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  1. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author

  2. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  3. Numerical simulation of global ozone transport during stratospheric sudden warming

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The variation of ozone distribution during a stratospheric sudden warming period was investigated through 3 numerical experiments. The first is a Lagrangian type particle tracing experiment. Air particles were released continuously from 5 different sources into the flows which were simulated from the global model (Koermer, 1980) for the study of the major warming and minor warming. The second was a numerical simulation of ozone transport in an Eulerian system (experiment P1). A 3-D ozone transport-diffusion model in an unequal-distanced vertical resolution system was developed. It was run for 29 consecutive days. In the model, the horizontal and vertical components of eddy diffusivity are computed from the model data (Koermer, 1980) in the case of major warming which was divided into 3 stages: prewarming, warming and after-warming stages. The third experiment was designed to include the photochemical reactions in our model (experiment P2). The computation has been performed for 2 days during the warming period. In the first experiment, air particles at upper levels tend to move poleward and upward (equatorward and downward) at higher (lower) latitudes. In the second experiment, a strong increase in ozone amount does occur at higher latitudes in the stratosphere during the warming period. In the third experiment, the inclusion of photochemical system in the model does not destroy but intensifies the ozone increasing. From the above results, the existence of the Lagrangian-mean indirect and direct circulations of the movements of air particles or ozone molecules caused by the planetary-scale wave activities in the upper and lower stratosphere, appears to explain the phenomenon of the ozone increasing at higher latitudes.

  4. Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  7. A numerical approach to melting in warm subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouilhol, Pierre; Magni, Valentina; van Hunen, Jeroen; Kaislaniemi, Lars

    2015-02-01

    The complex feedback between dehydration and melting in hot subduction zones is quantitatively addressed in this study. We present an integrated numerical tool that combines a high-resolution thermo-mechanical subduction model with a thermodynamic database that allows modeling metamorphic devolatilization, and subsequent re-hydration and melting reactions. We apply this tool to quantify how the hydration state of a lithologically layered subducting slab varies during interaction with the hot mantle wedge and how this affects any melting taking place in the subducting crust or the overlying mantle wedge. Total crustal dehydration is achieved before any crustal melting can occur, even in very young subducting slabs. Significant oceanic crust melting is only achieved if the metamorphic fluids from the dehydrating underlying subducting slab mantle are fluxed through the dry eclogites. But our models further demonstrate that even if the oceanic crust can melt in these specific conditions, the preceding crustal dehydration will simultaneously result in extensive mantle wedge melting at lower pressures than for colder slabs. The significant mantle wedge melting implies that also for hot subduction zones, most of the melt feeding the overriding plate is of mantle origin.

  8. Adaptation to environmental warming by experimental populations of protozoans

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, P.

    1995-09-01

    Sexual populations and replicates of two clones of Tetrahymena thermophila were subjected to a continuously increasing temperature, to simulated the effects of global warming. The model of Lynch and Lande (1993) predicts that the ability of a population to adapt to a directional change in the environment will be determined by the rate of environmental change and the amount of genetic variation within the population. The amount of variation depends in turn upon the genetic structure of the population: sexual populations continuously generate new variation through segregation and recombination; variation with clones is limited by the rate of accumulation of new mutations. The model predicts that there will be a lag time between the environmental change and adaptation by the population. Adaptation will be measured by changes in the temperature optima for population growth. I predict that sexual populations will have higher temperature optima, when subjected to constantly increasing temperatures, than either clones or control populations grown under a constant temperature.

  9. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  10. Numerical simulation of stratospheric sudden warmings with a primitive equation spectral model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lordi, N. J.; Kao, S. K.; Kasahara, A.

    1980-01-01

    A 26-level primitive equation spherical harmonic spectral model allowing for wave-wave and wave-zonal flow interactions is presented for the study of stratospheric sudden warmings. The warmings are simulated by the forcing of a single planetary wave at the tropopause. Four numerical experiments were performed. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions appear to play an important role in the evolution of the flow and temperature fields in the middle to upper stratosphere. In the case involving both wave-wave and wave-zonal flow interactions, this was manifested by the split in the initial polar vortex into a quasi-wave number 2 pattern. In the cases at 60 deg N, easterlies develop first in the upper mesosphere and descend gradually. About the same time or a little later, easterlies also develop in the mid-stratosphere. The linear cases exhibit warmings which are more shallow and more intense at 30 km than the nonlinear cases.

  11. Analyzing numerics of bulk microphysics schemes in community models: warm rain processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of bulk cloud microphysics (BLK) parameterizations in atmospheric models of different scales has gained momentum in the last two decades. Utilization of these parameterizations in cloud-resolving models when timesteps used for the host model integration are a few seconds or less is justified from the point of view of cloud physics. However, mechanistic extrapolation of the applicability of BLK schemes to the regional or global scales and the utilization of timesteps of hundreds up to thousands of seconds affect both physics and numerics. We focus on the mathematical aspects of BLK schemes, such as stability and positive-definiteness. We provide a strict mathematical definition for the problem of warm rain formation. We also derive a general analytical condition (SM-criterion) that remains valid regardless of parameterizations for warm rain processes in an explicit Eulerian time integration framework used to advanced finite-difference equations, which govern warm rain formation processes in microphysics packages in the Community Atmosphere Model and the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The SM-criterion allows for the existence of a unique positive-definite stable mass-conserving numerical solution, imposes an additional constraint on the timestep permitted due to the microphysics (like the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition for the advection equation), and prohibits use of any additional assumptions not included in the strict mathematical definition of the problem under consideration. By analyzing the numerics of warm rain processes in source codes of BLK schemes implemented in community models we provide general guidelines regarding the appropriate choice of time steps in these models.

  12. Public responses to global warming in Newcastle, Australia: Environmental values and environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkeley, H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper seeks to address tile social and cultural dimensions of the global warming issue through an analysis of `public` responses in Newcastle, Australia, based on recent research undertaken for a PhD thesis. Given the history of Australian involvement in the F.C.C.C process this case-study will provides an interesting context in which to analyse discourses of environmental values. It is argued that these discourses shape and are shaped by public responses to global environmental issues in ways which have important implications for the definition of issues as `problems` with acceptable solutions, for the implementation of such solutions and for their political consequences.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effect on Thickness Distribution in Warm Hydroforming of Aluminum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Moslemi Naeini, Hassan; Liaghat, Gholamhosein; Azizi Tafti, Roohollah; Rahmani, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of weight and increase of corrosion resistance are among the advantageous applications of aluminum alloys in automotive industry. Producing complicated components with several parts as a uniform part not only increases their strength but also decreases the production sequences and costs. However, achieving this purpose requires sufficient formability of the material. Tube hydroforming is an alternative process to produce complex products. In this process, the higher the material formability the more uniform will be the thickness distribution. In this research, tube hydroforming of aluminum alloy (AA1050) at various temperatures has been investigated numerically to study temperature effect on thickness distribution of final product. Also a warm hydroforming set-up has been designed and manufactured to evaluate numerical results. According to numerical and experimental results in the case of free bulging, unlike the constrained bulging, increase of the process temperature causes more uniform thickness distribution and therefore increases the material formability.

  14. Numerical/experimental investigations about the warm hydroforming of an aluminum alloy component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, G.; Piccininni, A.; Guglielmi, P.; Piglionico, V.; Scintilla, L. D.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

    2013-05-01

    The present work investigates the Hydro Forming process in warm conditions using a numerical/experimental approach; an Al alloy (AA6061 T6) component is used as case study. Experimental tests were carried out for characterizing the material and setting the numerical model. A preliminary experimental step based on both tensile and formability tests allowed to characterize both the mechanical and deformative characteristics of the material according to temperature, orientation and strain rate. Finite Element simulations using ABAQUS/explicit were carried out changing (according to a simulations plan created using the Design of Experiment approach) the process parameters which mostly affect the HF process in warm conditions: the forming pressure, both the initial and final Blank Holder pressure and the Temperature (oil pressure and Blank Holder pressure were related to the material yielding strength). The contour plots of an ad hoc response parameter (LN), able to take into account both the risk of rupture and the level of deformation, allowed to evaluate the regions where process parameters guarantee the optimal working conditions.

  15. Warming Up to STS. Activities to Encourage Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.

    1990-01-01

    Developed is an interdisciplinary unit that deals with global warming and the greenhouse effect. Included are 10 lessons that can be used to supplement existing plans or used as a basis for developing a new unit. Included are modeling, laboratory, graphing, role-playing, and discussion activities. (KR)

  16. Numerical simulation of the 2013 stratospheric sudden warming by a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Philippe; Costantino, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The major 2013 Stratospheric Sudden Warming was followed in the troposphere by cold air outbreaks over Western Europe from January 12 to 25. In the stratosphere, the polar vortex started moving towards Russia at the end of December 2012 and split on January 7. The vortex splitting was accompanied by an anticyclonic circulation above north Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. The meteorological situation in the troposphere from January 10 to 25 was characterized by a blocking ridge over eastern Atlantic and an anticyclonic cell over Norwegian Sea. This regime was associated to northerly and easterly flows over Western Europe that led to cold air outbreaks. For this event, WRF simulations (Weather, Research and Forecasting) are performed in a domain covering the northern Hemisphere with a resolution of 60 km and extending vertically from surface to 250 Pa. The model is nudged towards ECMWF meteorological analyses (91 levels) over a period extending from 1 to 5 January only, in order to leave the stratosphere-troposphere as unconstrained as possible. In this case, the model is able to approximately reproduce weather forecasts in the troposphere from January 5 to 15. Sensitivity experiments are performed consisting in perturbing the initial conditions on January 5 by adding a warm source in the stratosphere. Numerical results indicate that the Atlantic ridge is reinforced, which results in lower surface temperatures over Western Europe. This work has been performed as part of the european project ARISE.

  17. "Fatties Cause Global Warming": Fat Pedagogy and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance; Cameron, Erin; Socha, Teresa; McNinch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education is one site of many that reinforces dominant obesity discourses and weight-based oppression through privileging fit, able bodies. Using personal narratives and insights from the nascent field of fat studies, we offer a critical analysis of obesity discourse in environmental writing in general and environmental education in…

  18. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy. PMID:19860158

  19. Analyzing numerics of bulk microphysics schemes in Community models: warm rain processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.

    2011-06-01

    In the last decade there has been only one study that discussed time integration scheme (TIS) applied to advance governing differential equations in bulk microphysics (BLK) schemes. Recently, Morrison and Gettelman (2008) examine numerical aspects of double-moment BLK scheme with diagnostic treatment of precipitating hydrometeors implemented into Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM) to find an acceptable level of accuracy and numerical stability. However, stability condition for their explicit non-positive definite TIS was not defined. It is conventionally thought that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be applied for a broad range of spatial scales from large eddy up to global scale simulations if time steps used for model integration satisfy to a certain limit imposed mainly by dynamics. However, numerics used in WRF BLK schemes has never been analyzed in detail. To improve creditability of BLK schemes we derive a general analytical stability and positive definiteness criteria for explicit Eulerian time integration scheme used to advanced finite-difference equations that govern warm rain formation processes in microphysics packages in Community models (CAM and WRF) and define well-behaved, conditionally well-behaved, and non-well-behaved Explicit Eulerian Bulk Microphysics Code (EEBMPC) classes. We highlight that source codes of BLK schemes, originally developed for use in cloud-resolving models, implemented in Community models belong to conditionally well-behaved EEBMPC class and exhibit better performance for finer spatial resolutions when time steps do not exceed seconds or tenths of seconds. For coarser spatial resolutions used in regional and global scale simulations time steps are usually increased from hundredths up to thousands of seconds. This might lead to a degradation of conditionally well-behaved EEBMPCs ability to calculate the amount of precipitation as well as its spatial and temporal distribution since both stability and positive definiteness conditions are not met in the TIS. The correction through the so called "mass conservation" technique commonly used in many models with bulk microphysics is a main characteristic of non-well-behaved EEBMPC, whose utilization leads to erroneous conclusions regarding relative importance of different microphysical processes. Moreover, surface boundary conditions for ocean, land, lake, and sea ice models are dependent on the precipitation and its spatial and temporal distribution. Uncertainties in calculations of temporal and spatial patterns of accumulated precipitation influence the global water cycle. In fact, numerics in non-well-behaved EEBMPCs, which are used in Community Earth System Model, act as a hidden climate forcing agent, if relatively long time steps are used for the host model integration. By analyzing numerics of warm rain processes in EEBMPCs implemented in Community models we provide general guidelines regarding appropriate choice of integration time steps for use in these models.

  20. A numerical study on the formation of the Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G. H.; Tak, Y. J.; Cho, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Yellow Sea (YS) is a semi-enclosed marginal sea located between China and the Korean peninsula. The mouth of the YS is open to the East China Sea. The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) has been shown prominent in winter and previous studies suggest that the main force driving the YSWC is northwesterly winds. The northwesterly wind results in sea level differences between northern and southern areas by decreasing and increasing the sea level respectively in the northern and southern areas. The northward pressure gradient induces the northward intrusion of the YSWC. However, the sensitivity tests of the numerical model used in this study show that the YSWC flows into the YS without northerly winds due to the density difference between the northern fresh water and the southern saline Tsushima Current. Model experiments also show that the northward flow of the YSWC is accelerated by the northerly wind in winter. The model used for the sensitivity test is Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The model grid is 0.1degree horizontal resolution with 40 vertical levels. The sea surface forcing of the model is forced using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis data.

  1. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from

  2. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  3. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  4. Numerical studies of major and minor stratospheric warmings caused by orographic forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koermer, J. P.; Kasahara, A.; Kao, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    A primitive equation spectral model using spherical harmonics is formulated to study dynamic interactions between the troposphere and stratosphere in association with sudden stratospheric warmings. Using sigma coordinates for five tropospheric layers and log-pressure coordinates for 26 stratospheric and mesospheric layers, separate model equations for each system are combined to form single matrix governing equations. The gradual introduction of large scale topography to balanced initial states representative of observed mean winter conditions in the Northern Hemisphere is used for the generation of planetary waves during 40-day time integrations. Results of these integrations indicate that stratospheric warmings can be simulated by this orographic forcing and that mean momentum flux divergence due to zonal mean motion appears to be an essential mechanism of these simulated sudden warmings. It was found that the strength of the polar night jet can be a determining factor whether a warming becomes 'major' or 'minor'.

  5. Numerical simulations of dust transport into northern high latitudes during a Martian polar warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and evolution of the polar laminated terrain depends on rates of dust transport to the polar caps. A simplified dynamical model is shown similar to models used to simulate terrestrial stratospheric polar warmings could simulate certain observed features of the circulation during Martian global dust storms. Model simulations of dust transport showed that substantial quantities of dust, enough to produce optical depths of approx. 1, could reach the pole during these storms.

  6. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Deformation Behavior of Aluminum 5754 Sheet Alloy under Warm Hydroforming Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç, M.; Mahabunphachai, S.; Carsley, J. E.

    2010-06-01

    Material behavior of Al5754 was characterized using both tensile and hydraulic bulge tests under both room and warm temperature conditions. Response of Al5754 to different process conditions such as pressurization rates (0.022 and 0.2 s-1 strain rate), variable strain rates (increasing and decreasing profiles), forming temperature (room to 260° C), and loading conditions (uniaxial vs. biaxial) were presented. The results from tensile and hydraulic bulge tests as well as closed-die hydroforming experiments suggested that, in general, formability of Al5754 could be improved with slow forming rates (<0.02 s-1), high forming temperature (>200° C), and biaxial loading (hydoforming) due to the delay of necking. However, decreasing forming rate conditions did not show any improvement in formability for temperature levels below 200° C.

  8. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. PMID:24480426

  9. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  10. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  11. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Energy extraction from ocean tides via hydrokinetic turbines has recently attracted scientists and engineers attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. However, since the most promising locations in terms of resources and proximity to the end users are in fragile estuarine ecosystems, numerous issues concerning the environmental impact of this technology need to be addressed a priori before large scale deployment. In this work we use numerical simulations to study the possible environmental effects of hydrokinetic turbines through their influence on physical flow variables such as pressure and velocity. The velocity deficit created in the turbulent wake of a turbine affects the settling of suspended sediment in the water column and can lead to deposition into artificial patterns that will alter the benthic ecosystem. On the other side of the spectrum, pressure fluctuation through turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device, particularly for small juveniles that behave like Lagrangian trackers. We present sedimentation statistics to understand the sensitivity of this phenomena to turbine operating conditions and sediment properties. We also show pressure history for slightly buoyant Lagrangian particles moving through the turbine and correlations with damage thresholds obtained from laboratory experiments.

  13. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming. PMID:25343296

  14. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,

  15. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  16. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.

    2010-12-01

    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the high magnitudes of pressure fluctuation occurring over short periods of time. These high impulse conditions are correlated with damage thresholds obtained from laboratory experiments in the literature. *Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center Top view of the channel with turbine hub located at (0,0). Particle sedimentation is enhanced closer to the turbine location and effect of hub can be seen at the end of the channel.

  17. Environmental magnetic evidence for a dynamic Taylor Glacier during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Florindo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The current understanding of the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is limited spatially and temporally by a paucity of sedimentary records. This has led to the assumption that the Antarctic Glacio-climatic system has been in stasis since middle Miocene times and such an interpretation is not in conflict with deep-sea stable isotope records. However, rare stratified glacigene deposits exposed in the Transantarctic mountains and recovered from beneath Antarctic fjords by drilling suggest a more dynamic history of the EAIS. We apply environmental magnetic methods to drill cores previously collected from McMurdo Sound in an effort to track processes, transport methods and conditions and environments of deposition through the late Neogene. Additionally, we assess the robustness of the earlier magnetostratigraphies from the DVDP-10 and -11 cores by undertaking the first comprehensive paleomagnetic study of discrete paleomagnetic samples with complete thermal and alternating field demagnetisation and polarity determinations from principal component analysis. Here we present results from an investigation of the magnetic properties of the DVDP-10 and DVDP-11 drill cores from New Harbour, southern Victoria Land. Magnetic properties were determined for 400 samples by measuring their magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetism and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetism (NRM/ARM) at the Otago Paleomagnetic Research Facility and hysteresis and isothermal remanent magnetism (IRM) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy. The initial analyses indicate that only minimal diagenetic alteration has occurred and that a primary environmental magnetic signal is intact. We divide these records into three intervals based on magnetic characteristics. The upper interval (Interval I) comprises latest Pliocene to Pleistocene age Ross Sea Ice derived sediments which have high concentrations of fine grained magnetite reflecting the contribution of McMurdo Volcanic material to the signal. At ~200 meters in DVDP-11 and ~155 m in DVDP-10 a major mid-Pliocene hiatus truncates a ~40 meter thick interval (Interval II) of muds and diamicts which represents the mid-Pliocene warm period. Magnetically, this interval is unique within the cores because it has relatively low concentrations of magnetite and an upward fining of the magnetic grainsize. We suggest that this interval represents a retreated Taylor Glacier system under warm conditions followed by a re-advance under cooler conditions. The glacial advance immediately prior to the unconformity is marked by increasing magnetite concentration in parallel with decreasing magnetic grain size. The unconformity itself marks a switch from Taylor Valley or EAIS-derived sediments below to Ross Sea Ice or WAIS-derived sediments above. Below Interval II and to the base of each core are mid-Pliocene to latest Miocene Taylor Valley derived diamicts. Magnetic grainsizes and concentrations are variable over this interval indicating a dynamic Taylor Glacier which underwent multiple advances and retreats. Efforts are underway to correlate the magnetic properties of these cores with comparable interval in the ANDRILL MIS and SMS cores in order to build a more comprehensive regional understanding of this period.

  18. Numerical Simulation on Measurement of Optical and Thermal Properties for Warm Dense Matter Generated by Isochoric Heating with Pulsed Power Discharge Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIKUCHI, Takashi; HAYASHI, Ryota; TAKAHASHI, Takuya; TAMURA, Fumihiro; TAKAHASHI, Kazumasa; SASAKI, Toru; ASO, Tsukasa; HARADA, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    Property data in warm dense matter (WDM) are important to optimize implosion dynamics in a fuel pellet of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A table-top pulsed power discharge device with isochoric heating using a sapphire hollow capillary was proposed, and was used to generate the extreme state of matter with a well-defined condition. We investigated numerically to generate the WDM by using the pulsed power discharge device. The numerical model was developed by time-dependent one-dimensional thermal diffusion with radiative transfer of multi-group approximation, and the numerical simulation was carried out according with the experimental condition. The achieved temperature of the numerical simulation result was confirmed by the previous experimental result. Also, the radiation energy density was shown at each group of the wavelength of emission.

  19. Numerical simulation of a sudden stratospheric warming with a three-dimensional, spectral, quasi-geostrophic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, W. L.; Haggard, K. V.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of a sudden stratospheric warming which developed spontaneously during a winter simulation with a three-dimensional quasi-geostrophic model is described. Changes in the circulation and thermal structure of the winter polar stratosphere that occurred during the warming are shown to be in close agreement with observed behavior: enhanced vertical flux of eddy energy into the stratosphere, rapid temperature increase in high latitudes with a reversal of the zonal mean temperature gradient between midlatitude and pole, destruction of the circumpolar cyclonic vortex, and a marked deceleration of the westerly jet and the appearance of zonal mean easterlies. Energies of the warming are also consistent with observed characteristics. Many aspects of the dynamical development of the present model simulation are shown to agree with a previous model simulation, but there are also areas of disagreement.

  20. Gross mismatch between thermal tolerances and environmental temperatures in a tropical freshwater snail: climate warming and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Gianluca; Khang, Tsung Fei; Chua, Teddy; Marshall, David J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between acute thermal tolerance and habitat temperature in ectotherm animals informs about their thermal adaptation and is used to assess thermal safety margins and sensitivity to climate warming. We studied this relationship in an equatorial freshwater snail (Clea nigricans), belonging to a predominantly marine gastropod lineage (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae). We found that tolerance of heating and cooling exceeded average daily maximum and minimum temperatures, by roughly 20°C in each case. Because habitat temperature is generally assumed to be the main selective factor acting on the fundamental thermal niche, the discordance between thermal tolerance and environmental temperature implies trait conservation following 'in situ' environmental change, or following novel colonisation of a thermally less-variable habitat. Whereas heat tolerance could relate to an historical association with the thermally variable and extreme marine intertidal fringe zone, cold tolerance could associate with either an ancestral life at higher latitudes, or represent adaptation to cooler, higher-altitudinal, tropical lotic systems. The broad upper thermal safety margin (difference between heat tolerance and maximum environmental temperature) observed in this snail is grossly incompatible with the very narrow safety margins typically found in most terrestrial tropical ectotherms (insects and lizards), and hence with the emerging prediction that tropical ectotherms, are especially vulnerable to environmental warming. A more comprehensive understanding of climatic vulnerability of animal ectotherms thus requires greater consideration of taxonomic diversity, ecological transition and evolutionary history. PMID:25526660

  1. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  2. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  3. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  4. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  5. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system features. The second objective was to explore the potential use of reservoirs to maintain an ideal stream temperature regime to ameliorate the temperature effects of climate warming of air temperature. For proof-of-concept, the model is applied to Lake Spaulding in the Upper Yuba River. With selective withdrawal, the model hedges the release of cold water to decrease summer stream temperatures, but at a cost of warmer stream temperatures in the winter. Results also show that selective withdrawal can reduce, but not eliminate, the temperature effects of climate warming. The model can be extended to include other nearby reservoirs to optimally manage releases from multiple reservoirs for multiple downstream temperature targets in a highly interconnected system. While the outcomes of these studies contribute to our understanding of reservoir management and hydropower at the intersection of energy, water management, ecosystems, and climate warming, there are many opportunities to improve this work. Promising options for improving and building on the collective utility of these studies are presented.

  6. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  7. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  8. Hydrogeologic influence on changes in snowmelt runoff with climate warming: Numerical experiments on a mid-elevation catchment in the Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Meadows, M. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The role of hydrogeology in mediating long-term changes in mountain streamflow, resulting from reduced snowfall in a potentially warmer climate, is currently not well understood. We explore this by simulating changes in stream discharge and evapotranspiration from a mid-elevation, 1-km2 catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA) in response to reduced snowfall under warmer conditions, for a plausible range in subsurface hydrologic properties. Simulations are performed using a numerical watershed model, the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), constrained by observations from a meteorological station, stream gauge, and eddy covariance tower. We predict that the fraction of precipitation occurring as snowfall would decrease from approximately 47% at current conditions to 25%, 12%, and 5% for air temperature changes of +2, +4, and +6 °C. For each of these warming scenarios, changes in mean annual discharge and evapotranspiration simulated by the different plausible soil models show large ranges relative to averages, with coefficients of variation ranging from -3 to 3 depending on warming scenario. With warming and reduced snowfall, substrates with greater storage capacity show less soil moisture limitation on evapotranspiration during the late spring and summer, resulting in greater reductions in annual stream discharge. These findings indicate that the hydrologic response of mountain catchments to atmospheric warming and reduced snowfall may substantially vary across elevations with differing soil and regolith properties, a relationship not typically accounted for in approaches relying on space-for-time substitution. An additional implication of our results is that model simulations of annual stream discharge in response to snowfall-to-rainfall transitions may be relatively uncertain for study areas where subsurface properties are not well constrained.

  9. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol. PMID:18597918

  10. Is environmental health a determinant or an afterthought in policies ranging from water quality to global warming?

    PubMed

    Listorti, J A

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this discussion is to draw attention to the regrettable fact that health repercussions are not being addressed in policy setting. This absence covers a spectrum from policies as technically focused as that governing water quality, where the health dimensions are well known, to policies as broad as those dealing with global warming, where the health dimensions are still being defined. This situation is likely to worsen unless the environmental health community accepts the responsibility to do more outreach. The presentation also gives examples of how inclusion of environmental health in policy deliberations can increase economically quantifiable benefits and can help justify investments that are otherwise considered too costly. Despite advances in environmental health, many, if not most, important decisions affecting human health are being made without the input of health specialists. At best, considerations of environmental health are afterthoughts in the policies of business, commerce, industry, and many government agencies that are involved--even if inadvertently--with creating most environmental health problems, and by implication, are potentially responsible for their solutions. Examples of situations where the health dimensions are well known, such as with water quality, are provided from some 200 past World Bank projects in water supply, waste disposal, transportation, housing, urban development, and telecommunications, designed mainly by engineers and economists. The absence of health input is not necessarily detrimental if agency policies or environmental reviews can compensate for the absence of direct health input by other means such as environmental assessments, which currently do not systematically include health. PMID:10633246

  11. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  12. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B; Viant, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  13. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  14. A numerical modeling study of the East Australian Current encircling and overwashing a warm-core eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">Warm</span>-core eddies (WCEs) often form in the meanders of Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). WCEs are frequently overwashed with less dense waters sourced from the WBC. We use the Regional Ocean Modelling System to investigate the ocean state during the overwashing of one such WCE in October 2008 in the East Australian Current (EAC). Comparisons of model outputs with satellite sea surface temperature and vertical profiles show that the model provides a realistic simulation of the eddy during the period when the EAC encircled and then overwashed the eddy. During the encircling stage, an eddy with closed circulation persisted at depth. In the surface EAC water entered from the north, encircled the eddy and exited to the east. The overwashing stage was initiated by the expulsion of cyclonic vorticity. For the following 8 days after the expulsion, waters from the EAC washed over the top of the eddy, transferring heat and anticyclonic vorticity radially-inward. After approximately one rotation period of overwashing, the eddy separated. The overwashing creates a two-layer system that forms a subsurface maximum velocity at the interface of the two layers. Analysis of water mass properties, Eulerian tracer dynamics, and Lagrangian particle tracks show that the original eddy sinks 10-50 m during the overwashing period. Overwashing has been observed in many WBCs and occurs in most WCEs in the western Tasman Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B12A0800F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B12A0800F"><span id="translatedtitle">3D <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of the Geothermal Field of Permafrost at Salluit in Nunavik, Québec, in Response to Climate <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. Research in Progress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortier, R.; Allard, M.; Gagnon, O.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The village of Salluit is located in the continuous permafrost zone in Nunavik, Québec. This Inuit community of about 1100 people is characterized by a fast population growth. The village lies in the bottom of a restricted valley flanked by steep rock walls. Most village infrastructures are built on frozen saline and ice-rich marine silts creating problematic ground conditions for infrastructures construction. For satisfying the fast population growth, a housing program is in progress but the available terrain with proper ground conditions for stable foundation is scarce and little is known on the permafrost conditions in the valley. During the construction of the airport of Salluit, a thermistor cable has been permanently buried in a rock outcrop. Regular temperature measurements have been carried out from 1987 and 1994, and from 2001 until now. During the first measurement interval, the permafrost temperature decreased steadily from -8 to -8.5 °C at a depth of 8 m. According to Environment Canada, the climate in that region of Canada was slowly cooling. However, this trend was reversed around 1997-1998 and some important <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently occurred. In August 2001, the temperature measurements showed an increase of about 1.9 °C at the same depth. Moreover, a major active layer detachment failure occurred in the valley uphill in 1998 forcing the moving of twenty houses recently built. This landslide was probably triggered by the climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Proper assessment of available terrain for the village expansion is therefore a major concern for the Inuit community of Salluit. Following the request of the provincial government, a thorough study for mapping the permafrost conditions and assessing the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on permafrost conditions has been undertaken in 2002. The surveys carried out included deep sampling of permafrost, seismic reflection and ground penetrating radar profiling, and surface mapping supported by a detailed photo interpretation. The survey aims at providing information on the geological and geotechnical characteristics of permafrost. Thermistor cables in deep boreholes, meteorological stations, dataloggers for the measurement of surface temperature, and thermal probes have been also installed in the valley. Air photographs will be used to produce a digital terrain model of the valley. This integrated multi-technique approach is essential for properly assessing the permafrost conditions in the valley. The study will provide the data needed for the development of a 3D model of permafrost conditions in the valley. A 3D <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in the valley will be then undertaken. This simulation is a major challenge giving the size of the thermal field and the variability in permafrost conditions. The impacts of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the thermal field of permafrost will be simulated and predicted by forcing the surface temperature to increase following different scenarios of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is planned to combine the geotechnical properties and the simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in order to define threshold values of permafrost strength and slope instability and set a pre-warning scheme of permafrost temperature in case of further <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the coming years. The monitoring of permafrost temperature will be continued in the future. If the scheme is reached, actions can be then undertaken to mitigate the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the infrastructures and protect the population of Salluit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390705"><span id="translatedtitle">State <span class="hlt">environmental</span> law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use <span class="hlt">environmental</span> statutes to fight global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sautter, John A.</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>In many states <span class="hlt">environmental</span> statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21574802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21574802"><span id="translatedtitle">THE NATURE OF THE <span class="hlt">WARM</span>/HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. <span class="hlt">NUMERICAL</span> METHODS, CONVERGENCE, AND O VI ABSORPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Shull, J. Michael; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu</p> <p>2011-04-10</p> <p>We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the <span class="hlt">warm</span>/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z {approx} 0.5, declining to 35%-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic O VI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} {approx}< N{sub OVI} {approx}< 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}). Models that include only collisional ionization provide better fits for high column density absorbers (N{sub OVI} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}). The distribution of O VI in density and temperature exhibits two populations: one at T {approx} 10{sup 5.5} K (collisionally ionized, 55% of total O VI) and one at T {approx} 10{sup 4.5} K (photoionized, 37%) with the remainder located in dense gas near galaxies. While not a perfect tracer of hot gas, O VI provides an important tool for a WHIM baryon census.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Freddie Fish. A Primary <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study of Basic <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kraynak, Ola</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide and study guide are an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the <span class="hlt">numerals</span> 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> up to the idea: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is here</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lynch, C.F.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This article summarizes recent information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549591','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549591"><span id="translatedtitle">Measures used to tackle <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems related to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change resulting from the use of coal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoppe, J.A.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscale intraspecific variation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity: analysis of cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zone abundance, mortality, and regeneration distributions of four eastern US tree species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Anantha M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>I test for macroscale intraspecific variation of abundance, mortality, and regeneration of four eastern US tree species (Tsuga canadensis,Betula lenta,Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus prinus) by splitting them into three climatic zones based on plant hardiness zones (PHZs). The primary goals of the analysis are to assess the differences in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and demographic responses among climatic zones, map regional species groups based on decision tree rules, and evaluate univariate and multivariate patterns of species demography with respect to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. I use the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) data to derive abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices and split the range into three climatic zones based on USDA PHZs: (1) cold adapted, leading region; (2) middle, well-adapted region; and (3) <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing region. I employ decision tree ensemble methods to assess the importance of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictors on the abundance of the species between the cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zones and map zonal variations in species groups. Multivariate regression trees are used to simultaneously explore abundance, mortality, and regeneration in tandem to assess species vulnerability. Analyses point to the relative importance of climate in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing zone (especially moisture) compared to the cold adapted, leading zone. Higher mortality and lower regeneration patterns in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> trailing zone point to its vulnerability to growing season temperature and precipitation changes that could figure more prominently in the future. This study highlights the need to account for intraspecific variation of demography in order to understand <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and differential adaptation. It provides a methodology for assessing the vulnerability of tree species by delineating climatic zones based on easily available PHZ data, and FIA derived abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices as a proxy for overall growth and fitness. Based on decision tree rules, ecologically meaningful variations in species abundance among the climatic zones can be related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability and mapped. PMID:26640680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...9.5871K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...9.5871K"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty in computations of the spread of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water in a river - lessons from <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalinowska, M. B.; Rowi?ski, P. M.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The present study aims at evaluation of sources of uncertainty in modelling of heat transport in a river caused by the discharge coming from a cooling system of a designed gas-stem power plant. This study was a part of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact Assessment and was based on two-dimensional modelling of temperature distribution in an actual river. The problems with proper description of the computational domain, velocity field and hydraulic characteristics were considered in the paper. An in-depth discussion on the methods of evaluation of dispersion coefficients in the model comprising all four components of the dispersion tensor was carried out. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> methods and their influence on final results of computations were also discussed. All computations were based upon a real case study performed in Vistula River in Poland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ391198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend. Recognizes many sources for the <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Xiaoyan</p> <p></p> <p>Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among <span class="hlt">environmental</span> organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJME..28.1163G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJME..28.1163G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> analysis of deteriorated sub-sea pipelines under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gücüyen, Engin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The significant point is the bidirectional interaction technique in FSI analysis while investigating subsea corrosion effect. By this way, pipe environment is accurately modelled and fluid effects are also considered. The effect of external corrosion defects on structural behaviour of a pipeline is studied by creating a nonlinear <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model based on the finite element method according to ABAQUS analysis program. Corrosion losses of sections are obtained from experimental results and applied to the model. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> model is formed by a span of sub-sea pipeline that is subjected to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads. Seismic and wind-generated irregular wave loads are considered as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads. Irregular wave is represented with equivalent eight regular waves via FFT. The pipe is modelled according to two different types which are non-corroded(intact) and corroded (deteriorated) to demonstrate corrosion effects on it. The visible type of corrosion in marine environment is named `pitting' corrosion, in which the material loss is locally interpenetrated over the surface. By considering this situation, the corroded and non-corroded pipes are modelled as 3D solid elements. The main point is revealing how the subsea corrosion affects the structural behaviour of pipelines on the basis of implementation of experimental results to a model structure due to changes of stresses and displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.4177K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.4177K"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty in computations of the spread of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water in a river - lessons from <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact Assessment case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalinowska, M. B.; Rowi?ski, P. M.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The present study aims at the evaluation of sources of uncertainty in modelling of heat transport in a river caused by the discharge coming from a cooling system of a designed gas-stem power plant. This study was a part of an <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact Assessment and was based on two-dimensional modelling of temperature distribution in an actual river. The problems with the proper description of the computational domain, velocity field and hydraulic characteristics were considered in the work. An in-depth discussion on the methods of evaluation of the dispersion coefficients in the model comprising of all four components of the dispersion tensor was carried out. It was shown that in natural rivers all components of a dispersion tensor should be taken into account to qualitatively reflect the proper shape of temperature distributions. The results considerably depend on the 2-D velocity field as well as hydraulic and morphometric characteristics of the flow. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> methods and their influence on the final results of computations were also discussed. All computations were based upon a real case study performed in Vistula River in Poland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&pg=7&id=EJ1046268','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&pg=7&id=EJ1046268"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Attitude Using Climate Change Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change generally and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143495','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143495"><span id="translatedtitle">National US public policy on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> derived from optimization of energy use and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reck, R.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This paper will discuss possible United States policy responses to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The components of a voluntary program for emissions control will be presented as well as regulatory options, including a carbon tax and tradeable permits. The advantages and disadvantages of both options will be discussed as well as the need for a consistent overall policy response to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=4&id=EJ1046268','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=4&id=EJ1046268"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Attitude Using Climate Change Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change generally and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200"><span id="translatedtitle">Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111667.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111667.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Henle, James M.</p> <p></p> <p>This pamphlet consists of 17 brief chapters, each containing a discussion of a <span class="hlt">numeration</span> system and a set of problems on the use of that system. The <span class="hlt">numeration</span> systems used include Egyptian fractions, ordinary continued fractions and variants of that method, and systems using positive and negative bases. The book is informal and addressed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613692D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613692D"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound representations and misrepresentations of spatial fields from CMIP5 <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>da Costa, eduardo D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Sonification is a relatively new data representation technique, and consequently, there are few examples of application of it to spatial <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data. As so, one cannot foresee what would be the impact of its use on the analysis of atmospheric or oceanic phenomena like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the El-Nino Oscillation. However, It is known that new representations of the same data may lead to different paths of inquire which in turn my lead to a new understanding of the order underlying the data. But sonification, as visualisation, is a representation tool, which usually, per se, cannot be expected to produce new scientific results. What can be expected is that sonification used in conjugation with visualisation, statistical analysis, and with any other available tool, will enhance our ability to extract useful information from the data. In this work we undertook "spatial-sonification" of established <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data sets (sea surface temperature, atmospheric pressure) in order to explore sonification as a method to improve data analysis. We used both, data over the whole globe and data over the North Atlantic and the El-Nino regions. We discuss the use of data measured on variable-area grids and its impact on the sonification of the annual cycle of pressure and temperature fields. This is a known problem with spatial averages which we need to take into account here in order to produce a scientific accurate sound representation of spatial data. We also show examples of how sonification can misrepresent the North Atlantic oscillation or the annual cycle of the pressure field due to the interference between sound waves (beats) which may produce periodicities not presented in the raw data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. PMID:25103965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=scientific+AND+work&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59794901&CFTOKEN=74490778','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=scientific+AND+work&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59794901&CFTOKEN=74490778"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: ASynopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116645I"><span id="translatedtitle">Flux variations and vertical distributions of microzooplankton (Radiolaria) in the western Arctic Ocean: <span class="hlt">environmental</span> indices in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikenoue, T.; Bjrklund, K. R.; Kruglikova, S. B.; Onodera, J.; Kimoto, K.; Harada, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The vertical distribution of radiolarians was investigated using a vertical multiple plankton sampler (100-0, 250-100, 500-250 and 1000-500 m water depths, 62 ?m mesh size) at the Northwind Abyssal Plain and southwestern Canada Basin in September 2013. To investigate seasonal variations in the flux of radiolarians in relation to sea-ice and water masses, time series sediment trap system was moored at Station NAP (7500' N, 16200' W, bottom depth 1975 m) in the western Arctic Ocean during October 2010-September 2012. We showed characteristics of fourteen abundant radiolarian taxa related to the vertical hydrographic structure in the western Arctic Ocean. We found the Ceratocyrtis histricosus, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic water species, in net samples, indicating that it has extended its habitat into the Pacific Winter Water. The radiolarian flux was comparable to that in the North Pacific Oceans. Amphimelissa setosa was dominant during the open water and the beginning and the end of ice cover seasons with well-grown ice algae, ice fauna and with alternation of stable water masses and deep vertical mixing. During the sea-ice cover season, however, oligotrophic and cold-water tolerant Actinommidae was dominant and the productivity of radiolaria was lower and its species diversity was greater, which might be associated with the seasonal increase of solar radiation that induce the growth of algae on the ice and the other phytoplankton species under the sea-ice. These indicated that the dynamics of sea-ice was a major factor affecting the productivity, distribution, and composition of radiolarian fauna.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Simulated <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Rain Formation to Collision and Coalescence Efficiencies, Breakup, and Turbulence: Comparison of Two Bin-Resolved <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fridlind, Ann; Seifert, Axel; Ackerman, Andrew; Jensen, Eric</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models that resolve cloud particles into discrete mass size distributions on an Eulerian grid provide a uniquely powerful means of studying the closely coupled interaction of aerosols, cloud microphysics, and transport that determine cloud properties and evolution. However, such models require many experimentally derived paramaterizations in order to properly represent the complex interactions of droplets within turbulent flow. Many of these parameterizations remain poorly quantified, and the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> methods of solving the equations for temporal evolution of the mass size distribution can also vary considerably in terms of efficiency and accuracy. In this work, we compare results from two size-resolved microphysics models that employ various widely-used parameterizations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution methods for several aspects of stochastic collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooling+AND+methods&pg=4&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooling+AND+methods&pg=4&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating an informed citizenry through SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Filippelli, G. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Creating an informed citizenry through the promotion of the earth sciences as a long-term educational and employment option has become increasingly difficult: In recent years less than 7% of high school students and less than 12% of 8th graders in our nation have participated in an earth science course. These percentages are even lower among students of color, who often lack role models in the sciences. SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show; is a dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program that selects and empowers 11th and 12th graders from science magnet programs to teach well-known and tested climate change curricula to 8th graders from local feeder schools. This program, which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation, focuses on a student population comprised of 75% non-white students and above 50% students on free or reduced lunch, and will be supported by an expert team consisting of university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> provides an outstanding "teachable moment" in that the processes leading to it are straightforward, but the net rate of impact and the human response are not so simple. This topic is also media- friendly (being politically sensitive, but also easy to translate in terms of rising temperatures and sea level, melting of ice sheets, possible increases in hurricane activity), and nearly all students have been exposed to information about climate change. However, students are probably not as aware of the geologic context of climate change, which provides nearly all of the scenarios for the potential impacts of future climate change. The 8th grade curriculum for this program is being developed primarily using Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Greenhouse Effect (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990). The expert team will supplement and further develop this 15 year old curriculum with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change (feedback loops, ice sheet melting, ocean circulation and sea level changes, climatic history, evolutionary adaptations to climate, etc.) to ensure that this intervention is current and to demonstrate the dynamic nature of science. During an intensive summer workshop 11th and 12th grade students will work with scientists and educators to understand and think about how to effectively teach climate change content to 8th graders. During the fall semester of the following year the workshop graduates will teach 25 to 30 8th graders a five week climate unit. The project will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 8th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to approximately 1000 underrepresented middle school students in our city.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.3489R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.3489R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Lattice Generalization of Complex Data Base in Space and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosa, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Analysis of extended hybrid data base of high resolution measurements is becoming a tremendous methodological and computational task in all areas of natural science The development of expert data base systems especially in space science and geosciences is the key to study complex scientific phenomena related to space and atmospheric tropospheric environment dynamics In this paper we introduce a mathematical generalization of multi-measurement systems based on the concept of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> lattices We define a generalized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> lattice L as a function of four coefficients p1 p2 p3 p4 that represents the following lattice properties size dimension extension and coupling respectively From this generalization any multi data base can be reduced in a closed set of classified time series in N dimensions We show from application in data base from NASA and NOAA that expert systems can be developed in order to make the real time analysis of these data systems a possible task An example for space weather applications is given by constructing <span class="hlt">numerical</span> lattice system for data from space plasmas spatio-temporal solar data interplanetary medium magnetosphere ionosphere and earth atmospheric and oceanographic data</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, W. Payton; Susong, David D.; Solomon, D. Kip; Heasler, Henry P.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heat and fluid flow fields are simulated for several conceptual permeability fields and compared to processes inferred from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in springs around Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Large hydrothermal basins require specific permeability distributions in the upper crust. High permeability connections must exist between the land surface and high-temperature environments at depths of up to 5 km. The highest modeled temperatures are produced with a vertical conduit permeability of 10-15m2. Permeability at depths of 3-5 km must be within one order of magnitude of the near-surface permeability and must be ≥10-16m2. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> tracers from springs are used to develop a plausible <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the local to regional groundwater flow field for the Norris Geyser Basin area. The model simulations provide insight into the dynamics of heat and fluid flow in a large regional hydrothermal system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470948"><span id="translatedtitle">A global warning for global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paepe, R.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are <span class="hlt">numerous</span> as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s <span class="hlt">warming</span> up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMetR..29..446L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore <span class="hlt">environmental</span> flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Boundaries for Methanogenesis in Serpentinizing Systems using a Cell-scale <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Serpentinizing systems occur where liquid water reacts with ultramafic minerals. The reaction releases heat and produces an alkaline fluid that is rich in H2. The abundant H2 suggests that the energetics of methane production by CO2 reduction is highly favorable (ΔG ~ -102 kJ/mol CH4 for [H2] ~ 10-2 M). Given the possibility of subsurface water and ultramafic minerals on Mars, methanogenesis in serpentinizing systems has been considered as a possible model for photosynthesis-independent, extraterrestrial life. However, the high pH (9 - 11) and possibly elevated temperature have a negative impact on the overall cellular energy balance by increasing the cell's maintenance energy and reducing the concentration of CO2 substrate. We developed a reaction-transport model on the scale of a methanogen cell to investigate how the overall bioenergetics of methane production is influenced by the interplay between pH, temperature, and H2 and CO2 concentration. The model differentiates the cell into three basic structural units (cell wall, cell membrane with gated ion channels, and cytoplasm) and employs both thermodynamic and kinetic controls to estimate an upper-limit energy yield as a function of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The model provides a map of the range of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> extremes for which the energy balance for microbial methane production is positive. The model also provides a tool for exploring the energetics of different metabolic strategies that methanogens could use to cope with stresses associated with life in an alkaline, low-CO2 environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21232450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21232450"><span id="translatedtitle">Coral reef bleaching in the 1980s and possible connections with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glynn, P W</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Scleractinian corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellate algae build massive, wave-resistant coral reefs that are pre-eminent in shallow tropical seas. This mutualism is especially sensitive to <span class="hlt">numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses, and has been disrupted frequently during the past decade. Increased seawater temperatures have been proposed as the most likely cause of coral reef bleaching, and it has been suggested that the recent large-scale disturbances are the first biological indication of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This article describes recent bleaching events and their possible link with sea <span class="hlt">warming</span> and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses, and offers some speculation on the fate of coral reefs if the Earth enters a sustained period of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:21232450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141520','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141520"><span id="translatedtitle">CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: GLOBAL <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> BENEFITS OF SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits may result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> security. As part of no-regret strategies, practices tha...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W"><span id="translatedtitle">OneRTM: an online real-time modelling platform for the next generation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Kingdon, Andrew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modelling has been applied in many fields to better understand and predict the behaviours of different processes. In our increasingly dynamic world there is an imperative to identify potential stresses and threats in the environment and to respond quickly with sound decisions. However, the limitations in traditional modelling methodologies make it difficult to respond quickly to rapidly developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> events, such as floods, droughts and pollution incidents. For example, it is both time consuming and costly to keep model data up-to-date and also to disseminate models results and modelled output datasets to end-users. Crucially it is difficult for people who has limited <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling skills to understand and interact with models and modelled results. In response to these challenges, a proof-of-concept online real-time modelling platform (OneRTM) has been developed as a mechanism for maintaining and disseminating <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and datasets. This automatically keeps models current for the most recent input data, links models based on data flow; it makes models and modelled datasets (historic, real-time and forecasted) immediately available via the internet as easy-to-understand dynamic GIS layers and graphs; and it provides online modelling functions to allow non-modellers to manipulate model including running pre-defined scenarios with a few mouse clicks. OneRTM has been successfully applied and tested in the Chalk groundwater flow modelling in the Thames Basin, UK. The system hosts and links groundwater recharge and groundwater flow models in the case study area, and automatically publishes the latest groundwater level layers on the internet once the current weather datasets becomes available. It also provides online functions of generating groundwater hydrograph and running groundwater abstraction scenarios. Although OneRTM is currently tested using groundwater flow modelling as an example, it could be further developed into a platform to host many kinds of time-variant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and socio-economic models to benefit decision makers, industries (such as water and insurance companies and precision agriculture activities) and researchers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the response of the California Current system to global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Final report to the National Institute for Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change (August 1993)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pares-Sierra, A.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This is the final report for the project ``Modeling the Response of the California Current System to Global Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>,`` supported 1990 and 1991 by NIGEC. The scientists involved are Dr. Richard C.J. Somerville and Alejandro Paries-Sierra of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD. A copy of papers submitted to the Journal of Physical Oceanography, and Geofisica Internacional that were supported in part or whole by WEST-GEC, as well as a summary of a talk delivered at the XX General Assembly of the IUGG, Vienna (1991) are appended to this report. The objective of the research was to improve the understanding of the response of the California Current system to the large-scale anomalous forcing thought to be associated with greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The authors viewed this as a necessary initial step in the study of the California climate response to global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..313P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..313P"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite Element Simulations for Sheet <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prete, A. Del; Papadia, G.; de Vitis, A. A.; Primo, T.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these materials and many conventional processes are adapted including the temperature as a new parameter. In addition to this option, <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming technology for the lightweight materials is currently emerging to achieve reduced number of manufacturing steps and part consolidation. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming process makes use of the improved formability at elevated temperature and it also utilizes the fluid to transport the forming action as well as heat. In the present work, the authors have studied the <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming process using two different <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approaches in order to simulate it. The first software is traditionally used in metal stamping simulations (also <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot) unlike the second. The analyzed material is an Al 6061 alloy 2,03 mm thick. Process responses such as: bulge height, thickness reduction and strain distribution have been evaluated different temperature levels (room temperature, equal to 23° C, 100° C and 200° C). The obtained results have been used to study the accuracy of the second software in sheet <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming simulation. The authors have also defined the more reliable <span class="hlt">numerical</span> environment in order to develop material damage models in <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471064"><span id="translatedtitle">Televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues, specifically global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030145&hterms=hydro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhydro','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030145&hterms=hydro&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhydro"><span id="translatedtitle">Explaining <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Coronal Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Patsourakos, Spiros</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warn (- 1 INK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. Both the excess densities and relatively long lifetimes of the loops can be explained with bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to very high temperatures. Since neighboring strands are at different stages of cooling, the composite loop bundle is multi-thermal, with the distribution of temperatures depending on the details of the "nanoflare storm." Emission hotter than 2 MK is predicted, but it is not clear that such emission is always observed. We consider two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense <span class="hlt">warm</span> loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct plasma heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We present <span class="hlt">numerical</span> hydro simulations of both of these possibilities and explore the observational consequences, including the production of hard X-ray emission and absorption by cool material in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>/cold cloud processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdle, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..270M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..270M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Discovery of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacCracken, Michael C.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=conceptual+modelling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconceptual%2Bmodelling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850065690&hterms=conceptual+modelling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconceptual%2Bmodelling"><span id="translatedtitle">Sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> as catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, W. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are <span class="hlt">numerically</span> demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Economic policy responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=4&id=EJ658270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mannlein, Sally</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/46040"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> elucidated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, S.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The meaning of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate models projected stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030005428','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030005428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hands and Feet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts <span class="hlt">warm</span> or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be <span class="hlt">warm</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> be Stopped?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luria, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been reported in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> or cooling?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Easterling, David R.; Wehner, Michael F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> websites, blogs and articles in the media have claimed that the climate is no longer <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and is now cooling. Here we show that periods of no trend or even cooling of the globally averaged surface air temperature are found in the last 34 years of the observed record, and in climate model simulations of the 20th and 21st century forced with increasing greenhouse gases. We show that the climate over the 21st century can and likely will produce periods of a decade or two where the globally averaged surface air temperature shows no trend or even slight cooling in the presence of longer-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper explores one of the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914531"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broeker, W.S.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T"><span id="translatedtitle">Acting green elicits a literal <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> policies are often based on the assumption that people only act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow could express itself quite literally: people who act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-<span class="hlt">environmental</span> actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..849C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..849C"><span id="translatedtitle">ENSO and greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Yeh, Sang-Wook; An, Soon-Il; Cobb, Kim M.; Collins, Mat; Guilyardi, Eric; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lengaigne, Matthieu; McPhaden, Michael J.; Takahashi, Ken; Timmermann, Axel; Vecchi, Gabriel; Watanabe, Masahiro; Wu, Lixin</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant climate phenomenon affecting extreme weather conditions worldwide. Its response to greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> has challenged scientists for decades, despite model agreement on projected changes in mean state. Recent studies have provided new insights into the elusive links between changes in ENSO and in the mean state of the Pacific climate. The projected slow-down in Walker circulation is expected to weaken equatorial Pacific Ocean currents, boosting the occurrences of eastward-propagating <span class="hlt">warm</span> surface anomalies that characterize observed extreme El Nio events. Accelerated equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">warming</span>, particularly in the east, is expected to induce extreme rainfall in the eastern equatorial Pacific and extreme equatorward swings of the Pacific convergence zones, both of which are features of extreme El Nio. The frequency of extreme La Nia is also expected to increase in response to more extreme El Nios, an accelerated maritime continent <span class="hlt">warming</span> and surface-intensified ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. ENSO-related catastrophic weather events are thus likely to occur more frequently with unabated greenhouse-gas emissions. But model biases and recent observed strengthening of the Walker circulation highlight the need for further testing as new models, observations and insights become available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..820W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..820W"><span id="translatedtitle">Model predicts global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wainger, Lisa A.</p> <p></p> <p>Global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The level of <span class="hlt">warming</span> will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=138647"><span id="translatedtitle">CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and enhance plant available water. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_13_2014_vBRd7HG665_05_13_2014_1','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_13_2014_vBRd7HG665_05_13_2014_1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Creek, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architecture+AND+design&pg=5&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architecture+AND+design&pg=5&id=EJ1002704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=talk+AND+women&pg=6&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=talk+AND+women&pg=6&id=EJ1002704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED263758.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED263758.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up to Communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garner, Lucia Caycedo; Rusch, Debbie</p> <p></p> <p>Daily <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises are advocated as a means of bridging the gap between previously unrelated activities outside the classroom and immersion into the second language, relaxing the class, and establishing a mood for communication. Variety, careful preparation, assuring that the students understand the activity, feeling free to discontinue an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6113123"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion acoustic solitons in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, K.K.; Ray, D.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Kalita and Bujarbarua (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 439 (1983)) obtained a set of equations to describe the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetoplasma and made a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> study of these equations for particular values of the physical parameters. In this paper a rigorous and general analytical study is presented. Some simple necessary and sufficient conditions for solitary wave solutions are derived and it is also shown that cavity solutions are not possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/678933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/678933"><span id="translatedtitle">Military implications of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Strategy research project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greene, P.E.</p> <p>1999-05-20</p> <p>The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8...87B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8...87B"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate science: Pacemakers of <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brnnimann, Stefan</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the first decades of the twentieth century, the Earth <span class="hlt">warmed</span> rapidly. A coral-based climate proxy record of westerly winds over the equatorial Pacific suggests that wind strength and <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate were linked, as they are today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360515','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360515"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant community responses to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the tundra biome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walker, Marilyn D.; Wahren, C. Henrik; Hollister, Robert D.; Henry, Greg H. R.; Ahlquist, Lorraine E.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Calef, Monika P.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Carroll, Amy B.; Epstein, Howard E.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.; Klein, Julia A.; Magnússon, Borgþór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Rewa, Steven P.; Robinson, Clare H.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Suding, Katharine N.; Thompson, Catharine C.; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P. Lee; Tweedie, Craig E.; Webber, Patrick J.; Wookey, Philip A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including <span class="hlt">warming</span>; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3°C, which is in the range of predicted and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:16428292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+consumption&pg=5&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+consumption&pg=5&id=EJ932287"><span id="translatedtitle">Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+pumps&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+pumps&id=EJ932287"><span id="translatedtitle">Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Local cooling despite global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari</p> <p></p> <p>How much warmer is the ocean surface than the atmosphere directly above it? Part 1 of the present study offers a means to quantify this temperature difference using a nonlinear one-dimensional global energy balance coupled ocean--atmosphere model ("Aqua Planet"). The significance of our model, which is of intermediate complexity, is its ability to obtain an analytical solution for the global average temperatures. Preliminary results show that, for the present climate, global mean ocean temperature is 291.1 K whereas surface atmospheric temperature is 287.4 K. Thus, the surface ocean is 3.7 K warmer than the atmosphere above it. Temporal perturbation of the global mean solution obtained for "Aqua Planet" showed a stable system. Oscillation amplitude of the atmospheric temperature anomaly is greater in magnitude to those found in the ocean. There is a phase shift (a lag in the ocean), which is caused by oceanic thermal inertia. Climate feedbacks due to selected climate parameters such as incoming radiation, cloud cover, and CO2 are discussed. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> obtained with our model compares with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) estimations. Application of our model to local regions illuminates the importance of evaporative cooling in determining derived air-sea temperature offsets, where an increase in the latter increases the systems overall sensitivity to evaporative cooling. In part 2, we wish to answer the fairly complicated question of whether global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and an increased freshwater flux cause Northern Hemispheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> or cooling. Starting from the assumption of the ocean as the primary source of variability in the Northern hemispheric ocean--atmosphere coupled system, we employed a simple non--linear one--dimensional coupled ocean--atmosphere model similar to the "Aqua Planet" model but with additional advective heat transports. The simplicity of this model allows us to analytically predict the evolution of many dynamical variables of interest such as, the strength of the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), temperatures of the ocean and atmosphere, mass transports, salinity, and ocean--atmosphere heat fluxes. Model results show that a reduced AMOC transport due to an increased freshwater flux causes cooling in both the atmosphere and ocean in the North Atlantic (NA) deep--water formation region. Cooling in both the ocean and atmosphere can cause a reduction of the ocean--atmosphere temperature difference, which in turn reduces heat fluxes in both the ocean and atmosphere. For present day climate parameters, the calculated critical freshwater flux needed to arrest AMOC is 0.14 Sv. Assuming a constant atmospheric zonal flow, there is both minimal reduction in the AMOC strength, as well as minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the ocean and atmosphere. This model provides a conceptual framework for a dynamically sound response of the ocean and atmosphere to AMOC variability as a function of increased freshwater flux. The results are qualitatively consistent with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> realistic coupled <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of varying complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=209721"><span id="translatedtitle">PERENNIAL <span class="hlt">WARM</span>-SEASON GRASSES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about <span class="hlt">warm</span> season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-seas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=188158','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=188158"><span id="translatedtitle">CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Garment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> loop for different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6823689"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - A reduced threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Issues associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial <span class="hlt">warming</span> from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted <span class="hlt">warming</span>, could drastically alter the debate on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=4&id=EJ536794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=4&id=EJ536794"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on the International Agenda. Teaching Strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keenan-Byrne, Patricia; Malkasian, Mark</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that teaches students the links between industrialization and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and analyzes the conflicting values and priorities involved in the debate between economic development and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns. Students role play delegates from countries attending an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conference. Handouts provide background…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> -- Science and anti-science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710646H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710646H"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323548','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323548"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from HFC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, E.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global <span class="hlt">warming</span> contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameters of human discomfort in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on <span class="hlt">warm</span> discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719116"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-08-26</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3922401Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of land-use changes on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yield in Shikoku, western Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, Ryuhei; Iizumi, Toshichika; Nishimori, Motoki; Yokozawa, Masayuki</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We evaluated the impacts of historical land-use changes (LUCs) from 1987 to 2006 on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates and rice yields on the island of Shikoku, Japan. We performed two types of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations (with historical LUCs and with fixed land uses) using a regional atmospheric model (JMA-NHM) and a large-area rice-growth model (PRYSBI). During our study period in Shikoku, the area of paddy fields decreased markedly and the area of building lots and roads increased. Our evaluation suggests that these LUCs caused <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in and around paddy fields that were five times those in and around other land uses. The simulated rice yield in 2006 was 0.27% lower (0.012 t ha-1) than in 1987 in response to the change in thermal and solar radiation conditions. These results suggest that decreases of crop yield due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> deterioration will be found in other regions where similar LUCs are occurring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Accelerating?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been observed during the twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673"><span id="translatedtitle">Some economics of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schelling, T.C. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too <span class="hlt">numerous</span> and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NucFu..50a4005L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NucFu..50a4005L"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic fusion development for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> suppression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jiangang; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Xuru</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Energy shortage and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> suppression.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H21G..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H21G..06E"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of Groundwater Ages at Public-Supply Wells: Comparison of Results from Lumped Parameter and <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Inverse Models with Multiple <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberts, S.; Bohlke, J. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Estimates of groundwater age distributions at public-supply wells can provide insight into the vulnerability of these wells to contamination. Such estimates can be used to explore past and future water-quality trends and contaminant peak concentrations when combined with information on contaminant input at the water table. Information on groundwater age distributions, however, is not routinely applied to water quality issues at public-supply wells. This may be due, in part, to the difficulty in obtaining such estimates from poorly characterized aquifers with limited <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracer data. To this end, we compared distributions of groundwater ages in discharge from public-supply wells estimated from age tracer data (SF6, CFCs, 3H, 3He) using two different inverse modeling approaches: relatively simple lumped parameter models and more complex distributed-parameter <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow models with particle tracking. These comparisons were made in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings across the United States: unconsolidated alluvial fan sediments, layered confined unconsolidated sediments, unconsolidated valley-fill sediments, and carbonate rocks. In all instances, multiple age tracer measurements for the public-supply well of interest were available. We compared the following quantities, which were derived from simulated breakthrough curves that were generated using the various estimated age distributions for the selected wells and assuming the same hypothetical contaminant input: time lag to peak concentration, dilution at peak concentration, and contaminant arrival and flush times. Apparent tracer-based ages and mean and median simulated ages also were compared. For each setting, both types of models yielded similar age distributions and concentration trends, when based on similar conceptual models of local hydrogeology and calibrated to the same tracer measurements. Results indicate carefully chosen and calibrated simple lumped parameter age distribution models can give predictions of contaminant breakthrough at individual public-supply wells that are similar to predictions from more labor-intensive <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow simulation models for contaminants with spatially uniform but time-varying inputs. The simulated contaminant trends illustrate important potential errors or uncertainties associated with well vulnerability assessments based on either mean ages or discrete age estimates (apparent tracer ages), and highlight the advantage of having relatively simple tools that can be used to gain some insight into the groundwater age distribution at a public-supply well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511"><span id="translatedtitle">Winners and losers in a world with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The general perception is that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on resource allocations, the global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> stock, and national and global welfare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853"><span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, K.M.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore regions of the machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613877B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613877B"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">warm</span> winters on microbial growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-<span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) <span class="hlt">warming</span> directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) <span class="hlt">warming</span> indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> and ambient plot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hengeveld, H. )</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> waters, bleached corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, L.</p> <p>1990-10-12</p> <p>Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887"><span id="translatedtitle">Interacting <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e1001C"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> threatens world cultural heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cazenave, Anny</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">warming</span>: daily temperature change influences belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Although people are quite aware of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471031"><span id="translatedtitle">A policy synthesis approach for slowing global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Timilsina, G.R.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a burning <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AIPC..247..222C"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppock, Rob</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616313"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Science or politics? Part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dorweiler, V.P.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fate. These three areas are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span> (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense crystallography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "<span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..NES.C1006G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Claims, Science, and Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gould, Laurence I.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. <small>To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6</small></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178"><span id="translatedtitle">Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia. PMID:22036178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.W. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> events have been the same.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760879"><span id="translatedtitle">Autophagic activation in vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> mouse oocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bang, Soyoung; Shin, Hyejin; Song, Haengseok; Suh, Chang Suk; Lim, Hyunjung Jade</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Vitrification involves the use of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), which may cause osmotic damage and cryoinjury to oocytes. Autophagy is widely recognized as a survival or response mechanism elicited by various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and cellular stressors. However, the induction of autophagy in vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> oocytes has not been examined. In this work, we investigated whether the vitrification-<span class="hlt">warming</span> process induces autophagy in mouse oocytes. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes that were vitrified and stored in LN2 for at least 2 weeks were used in the study. In RT-PCR analyses, we observed that several Atg genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, LC3a (Map1lc3a), LC3b (Map1lc3b), and Beclin1 were expressed in MII mouse oocytes. Slight reduction in mRNA levels of Atg7 and Atg12 in vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> oocytes was noted, and expression of these genes was not significantly influenced. Confocal live imaging analysis using oocytes from GFP-LC3 transgenic mice revealed that vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> oocytes had a significantly higher number of GFP-LC3 puncta in comparison to fresh oocytes. The expression of BECLIN1 protein was also increased in vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> oocytes. Treatment with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, did not significantly affect the rates of oocyte survival, IVF, and embryonic development after <span class="hlt">warming</span> and IVF. The results suggest that the observed autophagic activation in vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> oocytes is a natural adaptive response to cold stress. Collectively, we show for the first time that vitrified-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> mouse oocytes exhibit autophagic activation during <span class="hlt">warming</span> and that this response is not induced by CPA-containing solutions. The induction of autophagy by cold temperature is first reported herein. PMID:24760879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of lake Kivu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=319859','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=319859"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen fertilizer management impact on dry matter yield of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season grasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Perennial <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season grasses are being studied extensively as lignocellulosic herbaceous bioenergy feedstocks as they exhibit <span class="hlt">numerous</span> ecosystem benefits. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management and harvesting management are considered as critical management practices which effects on both the dry matte...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.119...48Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.119...48Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Manila clam growth and its food sources to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a subarctic lagoon in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Seokjin; Abe, Hiroya; Kishi, Michio J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Akkeshi Lake is a subarctic shallow brackish lagoon located in Hokkaido, Japan. The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is cultured in sandy sediments at the shallow, intertidal flat near the mouth of the lake. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as water temperature and food availability on the growth of the Manila clam and to estimate the responses of Manila clam growth and food availability to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Akkeshi Lake, we developed a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model by coupling a three-dimensional ecosystem model with a bioenergetics model for the growth of the Manila clam. We ran the model under two different conditions: the present condition and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. For the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, water temperature was increased by 2 °C at the open boundary for the entire computational period. The growth of the Manila clam was limited by water temperature and food availability. The Manila clam grew up to 1.33 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake mouth (station A) for 5 years, whereas it grew up to 1.00 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake center (station B). The difference in the biomass of the Manila clam between two stations was due to the difference in food availability. Under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, the water temperature limitation for the Manila clam was relaxed with a water temperature increase. The Manila clam grew up to 1.55 g dry weight ind.-1 at station A and 1.10 g dry weight ind.-1 at station B. While the growth of the Manila clam was improved in the lake under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, its food sources, especially phytoplankton, decreased because of ingestion increases of grazers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..369S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..369S"><span id="translatedtitle">Glaciology: Repeat <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Benjamin E.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Greenland's glaciers have lost significant amounts of ice over the past decade. Rediscovered historical images of the ice margin show a record of southeast Greenland's response to the last major <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in the 1930s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mercury+OR+planet+NOT+element&pg=3&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mercury+OR+planet+NOT+element&pg=3&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ935291"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmosphere&pg=2&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmosphere&pg=2&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099120"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecologic simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water aquaculture ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon. PMID:25236841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20726181"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for the FE-Simulation of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Metal Forming Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tong, L.; Stahel, S.; Hora, P.</p> <p>2005-08-05</p> <p>Better formability, less forming force and satisfactory quality are the most important characteristics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. However, the material models for either cold forming or hot forming cannot be directly adopted for the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes. Supplement and modification are necessary. Based on the Zener-Hollomon formulation, additional terms are proposed in the presented work to describe the softening effect observed during <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming processes as well as the strain hardening effect. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation provides detailed information about the history and distribution of both deformation and temperature, the phase transformation can then also be evaluated, provided the experimental data are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&pg=3&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&pg=3&id=EJ946279"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0–8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Brian Fagan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, B. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Five centuries of irregular <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> argues that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">warm</span> days increase belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global <span class="hlt">warming</span> attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=JOPERD&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=JOPERD&id=EJ925234"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Movement <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routines can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010901','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010901"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, A. D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, and to correlate the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for <span class="hlt">warming</span>, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> cases are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in <span class="hlt">warmings</span> is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in relation to man's activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and infectious disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth <span class="hlt">warms</span>, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> early Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasting, J.F.</p> <p>1997-05-23</p> <p>Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars <span class="hlt">warm</span> with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22514109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22514109M"><span id="translatedtitle">21-SPONGE Detects Unexpectedly "<span class="hlt">Warm</span>" Neutral Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murray, Claire; Lindner, Robert; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Babler, Brian L.; 21-Sponge Team</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present results from "21 cm Spectral Line Observations of Neutral Gas with the (E)VLA" (21-SPONGE), a large survey for Galactic HI absorption with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With RMS noise in optical depth of <10-3 per 0.42 km/s channel over 58 lines of sight (40 fully analyzed), 21-SPONGE is the largest HI absorption survey with such high sensitivity ever undertaken. This sensitivity allows us to detect weak absorption by diffuse, <span class="hlt">warm</span> HI (``<span class="hlt">warm</span> neutral medium", WNM) directly, and to measure its previously-unconstrained physical properties. We obtain corresponding HI emission spectra from the Arecibo Observatory and calculate column densities and spin temperatures of Gaussian-fitted clouds along each line of sight. To maximize our sensitivity, we stacked the spectral residuals from the first 19 sources, and detected a statistical WNM absorption signature with Ts= 7200(+1800,-1200) K (68% confidence). This high temperature requires a significantly larger density of Lya photons in the ISM than is predicted by recent theoretical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> studies. We extend this analysis to measure the effect of Galactic environment on statistical WNM properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EOSTr..89..553D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EOSTr..89..553D"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Influence Tornado Activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Trapp, Robert J.; Brooks, Harold</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Tornadoes and other severe thunderstorm phenomena frequently cause as much annual property damage in the United States as do hurricanes, and often cause more fatalities (see http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml). In 2008, there were 2176 preliminary tornado reports logged through mid-December, with 1600 ``actual counts'' (duplicate reports removed) through September, the highest total in the past half century (Figure 1). The mass media have covered these events extensively, and experts have been deluged with requests for explanations, including possible links to anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Although recent research has yielded insight into the connections between global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and tornado and severe thunderstorm forcing, these relationships remain mostly unexplored, largely because of the challenges in observing and <span class="hlt">numerically</span> simulating tornadoes. Indeed, a number of questions that have been answered for other climate-related phenomena remain particularly difficult for climate and severe weather scientists, including whether there are detectable trends in tornado occurrence and if so, what causes them. This article explores the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these areas of research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.</p> <p>2008-01-24</p> <p>Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle <span class="hlt">warming</span> variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.3403S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DPS....39.3403S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Spitzer <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mission: Hot Science with a "<span class="hlt">Warm</span>" Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Squires, Gordon K.; Helou, G.; Soifer, T.; Carey, S.; Rebull, L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Warm Mission white papers, Spitzer</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The Spitzer Space Telescope is the infrared component of NASA's family of Great Observatories comprised of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Cryogenically cooled and in Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer currently offers imaging capabilities from 3.6-160 microns, and spectroscopy from 5-38 microns. In approximately March 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5’ fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. In this "warm” mission phase, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional” time allocations. This poster summarizes some of the possible large scientific programs enabled by a Spitzer <span class="hlt">warm</span> mission, including support for theory and archival programs. The content is summarized from contributed white papers to the Spitzer <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mission workshop, held in Pasadena, CA in June 2007. For detailed information on these and other science programs possible with <span class="hlt">warm</span> Spitzer observations, please see: http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/mtgs/<span class="hlt">warm</span>/</u></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the summit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990561"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼ 35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition 'worsened' at the same time. The 'worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the 'better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact of bioenergy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479485"><span id="translatedtitle">More data needed to support or disprove global <span class="hlt">warming</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-05-26</p> <p>Reports of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But <span class="hlt">environmental</span> pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural <span class="hlt">warming</span> and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> can enhance invasion success through asymmetries in energetic performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penk, Marcin R; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Minchin, Dan; Donohue, Ian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Both climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders' performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M. salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H. anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under <span class="hlt">warming</span> climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios. PMID:26618450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5936225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5936225"><span id="translatedtitle">Myth or reality; Some data dispute global <span class="hlt">warming</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, R.W.</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will <span class="hlt">warm</span> by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has already been detected is pretty close to zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5495825"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11412103S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric predictability and sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stan, Cristiana; Straus, David M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A comparative study of the limit of predictability in the stratosphere and troposphere in a coupled general circulation model is carried out using the National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Interactive Ensemble (CFSIE). In "identical twin experiments", we compare the forecast errors of zonal wind and potential temperature in the troposphere and stratosphere for various wave groups. The results show smaller intrinsic error growth in the lower stratosphere compared with troposphere. The limit of predictability of sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events, measured by the errors in the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux, is dominated by the amplification of small errors in the individual fields due to differences between the phase of the waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K"><span id="translatedtitle">Equatorial refuge amid tropical <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Nio, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sozio, Gerry</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Senior secondary students cover <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drelativity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the potential of causing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of day versus night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>One feature of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day <span class="hlt">warming</span> did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The differential effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature varied with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns and variability of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:20409574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is constant throughout the year. If <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable <span class="hlt">warming</span> predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales. PMID:26649399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic climate change: Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> unleashed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2"><span id="translatedtitle">Catching a Cold When It's <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s <span class="hlt">Warm</span> What’s the Deal with Summertime ... what could be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s <span class="hlt">warm</span>? How can cold symptoms arise ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> trends: Adapting to nonlinear change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jonko, Alexandra K.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> more than others. Research suggests that whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Surfactant <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt Construction Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix agent to produce <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian description of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Norman L.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Antarctic waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW <span class="hlt">warming</span> are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6415608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6415608"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon cycle and climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1983-12-09</p> <p>The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is expected to cause a <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the earth. This increase is due to the fact that more carbon is released into the atmosphere than is removed by the biota and the oceans. Understanding the carbon cycle is important in predicting future <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A major uncertainty is the timing and magnitude of future releases of CO/sub 2/ from the burning of fossil fuels. Today, 1.1 tons of carbon as CO/sub 2/ are released every year for every person on Earth. Estimates are given on how much CO/sub 2/ has been released into the atmosphere since fossil fuels have been burned. The ultimate aim of carbon cycle research is to predict how the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere will vary as mankind pumps more and more of it into the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The details of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35707"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the world <span class="hlt">warming</span> or not?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1995-02-03</p> <p>Articles in the popular press indicate controversy surrounding the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However greenhouse models predict more <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is presently apparent. For climate change to live up to predictions, the minimal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the 1980`s will have to accelerate into the next millenium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both interactive and divergent impacts on various aspects of ecosystem functioning. PMID:26426698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPA51A1467L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPA51A1467L"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, C. A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken to protect the human race's only home - Earth. Most studies of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have investigated the rates and quantities of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. In this paper, we focus on the Earth's carbon budget and the associated energy transfer between various components of the climate system. This research invokes some new concepts: (i) certain biochemical processes which strongly interact with geophysical processes in climate system; (ii) a hypothesis that internal processes in the oceans rather than in the atmosphere are at the center of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; (iii) chemical energy stored in biochemical processes can significantly affect ocean dynamics and therefore the climate system. Based on those concepts, we propose a new hypothesis for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We also propose a revolutionary strategy to deal with global climate change and provide domestic energy security at the same time. Recent ocean exploration indicates that huge deposits of oceanic methane hydrate deposits exist on the seafloor on continental margins. Methane hydrate transforms into water and methane gas when it dissociates. So, this potentially could provide the United States with energy security if the technology for mining in the 200-mile EEZ is developed and is economically viable. Furthermore, methane hydrate is a relatively <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> benign, clean fuel. Such technology would help industry reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, and thus reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by harnessing the energy from the deep sea.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In the Meado<span class="hlt">Warm</span> project we conduct an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular split plots (diameter: 3.65 m & surface area: 10.5 m2) composed of one half amended with biochar and one control half not amended were prepared. Five of these plots are equipped with a <span class="hlt">warming</span> system, while the other five were equipped with dummies. Each <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plot is collocated with a control plot within one block. While split plots are all oriented in the same direction the position of blocks is randomized to eliminate the effect of the spatial variability. Biochar was incorporated in the first 20 cm of the soil with a rototiller. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> system is provided by hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters. The temperature of the plots is monitored with infrared cameras. The 3oC increase of temperature is obtained by dynamically monitoring the temperature difference between <span class="hlt">warmed</span> and control plots within blocks via improved software. Each plot is further equipped with a soil temperature and moisture sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1316S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1316S"><span id="translatedtitle">The hiatus and accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades in CMIP5 simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Yi; Yu, Yongqiang; Lin, Pengfei</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Observed hiatus or accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomena are compared with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives, and the associated physical mechanisms are explored based on the CMIP5 models. Decadal trends in total ocean heat content (OHC) are strongly constrained by net top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation. During hiatus decades, most CMIP5 models exhibit a significant decrease in the SST and upper OHC and a significant increase of heat penetrating into the subsurface or deep ocean, opposite to the accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades. The shallow meridional overturning of the Pacific subtropical cell experiences a significant strengthening (slowdown) for the hiatus (accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span>) decades associated with the strengthened (weakened) trade winds over the tropical Pacific. Both surface heating and ocean dynamics contribute to the decadal changes in SST over the Indian Ocean, and the Indonesian Throughflow has a close relationship with the changes of subsurface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Meridional Overturing Circulation (Antarctic Bottom Water) tends to weaken (strengthen) during hiatus decades, opposite to the accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades. In short, the results highlight the important roles of air-sea interactions and ocean circulations for modulation of surface and subsurface temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the last glacial cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M., Jr.; Stepanova, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling to show that the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..876A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..876A"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistent inflow of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water onto the central Amundsen shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arneborg, L.; Wåhlin, A. K.; Björk, G.; Liljebladh, B.; Orsi, A. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The West Antarctic Ice Sheet contains enough ice to raise global sea level by several metres and, because it is grounded mainly below sea level, it is sensitive to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Accelerated thinning of glaciers that discharge into the Amundsen Sea over the past decades has been proposed to be related to the presence of warmer waters beneath the ice shelves. Three deep troughs crosscut the continental shelf of the Amundsen Sea, forming passages through which <span class="hlt">warm</span> ocean waters can access the ice shelves, but oceanographic data has been limited. Here we present direct measurements from an ocean mooring and ship transect of the temperatures, salinities and velocities from one of these troughs in the central Amundsen Sea during the year 2010. The data show persistent inflow towards the ice shelf of relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> and salty water at the bottom of the trough throughout the year, and outflow of colder water above. Superposed on this background flow are barotropic current fluctuations that do not contribute significantly to the overall transport. In contrast to <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models, which show seasonal inflow changes in response to regional winds, we find that <span class="hlt">warm</span> water is supplied to the Central Amundsen Shelf without strong seasonal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3913719"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Historical and Experimental Data to Reveal <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Effects on Ant Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Diamond, Sarah E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Levey, Douglas J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976–2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010–2011 were ∼2.7°C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼1.5–5.5°C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on thermal tolerances, understanding functional traits may prove useful in explaining responses of species to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:24505364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, global research, and global governing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The anticipated dangers of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241129"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for <span class="hlt">warming</span> field plots from 1 to 100 m</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a need to study the likely effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystems with experimental treatments as representative as possible of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. One approach that shows much promise is the use of hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters to <span class="hlt">warm</span> canopies of vegetation. This appr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3601S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3601S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Spitzer <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mission - Hot Science with a "<span class="hlt">Warm</span>" Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soifer, Baruch T.; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Squires, G. K.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Spitzer Space Telescope is the infrared component of NASA's family of Great Observatories comprised of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Cryogenically cooled and in Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer currently offers imaging capabilities from 3.6-160 microns, and spectroscopy from 5-38 microns. In approximately March 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5' fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. In this "<span class="hlt">warm</span>" mission phase, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional" time allocations, and funding for archival research. This presentation will review the technical and operational capabilities of Spitzer in the post-cryogen era, and will introduce some of the science enabled by <span class="hlt">warm</span> Spitzer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rühland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470972','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470972"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated assessment of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ott, K.O.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C <span class="hlt">warming</span> on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span id="translatedtitle">From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation. PMID:24904161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=Seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSeasons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=Seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSeasons"><span id="translatedtitle">Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season QPF be Improved?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for <span class="hlt">numerous</span> reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533"><span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen addition in a semiarid steppe ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yong-Chan; Gao, Cheng; Zheng, Yong; He, Xin-Hua; Yang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shi-Qiang; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen (N) fertilization is critical to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem functioning under global climate change scenarios. In this study, AM fungal communities were examined in a full factorial design with <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition in a semiarid steppe in northern China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> significantly increased AM fungal spore density, regardless of N addition, whilst N addition significantly decreased AM fungal extraradical hyphal density, regardless of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A total of 79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered by 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rDNA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, but not N addition, had a significant positive effect on AM fungal OTU richness, while <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition significantly increased AM fungal Shannon diversity index. N addition, but not <span class="hlt">warming</span>, significantly altered the AM fungal community composition. Furthermore, the changes in AM fungal community composition were associated with shifts in plant community composition indirectly caused by N addition. These findings highlight the different effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition on AM fungal communities and contribute to understanding AM fungal community responses to global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in semiarid steppe ecosystems. PMID:25307533</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3823403D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3823403D"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> to western U.S. streamflow changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Vano, Julie A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season (April-September) <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. A uniform <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 3°C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2981942','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2981942"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting phenology under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>As a consequence of <span class="hlt">warming</span> temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> gas TVC design study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moorhead, S. B., Jr.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=biopolymer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72816279&CFTOKEN=10114796','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=biopolymer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72816279&CFTOKEN=10114796"><span id="translatedtitle">A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> AND FOSSIL FUEL USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D"><span id="translatedtitle">Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhPl...17k2704F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhPl...17k2704F"><span id="translatedtitle">Mach reflection in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foster, J. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilde, B. H.; Hartigan, P.; Perry, T. S.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of irregular shock-wave reflection is of importance in high-temperature gas dynamics, astrophysics, inertial-confinement fusion, and related fields of high-energy-density science. However, most experimental studies of irregular reflection have used supersonic wind tunnels or shock tubes, and few or no data are available for Mach reflection phenomena in the plasma regime. Similarly, analytic studies have often been confined to calorically perfect gases. We report the first direct observation, and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling, of Mach stem formation for a <span class="hlt">warm</span>, dense plasma. Two ablatively driven aluminum disks launch oppositely directed, near-spherical shock waves into a cylindrical plastic block. The interaction of these shocks results in the formation of a Mach-ring shock that is diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. The data are modeled using radiation hydrocodes developed by AWE and LANL. The experiments were carried out at the University of Rochester's Omega laser [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] and were inspired by modeling [A. M. Khokhlov, P. A. Höflich, E. S. Oran et al., Astrophys J. 524, L107 (1999)] of core-collapse supernovae that suggest that in asymmetric supernova explosion significant mass may be ejected in a Mach-ring formation launched by bipolar jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248"><span id="translatedtitle">Exceptional <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Funk, Christopher C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Indian–Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9065R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9065R"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in hemispheric <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Using a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of temperature anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Linear trends in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, trends also were consistently positive, with <span class="hlt">warm</span> anomalies having much larger <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent trend has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate trends reliably, cooling was evident in NH <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to <span class="hlt">warm</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span id="translatedtitle">Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting wildlife response to rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Alaskan Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Problems in assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longstreth, J.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to result in a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..206F"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological stability in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under <span class="hlt">warming</span> remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> microcosms were explained in terms of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that <span class="hlt">warming</span> stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: <span class="hlt">warming</span> should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EOSTr..70..580B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EOSTr..70..580B"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change Symposium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bush, Susan M.</p> <p></p> <p>The global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue has been catapulted to the forefront of media attention as a result of the drought of 1988 and extremely <span class="hlt">warm</span> temperatures. NASA scientist James Hansen testified last year that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend has begun and that part of the temperature rise is due to gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluro-carbons (CFCs) being released into the atmosphere by human activity.In response to recent scientific speculation on the issue, the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., hosted the symposium Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change April 24 as part of their annual meeting. Speakers included Bert Bolin, University of Stockholm; Robert White, National Academy of Engineering; Stephen Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Research; and Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. Moderator was Russell Train, World Wildlife Fund.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428"><span id="translatedtitle">DPIS for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.</p> <p>2010-05-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16371953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16371953"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteorology: hurricanes and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Landsea, Christopher W</p> <p>2005-12-22</p> <p>Anthropogenic climate change has the potential for slightly increasing the intensity of tropical cyclones through <span class="hlt">warming</span> of sea surface temperatures. Emanuel has shown a striking and surprising association between sea surface temperatures and destructiveness by tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and western North Pacific basins. However, I question his analysis on the following grounds: it does not properly represent the observations described; the use of his Atlantic bias-removal scheme may not be warranted; and further investigation of a substantially longer time series for tropical cyclones affecting the continental United States does not show a tendency for increasing destructiveness. These factors indicate that instead of "unprecedented" tropical cyclone activity having occurred in recent years, hurricane intensity was equal or even greater during the last active period in the mid-twentieth century. PMID:16371953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216"><span id="translatedtitle">Halocarbon ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Concern over the global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global <span class="hlt">warming</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.5437S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.5437S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and diurnal variability in historical <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to the urbanization of Hokkaido, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, Shiori; Sato, Tomonori; Sasaki, Tomonori</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The influence of historical urbanization on <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends observed on Hokkaido Island (Japan) is discussed with an emphasis on seasonally and diurnally differential responses of air temperature to urban effects. Two <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments using past and current land use scenarios successfully simulated the observed temperature trends, showing a greater rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in winter than in summer and a greater increase in daily minimum than daily maximum temperatures. The results suggest that seasonal and diurnal variations in the thermal structure of the planetary boundary layer play a leading role in determining the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate of surface air. Under strongly stable stratification, anomalous heating within the urban canopy dissipates into a near-surface shallow layer, resulting in increased daily minimum temperatures during winter. In summer, however, anomalous urban heating due to increased Bowen ratios is attenuated by vertical mixing in the convective daytime boundary layer, suppressing the impact of urban heating on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span>: mechanism and latitude dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present <span class="hlt">warming</span> of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers of mass of some bodies of solar system and attributes of secular displacements of their centers of mass are universal and testify to relative translational displacements of shells of these bodies (such as the core, the mantle and others). And it means, that there is a highly effective mechanism of an active life of planets and satellites [1, 2]. This mechanism is distinct from the tidal mechanism of gravitational interaction of deformable celestial bodies. Its action is shown, for example, even in case if the core and the mantle are considered as absolutely rigid gravitating bodies, but separated by a is viscous-elastic layer. Classics of celestial mechanics did not consider gravitational interaction and relative translational displacement of the core and the mantle of the Earth. As our studies have shown the specified new mechanism is high energetic and allows to explain many of the phenomena earlier inaccessible to understanding in various geosciences, including climatology [1] - [5]. It has been shown, that secular changes in activity of all planetary processes on the Earth are connected with a secular drift of the core of the Earth, and are controlled by the core and are reflections and displays of the core drift [5]. It is naturally, that slow climatic changes are connected with drift of the core, with induced by this drift inversion changes in an atmosphere, ocean, with thermodynamic variations of state of layer D ', with changes and variations in mantle convection and in plume activity of the Earth. The drift of the core controls a transmission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth, organizes volcanic and seismic activity of the Earth in planetary scale. The mechanism of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> up of layers of the mantle and cyclic inversion changes of a climate. According to a developed geodynamic model all layers of the mantle at oscillations and motions of the core under action of its gravitational attraction test wide class of inversion deformations [1]. Thus the part of energy of deformations passes in heat by virtue of dissipation properties of the mantle. Than more intensively oscillations of the core, the more amplitudes of these oscillations, the occur the specified thermal transformations more intensively. As relative displacements of the core have cyclic character, because of cyclic influences on the core-mantle system of external celestial bodies also a formation of heat flows and <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plume materials (substances) will have also cyclic character. In particular orbital perturbations with Milankovitch's periods in 100 kyr, 41 kyr, etc. will be precisely reflected in variations of the specified thermal flows and, accordingly, a planetary climate. In it the essence of occurrence of cycles of congelations on the Earth [3] consists. If during any period of time the core behaves passively, amplitudes of its oscillations are small the thermal flows to a surface of a planet will be decrease. This geodynamic conditions corresponds to the periods of a cold snap. And on the contrary, if the core and mantle interact actively and make significant oscillations the thermal flows to a surface of a planet accrues. This geodynamic state corresponds to the periods of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. At drift of the core to the north and its oscillations with accrueing amplitude (for example, in present period) submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle will accrue. It is <span class="hlt">warmly</span> allocated in all layers of the mantle deformed by an attraction of the drifting and oscillating core. But a base layer is the layer D" ("kitchen of plume-tectonics"). As we know the two mechanisms work for <span class="hlt">warm</span> redistribution into the Earth. First is a mechanism of convection. In our geodynamical model it has forced nature and is organized and controlled by gravitational action of external celestial bodies and as result has cyclical character. Second mechanism is a plume mechanism which organizes the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> masses redistributions in higher levels of the mantle, on a bottom of ocean and on a surface of the Earth. In accordance with our geodynamical model mentioned redistribution of <span class="hlt">warmed</span> mass also has forced character. It is organized and controlled by gravitational cyclic action of the external celestial bodies on core-mantle system. N/S inversion of the natural processes. Reliable an attribute of influence of oscillations of the core on a variation of natural processes is their property of inversion when, for example, activity of process accrues in northern hemisphere and decreases in a southern hemisphere. Such contrast secular changes in northern and southern (N/S) hemispheres have been predicted on the base of geodynamic model [1] and revealed according to observations: from gravimetry measurements of a gravity; in determination of a secular trend of a sea level, as global, and in northern and southern hemispheres; in redistribution of air masses; in geodetic measurements of changes of average radiuses of northern and southern hemispheres; in contrast changes of physical fields, for example, streams of heat, currents and circulation at ocean and an atmosphere, etc. [5]. The geodynamic mechanism [1] also unequivocally specifies, that the secular trend in global climatic characteristics of the Earth, and also inversion and asymmetric tendencies of change of a climate, in its northern and southern hemispheres in present period should be observed. The hemispherical asymmetry of global heat flows. In the paper [6] authors have shown that the mean heat flow of the Southern Hemisphere is 99.3 mW/m2, significantly higher than that of the Northern Hemisphere (74.0 mW/m2). The mantle heat loss from the Southern Hemisphere is 22.1 × 1012 W, as twice as that from the Northern Hemisphere (10.8 × 1012 W). The authors believe that this hemispherical asymmetry of global heat loss is originated by the asymmetry of geographic distribution of continents and oceans. In accordance with our geodynamical model discussed assymmetry of heat flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of <span class="hlt">warming</span> from latitude. And <span class="hlt">warm</span> flows are asymmetrically, more intensively <span class="hlt">warm</span> is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive <span class="hlt">warming</span> up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and asymmetry in decade variations of temperatures in northern and southern hemispheres (smaller variations in a southern hemisphere). References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, M., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. [2] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Moons and planets: mechanism of their life. Proceedings of International Conference 'Astronomy and World Heritage: across Time and Continents' (Kazan, 19-24 August 2009). KSU, pp. 142-161. [3] Barkin Yu.V. (2004) Dynamics of the Earth shells and variations of paleoclimate. Proceedings of Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium 'Paleoclimate and the Earth climate system' (Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August - 2 September, 2004). Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, pp. 161-164. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Inversion of periodic and trend variations of climate in opposite hemispheres of the Earth and their mechanism. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007) (P) - IAPSO, JPS001 'Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability', p. 1674. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2008) Secular polar drift of the core in present epoch: geodynamical and geophysical consequences and confirmations. General and regional problems of tectonics and geodynamics. Materials of XLI Tectonic Conference. V. 1. -M.:GEOS. p. 55-59. In Russian. [6] Yang Wang, Jiyang Wangand Zongji Ma (1998) On the asymmetric distribution of heat loss from the Earth's interior. Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 43, Number 18 , p. 1566-1570.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......485S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......485S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shongwe, M. E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often interpolated or extrapolated to give an indication of the likelihood of a certain event within a given period or interval. Under changing climatic conditions, the statistical properties of climate extremes are also changing. It is an important scientific goal to predict how the properties of extreme events change. To achieve this goal, observational and model studies aimed at revealing important features are a necessary prerequisite. Notable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms that influence climate variability and extremes in many parts of the globe including Europe. However, some of the recently observed unprecedented extremes cannot be fully explained from the already identified forcing factors. A better understanding of why these extreme events occur and their sensitivity to certain reinforcing and/or competing factors is useful. Understanding their basic form as well as their temporal variability is also vital and can contribute to global scientific efforts directed at advancing climate prediction capabilities, particularly making skilful forecasts and realistic projections of extremes. In this thesis temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe and Africa, respectively, are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of the extremes, their predictability and their likely response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The focus is on some selected seasons when extremes typically occur. An atmospheric energy budget analysis for the record-breaking European Autumn 2006 event has been carried out with the goal to identify the sources of energy for the extreme event. Net radiational heating is compared to surface turbulent fluxes of energy and dynamic horizontal advection of heat. There is clear evidence that the central North Atlantic Ocean was the major source of energy for the Autumn 2006 extreme event. Within Europe, anomalously high atmospheric water-vapor loading played a significant role through its strong greenhouse effect which resulted in an increase of downwelling infrared flux to the surface. Potential influences and connections between boreal snow cover during the melt season (February--April) and near-surface temperature in the spring season are established. Large amounts of snow act as a precursor to cold spring seasons by altering the coupling between the land and the overlying air through a modification of the surface energy and hydrological processes. In operational <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models, a snow signal is found to provide some seasonal forecast skill for cold spring seasons in Europe. Changes in the intensity of droughts and floods in Africa in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are investigated and compared with changes in mean precipitation simulated by an ensemble of climate models selected from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report (AR4) set. The model simulations are objectively combined using a Bayesian weighting procedure. In southern Africa south of about 15° S, the most robust climate-change signal is a shortening of the main rainfall season. This arises from a delayed onset of seasonal rainfall associated with a reduction in lower-tropospheric moisture advection from the southwestern Indian Ocean. The semi-arid areas closer to the Kalahari desert are projected to become drier, while the wet areas are projected to become wetter. East Africa is projected to get wet in the future climate, much wetter than other regions within the same latitudinal belt. The zonal asymmetry in tropical precipitation increase is associated with a shift towards positive Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM)-like events via an alteration in the structure of the Eastern Hemisphere Walker circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.1538F"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stellar evolution on migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frewen, S. F. N.; Hansen, B. M. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> jupiters are an unexpected population of extrasolar planets that are too near to their host to have formed in situ, but distant enough to retain a significant eccentricity in the face of tidal damping. These planets are curiously absent around stars larger than two solar radii. We hypothesize that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiters are migrating due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, which lead to transient episodes of high eccentricity and a consequent tidal decay. As their host evolves, such planets would be rapidly dragged in or engulfed at minimum periapse, leading to a dramatic depletion of this population with increasing stellar radius, as is observed. Using <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, we determine the relationship between periapse distance and orbital migration rate for planets 0.1-10 Jupiter masses and with orbital periods between 10 and 100 d. We find that Kozai-Lidov oscillations effectively result in planetary removal early in the evolution of the host star, possibly accounting for the observed deficit. While the observed eccentricity distribution is inconsistent with the simulated distribution for an oscillating and migrating <span class="hlt">warm</span> jupiter population, observational biases may explain the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal biases and vulnerability to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the world's marine fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Barrett, Neville S; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Bates, Amanda E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and combine these with projected ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> data to predict <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss. PMID:26560025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear electron oscillations in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&id=EJ912888"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water&pg=2&id=EJ1094559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water&pg=2&id=EJ1094559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Water in a Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ817943"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...22K"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryosphere: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> ocean erodes ice sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kusahara, Kazuya</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Antarctic ice sheets are a key player in sea-level rise in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Now an ice-sheet modelling study clearly demonstrates that an Antarctic ice sheet/shelf system in the Atlantic Ocean will be regulated by the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surrounding Southern Ocean, not by marine-ice-sheet instability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ice+AND+Age&pg=2&id=EJ502195','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ice+AND+Age&pg=2&id=EJ502195"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and unequal <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+temperature&pg=3&id=EJ502198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+temperature&pg=3&id=EJ502198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A resource for teaching about the consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the tropical water budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Betts, Alan K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ817943"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ912888"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Greenhouse+AND+gases&pg=5&id=EJ410863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Greenhouse+AND+gases&pg=5&id=EJ410863"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: How Much and Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanouette, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the history of the study of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Students' Ideas about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal Extraction - <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without <span class="hlt">environmental</span> costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled Soil <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2 C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Disks from Giant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of mass ejected from colliding protoplanets is typically around 0.4 Earth masses. This mass is ejected in the form of fragments that then spread into the terrestrial planet region around the star. The fragments undergo cascading collisions as they orbit, forming an infrared-emitting debris disk at ~1 AU from the star.The authors then calculate the infrared flux profile expected from these simulated disks. They show that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> disks can exist and radiate for up to ~100 Myr before the fragments are smashed into micrometer-sized pieces small enough to be blown out of the solar system by radiation pressure.The Spitzer Space Telescope has, thus far, observed tens of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-debris-disk signatures roughly consistent with the authors predictions, primarily located at roughly 1 AU around stars with ages of 10100 Myr. This region is near the habitable zone of these stars, which makes it especially interesting that these systems may currently be undergoing a giant impact stage perhaps on the way to forming terrestrial planets.CitationH. Genda et al 2015 ApJ 810 136. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, insurance losses and financial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. How global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation regime drives soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in temperate steppes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments have been done to examine the impacts of elevated temperature on soil microbial actives, most of them were based on responses from a single site. To investigate how precipitation regime regulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s effects on carbon cycle, field manipulative <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments were conducted at 3 types of steppes (desert, typical and meadow steppe) along a precipitation gradient in northern China. Soil temperature, moisture, dissolved organic C (DOC), inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration, microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and respiration (MR) were measured once a year from 2006 to 2009. The results showed that soil moisture was significantly decreased in the typical steppe whereas not affected in the desert and meadow steppe, respectively. Across the 4 years, <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased MBC and MR in the desert and typical steppe while did not affect them in the meadow steppe. The magnitude of reductions in <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced MBC and MR declined with increasing precipitation gradient at a regional scale. Across the precipitation gradient, all changes in soil MBC, MBN and MR were positively correlated with both annual precipitation and changes in belowground net primary productivity (BNPP), suggesting that soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> may be regulated by annual precipitation and substrate availability. However, the lab-incubation revealed that soil moisture is more important in regulating soil microbial activities than substrate across the 3 steppes. In addition, soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed year-to-year variations during the first 4 years coincided with the fluctuations in annual precipitation across the 3 steppes. Our results suggested that precipitation regime controls the spatial and interannual responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mainly by regulating soil moisture and substrate availability. With the increase in precipitation, the positive responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span> started to outweigh the negative impacts caused by the decline of soil moisture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing ice discharge through West Antarctic Gateways: Weddell vs. Amundsen Sea <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. A.; Levermann, A.; Winkelmann, R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Future changes in Antarctic ice discharge will be largely controlled by the fate of the floating ice shelves, which exert a back-stress onto Antarctica's marine outlet glaciers. Ice loss in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Amundsen Sea has been observed and investigated as a potential trigger for the marine ice-sheet instability. Recent observations and simulations suggest that the Amundsen Sea Sector might already be unstable which would have strong implications for global sea-level rise. At the same time, regional ocean projections show much stronger <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water intrusion into ice-shelf cavities in the Weddell Sea compared to the observed Amundsen <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we present results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice sheet modelling with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) which show that idealized, step-function type ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Weddell Sea leads to more immediate ice discharge with a higher sensitivity to small <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels than the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Amundsen Sea. This is consistent with the specific combination of bedrock and ice topography in the Weddell Sea Sector which results in an ice sheet close to floatation. In response to even slight ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases rapidly, peaks and declines within one century. While the cumulative ice loss in the Amundsen Sea Sector is of similar magnitude after five centuries of continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases at a slower pace and only for significantly higher <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels. Although there is more marine ice stored above sea level in close vicinity of the grounding line compared to the Weddell Sea Sector, the ice sheet is farther from floatation and the grounding line initially retreats more slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Th%26Ae..20..339S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Th%26Ae..20..339S"><span id="translatedtitle">The features of gas hydrate dissociation in porous media at <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shagapov, V. Sh.; Khasanov, M. K.; Gimaltdinov, I. K.; Stolpovsky, M. V.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas injection into a porous medium initially saturated with gas and gas hydrate, accompanied by gas hydrate dissociation, are presented. It is shown that depending on parameters at the outer boundary of the medium (permeable or impermeable to the gas flow) hydrate dissociation can occur both at the frontal boundary and in the extended region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> research in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morellato, L. P. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse tube stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A pulse tube type stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction. PMID:15831755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-18</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: The complete briefing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Houghton, J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....38..305N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....38..305N"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal pollution causes global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nordell, Bo</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reproductive health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=GAS+LAWS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGAS%2BLAWS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=GAS+LAWS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGAS%2BLAWS"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium gas flow computations. II - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vinokur, Marcel; Liu, Yen</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for three-dimensional, time-varying grids. The approximations inherent in previous generalizations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........55K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........55K"><span id="translatedtitle">On modeled and observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence and its relationships with cloud macrophysical properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Joshua Matthew</p> <p></p> <p>Rainfall from low-level, liquid-phase ("<span class="hlt">warm</span>") clouds over the global oceans is ubiquitous and contributes non-negligibly to the total amount of precipitation that falls to the globe. In this study, modeled and observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence and its bulk statistical relationships with cloud macrophysical properties are analyzed independently and directly compared with one another. Rain is found to fall from ˜25% of the <span class="hlt">warm</span>, maritime clouds observed from space by CloudSat and from ˜27% of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds simulated within a large-scale, fine-resolution radiative convective equilibrium experiment performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Within both the model and the observations, the fractional occurrence of <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall is found to increase with both column-integrated liquid water mass and cloud geometric depth, two cloud-scale properties that are shown to be directly related to one another. However, <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain within RAMS is more likely with lower amounts of column water mass than observations indicate, suggesting that the parameterized cloud-to-rain conversion processes within RAMS produce rainfall too efficiently. To gain insight into the relationships between <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall production and the concentration of liquid water within a cloud layer, <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence is subsequently investigated as a joint, simultaneous function of both cloud depth and column-integrated water mass. While rainfall production within RAMS is largely governed by the availability of liquid water within the cloud volume, rain from observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds with relatively little column water mass is actually more likely to fall from deeper clouds with lower cloud-mean water contents. The latter, CloudSat-derived trend is shown to be robust across different seasons and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions; it varies little when the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud distribution is stratified into ascending (day) and descending (night) CloudSat overpass groups. Using temperature differences between RAMS cloud tops and their immediate, surrounding environments as a proxy for cloud-top buoyancy, an attempt is then made to quantitatively investigate simulated <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain occurrence within the broader context of cloud life cycle. It is found that rainfall likelihoods from RAMS-simulated <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds with cloud top temperatures warmer than their surrounding environments more closely resemble the overall CloudSat-derived rainfall occurrence trends. This result suggests that the CloudSat-observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud distribution is characterized by increased numbers of positively buoyant, developing clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0773N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0773N"><span id="translatedtitle">Stream Temperature Sensitivity to Climate <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in California's Sierra Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Null, S.; Viers, J. H.; Deas, M.; Tanaka, S.; Mount, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Water temperatures influence the distribution, abundance, and health of aquatic organisms in stream ecosystems. Improving understanding of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the thermal regime of rivers will help water managers better manage instream habitat. This study assesses climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on unregulated stream temperatures in California’s west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds from the Feather River to the Kern River. We used unregulated hydrology to isolate climate induced changes from those of water operations and land use changes. A 21 year timeseries of weekly instream flow estimates from WEAP21, a spatially explicit rainfall-runoff model were passed to RTEMP, a simplified model based on equilibrium temperature theory, to estimate stream temperatures using net heat exchange, coarse river channel geometry, and exposure time of water to atmospheric conditions. Air temperature was uniformly increased by 2○C, 4○C, and 6○C as a sensitivity analysis to bracket the range of likely outcomes for stream temperatures. Other meteorological conditions, including precipitation, were left unchanged from historical values. Overall, stream temperatures increased by an average of 1.6○C for each 2○C rise in air temperature, and increased most at middle elevations. Thermal heterogeneity existed within and between basins (Figure 1). The high watersheds of the southern Sierra Nevada and the Feather River watershed were less vulnerable to changes in the thermal regime of rivers from climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Precipitation as rainfall instead of snowfall, and low flow conditions were two characteristics that drove water temperatures dynamics with climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These results suggest the thermal regime of rivers will change with climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Viable coldwater habitat will shift to higher elevations and will likely be reduced in California. Understanding potential changes to stream temperatures from climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect how fish and wildlife are managed, and must be incorporated into modeling studies, restoration assessments, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact statements, and licensing operations of hydropower facilities to best estimate future conditions and achieve desired outcomes. Average annual number of weeks stream temperature exceeds 24°C with incremental uniform 2°C air temperature increases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Plant Community Composition and Biomass Production to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Nitrogen Deposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:27199978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25471674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41N..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41N..07A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of delayed Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armour, K.; Marshall, J.; Donohoe, A.; Scott, J. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Delayed surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Southern Ocean (SO) is a robust feature of the climate response to greenhouse gas forcing. It is seen in in-situ and satellite-based observations, and is simulated within coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs). The observed cooling and associated sea ice expansion around Antarctica in recent decades is in stark contrast to the rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sea ice loss seen in the Arctic, yet the processes responsible for these divergent behaviors are not well understood. The SO <span class="hlt">warming</span> delay has been widely attributed to deep mixed layers and efficient deep ocean heat uptake processes, while the observed cooling is often attributed to changes in upper ocean stratification or surface winds. We argue here that while these mechanisms do play a role, delayed SO <span class="hlt">warming</span> is primarily a consequence of the mean SO circulation: Ekman upwelling of unmodified water from depth acts to anchor sea surface temperatures over multi-centennial timescales; equatorward transport of surface waters acts to advect the anomalous temperature signal out of the SO, where it is subducted on the equatorward flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, driving an anomalous northward ocean heat transport that largely balances the increased air-sea heat flux into the SO under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We explore the relative roles of the mechanisms of delayed SO <span class="hlt">warming</span> within a variety of GCMs and observations. The observed spatial structure of upper ocean and surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is found to be well represented by an ocean-only GCM forced radiatively at the surface, but with no changes in surface winds or salinity. Within this model framework, the active versus passive nature of ocean heat uptake, and its influence on SO circulation, is explored. We further consider the consequences of delayed SO <span class="hlt">warming</span> for (i) changes in atmospheric meridional energy transport with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) the global top-of-atmosphere energy budget, via the delayed activation of destabilizing SO radiative feedbacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>, compared to diversity effects. In summary, short-term climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> can greatly alter vegetation functional structure and its relation to productivity. PMID:26513148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>, compared to diversity effects. In summary, short-term climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> can greatly alter vegetation functional structure and its relation to productivity. PMID:26513148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Sci...311.1914T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Sci...311.1914T"><span id="translatedtitle">Significant <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the Antarctic Winter Troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Colwell, S.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We report an undocumented major <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5° to 0.7° Celcius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> at this stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Estimation from MSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/832857','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/832857"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot/<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Gas Cleanup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bissett, Larry A.</p> <p>2001-11-06</p> <p>Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of large-scale sorbent failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up" CSF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" the systems. This article studies such "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. PMID:26713543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/508280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/508280"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change: Its nature and impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hidore, J.J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A Total Equivalent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact because it is not based solely on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A"><span id="translatedtitle">Global temperatures and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ``debate''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubrecht, Gordon</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.528...43T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.528...43T"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tittensor, Derek P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Analysis of the temperature ranges occupied by marine species finds that the vulnerability of ecological communities to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may depend more on organismal physiology than on the magnitude of change. See Article p.88</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21420201S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21420201S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spitzer: Hot Science in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Squires, Gordon K.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Soifer, B. T.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Spitzer enters a new phase of its mission in spring 2009: the Spitzer "<span class="hlt">warm</span>" mission. The combination of Spitzer's unprecedented sensitivity, Earth-trailing orbit and efficiency in mapping large regions provides new opportunities for scientific research. With over 6,500 hours of observing time available yearly, investigations requiring large amount of observing time are for the first time enabled by <span class="hlt">warm</span> Spitzer. This brief introductory talk will introduce the ten large "Exploration Science" programs for the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Spitzer mission, and also describe opportunities for the general observer community. An update on <span class="hlt">warm</span> Spitzer status will also be provided. Information on the Exploration Science programs is available at: http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/geninfo/es/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon cycle: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> then and now</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stassen, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257561','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257561"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying Poultry Litter in the Fall to Fertilize Corn May not be Advisable Under <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Row crop farmers prefer to apply poultry litter in the fall or winter but whether this practice is safe <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> and effective for production in regions with <span class="hlt">warm</span> fall and winter months is not well researched and documented. Research in Mississippi tested the effectiveness of fall- versus spr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285"><span id="translatedtitle">Infectious diseases and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Tracking disease incidence rates globally</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Given the increasing importance of impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stith T.Gower</p> <p>2010-03-03</p> <p>A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground net primary production (NPP) budgets. Autotrophic respiration budgets will be constructed using chamber measurements for each tissue and NPP and standard allometry techniques (Gower et al. 1999). (4) Compare microbial and root dynamics, and net soil surface CO2 flux, of control and <span class="hlt">warmed</span> soils to identify causes that may explain the hypothesized minimal effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil surface CO2 flux. Fine root production and turnover will be quantified using minirhizotrons, and microbial dynamics will be determined using laboratory mineralization incubations. Soil surface CO2 flux will be measured using automated soil surface CO2 flux systems and portable CO2 analyzers. The proposed study builds on the existing research programs Gower has in northern Manitoba and would not be possible without in-kind services and financial support from Manitoba Hydro and University of Wisconsin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity <span class="hlt">warming</span> (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-<span class="hlt">warming</span> term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (<span class="hlt">warm</span>-season daytime) local <span class="hlt">warming</span>, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With <span class="hlt">warming</span> of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of <span class="hlt">warming</span> gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nuclear power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wood, L., LLNL</p> <p>1998-07-10</p> <p>Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213450-numerical-simulation-environmental-impact-hydraulic-fracturing-tight-shale-gas-reservoirs-near-surface-groundwater-background-base-cases-shallow-reservoirs-short-term-gas-water-transport','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213450-numerical-simulation-environmental-impact-hydraulic-fracturing-tight-shale-gas-reservoirs-near-surface-groundwater-background-base-cases-shallow-reservoirs-short-term-gas-water-transport"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-18</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID:26726274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532"><span id="translatedtitle">BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biofuels emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The focus of <span class="hlt">numerous</span> federal and state regulations being proposed and approved today is the reduction of automobile emissions -- particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), which is the greenhouse gas considered responsible for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Studies conducted by the USDOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicate that the production and use of biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, and methanol could nearly eliminate the contribution of net CO{sub 2} from automobiles. This fact sheet provides and overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, followed by a summary of NREL`s study results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399"><span id="translatedtitle">Is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> harmful to health?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Epstein, P R</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Projections from computer models predict that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:10914399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785815','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> climates of the past—a lesson for the future?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lunt, D. J.; Elderfield, H.; Pancost, R.; Ridgwell, A.; Foster, G. L.; Haywood, A.; Kiehl, J.; Sagoo, N.; Shields, C.; Stone, E. J.; Valdes, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This Discussion Meeting Issue of the Philosophical Transactions A had its genesis in a Discussion Meeting of the Royal Society which took place on 10–11 October 2011. The Discussion Meeting, entitled ‘<span class="hlt">Warm</span> climates of the past: a lesson for the future?’, brought together 16 eminent international speakers from the field of palaeoclimate, and was attended by over 280 scientists and members of the public. Many of the speakers have contributed to the papers compiled in this Discussion Meeting Issue. The papers summarize the talks at the meeting, and present further or related work. This Discussion Meeting Issue asks to what extent information gleaned from the study of past climates can aid our understanding of future climate change. Climate change is currently an issue at the forefront of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> science, and also has important sociological and political implications. Most future predictions are carried out by complex <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models; however, these models cannot be rigorously tested for scenarios outside of the modern, without making use of past climate data. Furthermore, past climate data can inform our understanding of how the Earth system operates, and can provide important contextual information related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. All past time periods can be useful in this context; here, we focus on past climates that were warmer than the modern climate, as these are likely to be the most similar to the future. This introductory paper is not meant as a comprehensive overview of all work in this field. Instead, it gives an introduction to the important issues therein, using the papers in this Discussion Meeting Issue, and other works from all the Discussion Meeting speakers, as exemplars of the various ways in which past climates can inform projections of future climate. Furthermore, we present new work that uses a palaeo constraint to quantitatively inform projections of future equilibrium ice sheet change. PMID:24043873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217098','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217098"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts `worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts 'worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> to western U.S. streamflow changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season (April-September) <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. A uniform <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will <span class="hlt">warm</span> or on the true impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures. PMID:18268873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GPC....49..187O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GPC....49..187O"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of permafrost in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osterkamp, T. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>This paper reports results of an experiment initiated in 1977 to determine the effects of climate on permafrost in Alaska. Permafrost observatories with boreholes were established along a north-south transect of Alaska in undisturbed permafrost terrain. The analysis and interpretation of annual temperature measurements in the boreholes and daily temperature measurements of the air, ground and permafrost surfaces made with automated temperature loggers are reported. Permafrost temperatures <span class="hlt">warmed</span> along this transect coincident with a statewide <span class="hlt">warming</span> of air temperatures that began in 1977. At two sites on the Arctic Coastal Plain, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> was seasonal, greatest during "winter" months (October through May) and least during "summer" months (June through September). Permafrost temperatures peaked in the early 1980s and then decreased in response to slightly cooler air temperatures and thinner snow covers. Arctic sites began <span class="hlt">warming</span> again typically about 1986 and Interior Alaska sites about 1988. Gulkana, the southernmost site, has been <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowly since it was drilled in 1983. Air temperatures were relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> and snow covers were thicker-than-normal from the late 1980s into the late 1990s allowing permafrost temperatures to continue to <span class="hlt">warm</span>. Temperatures at some sites leveled off or cooled slightly at the turn of the century. Two sites (Yukon River Bridge and Livengood) cooled during the period of observations. The magnitude of the total <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the surface of the permafrost (through 2003) was 3 to 4 °C for the Arctic Coastal Plain, 1 to 2 °C for the Brooks Range including its northern and southern foothills, and 0.3 to 1 °C south of the Yukon River. While the data are sparse, permafrost is <span class="hlt">warming</span> throughout the region north of the Brooks Range, southward along the transect from the Brooks Range to the Chugach Mountains (except for Yukon River and Livengood), in Interior Alaska throughout the Tanana River region, and in the region south of the Alaska Range from Tok westward to Gulkana (in the Copper River Valley) and beyond to the Talkeetna Mountains. Thermal offset allows permafrost to survive in the presence of positive annual mean ground surface temperatures and was observed repeatedly since 1987 at two sites. The observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> has not produced an increasing trend in maximum active layer thicknesses due to its seasonality. Near Healy, permafrost has been thawing at the top since the late 1980s at about 10 cm/yr. At Gulkana, permafrost was thawing from the bottom at a rate of 4 cm/yr that accelerated to 9 cm/yr after 2000.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players <span class="hlt">warm</span> up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV. PMID:22201694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811"><span id="translatedtitle">Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aquatic ectotherms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aquatic ecological responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under <span class="hlt">warm</span> water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide key facets of climate change adaptation for running waters. PMID:26924811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lyons, J.; Stewart, J.S.; Mitro, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 56.0-93.5% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1?? C and water 0.8?? C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3?? C and water 2.4?? C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5?? C and water 4?? C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160546','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160546"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; John Lyons; Matt Mitro</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 560935% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1 C and water 08 C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3 C and water 24 C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5 C and water 4 C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924"><span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Sun, Yuqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Caiyan; Lin, Ge; Chen, Baodong</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Elevated night temperature, one of the main climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, can have profound effects on plant growth and metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycorrhizal associations in plant responses to night <span class="hlt">warming</span>, although it is well known that symbiotic fungi can protect host plants against various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses. In the present study, physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L. in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were investigated under simulated night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A constant increase in night temperature of 1.53 °C significantly reduced plant shoot and root biomass, flower and seed number, leaf sugar concentration, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. However, the AM association essentially mitigated these negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> by improving plant growth, especially through increased root biomass, root to shoot ratio, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. A significant interaction was observed between R. irregularis inoculation and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> in influencing both root sucrose concentration and expression of sucrose synthase (SusS) genes, suggesting that AM symbiosis and increased night temperature jointly regulated plant sugar metabolism. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated AM fungal colonization but did not influence arbuscule abundance, symbiosis-related plant or fungal gene expression, or growth of extraradical mycelium, indicating little effect of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the development or functioning of AM symbiosis. These findings highlight the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in assisting plant resilience to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:25033924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790004546&hterms=Getting+you+revising+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGetting%2Byou%2Brevising%2Byou','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790004546&hterms=Getting+you+revising+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGetting%2Byou%2Brevising%2Byou"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> precision and data structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schenk, W.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Technical proposals and recommendations for revising FORTRAN were studied and categorized. In the area of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> precision, the proposals basically agree on a set of necessary parameters, although a wide range of nomenclature and specific function names are used. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> parameters identified include the following: (1) base of floating point representation, (2) largest positive real number, exponent and integer, (3) largest negative real number, exponent and integer, (4) number of significant digits, and (5) exponent bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903114"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of <span class="hlt">numerous</span> uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from <1 to 43% of the endemic biota (average 11.6%), with biome specificity having the greatest influence on the estimates, followed by the global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-<span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity. PMID:16903114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714393C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714393C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Gulf Stream - Troposphere connection: <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold paths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czaja, Arnaud; Sheldon, Luke; Vanniere, Benoit; Parfitt, Rhys</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this talk, the role of moist processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling over the Gulf Stream will be discussed, using ERA interim reanalysis data (1979-2012) and nested simulations with the UK Met Office Unified Model. The focus is on the cold season (December through February). Two types of moist processes will be highlighted. First, shallow convection driven by surface fluxes of heat and moisture, usually found behind the cold front of extra-tropical cyclones. It will be shown that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> flank of the Gulf Stream is instrumental in amplifying these convective events. In addition, it will be suggested that they are also responsible for simulated changes in precipitation found in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with Atmospheric General Circulation Models forced with smoothed and realistic sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. The impact of this type of air-sea interaction on the larger scale is however unclear as it mostly affects low levels (below 700hPa). The second type of moist processes of relevance is that of moist inertial ascent along the cold front of extra-tropical cyclones. It will be shown that such ascent typically occurs 10% of the time in winter and that it is preferentially rooted over the <span class="hlt">warm</span> flank of the Gulf Stream. The moist inertial ascent is intense and narrow, and not compensated within a given synoptic system. As a result, and despite being infrequent, it will be shown to contribute crucially to the time mean upward motion over the Gulf Stream at middle (500hPa) and upper tropospheric levels (300 hPa). This result suggests that <span class="hlt">warm</span> advection by the Gulf Stream acts in effect as a horizontally broad, downward push, on air masses above the boundary layer, a push required to compensate for the upward mass flux in the moist inertial ascent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577193"><span id="translatedtitle">Where contributes most to the present century-scale global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhaomei Zeng; Zhongwei Yan; Duzheng Ye</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>In recent years, the temporal and spatial patterns of climate changes have received serious attention, by which some authors tried to recognize anthropogenic influences on climate and others tended to explain signals as resulted from natural processes. Yet, there are still many features of the present climate changes remaining open to be explained. As implied in many <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling reviewed in recent literature, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced by enhanced atmospheric greenhouse effect should be larger at higher latitudes. Proxy data indicated also that during past <span class="hlt">warm</span> periods temperature anomalies at high latitudes were larger than at low latitudes. It gives people the impression that the enhanced greenhouse effect induced global <span class="hlt">warming</span> should be more easily looked for in near-polar regions. However, this paper will show some new findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25153744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25153744"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures on the performance of resistance training exercises.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Alex S; Romanzini, Marcelo; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Souza, Mariana F; Avelar, Ademar; Cyrino, Edilson S</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up has been shown to mediate <span class="hlt">numerous</span> acute physiological alterations that have been purported to confer beneficial effects on performance. This study investigated the acute effects of different <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures on resistance training performance. Employing a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 15 men performed 3 exercises (4 sets of bench press, squat, and arm curl at 80% of 1RM) to failure in 4 conditions (control, specific, aerobic, and combined). Outcome measures included the sum of repetitions and a fatigue index measuring the decline between sets. There was no significant difference for the sum of repetitions or for fatigue index among conditions for the 3 exercises. Performance in the resistance training exercises was not influenced by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up. PMID:25153744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767"><span id="translatedtitle">Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During <span class="hlt">warm</span> interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Here we show that, during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature Gradient on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagheriasl, R.; Ghavam, K.; Worswick, M. J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The effect of temperature gradient and forming speed on <span class="hlt">warm</span> formability of aluminum alloy sheet has been studied using a coupled thermal mechanical finite element model of cup deep drawing. A user-defined material model was developed using the Bergstrom temperature and strain-rate dependant hardening model and Barlat YLD2000 anisotropic yield surface, which was implemented within LS-DYNA. The stress-strain curves for AA3003 at elevated temperatures and different strain rates were used to fit the Bergstrom hardening parameters. The anisotropy parameters were considered to be non-temperature dependant. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was validated against experiments from previous work and was found to accurately predict punch force for <span class="hlt">warm</span> deep drawing. Increases in forming speed are shown to have a negative effect on formability. It is concluded that non-isothermal <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming can be used to improve the formability of aluminum alloy sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCo...4E2849R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCo...4E2849R"><span id="translatedtitle">Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Tine L.; Thomsen, Erik</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During <span class="hlt">warm</span> interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Here we show that, during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica during the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dolan, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Haywood, A. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene Epoch (Pliocene 'interglacials') is important for understanding the long-term response of major ice sheets and sea level to current or near future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); as well as global mean temperatures that will be attained during this century. For the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP; ~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) we present a review of current and recent research that has sought to constrain the nature of the Antarctic Ice Sheets using sophisticated <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate and ice-sheet models. It is generally accepted that during <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was largely ice free; however, the contribution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to peak sea level rise during the mPWP is less well understood. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> sources of geological information are available that are capable of placing constraints on the stability of the EAIS during the mPWP, but each has inherent uncertainties and signals can often be difficult to interpret. Therefore, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling is required to test proxy-based assertions of sea-level change and pin-point the likely contributions from the major ice sheets. We present an ensemble of simulations using the Hadley Centre Atmosphere-Ocean Climate Model (HadCM3) coupled offline to the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BASISM) that explores the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 levels during the mid-Pliocene. We show that significant ice sheet retreat is only simulated under <span class="hlt">warm</span> Southern Hemisphere orbital conditions where levels of CO2 are at 400 ppmv or above. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that this result is dependent on necessary a priori assumptions regarding the initial ice sheet configuration within the modelling framework. To diagnose which assumptions give climate simulations that are more consistent with geological proxy data, we evaluate our results against two independent signals. (1) We analyse ocean currents and potential iceberg trajectories to compare our results with recent provenance measurements from ice-rafted debris (IRD). Provenance analysis from ODP Site 1165 in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica suggests that major iceberg release events occurred along the East Antarctic coast during the warmer periods of the Pliocene. (2) Following the assertion that seasonal sea ice distribution is highly sensitive to orbital forcing and ice sheet geometry, we assess the impact of the ice sheet boundary conditions in the climate model on the maximum extent of summer and winter Antarctic sea ice. We find that it is difficult to ascertain which boundary conditions within the climate model are the most suitable for modelling the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Moreover, the uncertainty surrounding the modelling and the interpretation of proxy-data permits multiple solutions of the EAIS even for the same time interval. We suggest that future work might benefit from the use of EMICs (Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity) as this would enable the climate and ice sheets to be modelled synchronously, although such an effort will remain limited by the poorly constrained temporal variability of climate forcings, such as atmospheric carbon dioxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649365"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J</p> <p>2005-01-11</p> <p>Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, <span class="hlt">warming</span> the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically <span class="hlt">warms</span> the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural <span class="hlt">warming</span> in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that <span class="hlt">warming</span> the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued <span class="hlt">warming</span> during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> along with the suppressed <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613344M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613344M"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy balanced <span class="hlt">numerical</span> schemes for <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling of river morphodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murillo, Javier; Juez, Carmelo; Garcia-Navarro, Pilar</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> flows involving river morphodynamics can be defined mathematically as shallow type flows of hyperbolic nature. It is worth mentioning that realistic shallow type flows are hyperbolic but not strictly hyperbolic. Their characteristics require the development of novel <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques. Among them, most advanced <span class="hlt">numerical</span> predictive methods consider the well-balanced property. This property is a particular case of a more general one: the energy-balanced property. The energy-balanced property has proven significant advantages in the case of fixed bed. Being only first order accurate in time and space, leads to exact <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions for steady solutions in channels with general geometries with independence of the mesh refinement. Energy-balanced schemes ensure convergence to the exact solution in Riemann problems involving nonprismatic channels, bed variations and the resonance regime. When modeling morphodynamics changes in a river bed, these variations are linked to the amount of available energy that can be extracted from the flow. Bed material mobilization is commonly expressed in terms of shear stress, responsible of the energy dissipation. Considering that energy arguments in river morphodynamics are of great importance, in this work a tentative description of energy balanced <span class="hlt">numerical</span> schemes for <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling of river morphodynamics and their performance are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608"><span id="translatedtitle">General dissipation coefficient in low-temperature <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk E-mail: joao.rosa@ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In generic particle physics models, the inflaton field is coupled to other bosonic and fermionic fields that acquire large masses during inflation and may decay into light degrees of freedom. This leads to dissipative effects that modify the inflationary dynamics and may generate a nearly-thermal radiation bath, such that inflation occurs in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> rather than supercooled environment. In this work, we perform a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> computation and obtain expressions for the associated dissipation coefficient in supersymmetric models, focusing on the regime where the radiation temperature is below the heavy mass threshold. The dissipation coefficient receives contributions from the decay of both on-shell and off-shell degrees of freedom, which are dominant for small and large couplings, respectively, taking into account the light field multiplicities. In particular, we find that the contribution from on-shell decays, although Boltzmann-suppressed, can be much larger than that of virtual modes, which is bounded by the validity of a perturbative analysis. This result opens up new possibilities for realizations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in supersymmetric field theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..32.7808C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..32.7808C"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the August 2002 minor <span class="hlt">warming</span> event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coy, L.; Siskind, D. E.; Eckermann, S. D.; McCormack, J. P.; Allen, D. R.; Hogan, T. F.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Hindcasts of the Southern Hemisphere minor stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mesospheric cooling event of August 2002, made with a new high altitude version of the Navy's operational forecast model, are compared with temperatures acquired by SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry). Results show realistic hemispheric evolution of both the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> and mesospheric cooling over a 10-day time period. Use of Rayleigh friction to model mesospheric gravity wave drag shows improvement in the upper mesosphere over a hindcast without Rayleigh friction. The limited vertical extent of the main mesospheric cooling signature disagrees with the Liu and Roble (2002) model results but is supported by SABER temperature observations (Siskind et al., 2005). Examination of 3D EP-flux vectors over the 10-day forecast suggests that the planetary wave responsible for the <span class="hlt">warming</span>/cooling event originated from a horizontally localized region of the troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616310','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616310"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Science or politics. Part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dorweiler, V.P.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035278&hterms=diabetic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddiabetic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035278&hterms=diabetic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddiabetic"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> during February and March 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; O'Neill, A.; Swinbank, R.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Two stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> during February and March 1993 are described using United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) analyses, calculated potential vorticity (PV) and diabetic heating, and N2O observed by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The first <span class="hlt">warming</span> affected temperatures over a larger region, while the second produced a larger region of reversed zonal winds. Tilted baroclinic zones formed in the temperature field, and the polar vortex tilted westward with height. Narrow tongues of high PV and low N2O were drawn off the polar vortex, and irreversibly mixed. Tongues of material were drawn from low latitudes into the region between the polar vortex and the anticyclone; diabatic descent was also strongest in this region. Increased N2O over a broad region near the edge of the polar vortex indicates the importance of horizontal transport. N2O decreased in the vortex, consistent with enhanced diabatic descent during the <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14e5020P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NJPh...14e5020P"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic structure factor in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense beryllium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Dppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Ins; Mendona, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto A V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has prompted <span class="hlt">numerous</span> recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the temperature is increased. This rate varies widely among published protocols. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on CTMax values, using different animal groups. The influence of the thermal niche occupied by each species (intertidal vs subtidal) and habitat (intertidal vs subtidal) was also investigated. CTMax were estimated at three different rates: 1Cmin(-1), 1C30min(-1) and 1Ch(-1), in two species of crab, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus and Menippe nodifrons, shrimp Palaemon northropi and Hippolyte obliquimanus and fish Bathygobius soporator and Parablennius marmoreus. While there were significant differences in the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates for some species, for other species <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate produced no significant differences (H. obliquimanus and B. soporator). While in some species slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates lead to lower CTMax values (P. northropi and P. marmoreus) in other species the opposite occurred (E. abbreviatus and M. nodifrons). Biological group has a significant effect with crabs' CTMax increasing at slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates, which did not happen for shrimp and fish. Subtidal species presented lower CTMax, at all <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates tested. This study highlights the importance of estimating CTMax values at realistic rates that species encounter in their environment and thus have an ecological value. PMID:25526650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/361683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/361683"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Downing, D.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Native <span class="hlt">warm</span> season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron conductivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The electronic conductivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25380974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25380974"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature (P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>. PMID:25380974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.4101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.4101B"><span id="translatedtitle">The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bancalá, S.; Krüger, K.; Giorgetta, M.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (SSWs) is investigated with two long time series using reanalysis (ERA-40) and model (MAECHAM5/MPI-OM) data. Applying planetary wave analysis, we distinguish between wavenumber-1 and wavenumber-2 major SSWs based on the wave activity of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 during the prewarming phase. For this analysis an objective criterion to identify and classify the preconditioning of major SSWs is developed. Major SSWs are found to occur with a frequency of six and seven events per decade in the reanalysis and in the model, respectively, thus highlighting the ability of MAECHAM5/MPI-OM to simulate the frequency of major SSWs realistically. However, from these events only one quarter are wavenumber-2 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, representing a low (˜0.25) wavenumber-2 to wavenumber-1 major SSW ratio. Composite analyses for both data sets reveal that the two <span class="hlt">warming</span> types have different dynamics; while wavenumber-1 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span> are preceded only by an enhanced activity of the zonal wavenumber-1, wavenumber-2 events are either characterized by only the amplification of zonal wavenumber-2 or by both zonal wavenumber-1 and zonal wavenumber-2, albeit at different time intervals. The role of tropospheric blocking events influencing these two categories of major SSWs is evaluated in the next step. Here, the composite analyses of both reanalysis and model data reveal that blocking events in the Euro-Atlantic sector mostly lead to the development of wavenumber-1 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. The blocking-wavenumber-2 major <span class="hlt">warming</span> connection can only be statistical reliable analyzed with the model time series, demonstrating that blocking events in the Pacific region mostly precede wavenumber-2 major SSWs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical structure of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Near-surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of <span class="hlt">warming</span> that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H"><span id="translatedtitle">Communicating the Dangers of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, J. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572450','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572450"><span id="translatedtitle">La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current <span class="hlt">warming</span> in 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feng, Ming; McPhaden, Michael J.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Hafner, Jan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Unprecedented <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were observed off the west coast of Australia in February–March 2011. Peak SST during a 2-week period were 5°C warmer than normal, causing widespread coral bleaching and fish kills. Understanding the climatic drivers of this extreme event, which we dub “Ningaloo Niño”, is crucial for predicting similar events under the influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we use observational data and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models to demonstrate that the extreme <span class="hlt">warming</span> was mostly driven by an unseasonable surge of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current in austral summer, which transported anomalously <span class="hlt">warm</span> water southward along the coast. The unusual intensification of the Leeuwin Current was forced remotely by oceanic and atmospheric teleconnections associated with the extraordinary 2010–2011 La Niña. The amplitude of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> was boosted by both multi-decadal trends in the Pacific toward more La Niña-like conditions and intraseasonal variations in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23429502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aphids, their predators, and ant mutualists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barton, Brandon T; Ives, Anthony R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Species exist within communities of other interacting species, so an exogenous force that directly affects one species can indirectly affect all other members of the community. In the case of climate change, many species may be affected directly and subsequently initiate <span class="hlt">numerous</span> indirect effects that propagate throughout the community. Therefore, the net effect of climate change on any one species is a function of the direct and indirect effects. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on corn leaf aphids, a pest of corn and other grasses, by performing an experimental manipulation of temperature, predators, and two common aphid-tending ants. Although <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a positive direct effect on aphid population growth rate, <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduced aphid abundance when ants and predators were present. This occurred because winter ants, which aggressively defend aphids from predators under control temperatures, were less aggressive toward predators and less abundant when temperatures were increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of cornfield ants, but they did not protect aphids from predators with the same vigor as winter ants. Thus, <span class="hlt">warming</span> broke down the ant-aphid mutualism and counterintuitively reduced the abundance of this agricultural pest. PMID:25039213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L"><span id="translatedtitle">Change of tropical cyclone heat potential in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ran; Chen, Changlin; Wang, Guihua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) in the ocean can affect tropical cyclone intensity and intensification. In this paper, TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is presented based on 35 models from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5). As the upper ocean <span class="hlt">warms</span> up, the TCHP of the global ocean is projected to increase by 140.6% in the 21st century under the RCP4.5 (+4.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway) scenario. The increase is particularly significant in the western Pacific, northwestern Indian and western tropical Atlantic oceans. The increase of TCHP results from the ocean temperature <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the depth of the 26°C isotherm (D26), the deepening of D26, and the horizontal area expansion of SST above 26°C. Their contributions are 69.4%, 22.5% and 8.1%, respectively. Further, a suite of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is conducted to investigate the relative importance of wind stress and buoyancy forcing to the TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results show that sea surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is the dominant forcing for the TCHP change, while wind stress and sea surface salinity change are secondary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms, our results indicate that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the eastern Mediterranean will facilitate the invasion of more tropical marine taxa into the Mediterranean, disturbing local biodiversity and ecosystem structure. PMID:26270964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AmJPh..76..608M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AmJPh..76..608M"><span id="translatedtitle">Resource Letter GW-2: Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> [Resource Letter GW-1: Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these <span class="hlt">warmings</span> the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a public health concern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afzal, Brenda M</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:21848352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of water in a glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyses the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us to understand the process of convection in the glass and to determine the temperature at which the density of water is maximum. In addition, computational fluid dynamics—CFD modeling is carried out to facilitate better comprehension of the phenomenon observed in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in North Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, Anais; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeff</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The arctic is the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> region on Earth, but it is also one where there is little historical data. Although summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes melt, the annual temperature trend is dominated by the winter and fall season, which are much less well documented. In addition, the instrumental record relies principally on coastal weather stations, and there are very few direct temperature observations in the interior dating back more than 30 years, especially in North Greenland, where the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is the largest. Here, we present a temperature reconstruction from NEEM (51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, for the last 100 years, which allows us to put the recent trend in the context of the longer term climate. We use a combination of two independent proxies to reconstruct the temperature history at NEEM: borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements in the firn. Borehole temperature takes advantage of the low temperature diffusivity of the snow and ice, which allows the temperature history to be preserved in the ice for several centuries. Temperature gradients in the firn (old snow above the ice) influence the gas isotopic composition: thermal fractionation causes heavy isotopes to concentrate on the cold end of the firn column. We measured the isotopes of inert gases (N2, Ar and Kr), which have a constant atmospheric composition through time, and use the thermal fractionation signal as an additional constraint on the temperature history at the site. We find that NEEM has been <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 0.86±0.22°C/decade over the past 30 years, from -28.55±0.29°C for the 1900-1970 average to -26.77±0.16°C for the 2000-2010 average. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate at NEEM is similar to that of Greenland Summit, and confirms the large <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends in North Greenland (polar amplification) and high altitude sites (tropospheric rather than surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>). Water isotopes show that the recent past has not met the level of the 1928 anomaly; but the average of the past 30 years has the highest isotope values since 1724, which suggests that the sustained <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the past 30 years is indeed exceptional.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=eruptions+volcanic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Deruptions%2Bvolcanic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=eruptions+volcanic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Deruptions%2Bvolcanic"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930016055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930016055"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5961269','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5961269"><span id="translatedtitle">Even <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates get the shivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1993-07-16</p> <p>Researchers in the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) have found evidence of sharp climate shifts during the last two intergalcials. The Greenland ice sheet evidence shows that Greenland, over and over for decades to thousands of years, cooled drastically from temperatures equal to or higher than today's, often to virtual ice age conditions. The researchers believe that disruptions in the flow of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water from the southern Atlantic to the North Atlantic, and the return flow of cold water to the south, may be linked to these climatic fluctuations. The present climate appears relatively stable, but that may change if temperatures <span class="hlt">warm</span> due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eggleston, Jack; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eggleston, John R.; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which <span class="hlt">warming</span> had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions. PMID:26820060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418"><span id="translatedtitle">States' roles in reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Achieving international goals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Feldman, D.L.; Wilt, C.A. . Energy, Environment, and Resources Center)</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>National governments hold major responsibility for reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, some of the most important efforts to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases must occur at sub-national levels. In federal systems composed of states, as well as unitary systems that impose national policies upon regions, smaller administrative units are involved in energy conservation and end-use efficiency programs, CFC reduction activities, and transportation planning. States and regions also provide greenhouse gas emissions and other basic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data needed to comply with international agreements. The authors argue that, for some issues states are better able than national governments to develop innovative, flexible greenhouse gas policies that are administratively feasible and publicly acceptable. International agreements and policy declarations and institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of bottom-up approaches that rely on regionally-based, sustainable development activities to reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. They describe how national energy and pollution-prevention policies in the US invest states with specific responsibilities for reducing greenhouse gases or participating in adaptation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6293766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6293766"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> necessity for out nation, and for our earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krakowski, R.A.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), <span class="hlt">environmental</span> (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839"><span id="translatedtitle">Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a test at two sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stuble, Katharine L; Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Fowler, David A; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by <span class="hlt">warming</span> than are species inhabiting relatively cooler sites. We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to <span class="hlt">warm</span> intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on foraging at a southern (North Carolina) and northern (Massachusetts) site in eastern North America. We examined the influence of temperature on the abundance and recruitment of foragers as well as the number of different species observed foraging. Finally, we examined the relationship between the mean temperature at which a species was found foraging and the critical thermal maximum temperature of that species, relating functional traits to behavior. We found that forager abundance and richness were related to the experimental increase in temperature at the southern site, but not the northern site. Additionally, individual species responded differently to temperature: some species foraged more under warmer conditions, whereas others foraged less. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species (at least at the Duke Forest site). Species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager densities at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima. Our results indicate that while climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> may alter patterns of foraging activity in predictable ways, these shifts vary among species and between sites. More southerly sites and species with lower critical thermal maxima are likely to be at greater risk to ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:23531642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4940Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4940Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in ocean vertical heat transport with global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zika, Jan D.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Sijp, Willem P.; Nurser, A. J. G.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Heat transport between the surface and deep ocean strongly influences transient climate change. Mechanisms setting this transport are investigated using coupled climate models and by projecting ocean circulation into the temperature-depth diagram. In this diagram, a "cold cell" cools the deep ocean through the downwelling of Antarctic waters and upwelling of warmer waters and is balanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a "<span class="hlt">warm</span> cell," coincident with the interhemispheric overturning and previously linked to wind and haline forcing. With anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the cold cell collapses while the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell continues to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the deep ocean. Simulations with increasingly strong <span class="hlt">warm</span> cells, set by their mean Southern Hemisphere winds, exhibit increasing deep-ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to the same anthropogenic forcing. It is argued that the partition between components of the circulation which cool and <span class="hlt">warm</span> the deep ocean in the preindustrial climate is a key determinant of ocean vertical heat transport with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased frequency of ENSO extremes under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santoso, Agus; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is Earth's largest source of year-to-year climate variability which exerts significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and socio-economic impacts worldwide. The rise of ENSO, signified by large changes in ocean and atmospheric circulations, occurs through a suite of Bjerknes coupled feedback processes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Observations over recent decades have seen some peculiar behaviour of ENSO that has challenged our scientific understanding of this remarkable phenomenon. 1982 and 1997 saw the strongest El Nino events in modern records, uniquely characterised by eastward propagating sea surface temperature anomalies, a behaviour not seen during moderate events and La Nina. The impacts were severe, causing multi billion dollars in damages, thousands of human lives lost, and destruction of marine habitats. The 1997 El Nino was followed by an exceptionally strong 1998 La Nina event which was also catastrophic. Given their significant impacts, one of the most pressing issues our society needs to address is whether and how ENSO will respond to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The increasing breadth of climate models available under the efforts of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has made addressing this issue possible. In contrast to previous finding of no robust ENSO response, recent research utilising the large CMIP database has found intermodel consensus of significant increases in the frequency of both El Nino and La Nina events that are 'extreme like', analogous to the 82, 97, and 98 events. The weakened westward flowing mean equatorial Pacific currents are expected to give rise to more frequent eastward propagating El Nino under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The projected faster <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean than the surrounding regions would make it easier for atmospheric convection to shift eastward to generate rainfall response similar to that during an extreme El Nino. The Maritime Continent is also projected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> faster, thus making it more favourable for extreme La Nina events to be generated. These results suggest that extreme ENSO events and their associated impacts will likely to occur more frequently in the future as the climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal exposure to drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects soil Collembola and mites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Gnthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air <span class="hlt">warming</span> with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 C, and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ? 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air <span class="hlt">warming</span> had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419650','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419650"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Affects Soil Collembola and Mites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Gnthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air <span class="hlt">warming</span> with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4C, and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air <span class="hlt">warming</span> had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0131T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0131T"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microorganisms and soil organic matter cycling with depth in soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tas, N.; Hicks Pries, C.; Wang, S.; Goring, A.; Zhu, B.; Castanha, C.; Brodie, E.; Torn, M. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Soils store approximately 1,300-1,600 Pg of organic carbon in the top meter. However, despite a lower carbon concentration, subsoil horizons (<0.3 m) contain more than half of global soil organic carbon. In deeper soils the cycling of soil carbon is proposed to be slower but its vulnerability to projected climate change is still under debate. As in surface soils, deep soil microorganisms are responsible for both the decomposition and the formation of soil organic matter (SOM) and their response in terms of biomass, activity, composition and function may be key to determine how <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change will alter deep carbon turnover and nutrient cycling. Here we explore how <span class="hlt">warming</span> across a whole soil profile impacts microbial community composition and decomposition of SOM. We have established a soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at the Blodgett Forest Research Station, CA, with <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4°C to >1 m depth relative to the natural soil temperature gradient. Samples were taken along the soil profile and initial results comparing pre-<span class="hlt">warming</span> to six months post <span class="hlt">warming</span> initiation are being compared. Alterations in microbial community composition were analyzed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and changes in the decomposition potential of SOM were assessed via extracellular enzyme activity measurements. In this ongoing experiment, we aim to understand the microbial contribution to the turnover of SOM at different soil depths and how microbial responses to projected increases in atmospheric temperature might impact SOM stability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212093"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> or slightly hot? Differences in linguistic dimensions describing perceived thermal sensation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Stone, Eric A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This communication discussed the linguistic usages of terms expressing perceived thermal sensation in English, Japanese, and Korean. In particular, ttatthada (<span class="hlt">warm</span>) in Korean and atatakai (<span class="hlt">warm</span>) in Japanese represents a thermally positive feeling. For Koreans and Japanese, to explicitly express thermal sensation as <span class="hlt">warm</span> is to implicitly connote a thermally comfortable or satisfied state. When 'comfortably <span class="hlt">warm</span>' and 'uncomfortably <span class="hlt">warm</span>' are translated into Korean or Japanese they sound like a redundant expression and possibly an oxymoron, respectively. Subjective thermal perception has been measured using particular languages and then translated into English for international communication. International Standards (ISO) in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> physiology or ergonomics have played an important role in setting criteria, unifying international research, and suggesting the direction of further research. However, the differences in linguistic dimensions across cultures may cause confusion when interpreting thermal perceptions measured by different languages. It is conceivable that similar difficulties exemplified in Korean and Japanese may exist in other languages. Therefore, international standards for the measurement of subjective thermal perceptions need to take into account the variations of interpretation given to these descriptors across cultures. For international standards to be internationally valid, systematic research on linguistic differences in thermal perceptive words is required. PMID:19212093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380"><span id="translatedtitle">Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought on wood formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. PMID:26662380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666745','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666745"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on primary producers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alsterberg, Christian; Eklöf, Johan S.; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Sundbäck, Kristina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change such as <span class="hlt">warming</span> and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgae in a seagrass community mesocosm experiment. Net effects of acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgal biomass and production, as assessed by analysis of variance, were relatively weak regardless of grazer presence. However, partitioning these net effects into direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling revealed several strong relationships. In the absence of grazers, benthic microalgae were negatively and indirectly affected by sediment-associated microalgal grazers and macroalgal shading, but directly and positively affected by acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Combining indirect and direct effects yielded no or weak net effects. In the presence of grazers, almost all direct and indirect climate effects were nonsignificant. Our analyses highlight that (i) indirect effects of climate change may be at least as strong as direct effects, (ii) grazers are crucial in mediating these effects, and (iii) effects of ocean acidification may be apparent only through indirect effects and in combination with other variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">warming</span>). These findings highlight the importance of experimental designs and statistical analyses that allow us to separate and quantify the direct and indirect effects of multiple climate variables on natural communities. PMID:23630263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1175A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; García, C.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at <span class="hlt">warm</span> working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25°C-250°C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=lead+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlead%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=lead+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlead%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Europa's subsurface water ocean may be <span class="hlt">warm</span>: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832027','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832027"><span id="translatedtitle">Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D.; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M.; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kirby, Keith J.; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petřík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M.; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S.; Woods, Kerry D.; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12–67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass—e.g., for bioenergy—may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity. PMID:24167287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814601R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814601R"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D"><span id="translatedtitle">National contributions to observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ <span class="hlt">warming</span> contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrera, Ramon</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710111A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710111A"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical amplification of Arctic and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Bobylev, Leonid; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Urazgildeeva, Aleksandra</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Arctic is coupled with global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that provides a major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. Therefore increase of meridional heat transport under global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact on its Arctic amplification. Contribution of heat transport to the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic, Northern Hemisphere and the globe are estimated on base of reanalysis data, global climate model data and proposed special index. It is shown that significant part of linear trend during last four decades in average surface air temperature in these areas can be attributed to dynamical amplification. This attribution keeps until 400 mb height with progressive decreasing. The Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> is amplified also due to an increase of humidity and cloudiness in the Arctic atmosphere that follow meridional transport gain. From October to January the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends are amplified as a result of ice edge retreat from the Siberian and Alaska coast and the heating of expanded volume of sea water. This investigation is supported with RFBR project 15-05-03512.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MmSAI..76.1015N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MmSAI..76.1015N"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: solar variability and energy consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nigro, A.; Pagano, A.; Zuccarello, F.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent measurements support evidence for short-term global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the earth's surface. The average trend of the earth's surface anomaly as a function of the time was fitted by a simple thermodynamical model including short-term variation of the solar irradiance as well as anthropogenic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming%2Bglobal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming%2Bglobal"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Data Shows <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest <span class="hlt">warming</span> is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167287"><span id="translatedtitle">Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A; Kelly, Daniel L; Kirby, Keith J; Mitchell, Fraser J G; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petrík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S; Woods, Kerry D; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2013-11-12</p> <p>Recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., "thermophilization" of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that "climatic lags" may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12-67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass--e.g., for bioenergy--may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity. PMID:24167287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C.</p> <p>2007-05-17</p> <p>Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at <span class="hlt">warm</span> working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666388"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the public sphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>Although the science of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge. PMID:17666388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extreme storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/214906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/214906"><span id="translatedtitle">Total energy <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact (TEWI): An approach to evaluate the overall greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential of cleaning systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Magid, H.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>In order to evaluate and compare the overall greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> of application-specific, alternative CFC solvent cleaning systems including not in kind options, it is necessary to consider both the direct and the indirect contributions which are due, respectively, to the emission of the solvent vapor, and to the CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the energy required to operate the system over its normal lifetime. The Total Energy <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Impact (TEWI) is defined as the sum of these factors. In a joint industry/government effort co-funded by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Acceptability Study (AFEAS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), this study has been carried with solvent cleaning systems, as well as for refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing applications. Cleaning options considered include organic solvents such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), chlorinated and oxygenated hydrocarbons, aqueous and semi-aqueous systems; and {open_quotes}no clean{close_quotes} technologies. Along with the TEWI, other factors to consider when choosing an alternative CFC solvent system include: cleaning efficiency worker safety, toxicity, operating costs, investment, floor space, energy efficiency, reliability; and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues such as discharge to sewers and waterways, and air quality.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPJCE..10...18D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPJCE..10...18D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689745"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will bring new fungal diseases for mammals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Solache, Monica A; Casadevall, Arturo</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T"><span id="translatedtitle">An apparent hiatus in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet <span class="hlt">warms</span> to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground <span class="hlt">warming</span> but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecophysiological responses of three Mediterranean invasive seaweeds (Acrothamnion preissii, Lophocladia lallemandii and Caulerpa cylindracea) to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samperio-Ramos, Guillermo; Olsen, Ylva S; Tomas, Fiona; Marbà, Núria</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot for invasive species and projected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> might affect their future spreading. We experimentally examined ecophysiological responses to the temperature range 23-31 °C in three invasive seaweeds commonly found in the Mediterranean: Acrothamnion preissii, Caulerpa cylindracea and Lophocladia lallemandii. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> range tested encompassed current and projected (for the end of 21st Century) maximum temperatures for the Mediterranean Sea. Optimal ecophysiological temperatures for A. preissii, C. cylindracea and L. lallemandii were 25 °C, 27 °C and 29 °C, respectively. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> below the optimal temperatures enhanced RGR of all studied invasive seaweeds. Although sensitive, seaweed photosynthetic yield was less temperature-dependent than growth. Our results demonstrate that temperature is a key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameter in regulating the ecophysiological performance of these invasive seaweeds and that Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions may affect their invasion trajectory. PMID:25986653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Boundary Condition Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Topics include <span class="hlt">numerical</span> procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014891','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014891"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Aerodynamic Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An overview of historical and current <span class="hlt">numerical</span> aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Dynamics and Transport during the September 2002 Antarctic Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Lahoz, Willian A.; Scaife, Adam A.; Randall, Cora E.; Pawson, Steven; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, except that during this <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major <span class="hlt">warmings</span> occurred for initial fields with stronger winds and larger vortices, but not smaller vortices, consistent with the initiation of wind-deceleration by upward-propagating waves near the poleward edge of the region where wave 2 can propagate above the jet core. Thus, given the observed 100-hPa boundary forcing, stratospheric preconditioning is not needed to reproduce a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> similar to that observed. The anomalously strong forcing in the lower stratosphere can be viewed as the primary direct cause of the major <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddiscrimination','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddiscrimination"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrimination of a major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span> may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major <span class="hlt">warming</span> with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/"><span id="translatedtitle">OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1786.photos.042320p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1786.photos.042320p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CANYON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CANYON TO SANTA ANA RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organizational decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Television is an important source of information for political issues in the eyes of many people. This also holds true for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Television news is also deemed more credible than print news because {open_quotes}seeing is believing{close_quotes}. This research is also buttressed by evidence that one of the primary conversation topics among individuals is television content. So how well does television cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>? Unfortunately, previous research indicates that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. This paper examines the potential impact of this coverage on organizational decisions. Organizations include businesses, government agencies, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> action groups, media organizations, and other parties interested with the environment. The paper proposes framing theory and involvement theory as springboards for organizational decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463"><span id="translatedtitle">Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin</p> <p>2010-12-08</p> <p>Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3503235','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3503235"><span id="translatedtitle">Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> modulates Pacific climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+affect+AND+Sports&pg=5&id=EJ319254','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+affect+AND+Sports&pg=5&id=EJ319254"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Arousal on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up Decrement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anshel, Mark H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and their contribution to sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lam, J.K.W.; Dowdeswell, J.A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The model is a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vibrio Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists' views about attribution of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. PMID:25051508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and allergy in Asia Minor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and it is <span class="hlt">warming</span> quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective. PMID:22695877</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span> black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..190S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..190S"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will not decrease winter mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters <span class="hlt">warm</span>. Recent UK government reports state that winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters <span class="hlt">warm</span> with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaw"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940397"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature on the gut microbial communities of tadpoles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kohl, Kevin D; Yahn, Jeremiah</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> studies have investigated the effects of diet, phylogeny and immune status on the gut microbial communities of animals. Most of these studies are conducted on endotherms, especially mammals, which maintain constant body temperature in the face of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability. However, the majority of animals and vertebrates are ectotherms, which often experience fluctuations in body temperature as a result of their environment. While there have been several studies investigating the gut microbial diversity of ectotherms, we lack an understanding of how <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature affects these communities. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to inventory the gut microbial communities of tadpoles exposed to cool (18°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> (28°C) temperature treatments. We found that temperature significantly impacted the community structure and membership of the tadpole gut. Specifically, tadpoles in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> treatment exhibited higher abundances of the phylum Planctomycetes and the genus Mycobacterium. These results may be due to the direct effects of temperature, or mediated through changes in host physiology. Given that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are expected to increase due to global climate change, understanding the effects of temperature on the diversity and function of gut microbial communities is critical. PMID:26940397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506"><span id="translatedtitle">Hygroscopic chemicals and the formation of advection <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog: A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The formation of advection fog is closely associated with the characteristics of the aerosol particles, including the chemical composition, mass of the nuclei, particle size, and concentration. Both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383"><span id="translatedtitle">A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Ball, Richard J.; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4°C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4–6 h day−1). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4 C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, <span class="hlt">warming</span> shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased wintertime CO2 loss as a result of sustained tundra <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, Elizabeth E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.; Oken, Kiva L.; Bracho, Rosvel; Krapek, John P.; Risk, David; Nickerson, Nick R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Permafrost soils currently store approximately 1672 Pg of carbon (C), but as high latitudes <span class="hlt">warm</span>, this temperature-protected C reservoir will become vulnerable to higher rates of decomposition. In recent decades, air temperatures in the high latitudes have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> more than any other region globally, particularly during the winter. Over the coming century, the arctic winter is also expected to experience the most <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any region or season, yet it is notably understudied. Here we present nonsummer season (NSS) CO2 flux data from the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research project, an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment of moist acidic tussock tundra in interior Alaska. Our goals were to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables and winter CO2 production, account for subnivean photosynthesis and late fall plant C uptake in our estimate of NSS CO2 exchange, constrain NSS CO2 loss estimates using multiple methods of measuring winter CO2 flux, and quantify the effect of winter soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on total NSS CO2 balance. We measured CO2 flux using four methods: two chamber techniques (the snow pit method and one where a chamber is left under the snow for the entire season), eddy covariance, and soda lime adsorption, and found that NSS CO2 loss varied up to fourfold, depending on the method used. CO2 production was dependent on soil temperature and day of season but atmospheric pressure and air temperature were also important in explaining CO2 diffusion out of the soil. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> stimulated both ecosystem respiration and productivity during the NSS and increased overall CO2 loss during this period by 14% (this effect varied by year, ranging from 7 to 24%). When combined with the summertime CO2 fluxes from the same site, our results suggest that this subarctic tundra ecosystem is shifting away from its historical function as a C sink to a C source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterations in mitochondrial electron transport system activity in response to <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sappal, Ravinder; MacDougald, Michelle; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Fish expend significant amounts of energy to handle the <span class="hlt">numerous</span> potentially stressful biotic and abiotic factors that they commonly encounter in aquatic environments. This universal requirement for energy singularizes mitochondria, the primary cellular energy transformers, as fundamental drivers of responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. Our study probed the interacting effects of thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HRO) and copper (Cu) exposure in rainbow trout to test the prediction that they act jointly to impair mitochondrial function. Rainbow trout were acclimated to 11 (controls) or 20°C for 2 months. Liver mitochondria were then isolated and their responses in vitro to Cu (0-20μM) without and with HRO were assessed. Sequential inhibition and activation of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) enzyme complexes permitted the measurement of respiratory activities supported by complex I-IV (CI-IV) in one run. The results showed that <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced fish and liver weights but increased mitochondrial protein indicating impairment of energy metabolism, increased synthesis of defense proteins and/or reduced liver water content. Whereas acute rise (11→20°C) in temperature increased mitochondrial oxidation rates supported by CI-IV, <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced the maximal (state 3) and increased the basal (state 4) respiration leading to global uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). HRO profoundly inhibited both maximal and basal respiration rates supported by CI-IV, reduced RCR for all except CII and lowered CI:CII respiration ratio, an indication of decreased OXPHOS efficiency. The effects of Cu were less pronounced but more variable and included inhibition of CII-IV maximal respiration rates and stimulation of both CI and CIII basal respiration rates. Surprisingly, only CII and CIII indices exhibited significant 3-way interactions whereas 2-way interactions of acclimation either with Cu or HRO were portrayed mostly by CIV, and those of HRO and Cu were most common in CI and II respiratory indices. Our study suggests that <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation blunts sensitivity of the ETS to temperature rise and that HRO and <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation impose mitochondrial changes that sensitize the ETS to Cu. Overall, our study highlights the significance of the ETS in mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction caused by thermal stress, HRO and Cu exposure. PMID:26022556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713881U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713881U"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Eurasian climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic has been one of the most dramatic signs of the climate change during the last decades. Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been at least twice as fast as the global mean. Simultaneously with the strong <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the central Arctic, an increased occurrence of extreme weather events, often of unprecedented strength and duration, has already been observed in the northern hemisphere. In this study we address the effects of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns on climate extremes in Eurasia, and on the atmospheric circulation linking the Arctic with the mid-latitudes. Our objective is to enhance the understanding of the regional differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages, which is an issue that has received a little attention in previous studies. We focus on the period since 1979, when high quality atmospheric reanalysis data are available. We apply the Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to extract the geographical patterns of Arctic surface temperature and relate these patterns with composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices. The extreme indices data are derived from the observational HadEX2 data set. We recognise the fact that the remote effects of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> may occur with a time lag of several weeks. Therefore we compare Arctic surface temperature patterns and temporally lagged composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme data. We compute the frequencies of occurrence of Arctic surface temperature patterns and decompose changes in relevant quantities, such as precipitation, into two components. The first component represents quantity changes associated with changes in frequencies of occurrence of temperature patterns, whilst the second component describes quantity changes due to the local temperature change within each surface temperature pattern. Our preliminary results demonstrate fundamental differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages between the western and central parts of the Eurasian continent. For example, in autumn and early winter, the sea ice cover and air temperatures have a different relationship in the western and central Eurasia, but in late winter their statistical relationships turn similar. Furthermore, frequencies of occurrence of Arctic temperature change significantly from the 1980s until the latest decade. These frequency changes are associated with a particularly distinct reorganisation of the atmospheric circulation over Eurasia, while elsewhere the largest contribution to the atmospheric circulation change in the Northern Hemisphere is associated with local changes in Arctic surface temperatures. We are carrying out more analysis with the SOM technique to different seasons and variables that can provide further insights on the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Signals from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the observed Arctic conditions since the 1970s have been shown to exhibit a linear behavior that directly contradicts what has been expected from the A0 (Overland, 2005). The decade of the 1990s has been regarded as the warmest decade in the last century and current data indicates that the 2000s may be even a warmer decade than the 1990s further supporting the linear variability. In this paper, we use satellite data to gain insights into the <span class="hlt">warming</span> Arctic and how the abnormally <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions during the last few years are reflected in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind changes above <span class="hlt">warm</span> Agulhas Current eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation greater than to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability-neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST for six identified eddies shows stronger wind speed above the <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies than the surrounding water in all wind directions, if averaged over the lifespan of the eddies, as was found in previous studies. However, only half of the cases showed higher wind speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies, there is no relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the SST perturbation, but we do find a linear relationship between the decrease in wind speed from the centre to the border of the eddy downstream and the SST perturbation. SST perturbations range from 1 to 6 °C for a mean eddy SST of 15.9 °C and mean SST perturbation of 2.65 °C. The diameter of the eddies range from 100 to 250 km. Mean background wind speed is about 12 m s-1 (mostly southwesterly to northwesterly) and ranging mainly from 4 to 16 m s-1. The mean wind increase is about 15 %, which corresponds to 1.8 m s-1. A wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies is not uncommon. Cases where the wind did not increase above the eddies or did not decrease downstream had higher wind speeds and occurred during a cold front associated with intense cyclonic low-pressure systems, suggesting certain synoptic conditions need to be met to allow for the development of wind speed anomalies over <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core ocean eddies. In many cases, change in wind speed above eddies was masked by a large-scale synoptic wind speed deceleration/acceleration affecting parts of the eddies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1380D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1380D"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus: What is the role of the Pacific variability?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, Herv; Voldoire, Aurore</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and challenging the upper-range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent <span class="hlt">numerical</span> studies have however tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by highlighting the key role of the tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Nio Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results are quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multi-decadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over land and the transition towards a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet, the recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is still overestimated, not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..880D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..880D"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus: What is the role of Pacific variability?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Voldoire, A.; Geoffroy, O.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and challenging the upper range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent <span class="hlt">numerical</span> studies have, however, tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by highlighting the key role of tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Nio-Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results can be quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multidecadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over land and the transition toward a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is still overestimated not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D.; McCann, Kevin S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Shuter, Brian J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kennedy, V.S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.; Shen, S.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy. The long term impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vibrios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover <span class="hlt">environmental</span> DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with <span class="hlt">warming</span> sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased in occurrence over the last half century in the southern North Sea, but also prevailed within the particle associated bacterial community of coastal marine waters. These findings provide support for the view that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have a strong impact on the composition of marine bacterial communities with important implications for human and animal health into the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential of agro-ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP..tmp..362Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP..tmp..362Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure Analysis of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-<span class="hlt">numerical</span> method. The aim was to predict formability of <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4032Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4032Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure Analysis of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-<span class="hlt">numerical</span> method. The aim was to predict formability of <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 2007. An update to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keller, Charles F</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are <span class="hlt">warming</span> the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not seem to match surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> during medieval times (not as large as recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period was not as <span class="hlt">warm</span> as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past 25 years or so, then what <span class="hlt">warming</span> was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting <span class="hlt">warming</span> that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched on briefly here is the new understanding of the phenomenon called "global dimming." Several sets of observations of the sun's total radiation at the surface have shown that there has been a reduction in sunlight reaching it. This has been related to the scattering of sunlight by aerosols and has led to a better quantification of the possibility that cleaning up our atmospheric pollution will lead to greater global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Adding all these advances together, there is a growing consensus that the 21st century will indeed see some 2 degrees C (3.5 degrees F) or more in additional <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This is corroborated in the new IPCC Assessment, an early release of which is touched on very briefly here. PMID:17370024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820648"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment. PMID:25737326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment. PMID:25737326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effect&pg=4&id=EJ993844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effect&pg=4&id=EJ993844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One aim of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behaviour; this is particularly significant with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ993844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ993844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One aim of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behaviour; this is particularly significant with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+control+AND+machine&pg=3&id=EJ156701','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+control+AND+machine&pg=3&id=EJ156701"><span id="translatedtitle">What Is <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Control?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goold, Vernell C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> control (a technique involving coded, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> instructions for the automatic control and performance of a machine tool) does not replace fundamental machine tool training. It should be added to the training program to give the student an additional tool to accomplish production rates and accuracy that were not possible before. (HD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=databank&pg=2&id=EJ361381','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=databank&pg=2&id=EJ361381"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveying the <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Databanks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Leary, Mick</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Describes six leading <span class="hlt">numeric</span> databank services and compares them with bibliographic databases in terms of customers' needs, search software, pricing arrangements, and the role of the search specialist. A listing of the locations of the <span class="hlt">numeric</span> databanks discussed is provided. (CLB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmRe..85..395G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmRe..85..395G"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyses and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a polar low over the Japan Sea on 19 December 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Jingtian; Fu, Gang; Li, Ziliang; Shao, Limin; Duan, Yihong; Wang, Jianguo</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>A meso-α-scale polar low was observed over the Japan Sea on 19 December 2003. It initialed around 11 UTC over the northwestern part of the Japan Sea within a synoptic-scale parent low under the influence of baroclinic environment and disappeared over the eastern edge of Japan Islands with a lifetime of about 20 h. It is of interest that this polar low had "concentric eye-walls" and "<span class="hlt">warm</span> core" structure at its mature stage. The evolutionary process and spatial structure of this polar low were investigated by using almost all available observational data, including the Geostationary Operational <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Satellite (GOES)-9, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery, the Final Analyses (FNL) data issued by National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP), the surface observational data and the 9-station sounding data of Japan Islands. In order to study its development mechanism, a 24-h <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation using the version 4.4 of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) starting from 12 UTC 19 December 2003 with an 8 km × 8 km resolution was performed. It is shown that the RAMS model reproduced the main features of the polar low reasonably well. The vorticity budget analyses indicate that the stretching term is the major contributor for the vorticity increase of the polar low. The baroclinic background seems to play significant role for the initial development of this polar low. However, the effect of the diabatic heating for its later development is also significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To simulate expected future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to <span class="hlt">warm</span> open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768"><span id="translatedtitle">Biocrusts modulate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands. PMID:25914428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313"><span id="translatedtitle">Relocation, high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts. PMID:25443313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, <span class="hlt">warming</span> further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. PMID:25772030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182888"><span id="translatedtitle">What do global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts really mean to U.S. industry?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bendel, W.B.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This paper will explore real-world impacts that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several <span class="hlt">environmental</span> situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J"><span id="translatedtitle">The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate in interior Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Charles E., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a social-ecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high-resolution satellite imagery was used to identify and map open water and degraded ice conditions on the Tanana River. Ninety-five percent of the total river channel surface was classified as "safe" for river travel, while 4% of the channel was mapped as having degraded ice and 0.6% of the channel was classified as open water (overall accuracy of 73%). This research demonstrates that the classification of high-resolution satellite images can be useful for mapping hazardous ice for recreational, transportation, or industrial applications in northern climates. These results are applicable to communities throughout the North. For people that rely upon subsistence activities, increased variability in climate cycles can have substantial financial, cultural, recreational, or even mortal consequences. This research demonstrates how collaborations between scientists and local stakeholders can create tools that help to assess the impacts of increased <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability (such as flooding) or to detect or predict unsafe conditions (such as thin or unpredictable ice cover). Based upon this research, I conclude that regional-scale adaptations and technological advances (such as modeling and remote sensing tools) may help to alleviate the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability associated by climate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864"><span id="translatedtitle">Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20–150 GPa and 1.9–5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2–23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime. PMID:26515505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somerville, R. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3297S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3297S"><span id="translatedtitle">Activation of Sahelian monsoon under future <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Rainfall variability in the Sahel has been affecting the lives of millions through devastating droughts, such as in the 1970s and 80s, but also destructive rain and flood events. Future climate change is likely to alter rainfall patterns, but model projections for the central Sahel diverge significantly, with climate models simulating anything between a slight drying and a substantial wetting trend. Here we analyze 30 coupled global climate model simulations from the CMIP5 archive. We identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40% to 300% over the 21st century, under the RCP8.5 concentration pathway. The same models also outperform the rest of the ensemble in reproducing the magnitude of the 1970s/80s drought. The magnitude and seasonality of the projected future rainfall change, together with a concurrent increase in near-surface wind speed, indicate a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. We further find that Sahel rainfall does not increase linearly with rising global temperatures; it is insensitive to moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> but then abruptly intensifies beyond a certain temperature. This non-linearity is even more pronounced when instead of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, sea surface temperature change in the tropical Atlantic moisture source region is considered. We propose an explanation for this behavior based on a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, and suggest that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under climate change can trigger the sudden activation of a continental monsoon in the Sahel region, which reaches further inland than the present-day, predominantly coastal West African monsoon. Such an abrupt regime change in response to gradual forcing would be consistent with paleoclimatic records from the Sahel region. More detailed comparison between the model simulations that exhibit this sudden rainfall increase under future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and those that do not may help to verify this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741"><span id="translatedtitle">The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing differs between soil and roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447"><span id="translatedtitle">The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036584"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that <span class="hlt">warming</span> promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and imply that heavy metals had the higher <span class="hlt">environmental</span> risk under the future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:26036584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChJOL..27..147C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChJOL..27..147C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases in the North China Plain as recorded by multi-proxy records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, Jianxin; Zhou, Shangzhe; Chang, Hong</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The grain size and palinology of sediment and the frequency of 14C dada provide an integrated reconstruction of the Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases of the North China Plain. Two clear intense and long-lasting <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases were identified by comprehensive research in this region. The first phase was dated back to the early Holocene (9 000-7 000 a BP), and the second was centered at 5 000-3 000 a BP. The <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid episode between 9 000 and 7 000 a BP was also recognized at other sites showing global climatic trends rather than local events. Compared with the concern to the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phase of the early Holocene, the second one was not paid enough attention in the last few decades. The compilation of the Holocene paleoclimate data suggests that perhaps the second <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phase was pervasive in monsoon region of China. In perspective of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> archaeology, much attention should be devoted to it, because the flourish and adaptation of the Neolithic cultures and the building up of the first state seem to corresponding to the general <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid climatic conditions of this period. In addition, a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid interval at 7 200-6 500 a BP was recognized by the grain size data from three sites. However, this <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid event was not shown in pollen assemblage and temporal distribution of 14C data. Perhaps, the resolution for climatic reconstruction from pollen and temporal distribution of 14C data cited here is relatively low and small-amplitude and short-period climatic events cannot be well reflected by the data. Due to the difference in locality and elevation of sampling site, as well as in resolution of proxy records, it is difficult to make precise correlation. Further work is needed in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AmJPh..62..490F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AmJPh..62..490F"><span id="translatedtitle">Resource Letter: GW-1: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Firor, John W.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and carbon dioxide through sciences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:18760479</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12099070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12099070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> your heart: the energy solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerfoot, Karlene</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Citron (2002) probably sums it up best when he states that generosity is the best strategy for corporate prosperity. He believes that the love you get from others as a person and a corporation is equal to the love you extend to others. It's really about creating communities of caring and missions of inclusiveness. And the way to make this all happen is to continually recharge our batteries by staying close to the beautiful stories of our organization that will undeniably <span class="hlt">warm</span> our hearts and give us the energy to be generous. PMID:12099070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11944535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11944535"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> your heart: the energy solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerfoot, Karlene</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Citron (2002) probably sums it up best when he states that generosity is the best strategy for corporate prosperity. He believes that the love you get from others as a person and a corporation is equal to the love you extend to others. It's really about creating communities of caring and missions of inclusiveness. And the way to make this all happen is to continually recharge our batteries by staying close to the beautiful stories of our organization that will undeniably <span class="hlt">warm</span> our hearts and give us the energy to be generous. PMID:11944535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15131924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15131924"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> your heart: the energy solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerfoot, Karlene</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Citron (2002) probably sums it up best when he states that generosity is the best strategy for corporate prosperity. He believes that the love you get from others as a person and a corporation is equal to the love you extend to others. It's really about creating communities of caring and missions of inclusiveness. And the way to make this all happen is to continually recharge our batteries by staying close to the beautiful stories of our organization that will undeniably <span class="hlt">warm</span> our hearts and give us the energy to be generous. PMID:15131924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGP32B..07D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGP32B..07D"><span id="translatedtitle">Partial Transition <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Remanence ("Inverse TRM")</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunlop, D. J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>"Inverse TRM" (ITRM) produced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> magnetite through the Verwey transition was discovered by Nagata et al. (1963), who speculated that the NRM of magnetite-bearing meteorites could be in part ITRM acquired by <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Earth's magnetic field after impact rather than a record of extraterrestrial fields. New results are reported here for ITRM and partial ITRM (acquired over narrow intervals of temperature during <span class="hlt">warming</span>), including tests of partial ITRM additivity and reciprocity intended to lay the groundwork for an ITRM Thellier-analog cooling method of paleointensity determination. Memory ratios for ITRM low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) ranged from 0.254 to 0.092 for 0.6-135 um magnetites. ITRM was less resistant to LTD than TRM, leaving an ITRM memory similar to remanence after 15 mT AF cleaning. However, ITRM memory was much more stable against thermal demagnetization than the original ITRM and would contaminate NRM up to the highest steps of paleointensity determination. Next the thermal demagnetization of total ITRM and of a partial ITRM produced by switching off the field partway through <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 77 K to 300 K were compared for nine magnetite size fractions. For the 1-14 um magnetites, 75-85% of the ITRM decayed quasi-linearly from 25 to 550oC, then dropped to zero by 570oC. The 20, 110 and 135 um magnetites demagnetized in two stages: a 50% loss from 20-250oC, a leveling out until 500oC, and a final plunge to zero above 550oC. Partial ITRMs of 0.6-20 um magnetites were more resistant to thermal demagnetization than total ITRMs. The decay was still quasi-linear or two-stage, but twice as much remanence survived at 550oC. The most stable part of ITRM seems to be acquired in the earliest stages of the Verwey transition, well below 120 K. The final experiments studied sets of neighbouring partial ITRMs, using 12 narrow T intervals from 20 to 300 K. The reciprocity law was obeyed for all samples: pITRM(T1, T2) was completely erased by zero-field cooling from T2 to T1. This is the main requirement for a successful paleointensity method. The largest pITRMs were acquired in the 90-100 and 100-110 K intervals, not between 110 and 120 K. This is surprising because most of the LTD of total ITRM and other remanences occurs from 120-110 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92p1113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92p1113C"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient formalism for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cangi, Attila; Pribram-Jones, Aurora</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter requires computational methods that capture both quantum and classical behavior efficiently under high-temperature, high-density conditions. Currently, density functional theory molecular dynamics is used to model electrons and ions, but this method's computational cost skyrockets as temperatures and densities increase. We propose finite-temperature potential functional theory as an in-principle-exact alternative that suffers no such drawback. We derive an orbital-free free energy approximation through a coupling-constant formalism. Our density approximation and its associated free energy approximation demonstrate the method's accuracy and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This is related to what is sometimes referred to as "false balance" in media reporting and may partly explain the divergence between public and scientific opinion regarding climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662"><span id="translatedtitle">Does coral bleaching mean global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, J.A.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>This article discusses the implications of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991EOSTr..72..307B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991EOSTr..72..307B"><span id="translatedtitle">Super plume connection to Cretaceous <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blue, Charles</p> <p></p> <p>A global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event that took pace during the Cretaceous period may have been caused in part by a “super plume” from the Earth's interior that released massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, according to a paper published in the June issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Ken Caldeira and Michael Rampino of New York University used global biogeochemical carbon-cycle models to calculate the climatic effects of a large injection of CO2 into the atmosphere/ocean system. The primary sources of CO2 that they studied included mantle degassing at mid-ocean ridges and metamorphic decarbonation of sediments at subduction zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera: Love Cold, Fear <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides understanding of possible linkages between long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes and evolution of assemblages and morphological species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, of which the phylogeny is still little known. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have long morphological species lives and do not commonly suffer massive extinctions: they live in the largest habitat on earth, species have large geographic ranges or are cosmopolitan, and they use motile propagules to rapidly re-populate regions where populations have been destroyed. Extinction occurs only when rapid and severe <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change affects such a large part of the deep ocean that no refugia exist, even for common species. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera reacted to global cooling (in the earliest Oligocene, middle Miocene and middle Pleistocene) not by extinction, but by a gradual turnover of species. The most extensive turnover occurred in the late Eocene through earliest Oligocene, when some presently important ecological niches were first filled. In contrast, deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered severe extinction (30-50% of species, including common, cosmopolitan, long-lived species) during the rapid global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a time of high CO2 levels and potential ocean acidification. The extinction was followed by slow recovery of faunas, but diversity never returned to pre-extinction levels. The PETM and later, less severe short-term periods of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (hyperthermals ETM1 and ETM2) were characterized by low diversity faunas dominated by small, thin-walled individuals. No significant net extinction occurred during the later hyperthermals. Such faunas might reflect dissolution, low oxygen conditions, or blooming of opportunistic species after <span class="hlt">environmental</span> disturbance. Most commonly cited causes of the PETM extinction are: 1. low oxygen concentrations, 2. acidification of the oceans, 3. increase or decrease in oceanic productivity and/or transfer of food to the sea floor, and 4. increasing temperatures. All 4 factors may have contributed to the extinction, but the first three factors varied regionally and by depth, whereas only the temperature increase affected the deep-sea environment globally. High temperatures not only increase overall metabolic rates, but also affect which species of prokaryotes are most active and which labile compounds they generate, thus the compounds and the amount of labile organic matter available for foraminiferal feeding. At sites along a depth transect at Walvis Ridge (SE Atlantic) species that earlier had been abundant in neritic waters ( Tappanina selmensis) increased strongly in abundance. Some surviving deep-sea species underwent diversification and morphological evolution; during and just after the PETM and two other hyperthermal events the deep-sea genus Abyssamina became more abundant (most pronounced at the deeper sites), while evolving into several morphological species. During the warmer intervals its aperture became more irregular in shape, with an extremely asymmetrical shape at the deepest site during ETM1. The aperture in benthic foraminifera directs the streaming of pseudopods, thus the way of food intake, suggesting that the nature of benthic feeding changed during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> periods. During the early Eocene (a period characterized by hyperthermals), faunas maintained larger differences in assemblage composition between ocean basins than before the extinction. It remains a question whether this faunal heterogeneity reflects the mode of deep-ocean circulation/ventilation during the warmest period of the Cenozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079"><span id="translatedtitle">(Discussions of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krahl-Urban, B.</p> <p>1989-11-02</p> <p>The traveler visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sciences Division to provide programmatic interpretations and technical overviews of research topics addressing international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Many of today's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems can no longer be considered as regional-scale impacts. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, acidification, ozone depletion, drought, deforestation, and air pollution effects are global-level processes that can only be effectively approached by international scientific cooperation. The traveler's recommendations for the final planning and coordination of international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues emphasized focusing on international cooperation with research institutions in West Germany and in other countries of the European Community. Several key global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues are addressed by the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA Juelich), West Germany. Scientific cooperation with KFA Juelich should be promising in theoretical ecology, systems analysis, and toxicology. Scientific exchange between ORNL and KFA Juelich in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sciences has been initiated by the traveler.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PApGe.162.1557K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PApGe.162.1557K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Debate: A Review of the State of Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandekar, M. L.; Murty, T. S.; Chittibabu, P.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>A review of the present status of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> science is presented in this paper. The term global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is now popularly used to refer to the recent reported increase in the mean surface temperature of the earth; this increase being attributed to increasing human activity and in particular to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere. Since the mid to late 1980s there has been an intense and often emotional debate on this topic. The various climate change reports (1996, 2001) prepared by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), have provided the scientific framework that ultimately led to the Kyoto protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide) due to the burning of fossil fuels. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> peer-reviewed studies reported in recent literature have attempted to verify several of the projections on climate change that have been detailed by the IPCC reports.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8742B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8742B"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299978"><span id="translatedtitle">Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667641','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667641"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs. PMID:26541650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541650"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurements of resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Booth, N; Robinson, A P L; Hakel, P; Clarke, R J; Dance, R J; Doria, D; Gizzi, L A; Gregori, G; Koester, P; Labate, L; Levato, T; Li, B; Makita, M; Mancini, R C; Pasley, J; Rajeev, P P; Riley, D; Wagenaars, E; Waugh, J N; Woolsey, N C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs. PMID:26541650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESRv..103...31Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESRv..103...31Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Permafrost degradation and its <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects on the Tibetan Plateau: A review of recent research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Meixue; Nelson, Frederick E.; Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.; Guo, Donglin; Wan, Guoning</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A significant portion of the Tibetan Plateau is underlain by permafrost, and is highly sensitive to climate change. Observational data from recent Chinese investigations on permafrost degradation and its <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects in the Tibetan region indicate that a large portion of the Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> since the mid-1950s. The air temperature increase is most significant in the central, eastern, and northwestern parts of the Plateau. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in the cold season was greater than that in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. The duration of seasonal ground freezing has shortened due to the air temperature increase in winter. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulations indicate that air temperature on the Plateau will continue to increase in the 21st century. Significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> has resulted in extensive degradation of permafrost. Over the last 30 years, a 25 m increase in the lower altitudinal occurrences of permafrost has taken place in the north. In the south the increase is 50-80 m over the past 20 years. Active-layer thickness and mean annual ground temperature have increased by 0.15-0.50 m during 1996-2001 and by 0.1-0.5 °C during the last 30 years on the Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Widespread permafrost degradation has already caused <span class="hlt">environmental</span> deterioration. Extensive desertification processes are apparent in the eastern and western portions of the Tibetan Plateau, with the area occupied by desert increasing annually by about 1.8%. With rapid retreat and thinning of permafrost, large carbon pools sequestered in permafrost could be released to increase net sources of atmospheric carbon, creating a positive feedback and accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Damage to human infrastructure is also caused by frost heave, thaw settlement, and thaw slumping in the permafrost-affected region. The impact of permafrost degradation on energy and water exchange processes between the ground and atmosphere require further examination. Large-scale intensive monitoring networks, remote sensing investigations, and models for frozen soil are needed to clarify regional details of climate change, permafrost degradation, and their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023746','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023746"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential. Some of the implications for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC51A0945C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC51A0945C"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification of Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, K. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Surface temperatures over the Sahara and Arabian Deserts are increasing at a rate that is 3.5 times that of the global mean. These regions have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 1.4 K between 1980 and 2012. In the tropical (and global) mean, added energy incident at the surface due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is used partly to increase the surface temperature, and partly to evaporate water. The resulting atmospheric water vapor anomaly is effectively mixed vertically and horizontally throughout the tropics on annual time scales, and amplifies the greenhouse effect (increased longwave back radiation to the surface) everywhere, including over the deserts. But, on the desert surface, evaporative cooling is disabled and the enhanced longwave energy incident on the surface serves only to increase surface temperature. Despite the fact that this desert amplification mechanism should operate over any dry surface, the other deserts of the world are not exhibiting accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Each of these deserts is smaller than the Sahara/Arabian Desert area, and various regional processes dominate over the desert amplification mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558904"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and thermohaline circulation stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert</p> <p>2003-09-15</p> <p>The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future. PMID:14558904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DMP.K1125Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DMP.K1125Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear quantum dynamics in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Jianmin; Kang, Dongdong; Dai, Jiayu; Sun, Huayang</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Quantum dynamics is a challenging problem in atomic and molecular dynamics. Ionic and electronic transport behaviors are strongly dependent on their dynamics, whose key physics is the scattering or collisions between particles. We usually consider only the quantum effects of electrons, but neglect the quantum effects of ions. Here, we show that the nuclear quantum effects can induce quantum tunneling in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense hydrogen, resulting in larger ionic diffusions and less electronic transport such as electrical and thermal conductivities. In order to study the nuclear quantum dynamics, we modify the sampling formula in path integral molecular dynamics (centriod molecular dynamics, CMD). Using the new sampling, the tunneling probability from CMD is consistent with the results of WKB approximation and full quantum mechanical calculations near the classical limit. The significant quantum delocalization of ions introduces expressively different scattering cross section between protons compared with classical particle treatments, which can explain the large alterability of transport behaviors. The complex behavior shows that NQEs cannot be neglected for dense hydrogen even in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime, which would be important for the giant planets and inertial confinement fusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471001"><span id="translatedtitle">{sup 85}Kr induced global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zakharov, V.I.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015066','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015066"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicompartment Liquid-Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Protective Garments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Shortened, multicompartment liquid-cooling / <span class="hlt">warming</span> garments (LCWGs) for protecting astronauts, firefighters, and others at risk of exposure to extremes of temperature are undergoing development. Unlike prior liquid-circulation thermal-protection suits that provide either cooling or <span class="hlt">warming</span> but not both, an LCWG as envisioned would provide cooling at some body locations and/or heating at other locations, as needed: For example, sometimes there is a need to cool the body core and to heat the extremities simultaneously. An LCWG garment of the type to be developed is said to be shortened because the liquid-cooling and - heating zones would not cover the whole body and, instead, would cover reduced areas selected for maximum heating and cooling effectiveness. Physiological research is under way to provide a rational basis for selection of the liquid-cooling and -heating areas. In addition to enabling better (relative to prior liquid-circulation garments) balancing of heat among different body regions, the use of selective heating and cooling in zones would contribute to a reduction in the amount of energy needed to operate a thermal-protection suit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.7604C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.7604C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warms</span> from below</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carmack, Eddy C.; Williams, William J.; Zimmermann, Sarah L.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The old (˜450-year isolation age) and near-homogenous deep waters of the Canada Basin (CBDW), that are found below ˜2700 m, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at a rate of ˜0.0004°C yr-1 between 1993 and 2010. This rate is slightly less than expected from the reported geothermal heat flux (Fg ˜ 50 mW m-2). A deep temperature minimum Tmin layer overlies CBDW within the basin and is also <span class="hlt">warming</span> at approximately the same rate, suggesting that some geothermal heat escapes vertically through a multi-stepped, ˜300-m-thick deep transitional layer. Double diffusive convection and thermobaric instabilities are identified as possible mechanisms governing this vertical heat transfer. The CBDW found above the lower continental slope of the deep basin maintains higher temperatures than those in the basin interior, consistent with geothermal heat being distributed through a shallower water column, and suggests that heat from the basin interior does not diffuse laterally and escape at the edges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..943..215G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..943..215G"><span id="translatedtitle">Microlens Parallax Measurements With A <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spitzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gould, Andrew</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Because the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an Earth-trailing orbit, losing about 0.1 AU/yr, it is excellently located to perform microlens parallax observations toward the Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC) and the Galactic bulge. These yield the so-called ``projected velocity'' of the lens, which can distinguish statistically among different populations. A few such measurements toward the LMC/SMC would reveal the nature of the lenses being detected in this direction (dark halo objects, or ordinary LMC/SMC stars). Cool Spitzer has already made one such measurement of a (rare) bright red-clump source, but <span class="hlt">warm</span> (presumably less oversubscribed) Spitzer could devote the extra time required to obtain microlens parallaxes for the more common, but fainter, turnoff sources. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spitzer could observe bulge microlenses for 38 days per year, which would permit up to 24 microlens parallaxes per year. This would yield interesting information on the disk mass function, particularly old brown dwarfs, which at present are inaccessible by other techniques. Target-of-Opportunity (TOO) observations should be divided into RTOO/DTOO, i.e., ``regular'' and ``disruptive'' TOOs, as pioneered by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). LMC/SMC parallax measurements would be DTOO, but bulge measurements would be RTOO, i.e., they could be scheduled in advance, without knowing exactly which star was to be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470971','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470971"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon contribution to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">warming</span>, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A31A0085G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A31A0085G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Energetics of a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graham, T.; Ferraro, A.; Vellinga, M.; Wu, P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The inconsistency between observed and simulated rates of recent Arctic sea-ice decline demands a better understanding of energetics of model simulated Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using various ensembles of perturbed HadCM3 simulations, we investigate the sensitivity of sea-ice decline to ocean heat uptake, air-sea fluxes and atmospheric radiative balance and their changing relationships in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In a 22-member ensemble, we find consistent amplification of Arctic surface air temperature changes but much smaller SST changes in both polar regions. This is because the extra solar radiation absorbed by the ocean due to decreasing sea-ice and surface albedo in the summer is mostly lost by increased outgoing long wave radiation in the Autumn with a much reduced air-sea temperature difference. The change in heat loss from the ocean in fall varies widely between the different perturbed physics ensemble members and is shown to be correlated with both the change in the sea-ice area and initial sea-ice area. The change in solar heat flux into the ocean does not show this dependency and varies much less between the perturbed physics ensemble members.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513719"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> alters the metabolic balance of ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Jones, J Iwan; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy; Montoya, Jose M</p> <p>2010-07-12</p> <p>The carbon cycle modulates climate change, via the regulation of atmospheric CO(2), and it represents one of the most important services provided by ecosystems. However, considerable uncertainties remain concerning potential feedback between the biota and the climate. In particular, it is unclear how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect the metabolic balance between the photosynthetic fixation and respiratory release of CO(2) at the ecosystem scale. Here, we present a combination of experimental field data from freshwater mesocosms, and theoretical predictions derived from the metabolic theory of ecology to investigate whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter the capacity of ecosystems to absorb CO(2). Our manipulative experiment simulated the temperature increases predicted for the end of the century and revealed that ecosystem respiration increased at a faster rate than primary production, reducing carbon sequestration by 13 per cent. These results confirmed our theoretical predictions based on the differential activation energies of these two processes. Using only the activation energies for whole ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration we provide a theoretical prediction that accurately quantified the precise magnitude of the reduction in carbon sequestration observed experimentally. We suggest the combination of whole-ecosystem manipulative experiments and ecological theory is one of the most promising and fruitful research areas to predict the impacts of climate change on key ecosystem services. PMID:20513719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694712','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694712"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Elevated CO2 Interact to Drive Rapid Shifts in Marine Community Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Bracken, Matthew E. S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Predicting the outcome of future climate change requires an understanding of how alterations in multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors manifest in natural communities and affect ecosystem functioning. We conducted an in situ, fully factorial field manipulation of CO2 and temperature on a rocky shoreline in southeastern Alaska, USA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly impacted functioning of tide pool systems within one month, with the rate of net community production (NCP) more than doubling in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> pools under ambient CO2 levels relative to initial NCP values. However, in pools with added CO2, NCP was unaffected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Productivity responses paralleled changes in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of a red alga, the most abundant primary producer species in the system, highlighting the direct link between physiology and ecosystem functioning. These observed changes in algal physiology and community productivity in response to our manipulations indicate the potential for natural systems to shift rapidly in response to changing climatic conditions and for multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors to act antagonistically. PMID:26714167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184272"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanna, Elizabeth G; Tait, Peter W</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> progresses. PMID:26184272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26714167"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Elevated CO2 Interact to Drive Rapid Shifts in Marine Community Production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorte, Cascade J B; Bracken, Matthew E S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Predicting the outcome of future climate change requires an understanding of how alterations in multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors manifest in natural communities and affect ecosystem functioning. We conducted an in situ, fully factorial field manipulation of CO2 and temperature on a rocky shoreline in southeastern Alaska, USA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly impacted functioning of tide pool systems within one month, with the rate of net community production (NCP) more than doubling in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> pools under ambient CO2 levels relative to initial NCP values. However, in pools with added CO2, NCP was unaffected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Productivity responses paralleled changes in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of a red alga, the most abundant primary producer species in the system, highlighting the direct link between physiology and ecosystem functioning. These observed changes in algal physiology and community productivity in response to our manipulations indicate the potential for natural systems to shift rapidly in response to changing climatic conditions and for multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors to act antagonistically. PMID:26714167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515708','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515708"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Tait, Peter W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> progresses. 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