, 3) core temperature (tympanic, axilla, and rectal), 4) cutaneous temperatures, and 5) a subjective shiver index (scale 1-10). In three, electromyograms and infrared thermographs were also obtained. Upon cooling without facial and airway <span class="hlt">warming</span>, involuntary motor activity increased until it was widespread. This vigorous motor activity prevented any significant lowering of core temperature or caused it to slightly increase. Subsequently, in all subjects, within seconds after the application of facial focal <span class="hlt">warming</span>, motor activity was suppressed almost completely, and within minutes core temperatures significantly decreased. Preliminary studies described here indicate that focal facial <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during active whole body cooling to initiate mild hypothermia might minimize the need to pharmacologically suppress involuntary motor activity. Such a procedure might be useful for initiating as soon as possible (such as during emergency transport), cerebral mild hypothermia in order to maximize protection and thus improve outcome in neurologically injured patients (head</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013915"><span id="translatedtitle">Soft radiative strength in <span class="hlt">warm</span> nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S</p> <p>2004-03-08</p> <p>Unresolved transitions in the nuclear {gamma}-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E{sub {gamma}} < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between <span class="hlt">warm</span> states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Positive+AND+effects+AND+Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ319254','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Positive+AND+effects+AND+Warm+AND+Up&id=EJ319254"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Arousal on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up Decrement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anshel, Mark H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement are explored.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515505"><span id="translatedtitle">Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm(3) from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi' = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi' increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime. PMID:26515505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vibrio Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810568W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810568W"><span id="translatedtitle">Urbanization enhances surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dagang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study aims at observing urban effects on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in eastern China, where many cities have undergone a rapid development of urbanization in the last few decades. Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface air temperature records from 1971-2010 in 277 meteorological stations are used to investigate the effects of urbanization on temperature change. Due to the expansion of cities, the temperature records in some of the stations which were not close to cities in the past are gradually influenced by urbanization. In order to detect the effects of urbanization on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> effectively, the stations are classified into 'urban' and 'rural' types dynamically based on the land use data in four periods, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 in this study. By comparing the temperature trend differences between all of the urban and rural stations in eastern China, the results show that annual averaged daily minimum temperature are suffered the strongest effects from urbanization with an increased rate of 0.870°C decade-1 in urban stations, and the contribution of urban effects to its total surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is estimated to be 52.8% during 1971-2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..190S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..190S"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will not decrease winter mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters <span class="hlt">warm</span>. Recent UK government reports state that winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters <span class="hlt">warm</span> with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span> black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists' views about attribution of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. PMID:25051508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and their contribution to sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lam, J.K.W.; Dowdeswell, J.A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The model is a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014891','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014891"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Aerodynamic Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An overview of historical and current <span class="hlt">numerical</span> aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Boundary Condition Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Topics include <span class="hlt">numerical</span> procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383"><span id="translatedtitle">A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, <span class="hlt">warming</span> shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on survival, phenology and morphology of an aquatic insect (Odonata)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCauley, Shannon J.; Hammond, John I.; Frances, Dachin N.; Mabry, Karen E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>1. Organisms can respond to changing climatic conditions in multiple ways including changes in phenology, body size or morphology, and range shifts. Understanding how developmental temperatures affect insect life-history timing and morphology is crucial because body size and morphology affect multiple aspects of life history, including dispersal ability, while phenology can shape population performance and community interactions. 2. We experimentally assessed how developmental temperatures experienced by aquatic larvae affected survival, phenology, and adult morphology of dragonflies (Pachydiplax longipennis). Larvae were reared under 3 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures: ambient, +2.5 °C, and +5 °C, corresponding to temperature projections for our study area 50 and 100 years in the future, respectively. Experimental temperature treatments tracked naturally-occurring variation. 3. We found clear effects of temperature in the rearing environment on survival and phenology: dragonflies reared at the highest temperatures had the lowest survival rates, and emerged from the larval stage approximately 3 weeks earlier than animals reared at ambient temperatures. There was no effect of rearing temperature on overall body size. Although neither the relative wing nor thorax size was affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, a non-significant trend towards an interaction between sex and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in relative thorax size suggests that males may be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">warming</span> than females, a pattern that should be investigated further. 4. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly affected survival in the larval stage and the phenology of adult emergence. Understanding how <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the developmental environment affects later life-history stages is critical to interpreting the consequences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organismal performance. PMID:26028806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRG..121..249W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRG..121..249W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased wintertime CO2 loss as a result of sustained tundra <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, Elizabeth E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.; Oken, Kiva L.; Bracho, Rosvel; Krapek, John P.; Risk, David; Nickerson, Nick R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Permafrost soils currently store approximately 1672 Pg of carbon (C), but as high latitudes <span class="hlt">warm</span>, this temperature-protected C reservoir will become vulnerable to higher rates of decomposition. In recent decades, air temperatures in the high latitudes have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> more than any other region globally, particularly during the winter. Over the coming century, the arctic winter is also expected to experience the most <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any region or season, yet it is notably understudied. Here we present nonsummer season (NSS) CO2 flux data from the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research project, an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment of moist acidic tussock tundra in interior Alaska. Our goals were to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables and winter CO2 production, account for subnivean photosynthesis and late fall plant C uptake in our estimate of NSS CO2 exchange, constrain NSS CO2 loss estimates using multiple methods of measuring winter CO2 flux, and quantify the effect of winter soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on total NSS CO2 balance. We measured CO2 flux using four methods: two chamber techniques (the snow pit method and one where a chamber is left under the snow for the entire season), eddy covariance, and soda lime adsorption, and found that NSS CO2 loss varied up to fourfold, depending on the method used. CO2 production was dependent on soil temperature and day of season but atmospheric pressure and air temperature were also important in explaining CO2 diffusion out of the soil. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> stimulated both ecosystem respiration and productivity during the NSS and increased overall CO2 loss during this period by 14% (this effect varied by year, ranging from 7 to 24%). When combined with the summertime CO2 fluxes from the same site, our results suggest that this subarctic tundra ecosystem is shifting away from its historical function as a C sink to a C source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R"><span id="translatedtitle">Can cirrus clouds <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez, R. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates a climate 3.8 Ga that was <span class="hlt">warm</span> enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the origin of these enigmatic features is hotly debated and discussion of their formation has been focused on how <span class="hlt">warm</span> such a climate may have been and for how long. Recent <span class="hlt">warm</span> and wet solutions using single-column radiative convective models involve supplementing CO2-H2O atmospheres with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 (i.e. Ramirez et al., 2014; Batalha et al., 2015). An interesting recent proposal, using the CAM 3-D General Circulation model, argues that global cirrus cloud decks in CO2-H2O atmospheres with at least 0.25 bar of CO2 , consisting of 10-micron (and larger) sized particles, could have generated the above-freezing temperatures required to explain the early martian surface geology (Urata and Toon, 2013). Here, we use our single-column radiative convective climate model to check these 3-D results and analyze the likelihood that such <span class="hlt">warm</span> atmospheres, with mean surface pressures of up to 3 bar, could have supported cirrus cloud decks at full and fractional cloud cover for sufficiently long durations to form the ancient valleys. Our results indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have provided the mean surface temperatures required, but only if cloud cover approaches 100%, in agreement with Urata and Toon (2013). However, even should cirrus cloud coverage approach 100%, we show that such atmospheres are likely to have been too short-lived to produce the volumes of water required to carve the ancient valleys. At more realistic early Mars cloud fractions (~50%, Forget et al., 2013), cirrus clouds do not provide the required <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Batalha, N., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Ramirez, R.M., & Kasting, J. F., 2015. Icarus, 258, 337-349. Forget, F., Wordsworth, R., Millour, E., Madeleine, J. B., Kerber, L., Leconte, J., ... & Haberle, R. M., 2013. Icarus, 222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Signals from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind changes above <span class="hlt">warm</span> Agulhas Current eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation greater than to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability-neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST for six identified eddies shows stronger wind speed above the <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies than the surrounding water in all wind directions, if averaged over the lifespan of the eddies, as was found in previous studies. However, only half of the cases showed higher wind speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies, there is no relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the SST perturbation, but we do find a linear relationship between the decrease in wind speed from the centre to the border of the eddy downstream and the SST perturbation. SST perturbations range from 1 to 6 °C for a mean eddy SST of 15.9 °C and mean SST perturbation of 2.65 °C. The diameter of the eddies range from 100 to 250 km. Mean background wind speed is about 12 m s-1 (mostly southwesterly to northwesterly) and ranging mainly from 4 to 16 m s-1. The mean wind increase is about 15 %, which corresponds to 1.8 m s-1. A wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies is not uncommon. Cases where the wind did not increase above the eddies or did not decrease downstream had higher wind speeds and occurred during a cold front associated with intense cyclonic low-pressure systems, suggesting certain synoptic conditions need to be met to allow for the development of wind speed anomalies over <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core ocean eddies. In many cases</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterations in mitochondrial electron transport system activity in response to <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sappal, Ravinder; MacDougald, Michelle; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Fish expend significant amounts of energy to handle the <span class="hlt">numerous</span> potentially stressful biotic and abiotic factors that they commonly encounter in aquatic environments. This universal requirement for energy singularizes mitochondria, the primary cellular energy transformers, as fundamental drivers of responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. Our study probed the interacting effects of thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HRO) and copper (Cu) exposure in rainbow trout to test the prediction that they act jointly to impair mitochondrial function. Rainbow trout were acclimated to 11 (controls) or 20°C for 2 months. Liver mitochondria were then isolated and their responses in vitro to Cu (0-20μM) without and with HRO were assessed. Sequential inhibition and activation of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) enzyme complexes permitted the measurement of respiratory activities supported by complex I-IV (CI-IV) in one run. The results showed that <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced fish and liver weights but increased mitochondrial protein indicating impairment of energy metabolism, increased synthesis of defense proteins and/or reduced liver water content. Whereas acute rise (11→20°C) in temperature increased mitochondrial oxidation rates supported by CI-IV, <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced the maximal (state 3) and increased the basal (state 4) respiration leading to global uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). HRO profoundly inhibited both maximal and basal respiration rates supported by CI-IV, reduced RCR for all except CII and lowered CI:CII respiration ratio, an indication of decreased OXPHOS efficiency. The effects of Cu were less pronounced but more variable and included inhibition of CII-IV maximal respiration rates and stimulation of both CI and CIII basal respiration rates. Surprisingly, only CII and CIII indices exhibited significant 3-way interactions whereas 2-way interactions of acclimation either with Cu or HRO were portrayed mostly by CIV, and those of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, Bart R.; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide <span class="hlt">numerous</span> services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on AMF colonization. Results: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization. PMID:27280074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kennedy, V.S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D.; McCann, Kevin S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Shuter, Brian J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.; Shen, S.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy. The long term impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506"><span id="translatedtitle">Hygroscopic chemicals and the formation of advection <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog: A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The formation of advection fog is closely associated with the characteristics of the aerosol particles, including the chemical composition, mass of the nuclei, particle size, and concentration. Both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Conservation%2BLaws%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Conservation%2BLaws%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vibrios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover <span class="hlt">environmental</span> DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with <span class="hlt">warming</span> sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using infrared heating to actively <span class="hlt">warm</span> plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential of agro-ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..554S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..554S"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Chevallier, Luc; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Corfu, Fernando; Jamtveit, Bjørn</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The climate change in the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) was characterized by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of ˜ 6 °C, anoxic conditions in the oceans, and extinction of marine species. The triggering mechanisms for the perturbation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are however strongly debated. Here, we present evidence for a rapid formation and transport of greenhouse gases from the deep sedimentary reservoirs in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Magmatic sills were emplaced during the initial stages of formation of the Early Jurassic Karoo Large Igneous Province, and had a profound influence on the fate of light elements in the organic-rich sedimentary host rocks. Total organic carbon contents and vitrinite reflectivity data from contact aureoles around the sills show that organic carbon was lost from the country rocks during heating. We present data from a new type of geological structures, termed breccia pipes, rooted in the aureoles within the shale of the Western Karoo Basin. The breccia pipes are cylindrical structures up to 150 meters in diameter and are mainly comprised of brecciated and baked black shale. Thousands of breccia pipes were formed due to gas pressure build-up during metamorphism of the shales, resulting in venting of greenhouse gases to the Toarcian atmosphere. Mass balance calculations constrained by new aureole data show that up to 1800 Gt of CO 2 was formed from organic material in the western Karoo Basin. About 15 times this amount of CO 2 (27,400 Gt) may have formed in the entire basin during the intrusive event. U-Pb dating of zircons from a sill related to many of the pipes demonstrates that the magma was emplaced 182.5 ± 0.4 million years ago. This supports a causal relationship between the intrusive volcanism, the gas venting, and the Toarcian global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 2007. An update to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keller, Charles F</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are <span class="hlt">warming</span> the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not seem to match surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> during medieval times (not as large as recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period was not as <span class="hlt">warm</span> as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past quarter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23452697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23452697"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preoperative forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on postoperative temperature and postanesthesia care unit length of stay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fettes, Sondra; Mulvaine, Mary; Van Doren, Elaine</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Unintended hypothermia in the surgical patient has been linked to <span class="hlt">numerous</span> postoperative complications, including increased risk for surgical site infection, increased oxygen demands, and altered medication metabolism. The lack of literature on the subject was part of the impetus for perioperative nurses in one hospital to conduct a quality improvement project to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative <span class="hlt">warming</span> on patients' postoperative temperatures. We randomly assigned 128 patients to either a group that received a forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> blanket preoperatively or a group that did not. Our results showed that prewarming patients before surgery did not have an effect on patients' postoperative temperatures. PMID:23452697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6538S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6538S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto; Pepke Pedersen, Jens Olaf</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our <span class="hlt">warming</span> world, but past <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 Ma ago, a possible future <span class="hlt">warming</span> analogue. We obtain constrained estimates of CO2 and climate sensitivity before and during the PETM and of the PETM carbon input amount and nature. Sensitivity increased from 3.3-5.6 to 3.7-6.5 K (Kelvin) into the PETM. When taken together with Last Glacial Maximum and modern estimates, this result indicates climate sensitivity increase with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The impacts of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are temporally dynamic and better revealed in long-term studies. Rising air temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2] are the most pervasive of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on land, yet multi-year, factorial studies of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 (eCO...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820648"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment. PMID:25737326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment. PMID:25737326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+research&pg=7&id=EJ993844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+research&pg=7&id=EJ993844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One aim of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behaviour; this is particularly significant with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To simulate expected future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to <span class="hlt">warm</span> open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovative strategies for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rouhani, S. |</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, <span class="hlt">warming</span> further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. PMID:25772030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313"><span id="translatedtitle">Relocation, high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts. PMID:25443313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768"><span id="translatedtitle">Biocrusts modulate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands. PMID:25914428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3...73B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3...73B"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging Vibrio risk at high latitudes in response to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Taylor, Nick G. H.; Hartnell, Rachel; Siitonen, Anja; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing concern regarding the role of climate change in driving bacterial waterborne infectious diseases. Here we illustrate associations between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes observed in the Baltic area and the recent emergence of Vibrio infections and also forecast future scenarios of the risk of infections in correspondence with predicted <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends. Using multidecadal long-term sea surface temperature data sets we found that the Baltic Sea is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at an unprecedented rate. Sea surface temperature trends (1982-2010) indicate a <span class="hlt">warming</span> pattern of 0.063-0.078°Cyr-1 (6.3-7.8°C per century; refs , ), with recent peak temperatures unequalled in the history of instrumented measurements for this region. These <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns have coincided with the unexpected emergence of Vibrio infections in northern Europe, many clustered around the Baltic Sea area. The number and distribution of cases correspond closely with the temporal and spatial peaks in sea surface temperatures. This is among the first empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change is driving the emergence of Vibrio disease in temperate regions through its impact on resident bacterial communities, implying that this process is reshaping the distribution of infectious diseases across global scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J"><span id="translatedtitle">The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate in interior Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Charles E., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a social-ecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.U41F..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.U41F..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somerville, R. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864"><span id="translatedtitle">Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20–150 GPa and 1.9–5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2–23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime. PMID:26515505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGP32B..07D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGP32B..07D"><span id="translatedtitle">Partial Transition <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Remanence ("Inverse TRM")</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunlop, D. J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>"Inverse TRM" (ITRM) produced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> magnetite through the Verwey transition was discovered by Nagata et al. (1963), who speculated that the NRM of magnetite-bearing meteorites could be in part ITRM acquired by <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Earth's magnetic field after impact rather than a record of extraterrestrial fields. New results are reported here for ITRM and partial ITRM (acquired over narrow intervals of temperature during <span class="hlt">warming</span>), including tests of partial ITRM additivity and reciprocity intended to lay the groundwork for an ITRM Thellier-analog cooling method of paleointensity determination. Memory ratios for ITRM low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) ranged from 0.254 to 0.092 for 0.6-135 um magnetites. ITRM was less resistant to LTD than TRM, leaving an ITRM memory similar to remanence after 15 mT AF cleaning. However, ITRM memory was much more stable against thermal demagnetization than the original ITRM and would contaminate NRM up to the highest steps of paleointensity determination. Next the thermal demagnetization of total ITRM and of a partial ITRM produced by switching off the field partway through <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 77 K to 300 K were compared for nine magnetite size fractions. For the 1-14 um magnetites, 75-85% of the ITRM decayed quasi-linearly from 25 to 550oC, then dropped to zero by 570oC. The 20, 110 and 135 um magnetites demagnetized in two stages: a 50% loss from 20-250oC, a leveling out until 500oC, and a final plunge to zero above 550oC. Partial ITRMs of 0.6-20 um magnetites were more resistant to thermal demagnetization than total ITRMs. The decay was still quasi-linear or two-stage, but twice as much remanence survived at 550oC. The most stable part of ITRM seems to be acquired in the earliest stages of the Verwey transition, well below 120 K. The final experiments studied sets of neighbouring partial ITRMs, using 12 narrow T intervals from 20 to 300 K. The reciprocity law was obeyed for all samples: pITRM(T1, T2) was completely erased by zero</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AmJPh..62..490F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AmJPh..62..490F"><span id="translatedtitle">Resource Letter: GW-1: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Firor, John W.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790010890&hterms=warm+up&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwarm%2Bup','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790010890&hterms=warm+up&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwarm%2Bup"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic filament <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up controller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccluskey, J.; Daeges, J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>As part of the unattended operations objective of the Deep Space Network deep space stations, this filament controller serves as a step between manual operation of the station and complete computer control. Formerly, the operator was required to devote five to fifteen minutes of his time just to properly <span class="hlt">warm</span> up the filaments on the klystrons of the high power transmitters. The filament controller reduces the operator's duty to a one-step command and is future-compatible with various forms of computer control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662"><span id="translatedtitle">Does coral bleaching mean global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, J.A.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>This article discusses the implications of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218295"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation in presence of magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia</p> <p>2013-07-23</p> <p>We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447"><span id="translatedtitle">The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741"><span id="translatedtitle">The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing differs between soil and roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036584"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that <span class="hlt">warming</span> promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and imply that heavy metals had the higher <span class="hlt">environmental</span> risk under the future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:26036584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera: Love Cold, Fear <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides understanding of possible linkages between long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes and evolution of assemblages and morphological species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, of which the phylogeny is still little known. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have long morphological species lives and do not commonly suffer massive extinctions: they live in the largest habitat on earth, species have large geographic ranges or are cosmopolitan, and they use motile propagules to rapidly re-populate regions where populations have been destroyed. Extinction occurs only when rapid and severe <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change affects such a large part of the deep ocean that no refugia exist, even for common species. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera reacted to global cooling (in the earliest Oligocene, middle Miocene and middle Pleistocene) not by extinction, but by a gradual turnover of species. The most extensive turnover occurred in the late Eocene through earliest Oligocene, when some presently important ecological niches were first filled. In contrast, deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered severe extinction (30-50% of species, including common, cosmopolitan, long-lived species) during the rapid global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a time of high CO2 levels and potential ocean acidification. The extinction was followed by slow recovery of faunas, but diversity never returned to pre-extinction levels. The PETM and later, less severe short-term periods of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (hyperthermals ETM1 and ETM2) were characterized by low diversity faunas dominated by small, thin-walled individuals. No significant net extinction occurred during the later hyperthermals. Such faunas might reflect dissolution, low oxygen conditions, or blooming of opportunistic species after <span class="hlt">environmental</span> disturbance. Most commonly cited causes of the PETM extinction are: 1. low oxygen concentrations, 2. acidification of the oceans, 3. increase or decrease in oceanic productivity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079"><span id="translatedtitle">(Discussions of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krahl-Urban, B.</p> <p>1989-11-02</p> <p>The traveler visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sciences Division to provide programmatic interpretations and technical overviews of research topics addressing international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Many of today's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems can no longer be considered as regional-scale impacts. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, acidification, ozone depletion, drought, deforestation, and air pollution effects are global-level processes that can only be effectively approached by international scientific cooperation. The traveler's recommendations for the final planning and coordination of international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues emphasized focusing on international cooperation with research institutions in West Germany and in other countries of the European Community. Several key global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues are addressed by the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA Juelich), West Germany. Scientific cooperation with KFA Juelich should be promising in theoretical ecology, systems analysis, and toxicology. Scientific exchange between ORNL and KFA Juelich in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sciences has been initiated by the traveler.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667641','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667641"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs. PMID:26541650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299978"><span id="translatedtitle">Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1304822-laboratory-measurements-resistivity-warm-dense-plasmas-relevant-microphysics-brown-dwarfs','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1304822-laboratory-measurements-resistivity-warm-dense-plasmas-relevant-microphysics-brown-dwarfs"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al</p> <p>2015-11-06</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ap%26SS.353..151A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ap%26SS.353..151A"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonplanar shocks in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> electronegative plasma with electron nonextensivity effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali Shan, S.; Ali, S.; Aman-ur-Rehman</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>By employing the reductive perturbation technique, nonlinear cylindrical and spherical Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation is derived for ion acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized electronegative plasma. The latter is composed of <span class="hlt">warm</span> positive and <span class="hlt">warm</span> negative ions as well as q-distributed nonextensive electrons. <span class="hlt">Numerically</span>, the modified KdVB equation is solved to examine the impact of nonthermal electrons on the profiles of nonplanar fast ion acoustic shocks. With the help of experimental parameters, it is found that the variations of different quantities, like q (nonextensive parameter), α (the negative-to-positive ion mass ratio), μ (the electron-to-positive ion density ratio) and θ i (the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio), η i0, n0 (the positive/negative ion viscosities) significantly modify the propagation characteristics of nonplanar shocks in electronegative plasmas. The relevance to a laboratory experiment is highlighted, where positive and negative ions are present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304822','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304822"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.</p> <p>2015-11-06</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8742B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8742B"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470971','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470971"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon contribution to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">warming</span>, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1818079G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1818079G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil crusts to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the planet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; da Rocha Ulisses, Nunes; Lim Hsiao, Chiem; Northen, Trent; Brodie, Eoin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can also be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. We used concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized <span class="hlt">warming</span> had apparent and immediate consequences for the crust soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. These results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales. Based on estimates of the global biomass of cyanobacteria in soil biocrusts, one can easily calculate that there must currently exist about 15 million metric tons of scytonemin at work, <span class="hlt">warming</span> soil surfaces worldwide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RSPTA.361.1961W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RSPTA.361.1961W"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and thermohaline circulation stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Richard A.; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558904"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and thermohaline circulation stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert</p> <p>2003-09-15</p> <p>The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future. PMID:14558904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885370','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885370"><span id="translatedtitle">Soft radiative strength in <span class="hlt">warm</span> nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Becker, J; Belgya, T; Bernstein, L; Chankova, R; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Sunde, A C</p> <p>2005-09-29</p> <p>We present data on the soft (E{sub {gamma}} < 3-4 MeV) radiative strength function (RSF) for electromagnetic transitions between <span class="hlt">warm</span> states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) from two different types of experiments. The Oslo method provides data on the total level density and the sum (over all multipolarities) of all RSFs by sequential extraction from primary-{gamma} spectra. Measurements of two-step-decay spectra following neutron capture yields two-step-cascade (TSC) intensities which are roughly proportional to the product of two RSFs. Investigations on {sup 172}Yb and {sup 57}Fe have produced unexpected results. In the first case, a strong (B(M1 {up_arrow}) = 6.5 {mu}{sub N}{sup 2}) resonance at E = 3.3 MeV was identified. In the second case, a large (more than a factor of 10) enhancement compared to theoretical estimates of the very soft (E{sub {gamma}} {le} 3 MeV), summed RSF for transitions between <span class="hlt">warm</span> states was observed. A somewhat weaker (factor {approx} 3) enhancement of the RSF in Mo isotopes observed within the Oslo method still awaits confirmation from TSC experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015066','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015066"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicompartment Liquid-Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Protective Garments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Shortened, multicompartment liquid-cooling / <span class="hlt">warming</span> garments (LCWGs) for protecting astronauts, firefighters, and others at risk of exposure to extremes of temperature are undergoing development. Unlike prior liquid-circulation thermal-protection suits that provide either cooling or <span class="hlt">warming</span> but not both, an LCWG as envisioned would provide cooling at some body locations and/or heating at other locations, as needed: For example, sometimes there is a need to cool the body core and to heat the extremities simultaneously. An LCWG garment of the type to be developed is said to be shortened because the liquid-cooling and - heating zones would not cover the whole body and, instead, would cover reduced areas selected for maximum heating and cooling effectiveness. Physiological research is under way to provide a rational basis for selection of the liquid-cooling and -heating areas. In addition to enabling better (relative to prior liquid-circulation garments) balancing of heat among different body regions, the use of selective heating and cooling in zones would contribute to a reduction in the amount of energy needed to operate a thermal-protection suit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.7604C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.7604C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warms</span> from below</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carmack, Eddy C.; Williams, William J.; Zimmermann, Sarah L.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The old (˜450-year isolation age) and near-homogenous deep waters of the Canada Basin (CBDW), that are found below ˜2700 m, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at a rate of ˜0.0004°C yr-1 between 1993 and 2010. This rate is slightly less than expected from the reported geothermal heat flux (Fg ˜ 50 mW m-2). A deep temperature minimum Tmin layer overlies CBDW within the basin and is also <span class="hlt">warming</span> at approximately the same rate, suggesting that some geothermal heat escapes vertically through a multi-stepped, ˜300-m-thick deep transitional layer. Double diffusive convection and thermobaric instabilities are identified as possible mechanisms governing this vertical heat transfer. The CBDW found above the lower continental slope of the deep basin maintains higher temperatures than those in the basin interior, consistent with geothermal heat being distributed through a shallower water column, and suggests that heat from the basin interior does not diffuse laterally and escape at the edges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023746','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023746"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential. Some of the implications for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184272"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanna, Elizabeth G; Tait, Peter W</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> progresses. PMID:26184272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515708','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515708"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Tait, Peter W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> progresses. PMID:26184272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694712','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694712"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Elevated CO2 Interact to Drive Rapid Shifts in Marine Community Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Bracken, Matthew E. S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Predicting the outcome of future climate change requires an understanding of how alterations in multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors manifest in natural communities and affect ecosystem functioning. We conducted an in situ, fully factorial field manipulation of CO2 and temperature on a rocky shoreline in southeastern Alaska, USA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly impacted functioning of tide pool systems within one month, with the rate of net community production (NCP) more than doubling in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> pools under ambient CO2 levels relative to initial NCP values. However, in pools with added CO2, NCP was unaffected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Productivity responses paralleled changes in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of a red alga, the most abundant primary producer species in the system, highlighting the direct link between physiology and ecosystem functioning. These observed changes in algal physiology and community productivity in response to our manipulations indicate the potential for natural systems to shift rapidly in response to changing climatic conditions and for multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors to act antagonistically. PMID:26714167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714167"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Elevated CO2 Interact to Drive Rapid Shifts in Marine Community Production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorte, Cascade J B; Bracken, Matthew E S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Predicting the outcome of future climate change requires an understanding of how alterations in multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors manifest in natural communities and affect ecosystem functioning. We conducted an in situ, fully factorial field manipulation of CO2 and temperature on a rocky shoreline in southeastern Alaska, USA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly impacted functioning of tide pool systems within one month, with the rate of net community production (NCP) more than doubling in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> pools under ambient CO2 levels relative to initial NCP values. However, in pools with added CO2, NCP was unaffected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Productivity responses paralleled changes in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of a red alga, the most abundant primary producer species in the system, highlighting the direct link between physiology and ecosystem functioning. These observed changes in algal physiology and community productivity in response to our manipulations indicate the potential for natural systems to shift rapidly in response to changing climatic conditions and for multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors to act antagonistically. PMID:26714167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARV21008G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARV21008G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter Experiments at LCLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galtier, Eric; Levy, Anna; Williams, Gareth; Fletcher, Luke; Dorchies, Fabien; Gaudin, Jérôme; Sperling, Philipp</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter (WDM) is found in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> astrophysical systems, from giant planets to brown dwarves or cool dense stars. Being this intermediate regime where condensed matter or plasma theories do not apply, it can be produced in all laser-induced plasma experiments on Earth. As a consequence, understanding its properties is fundamental and the whole community is investigating this extreme state of matter. With the advent of the 4th generation of light sources, namely the Free Electron Lasers (FELs), a new way of producing and diagnosing WDM becomes available. In 2009, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC was the first FEL to produce X-ray photons to be used by the user community. Since then, various experiments took place at LCLS to produce and measure specific physical properties of WDM. In this talk, we will present an overview of key experiments performed at LCLS to study WDM. The LCLS has been used in a variety of configuration: as the main heating mechanism, as a probe or both at the same time. When used as a probe, high power lasers have been used to shock matter and excite it into the WDM regime. Finally, we will describe exciting perspectives on the WDM research, as the LCLS-II will become available in about 5 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ASPC...73...41B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ASPC...73...41B"><span id="translatedtitle">FIR line profiles as probes of <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the <span class="hlt">numerous</span> cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22369915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22369915"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After <span class="hlt">numerically</span> studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8693347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8693347"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> integrity, racism, health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westra, L</p> <p>1996-05-17</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health. PMID:8693347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6860851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6860851"><span id="translatedtitle">Keeping <span class="hlt">warm</span>: Findings from the Kansas City <span class="hlt">warm</span> room retrofit project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, B.S.; Diamond, R.C.</p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">warm</span> room retrofit is a response to a common problem: how to stay <span class="hlt">warm</span> in a large, poorly insulated house during the coldest parts of winter. The problem is especially acute for low-income and elderly homeowners who may not have sufficient resources to improve the thermal integrity of their entire house. Although still an experimental technique, the <span class="hlt">warm</span> room retrofit has the potential for achieving significant energy savings in houses at costs similar to those currently allocated by low-income weatherization programs. The retrofit is a combination of zoning, heating systems modification and insulation which allows the occupant to heat selected areas of her home while maintaining the unused areas at a cooler temperature. This study presents the results from a retrofit project in Kansas City, sponsored by the Urban Consortium in 1985 to 1986. Nine houses were selected for the study, four controls and five houses that received the <span class="hlt">warm</span> room retrofit. The houses are all single-family detached structures, occupied by low-income owners (with the owners' ages between 60 and 80 years), and heated with gas-fired, forced-air or gravity-fed furnaces. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> zone was designed to include the kitchen, bathroom, and one to two additional rooms, depending on family size. The costs of the retrofit averaged $1425 per house. Our analysis included regressions of total gas use versus outdoor temperatures to measure savings, which averaged 26%. Because of potential health and safety problems, we also measured indoor air quality before and after the retrofit, sampling levels of indoor radon, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde. An important part of the study was to determine occupant response and the acceptability of the retrofit. The residents participated in the design of the retrofits, and were interviewed after the retrofits were installed to determine improvements in comfort and their satisfaction with the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+control+AND+machine&pg=3&id=EJ156701','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+control+AND+machine&pg=3&id=EJ156701"><span id="translatedtitle">What Is <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Control?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goold, Vernell C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> control (a technique involving coded, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24720346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24720346"><span id="translatedtitle">Peri-operative <span class="hlt">warming</span> devices: performance and clinical application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>John, M; Ford, J; Harper, M</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Since the adverse consequences of accidental peri-operative hypothermia have been recognised, there has been a rapid expansion in the development of new <span class="hlt">warming</span> equipment designed to prevent it. This is a review of peri-operative <span class="hlt">warming</span> devices and a critique of the evidence assessing their performance. Forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a common and extensively tested <span class="hlt">warming</span> modality that outperforms passive insulation and water mattresses, and is at least as effective as resistive heating. More recently developed devices include circulating water garments, which have shown promising results due to their ability to cover large surface areas, and negative pressure devices aimed at improving subcutaneous perfusion for <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We also discuss the challenge of fluid <span class="hlt">warming</span>, looking particularly at how devices' performance varies according to flow rate. Our ultimate aim is to provide a guide through the bewildering array of devices on the market so that clinicians can make informed and accurate choices for their particular hospital environment. PMID:24720346</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....8..593H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....8..593H"><span id="translatedtitle">Eutrophication and <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on long-term variation of zooplankton in Lake Biwa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, C. H.; Sakai, Y.; Ban, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ichise, S.; Yamamura, N.; Kumagai, M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We compiled and analyzed long-term (1961-2005) zooplankton community data in response to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations in Lake Biwa. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> data indicate that Lake Biwa had experienced eutrophication (according to total phosphorus concentration) in the late 1960s and recovered to a normal trophic status around 1985, and then exhibited <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1990. Total zooplankton abundance showed a significant correlation with total phytoplankton biomass. Following a classic pattern, cladoceran/calanoid and cyclopoid/calanoid abundance ratio was related positively to eutrophication. Zooplankton community exhibited a significant response to the boom and bust of phytoplankton biomass as a consequence of eutrophication-reoligotriphication and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Moreover, our analyses suggest that the Lake Biwa ecosystem exhibited a hierarchical response across trophic levels; that is, higher trophic levels may show a more delayed response or no response to eutrophication than lower ones. We tested the hypothesis that phytoplankton community can better explain the variation of zooplankton community than bulk <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables, considering that phytoplankton community may directly affects zooplankton succession through predator-prey interactions. Using a variance partition approach, however, we did not find strong evidence to support this hypothesis. We further aggregate zooplankton according to their feeding types (herbivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous, and parasitic) and taxonomic groups, and analyzed the aggregated data. While the pattern remains similar, the results are less clear comparing with the results based on finely resolved data. Our research explored the efficacy of using zooplankton as bio-indicators to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes at various data resolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019114','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019114"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, urban <span class="hlt">warming</span> and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems, such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, urban <span class="hlt">warming</span> and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16906647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16906647"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic hydrology during global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pagani, Mark; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R</p> <p>2006-08-10</p> <p>The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 55 million years ago, superimposed on an already <span class="hlt">warm</span> world. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> is associated with a severe shoaling of the ocean calcite compensation depth and a >2.5 per mil negative carbon isotope excursion in marine and soil carbonates. Together these observations indicate a massive release of 13C-depleted carbon and greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Recently, sediments were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean, providing the first opportunity to evaluate the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> response at the North Pole at this time. Here we present stable hydrogen and carbon isotope measurements of terrestrial-plant- and aquatic-derived n-alkanes that record changes in hydrology, including surface water salinity and precipitation, and the global carbon cycle. Hydrogen isotope records are interpreted as documenting decreased rainout during moisture transport from lower latitudes and increased moisture delivery to the Arctic at the onset of the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, consistent with predictions of poleward storm track migrations during global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about -4.5 to -6 per mil) is substantially larger than those of marine carbonates. Previously, this offset was explained by the physiological response of plants to increases in surface humidity. But this mechanism is not an effective explanation in this wet Arctic setting, leading us to hypothesize that the true magnitude of the excursion--and associated carbon input--was greater than originally surmised. Greater carbon release and strong hydrological cycle feedbacks may help explain the maintenance of this unprecedented warmth. PMID:16906647</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025166','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025166"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the upper ocean on decadal period scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global <span class="hlt">warming</span>/cooling of ???0.1??C, similar to that occuring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabetic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS <span class="hlt">warming</span> tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the El Nin??o. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ???0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.442..671P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.442..671P"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic hydrology during global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pagani, Mark; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Expedition 302 Scientists; Backman, Jan; Clemens, Steve; Cronin, Thomas; Eynaud, Frédérique; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Jakobsson, Martin; Jordan, Ric; Kaminski, Michael; King, John; Koc, Nalân; Martinez, Nahysa C.; McInroy, David; Moore, Theodore C., Jr.; O'Regan, Matthew; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Pälike, Heiko; Rea, Brice; Rio, Domenico; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Smith, David C.; St John, Kristen E. K.; Suto, Itsuki; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Watanabe, Mahito; Yamamoto, Masanobu</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ~55million years ago, superimposed on an already <span class="hlt">warm</span> world. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> is associated with a severe shoaling of the ocean calcite compensation depth and a >2.5 per mil negative carbon isotope excursion in marine and soil carbonates. Together these observations indicate a massive release of 13C-depleted carbon and greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Recently, sediments were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean, providing the first opportunity to evaluate the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> response at the North Pole at this time. Here we present stable hydrogen and carbon isotope measurements of terrestrial-plant- and aquatic-derived n-alkanes that record changes in hydrology, including surface water salinity and precipitation, and the global carbon cycle. Hydrogen isotope records are interpreted as documenting decreased rainout during moisture transport from lower latitudes and increased moisture delivery to the Arctic at the onset of the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, consistent with predictions of poleward storm track migrations during global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about -4.5 to -6 per mil) is substantially larger than those of marine carbonates. Previously, this offset was explained by the physiological response of plants to increases in surface humidity. But this mechanism is not an effective explanation in this wet Arctic setting, leading us to hypothesize that the true magnitude of the excursion-and associated carbon input-was greater than originally surmised. Greater carbon release and strong hydrological cycle feedbacks may help explain the maintenance of this unprecedented warmth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036687&hterms=temperature+nino&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnino','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036687&hterms=temperature+nino&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnino"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and size variabilities of the Western Pacific <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiao-Hai; Ho, Chung-Ru; Zheng, Quanan; Klemas, Vic</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Variabilities in sea-surface temperature and size of the Western Pacific <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool were tracked with 10 years of satellite multichannel sea-surface temperature observations from 1982 to 1991. The results show that both annual mean sea-surface temperature and the size of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool increased from 1983 to 1987 and fluctuated after 1987. Possible causes of these variations include solar irradiance variabilities, El Nino-Southern Oscillaton events, volcanic activities, and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..522O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..522O"><span id="translatedtitle">Causes of <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Thawing Permafrost in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osterkamp, T. E.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>There is a perception that climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> was the cause of the twentieth-century global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and thawing of permafrost and associated terrain instability (thermokarst) [>Gore, 2006; Perkins, 2007; Zielinski, 2007; Delisle, 2007]. While pertinent data are sparse, published results do not support this viewpoint [Zhang et al., 2001; Osterkamp, 2007]. This brief report reviews the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of permafrost in Alaska during the twentieth century and shows that snow cover has played a significant role in it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3971685','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3971685"><span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory control in aquatic insects dictates their vulnerability to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Forecasting species responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> requires knowledge of how temperature impacts may be exacerbated by other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors, hypoxia being a principal example in aquatic systems. Both stressors could interact directly as temperature affects both oxygen bioavailability and ectotherm oxygen demand. Insufficient oxygen has been shown to limit thermal tolerance in several aquatic ectotherms, although, the generality of this mechanism has been challenged for tracheated arthropods. Comparing species pairs spanning four different insect orders, we demonstrate that oxygen can indeed limit thermal tolerance in tracheates. Species that were poor at regulating oxygen uptake were consistently more vulnerable to the synergistic effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hypoxia, demonstrating the importance of respiratory control in setting thermal tolerance limits. PMID:23925834</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116284','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116284"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at state and local levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Purdie, J.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will also be examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23187622"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and nitrogen deposition lessen microbial residue contribution to soil carbon pool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Chao; Balser, Teri C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Microorganisms have a role as gatekeepers for terrestrial carbon fluxes, either causing its release to the atmosphere through their decomposition activities or preventing its release by stabilizing the carbon in a form that cannot be easily decomposed. Although research has focused on microbial sources of greenhouse gas production, somewhat limited attention has been paid to the microbial role in carbon sequestration. However, increasing numbers of reports indicate the importance of incorporating microbial-derived carbon into soil stable carbon pools. Here we investigate microbial residues in a California annual grassland after a continuous 9-year manipulation of three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors (elevated CO(2), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen deposition), singly and in combination. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen deposition can both alter the fraction of carbon derived from microbes in soils, though for two very different reasons. A reduction in microbial carbon contribution to stable carbon pools may have implications for our predictions of global change impacts on soil stored carbon. PMID:23187622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210429S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..4210429S"><span id="translatedtitle">Why does tropical convective available potential energy (CAPE) increase with <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seeley, Jacob T.; Romps, David M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent work has produced a theory for tropical convective available potential energy (CAPE) that highlights the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling of the atmosphere's saturation deficit as a driver of increases in CAPE with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we test this so-called "zero-buoyancy" theory for CAPE by modulating the saturation deficit of cloud-resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in two ways: changing the sea surface temperature (SST) and changing the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> relative humidity (RH). For earthlike and warmer SSTs, undilute parcel buoyancy in the lower troposphere is insensitive to increasing SST because of a countervailing CC scaling that balances the increase in the saturation deficit; however, buoyancy increases dramatically with SST in the upper troposphere. Conversely, in the RH experiment, undilute buoyancy throughout the troposphere increases monotonically with decreasing RH. We show that the zero-buoyancy theory successfully predicts these contrasting behaviors, building confidence that it describes the fundamental physics of CAPE and its response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053606"><span id="translatedtitle">100 LPW 800 Lm <span class="hlt">Warm</span> White LED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sun, Decai</p> <p>2010-10-31</p> <p>An illumination grade <span class="hlt">warm</span> white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power <span class="hlt">warm</span> white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by <span class="hlt">warm</span> white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24510897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24510897"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> change drives long-term recruitment and growth variation in an estuarine fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morrongiello, John R; Walsh, Chris T; Gray, Charles A; Stocks, Jerom R; Crook, David A</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>How individuals respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change determines the strength and direction of biological processes like recruitment and growth that underpin population productivity. Ascertaining the relative importance of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors can, however, be difficult given the <span class="hlt">numerous</span> mechanisms through which they affect individuals. This is especially true in dynamic and complex estuarine environments. Here, we develop long-term otolith-based indices of recruitment and growth for estuary perch Percalates colonorum (Bemm River, Australia), to explore the importance of intrinsic (individual, demographic) and extrinsic (hydrologic, climatic, density-dependent) factors in driving estuarine fish productivity. Analyses involved a novel zero-inflated specification of catch curve regression and mixed effects modelling. The 39 years of recruitment and 46 years of growth data, spanning a period of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change including severe drought, displayed considerable inter-annual variation. Recruitment success was strongly related to high freshwater inflows during the spawning season, suggesting that these conditions act as spawning cues for adults and potentially provide favourable conditions for larvae. Individuals displayed age-dependent growth, with highest rates observed at younger ages in years characterized by <span class="hlt">warm</span> temperatures, and to a lesser degree, greater magnitude base inflow conditions. We detected systematic among-year-class growth differences, but these were not attributable to year class strength, suggesting that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions experienced by individuals as juveniles can have long-lasting effects of greater importance to population productivity than density-dependent growth responses. The primacy of temperature in driving growth variation highlights that under-appreciated climatic variation can affect estuarine fish productivity through direct physiological and indirect food web mechanisms. We predict that climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> will promote individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298706','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298706"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and <span class="hlt">warming</span> shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3562H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3562H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustaining effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on organic matter decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, Ruixing; Ouyang, Zhu; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Wilson, Glenn; Kuzyakov, Yakov</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> studies showed changes of microbial community structure, only very few were focused on sustainability of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial activity associated with SOM decomposition. Two alternative hypotheses: 1) acclimation because of substrate exhaustion and 2) sustaining increase of microbial activity with accelerated decomposition of recalcitrant SOM pools were never proven under long term field conditions. This is especially important in the nowadays introduced no-till crop systems leading to redistribution of organic C at the soil surface, which is much susceptible to <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects than the rest of the profile. We incubated soil samples from a four-year <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment with tillage (T) and no-tillage (NT) practices under three temperatures: 15, 21, and 27 °C, and related the evolved total CO2 efflux to changes of organic C pools. <span class="hlt">Warmed</span> soils released significantly more CO2 than the control treatment (no <span class="hlt">warming</span>) at each incubation temperature, and the largest differences were observed under 15 °C (26% increase). The difference in CO2 efflux from NT to T increase with temperature showing high vulnerability of C stored in NT to soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Q10 value reflecting the sensitivity of SOM decomposition to <span class="hlt">warming</span> was lower for <span class="hlt">warmed</span> than non-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> soil indicating better acclimation of microbes or lower C availability during long term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The activity of three extracellular enzymes: β-glucosidase, chitinase, sulphatase, reflecting the response of C, N and S cycles to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, were significantly higher under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and especially under NT compared to two other respective treatments. The CO2 released during 2 months of incubation consisted of 85% from recalcitrant SOM and the remaining 15% from microbial biomass and extractable organic C based on the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16722285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16722285"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of preoperative <span class="hlt">warming</span> on patients' postoperative temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooper, Shauna</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Many perioperative clinicians encounter difficulty in preventing hypothermia in surgical patients. One intervention to prevent perioperative hypothermia is the use of forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Although forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> is used most frequently in the intraoperative area, prewarming patients with forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> systems before induction of anesthesia may be enough to prevent hypothermia throughout the surgical procedure, allowing patients to arrive in the postanesthesia care unit in a normothermic state. A review of the literature on preoperative forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> is provided, and the effect of prewarming on postoperative patient temperatures is discussed. PMID:16722285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U71A..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U71A..04V"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Rapid Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on the Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaughan, D. G.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.; Parkinson, C.; Mulvaney, R.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, J. C.; Pudsey, C. J.; Turner, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was 0.6 ñ 0.2 degrees C during the 20th Century and cited increases in greenhouse gases as a likely contributor. But this average conceals the complexity of observed climate change, which is seasonally biased, decadally variable and geographically patchy. In particular, over the last 50 years three high-latitude areas have undergone recent rapid regional (RRR) <span class="hlt">warming</span> ? substantially more rapid than the global mean. We discuss the spatial and temporal significance of RRR <span class="hlt">warming</span> in one area, the Antarctic Peninsula. New analyses of station records show no ubiquitous polar amplification of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> but significant RRR <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the likelihood that this could be amplification of a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and use climate-proxy data to indicate that this RRR <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Antarctic Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia and unlikely to be a natural mode of variability. We can show a strong connection between RRR <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced sea-ice duration in an area on the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, but here we cannot yet distinguish cause and effect. Thus for the present we cannot determine which process causes the RRR <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and until the mechanism initiating and sustaining it is understood, and is convincingly reproduced in climate models, we lack a sound basis for predicting climate change in this region over the coming century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatGe...9..549A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatGe...9..549A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Donohoe, Aaron; Newsom, Emily R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Southern Ocean has shown little <span class="hlt">warming</span> over recent decades, in stark contrast to the rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed in the Arctic. Along the northern flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, however, the upper ocean has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> substantially. Here we present analyses of oceanographic observations and general circulation model simulations showing that these patterns--of delayed <span class="hlt">warming</span> south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and enhanced <span class="hlt">warming</span> to the north--are fundamentally shaped by the Southern Ocean's meridional overturning circulation: wind-driven upwelling of unmodified water from depth damps <span class="hlt">warming</span> around Antarctica; greenhouse gas-induced surface heat uptake is largely balanced by anomalous northward heat transport associated with the equatorward flow of surface waters; and heat is preferentially stored where surface waters are subducted to the north. Further, these processes are primarily due to passive advection of the anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal by climatological ocean currents; changes in ocean circulation are secondary. These findings suggest the Southern Ocean responds to greenhouse gas forcing on the centennial, or longer, timescale over which the deep ocean waters that are upwelled to the surface are <span class="hlt">warmed</span> themselves. It is against this background of gradual <span class="hlt">warming</span> that multidecadal Southern Ocean temperature trends must be understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...45Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...45Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms for stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over drier ecoregions observed since 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming; Chen, Haishan; Hua, Wenjian; Dai, Yongjiu; Wei, Nan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Previous research found that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate observed for the period 1979-2012 increases dramatically with decreasing vegetation greenness over land between 50°S and 50°N, with the strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate seen over the driest regions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula, suggesting <span class="hlt">warming</span> amplification over deserts. To further this finding, this paper explores possible mechanisms for this amplification by analyzing observations, reanalysis data and historical simulations of global coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. We examine various variables, related to surface radiative forcing, land surface properties, and surface energy and radiation budget, that control the <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns in terms of large-scale ecoregions. Our results indicate that desert amplification is likely attributable primarily to enhanced longwave radiative forcing associated with a stronger water vapor feedback over drier ecoregions in response to the positive global-scale greenhouse gas forcing. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> amplification and associated downward longwave radiation at the surface are reproduced by historical simulations with anthropogenic and natural forcings, but are absent if only natural forcings are considered, pointing to new potential fingerprints of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These results suggest a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over land that depend on the dryness of ecosystems in mid- and low- latitudes, likely reflecting primarily the first order large-scale thermodynamic component of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> linked to changes in the water and energy cycles over different ecosystems. This finding may have important implications in interpreting global <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns and assessing climate change impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.2537H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.2537H"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (<1 year) and long (interannual) temporal scales. More specifically, our research focuses on the relative importance of distinct foraging guilds and species assemblages with an affinity for <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold water. Over the long term, the avifauna off southern California shifted from a 'high-productivity' community typical of eastern boundary upwelling systems, to a 'low-productivity' assemblage similar to those inhabiting the subtropical gyres. Overall seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more <span class="hlt">numerous</span>. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945497"><span id="translatedtitle">An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that <span class="hlt">numerically</span> simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4422659','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4422659"><span id="translatedtitle">An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that <span class="hlt">numerically</span> simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25827840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25827840"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> acclimation and oxygen depletion induce species-specific responses in salmonids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anttila, Katja; Lewis, Mario; Prokkola, Jenni M; Kanerva, Mirella; Seppänen, Eila; Kolari, Irma; Nikinmaa, Mikko</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Anthropogenic activities are greatly altering the habitats of animals, whereby fish are already encountering several stressors simultaneously. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the capacity of fish to respond to two different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors (high temperature and overnight hypoxia) separately and together. We found that acclimation to increased temperature (from 7.7±0.02°C to 14.9±0.05°C) and overnight hypoxia (daily changes from normoxia to 63-67% oxygen saturation), simulating climate change and eutrophication, had both antagonistic and synergistic effects on the capacity of fish to tolerate these stressors. The thermal tolerance of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and landlocked salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago) increased with <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation by 1.3 and 2.2°C, respectively, but decreased when <span class="hlt">warm</span> temperature was combined with overnight hypoxia (by 0.2 and 0.4°C, respectively). In contrast, the combination of the stressors more than doubled hypoxia tolerance in salmon and also increased hypoxia tolerance in char by 22%. Salmon had 1.2°C higher thermal tolerance than char, but char tolerated much lower oxygen levels than salmon at a given temperature. The changes in hypoxia tolerance were connected to the responses of the oxygen supply and delivery system. The relative ventricle mass was higher in cold- than in <span class="hlt">warm</span>-acclimated salmon but the thickness of the compact layer of the ventricle increased with the combination of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hypoxia acclimation in both species. Char had also significantly larger hearts and thicker compact layers than salmon. The results illustrate that while fish can have protective responses when encountering a single <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressor, the combination of stressors can have unexpected species-specific effects that will influence their survival capacity. PMID:25827840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPGP8072B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPGP8072B"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion beam driven <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bieniosek, F. M.; Ni, P. A.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P. K.; More, R.; Barnard, J. J.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A. W.; Yoneda, H.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments at LBNL are at 0.3-1 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak), increasing toward the Bragg peak in future versions of the accelerator. The WDM conditions are envisioned to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. Initial experiments include an experiment to study transient darkening at LBNL; and a porous target experiment at GSI heated by intense heavy-ion beams from the SIS 18 storage ring. Further experiments will explore target temperature and other properties such as electrical conductivity to investigate phase transitions and the critical point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817049"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal flows on <span class="hlt">warm</span> Martian slopes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McEwen, Alfred S; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M; Mattson, Sarah S; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J; Cull, Selby C; Murchie, Scott L; Thomas, Nicolas; Gulick, Virginia C</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48°S to 32°S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood. PMID:21817049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..314..175P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..314..175P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Debris Disks with WISE and HST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using 22 μm data from the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have completed a sensitive all-sky survey for debris disks in Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc. This <span class="hlt">warm</span> excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets. Several hundred previously unknown debris disk candidates were identified. We are currently performing follow-up observations to characterize the stars, companions, and circumstellar material in these systems with a variety of facilities including Keck, Herschel, and HST. Thirteen WISE debris disks have been observed to date using HST/STIS coronagraphy. Five of these disks have been detected in scattered light. One is a large and highly asymmetric edge-on disk which appears to be both warped and bifurcated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1204816','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1204816"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal flows on <span class="hlt">warm</span> Martian slopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McEwen, Alfred S.; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J.; Cull, Selby C.; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gulick, Virginia C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48°S to 32°S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036928','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036928"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal flows on <span class="hlt">warm</span> Martian slopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McEwen, A.S.; Ojha, L.; Dundas, C.M.; Mattson, S.S.; Byrne, S.; Wray, J.J.; Cull, S.C.; Murchie, S.L.; Thomas, N.; Gulick, V.C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25?? to 40??) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48??S to 32??S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ???250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850037305&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850037305&hterms=Warm+fog&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DWarm%2Bfog"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog dispersal research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, V. W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A new concept for dispersing <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog is presented. This brute force technique uses large volume recycled water sprays. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermo-kinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway. Tests conducted to provide drop spectra measurements and temperature response measurements of suitable water sprays are described. Three mobile firefighting modules capable of spraying up to 630 l/s (10,000 gpm) to a height in excess of 50 m were utilized. Periodic operation of two parallel rows of nozzles in a heavy fog resulted in downwind-correlated increases in the visual range measured with a forward scatter visibility meter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800025813','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800025813"><span id="translatedtitle">Mass loss from <span class="hlt">warm</span> giants: Magnetic effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mullan, D. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Among <span class="hlt">warm</span> giant stars, rapid mass loss sets in along a well defined velocity dividing line (VDL). Hot corona also disappear close to the VDL and thermal pressure cannot drive the observed rapid mass loss in these stars. The VDL may be associated with magnetic fields changing from closed to open. Such a change is consistent with the lack of X-rays from late-type giants. A magnetic transition locus based on Pneuman's work on helmet streamer stability agrees well with the empirical VDL. The change from closed to open fields not only makes rapid mass loss possible, but also contributes to energizing the mass loss in the form of discrete bubbles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11E0101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11E0101L"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical Velocity Measurements in <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Stratiform Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of vertical air motion in <span class="hlt">warm</span> boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910038146&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910038146&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave sounding units and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050092435','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050092435"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Hot Intergalactic Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This grant is associated to a 5-year LTSA grant, on "Studying the Largest Reservoir of Baryons in the Universe: The <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Hot Intergalactic Medium". The first year of work within this program has been very rich, and has already produced several important results, as detailed in this paper. Table 2 of our original proposal justification, listed the planned year-by-year program, divided into two sub-fields: (A) the study of the z=0 (or Local Group WHIM) system, and (B) the study of the z greater than 0 (i.e- intervening WHIM) systems. For each of the two sub-fields we had planned to analyze, in the first year, a number of archival (Chandra, XMM and FUSE) and new (if observed) sightlines. Moreover, the plan for the z=0 system included the search for new interesting sightlines. We have accomplished all these tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..323B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..323B"><span id="translatedtitle">Revaluating ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on global phytoplankton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behrenfeld, Michael J.; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Westberry, Toby K.; Graff, Jason R.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Siegel, David A.; Brown, Matthew B.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Global satellite observations document expansions of the low-chlorophyll central ocean gyres and an overall inverse relationship between anomalies in sea surface temperature and phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations. These findings can provide an invaluable glimpse into potential future ocean changes, but only if the story they tell is accurately interpreted. Chlorophyll is not simply a measure of phytoplankton biomass, but also registers changes in intracellular pigmentation arising from light-driven (photoacclimation) and nutrient-driven physiological responses. Here, we show that the photoacclimation response is an important component of temporal chlorophyll variability across the global ocean. This attribution implies that contemporary relationships between chlorophyll changes and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are not indicative of proportional changes in productivity, as light-driven decreases in chlorophyll can be associated with constant or even increased photosynthesis. Extension of these results to future change, however, requires further evaluation of how the multifaceted stressors of a warmer, higher-CO2 world will impact plankton communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023575','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023575"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in upper ocean temperature during El Niño</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Mike; Auad, Guillermo</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Global average sea surface temperature (SST) from 40°S to 60°N fluctuates ±0.3°C on interannual period scales, with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (cooling) during El Niño (La Niña). About 90% of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20°S to 20°N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Niño and the other half because of <span class="hlt">warm</span> SST anomalies occurring over ∼80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Niño. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1–3 W m−2above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2–5 W m−2. Subsequently, peak tropical global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2–5 W m−2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Niño tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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