Science.gov

Sample records for warming topics include

  1. Selected topics in lattice dynamics: a critical review (including breathers).

    PubMed

    Horton, George K; Cowley, E Roger

    2003-06-01

    We present a review of lattice dynamics to provide the underpinnings for the study of nonlinear localized modes, the so-called breathers. After a historical survey we address the following topics: harmonic theories, anharmonic perturbation theory, self-consistent theories, classical simulation techniques, path-integral theories, realistic crystal potentials, and intrinsic localized modes. We discuss both static and dynamic properties of crystals, e.g., neutron and x-ray scattering. We do not consider transport properties. Throughout, our emphasis is on discussing the major advances in the field and citing the appropriate references. Our aim is to achieve clarity and simplicity for readers who wish to move on to the study of breathers. We have made a special effort to set up the language and notation that is generally accepted in the field. In order to acquaint the reader with the techniques used in lattice dynamics we have analyzed a number of key problems in detail including a comparison with the available experimental data. PMID:12777131

  2. Innovations in Teaching: How Novice Teaching Assistants Include LGBTQ Topics in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how three novice graduate teaching assistants included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their first-year writing classrooms. Findings suggest that inclusion of these topics can be successfully done through attention to identity in the classroom, including current-day events, and structuring classroom…

  3. Spaceship Nigeria: A Topic Study for Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Layer Depletion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Peter; Akpan, Ben B.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the concept of a topic study, how it meets the needs of teachers seeking to integrate their teaching, and how it is especially well suited for environmental education. Outlines curriculum for a topic study on the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. (DDR)

  4. Analysis of energy conversion systems, including material and global warming aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Reistad, G.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper addresses a method for the overall evaluation of energy conversion systems, including material and global environmental aspects. To limit the scope of the work reported here, the global environmental aspects have been limited to global warming aspects. A method is presented that uses exergy as an overall evaluation measure of energy conversion systems for their lifetime. The method takes the direct exergy consumption (fuel consumption) of the conventional exergy analyses and adds (1) the exergy of the energy conversion system equipment materials, (2) the fuel production exergy and material exergy, and (3) the exergy needed to recover the total global warming gases (equivalent) of the energy conversion system. This total, termed Total Equivalent Resource Exergy (TERE), provides a measure of the effectiveness of the energy conversion system in its use of natural resources. The results presented here for several example systems illustrate how the method can be used to screen candidate energy conversion systems and perhaps, as data become more available, to optimize systems. It appears that this concept may be particularly useful for comparing systems that have quite different direct energy and/or environmental impacts. This work should be viewed in the context of being primarily a concept paper in that the lack of detailed data available to the authors at this time limits the accuracy of the overall results. The authors are working on refinements to data used in the evaluation.

  5. Space Solar Patrol data and changes in weather and climate, including global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, S. V.; Baranova, L. A.; Leonov, N. B.; Savinov, E. P.; Voronin, N. A.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the results obtained during the execution of several ISTC projects are presented. The general aim of these projects has been the study of global changes in the environment, connected with solar activity. A brief description of the optical apparatus of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) developed and built in the framework of the ISTC projects 385, 385.2, 1523 and 2500 is given. The SSP is intended for permanent monitoring of spectra and absolute fluxes of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (x-ray/EUV) radiation from the full disk of the Sun which ionizes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Permanent solar monitoring in the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8-115 (119) nm does not exist. The apparatus of the SSP was developed in the years 1996-2005 with multiyear experience of developing such apparatus in S I Vavilov State Optical Institute. The basis of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation—open secondary electron multipliers, which are 'solar blind' to near UV, visible and IR radiation from the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectroradiometric absolute measurements. The prospects are discussed of using the SSP data for the investigation and forecast of the influence of solar variability on the weather and climate including global warming and also on the biosphere including human beings (proposal 3878). This article was originally submitted for inclusion with the papers from the 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009), published in the May 2010 issue.

  6. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  7. Including ecotoxic impacts on warm-blooded predators in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie; Veltman, Karin; Musters, Gijs; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-04-01

    In current life cycle impact assessment, the focus of ecotoxicity is on cold-blooded species. We developed a method to calculate characterization factors (CFs) for the impact assessment of chemical emissions on warm-blooded predators in freshwater food chains. The method was applied to 329 organic chemicals. The CF for these predators was defined as a multiplication of the fate factor (FF), exposure factor (XF), bioaccumulation factor (BF), and effect factor (EF). Fate factors and XFs were calculated with the model USES-LCA 2.0. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated with the model OMEGA, for chemical uptake via freshwater, food, and air. Effect factors were calculated based on experimental, median lethal doses (LD50). The concentration buildup (CB) of the chemicals (i.e., FF, XF, and BF over the 3 routes of exposure) showed a range of 7 to 9 orders of magnitude, depending on the emission compartment. Effect factors displayed a range of 7 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors ranged 9 orders of magnitude. After emissions to freshwater, the relative contribution of the uptake routes to CB were 1% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-2%) for uptake from air, 43% (11%-50%) for uptake from water, and 56% (50%-87%) for uptake from food. After an emission to agricultural soil, the contribution was 11% (0%-80%) for uptake from air, 39% (5%-50%) for uptake from water, and 50% (11%-83%) for uptake from food. Uptake from air was mainly relevant for emissions to air (on average 42%, 90% CI: 5%-98%). Characterization factors for cold-blooded species were typically 4 orders of magnitude higher than CFs for warm-blooded predators. The correlation between both types of CFs was low, which means that a high relative impact on cold-blooded species does not necessarily indicate a high relative impact on warm-blooded predators. Depending on the weighing method to be considered, the inclusion of impacts on warm-blooded predators can change the relative ranking of toxic chemicals in a life cycle assessment. PMID:21796770

  8. Four Stories, Four Children, One Special Need: To Be Warmly Included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Nagurski, Lisa; Bakley, Sue; Kulak, Alisa; Blasi, Mary Jane; Priestley, Lori

    1998-01-01

    Contains four articles: (1) "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: Including Children Who Are Differently Abled in Typical Early Childhood Educational Settings"; (2) "On Teasing, Taunting, and 'I Can Do It by Myself'"; (3) "A Teacher's Responsibility--To Be Enthusiastic about Teaching Fast and Slow Learners Alike"; (4) "A Child with Severe Hearing…

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Warm spraying—a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Watanabe, Makoto; Katanoda, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1) the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2) the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3) various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC-Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.

  10. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T P; Munnier, E; Souce, M; Perse, X; David, S; Bonnier, F; Vial, F; Yvergnaux, F; Perrier, T; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Chourpa, I

    2015-01-26

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ~200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ~ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ~95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery. PMID:26033822

  11. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  12. Acute effects of a warm-up including active, passive, and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Felipe L P; Carvalho, Mauro C G A; Simão, Roberto; Gomes, Thiago M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Ludgero B; Carvalho, Rodrigo L P; Dantas, Estélio H M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of 3 different stretching methods combined with a warm-up protocol on vertical jump performance. Sixteen young tennis players (14.5 ± 2.8 years; 175 ± 5.6 cm; 64.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 different experimental conditions on 4 successive days. Each session consisted of a general and specific warm-up, with 5 minutes of running followed by 10 jumps, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions: (a) Control Condition (CC)-5 minutes of passive rest; (b) Passive Stretching Condition (PSC)-5 minutes of passive static stretching; (c) Active Stretching Condition (ASC)-5 minutes of active static stretching; and (d) Dynamic Stretching Condition (DC)-5 minutes of dynamic stretching. After each intervention, the subjects performed 3 squat jumps (SJs) and 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs), which were measured electronically. For the SJ, 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance (CC × PSC × ASC × DC) revealed significant decreases for ASC (28.7 ± 4.7 cm; p = 0.01) and PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm; p = 0.02) conditions when compared with CC (29.9 ± 5.0 cm). For CMJs, there were no significant decreases (p > 0.05) when all stretching conditions were compared with the CC. Significant increases in SJ performance were observed when comparing the DC (29.6 ± 4.9 cm; p = 0.02) with PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm). Significant increases in CMJ performance were observed when comparing the conditions ASC (34.0 ± 6.0 cm; p = 0.04) and DC (33.7 ± 5.5 cm; p = 0.03) with PSC (32.6 ± 5.5 cm). A dynamic stretching intervention appears to be more suitable for use as part of a warm-up in young athletes. PMID:22067244

  13. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  14. Malaria, in second place, sees fewer victims, but greater difficulty of control. With climate, including global warming, as complications.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This is an article on malarial risks and prevention. Malaria is the deadliest tropical parasitic disease and one of the leading causes of death. The risk for this disease has been linked with changes in land use related to road building, mining, logging, and agricultural and irrigation projects. Global climatic change, disintegration of health services, armed conflicts, and mass movements of refugees also contribute to the increasing risk for malaria. Disease prevention includes a variety of measures that may protect against infection. They may be directed against the mosquito vector or against the development of disease in infected individuals. The WHO stresses the curability of malaria in spite of the occurrence of drug resistance. If the antimalarial drugs are used properly and targeted to those at risk, malarial disease and death can be reduced. Vaccines are also in development; an effective one could be available within the next 7-15 years. PMID:12295239

  15. When Law Students Read Multiple Documents about Global Warming: Examining the Role of Topic-Specific Beliefs about the Nature of Knowledge and Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, law students (n = 49) read multiple authentic documents presenting conflicting information on the topic of climate change and responded to verification tasks assessing their superficial as well as their deeper-level within- and across-documents comprehension. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that even after variance…

  16. When Law Students Read Multiple Documents about Global Warming: Examining the Role of Topic-Specific Beliefs about the Nature of Knowledge and Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, law students (n = 49) read multiple authentic documents presenting conflicting information on the topic of climate change and responded to verification tasks assessing their superficial as well as their deeper-level within- and across-documents comprehension. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that even after variance

  17. Skin penetration and metabolism of topically applied chemicals in six mammalian species, including man: an in vitro study with benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.; Patterson, F.K.; Hall, J.

    1985-12-01

    Because viable skin possesses enzyme activities, including those involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the extent to which cutaneous metabolism may influence the percutaneous fate of topically applied chemicals in the skin was examined in mammalian skin maintained as short-term organ cultures. Skin samples from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, marmoset, and man were examined. The results from studies with benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and testosterone showed that, in all species, metabolic viability was a major factor involved in the in vitro skin permeation of surface-applied chemicals. Permeation was accompanied by extensive cutaneous first pass metabolism; both parent compounds and a full spectrum of metabolites were found in the receptor fluid from viable skin preparations. However, in previously frozen nonviable skin preparations, essentially only unchanged parent compounds were detected in the receptor fluid. Permeation of BP and testosterone was highest in mouse skin, and significant species variations in the metabolite profiles were observed. Studies with mouse skin also demonstrated that induction of cutaneous drug-metabolizing enzymes can result in a two- to threefold increase in the in vitro permeation of topical BP, and a significant reduction in permeation was observed when KCN was added to the perfusion medium. These results indicate that diffusional and metabolic processes are intimately involved in the percutaneous fate of surface-applied chemicals. The relative importance of these processes is dependent upon the physicochemical properties of the compounds and the metabolic capabilities of the skin toward the compounds in question. Furthermore, these findings suggest that meaningful in vitro studies on skin absorption should consider both diffusion and cutaneous biotransformation of the applied compound.

  18. Hong Kong Primary Pupils' Cognitive Understanding and Reasoning in Conducting Science Investigation: A Pilot Study on the Topic of "Keeping Warm"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Ng, Pun Hon

    2004-01-01

    With the increase in prominence of the investigative approach in Hong Kong science curricula from the primary to the senior secondary level, there is urgency for local science educators including primary school teachers to gain a better understanding of pupils' existing cognitive understanding and reasoning ability for performing science…

  19. Global warming. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  1. SETI: A good introductory physics topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    1997-04-01

    If America is to achieve the science literacy that is essential to industrialized democracy, all students must study such topics as scientific methodology, pseudoscience, ozone depletion, and global warming. My large-enrollment liberal-arts physics course covers the great principles of physics along with several such philosophical and societal topics. It is easy to include the interdisciplinary context of physics in courses for non-scientists, because these courses are flexible, conceptual, and taught to students whose interests span a broad range. Students find these topics relevant and fascinating, leading to large enrollments by non-scientists even in courses labeled ''physics.'' I will discuss my approach to teaching the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI), a topic with lots of good physics and with connections to scientific methodology and pseudoscience. A textbook for this kind of course has been published, Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

  2. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  3. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  4. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.

  5. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin sensitive to sunlight.do not use insect repellants or other products containing DEET during your treatment with topical bexarotene.do not scratch the affected areas during your treatment with topical bexarotene.

  6. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.4 -- Hot-gas cleaning. Topical report (includes semiannual report for January--June 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of three subtasks completed in support of the current and future hot-gas cleanup activities at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The overall objective of the EERC hot-gas cleanup task is to develop reliable methods to remove particulate matter from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams produced from coal combustion and/or gasification. Near-term task objectives include (1) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure bench-scale filter vessel; (2) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure sampling train; and (3) the preliminary design of a pilot-scale high-temperature, high-pressure filter vessel and support systems. Bench-scale hot-gas filter research will be performed with the pressurized fluid-bed reactor (PFBR) or the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and a hot-gas filter vessel. The objectives of future work with the bench-scale system will be to determine particulate and vapor-phase alkali degradation of candidate ceramic filter structures as well as filter performance relative to particulate collection efficiency, differential pressure, and filter cleanability. Construction of the high-temperature, high-pressure sampling system was intended to support bench- and pilot-scale activities with respect to conventional particulate sampling (total mass and particle-size distribution) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) sampling. Finally, pilot-scale tests will be performed to evaluate filter performance and determine alkali corrosion of ceramic materials with a hot-gas filter vessel attached to the EERC Transport Reactor Development Unit (TRDU).

  7. A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

  8. Bimatoprost Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyelashes by promoting the growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a ... your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that all makeup is removed. Do ...

  9. Tretinoin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... lotions, astringents, and perfumes); they can sting your skin, especially when you first use tretinoin.Do not use any other topical medications, especially benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid (wart remover), and dandruff shampoos containing sulfur or ...

  10. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  11. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  12. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. Topical therapies for rosacea.

    PubMed

    Nally, Jennie B; Berson, Diane S

    2006-01-01

    Therapeutic options for rosacea include topical agents, oral therapies, laser and light treatments, and surgical procedures. Topical therapies play a critical role in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, and have the ability to effectively minimize certain manifestations of the disease, including papules, pustules, and erythema. The 3 primary agents for the topical treatment of rosacea are metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Each of these therapies is approved for the treatment of rosacea and has been validated by multiple studies. Additional topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin are not approved for the treatment of rosacea and play variable roles in the management of this condition. PMID:16468288

  14. Global warming -- Science and anti-science

    SciTech Connect

    Preining, O. |

    1995-06-01

    The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

  15. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  16. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  17. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  18. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students. PMID:22308061

  19. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

  20. Global warming, January 1988-March 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 88-Mar 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (The new bibliography contains 150 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

  1. Topical therapies for psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tarek; de Gannes, Gillian; Huang, Changzheng; Zhou, Youwen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review current understandings of and approaches to topical psoriasis therapies and to assess their efficacies and adverse effects. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Literature from 1987 to 2003, inclusive, was reviewed via MEDLINE using the search term psoriasis combined with topical treatment. Articles were prioritized based on their level of evidence, favouring double-blind, randomized controlled trials over other comparison studies. Other studies were included where level I research was unavailable. No level III research was included. MAIN MESSAGE Psoriasis is very common and causes substantial morbidity. Because most psoriasis is mild to moderate, patients are well suited to outpatient topical therapy. Advances in topical treatments for psoriasis have kept pace with a rapidly evolving comprehension of its pathogenesis, making a review of current therapies useful for those who treat psoriasis. While research supports continued reliance on corticosteroids as first-line therapy, comparable efficacy has been shown for vitamin D analogues and topical retinoids, albeit with a slight increase in adverse effects. CONCLUSION The combination of steroids and vitamin D analogues or topical retinoids is perhaps the most promising current treatment. It seems to have increased efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:15856971

  2. Topical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jolene R; Myers, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    A representative assortment of topical therapies is discussed here with the goal of emphasizing the most commonly encountered diagnoses and treatments for nondermatologists. When using topical therapies, carefully consider the proper active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and quantity of medication. If topical therapy is ineffective, question whether the medication is being used properly, whether the diagnosis is correct, and whether the topical may be contributing to the problem. Examples of the topical contributing to the problem include tinea incognito exacerbated by topical steroid use and allergic contact dermatitis to topical steroid excipients. For some patients, even maximum topical therapy is insufficient and systemic treatment is required. At this point, consultation with a dermatologist may be helpful. PMID:26476246

  3. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  4. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  5. An assessment of warm fog: Nucleation, control, and recommended research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrin, M. L.; Connell, J. R.; Gero, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A state-of-the-art survey is given of warm fog research which has been performed up to, and including, 1974. Topics covered are nucleation, growth, coalescence, fog structures and visibility, effects of surface films, drop size spectrum, optical properties, instrumentation, liquid water content, condensation nuclei. Included is a summary of all reported fog modification experiments. Additional data is provided on air flow, turbulence, a summary of recommendations on instruments to be developed for determining turbulence, air flow, etc., as well as recommendations of various fog research tasks which should be performed for a better understanding of fog microphysics.

  6. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  7. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  8. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

  9. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin. PMID:27130367

  10. Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

  11. Topical immunization strategies.

    PubMed

    Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J

    2010-11-01

    Research has yielded an abundance of vaccine candidates against mucosal infections, but only few mucosal vaccines have been registered for human use. Extensive research is being carried out to identify new and safe adjuvants for mucosal immunization, novel delivery systems, including live vectors and reporter molecules for tissue- and cell-specific targeting of vaccine antigens. If these candidates are to reach those in need, several lessons from clinical and field research carried out under resource-poor settings must be considered. These lessons include the need to develop new vaccines that can be administered topically onto the skin or to the mucosa, without needles or expensive delivery devices. Such topical vaccines must be able to protect all age groups at risk, be safe and effective in immunocompromised people, and be able to contain epidemics following complex emergencies. The anatomical compartmentalization of immune responses imposes constraints on the selection of topical route(s) of vaccine administration and on strategies for measuring these responses, especially in young infants. Thus, the selection of any particular route of immunization is critical when designing and formulating vaccines against organ-specific infections. PMID:20861833

  12. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  13. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(Suppl 2):s44-48. PMID:26885798

  14. Global warming at the summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  15. Teaching the Middle East: Topics and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Charlotte F.

    1982-01-01

    Topics and resources for a discussion of the Middle East in a secondary social studies classroom are presented. The topics include geography and world resources, ethnic groups, religions, and case studies of specific countries. (AM)

  16. Topical report review status

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

  17. Global warming and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an introduction to what is known, and not known, from the perspective of biological diversity about ecological response to changes in climate. The five sections in the book cover the following topics: overview including a chapter on climate change preditions; past climatic change and biotic response; general responses of plants and animals to change (individual, behavioral, population and community responses); responses of specific regions including arctic marine and terrestrial; implications for conservation with case studies and general discussions of indirect and interacting effects.

  18. Rosacea and its topical management.

    PubMed

    Gooderham, M

    2009-02-01

    Many options exist for the treatment of rosacea, including topical and systemic therapies, laser and light-based therapies, and surgical procedures. A classification system for rosacea identifies 4 subtypes (i.e., erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular), which may help guide therapeutic decision-making. The goals of therapy include reduction of papules, pustules, erythema, physical discomfort, and an improvement in quality of life. Standard topical treatment agents include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Second line therapies include benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin. PMID:19330270

  19. Ecological stability in response to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.

    2014-03-01

    That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under warming remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in warmed microcosms were explained in terms of warming-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that warming stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated warming effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that warming stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, warming caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: warming should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.

  20. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

  1. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  2. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of

  3. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  4. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a

  5. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  6. Televised news coverage of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H.

    1996-12-31

    Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

  7. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748

  8. The Spitzer Warm Mission: Hot Science with a "Warm" Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Gordon K.; Helou, G.; Soifer, T.; Carey, S.; Rebull, L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Warm Mission white papers, Spitzer

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope is the infrared component of NASA's family of Great Observatories comprised of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Cryogenically cooled and in Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer currently offers imaging capabilities from 3.6-160 microns, and spectroscopy from 5-38 microns. In approximately March 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5’ fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. In this "warm” mission phase, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional” time allocations. This poster summarizes some of the possible large scientific programs enabled by a Spitzer warm mission, including support for theory and archival programs. The content is summarized from contributed white papers to the Spitzer Warm Mission workshop, held in Pasadena, CA in June 2007. For detailed information on these and other science programs possible with warm Spitzer observations, please see: http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/mtgs/warm/

  9. Prediction of Students' Argumentation Skills about Controversial Topics by Epistemological Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Scirica, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the contribution of overall epistemological understanding to argumentation skills, after controlling for topic knowledge and interest, in eighth graders. Students were introduced to two controversial topics, global warming and genetically modified food, through the reading of a two-sided text on each topic. After reading,

  10. Prediction of Students' Argumentation Skills about Controversial Topics by Epistemological Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Scirica, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the contribution of overall epistemological understanding to argumentation skills, after controlling for topic knowledge and interest, in eighth graders. Students were introduced to two controversial topics, global warming and genetically modified food, through the reading of a two-sided text on each topic. After reading,…

  11. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET Programs at James Harrison…

  12. Global warming elucidated

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.

    1995-03-01

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  13. Reconciling Warming Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.

  14. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  15. Warm Hands and Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts warm or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be warm.

  16. Explaining Warm Coronal Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2008-01-01

    One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warn (- 1 INK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. Both the excess densities and relatively long lifetimes of the loops can be explained with bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to very high temperatures. Since neighboring strands are at different stages of cooling, the composite loop bundle is multi-thermal, with the distribution of temperatures depending on the details of the "nanoflare storm." Emission hotter than 2 MK is predicted, but it is not clear that such emission is always observed. We consider two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense warm loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct plasma heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We present numerical hydro simulations of both of these possibilities and explore the observational consequences, including the production of hard X-ray emission and absorption by cool material in the corona.

  17. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is demonstrated. Dodonov derives a formula which predicts a photon generation rate in a cavity due to strong variations of the complex dielectric function in a thin layer near an ideally conducting wall (simulation of the dynamic Casimir effect). Skenderovic reports how photons from two femptosecond laser pulses prepare a large molecule in a coherent superposition of vibrational states. The time evolution of this state is interrogated with a third (delayed) pulse which creates a fourth wave, the signal, giving information on the molecular dynamics. Dimitrova et al present lecture demonstrations of interference and quantum erasing with single photons. By considering electromagnetic energy flow lines as photon paths Davidovic et al explain the emergence of an interference pattern in the process of the accumulation of single photon events behind an interference grating. Atoms in a cavity, atom-atom interactions, interactions of atoms with photons and macroscopic bodies is the next important topic in this topical issue. Khanbekyan et al deal with the problem of the spontaneous emission of an excited atom in a high-Q cavity and investigate the regime when the emitted photon belongs to a wave packet simultaneously located inside and outside the cavity. Sambale et al study the resonant Casimir-Polder potential of an excited atom in front of meta-material half-space and show that for long distances it exhibits attenuated oscillations, while close to the surface the potential becomes attractive or repulsive. Buhmann et al study the nonequilibrium Casimir-Polder force on an atom prepared in an incoherent superposition of internal energy-eigenstates, which is placed in a magnetoelectric environment of nonuniform temperature. Lazarou et al discuss how two atoms, interacting with a single cavity, can be coherently evolved into an entangled state when they are controlled by a sequence of Gaussian pulses, named frequency chirps. Bougouffa et al report on field quantization between two parallel conducting plates (modifications of the decay rate between such plates) and the three-level Jaynes-Cummings dynamics in the single-mode regime. Tomas studies the interaction between two atoms, one excited and the other in its ground state near the interface between two media. It is shown that the nonretarded van der Waals force gets enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude at the surface mode resonance. Vuskovic et al write about the plasma treatment of a bulk Nb surface which is very efficient for producing high-Q factor microwave cavities. Nemeth et al review the theory and experiments of the coherently pumped micromaser. With varied atomic inversion in a coherently pumped micromaser, a sudden switch occurs between two distinctively different field states, with high and low photon numbers. Moi et al show that alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either in organic films or in porous glass are released into the vapor phase (desorbed) under illumination, the action of many photons. Several papers are devoted to matter-wave interference and quantum fluids. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. The time evolution of the wave function of an atom hit by a photon in a three-grating interferometer is used by Arsenovic et al to interpret the intriguing results of the corresponding experiment by Chapman et al. Grujic et al demonstrate dark Raman resonance due to Ramsey interference in a spatially separated pump and probe laser beams co-propagating through a pure 87Rb vapor cell. Obtained EIT profiles are explained by solving Bloch's equations for an atom in a magnetic field moving through pump and probe laser regions. Gawlik et al present results of experiments on finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms in a magnetic trap. In the Thomas-Fermi (TF) regime, the condensate dynamics has a hydrodynamic character. The dynamics of non-TF condensates reflect the interaction between BEC and non-condensed thermal atoms. Atoms in intense fields is the subject of several papers. Gainutdinov et al show that the contribution to the radiative shift of the side bands of the Mollow spectrum is very significant. Using Gell-Mann, Low S-matrix formalism, and QED, Glushkov et al present an approach to study multiphoton processes during the interaction of an atom with a realistic intense laser field. The paper by Khetselius is devoted to two related problems: the calculation of the atomic hyperfine structure of the Li-like ions and an estimation of the effectiveness of the three-step scheme of isotope separation for the case of Cs isotopes. Vvedenskii et al present the results concerning the excitation of a residual quasi-dc current in the plasma, which are based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom in a few-cycle laser pulse. Information processing is one of the important aspects of this issue and it is considered in several papers. M Man'ko et al presented a new notion of tomographic entropy and new entropic uncertainty relations applied to the problem of light propagation in optical fibers. Nonlinearity in the quantum-information processing is considered in the paper by Chirkin et al. D'Arrigo et al investigated a very specific semiclassical Hamiltonian model of a quantum memory channel. They evaluated the performance of the three-qubit code error correcting code by means of entanglement fidelity. The fundamental aspects of quantum optics are the subject of several papers, namely, Bell's inequalities are studied in the paper by Andreev, the star-product quantization scheme was discussed by O Man'ko, and probabilistic representation was investigated in the paper by Adam et al. In the paper by V Man'ko et al the diagonal representation of the density operator (usually called P-function of Glauber-Sudarshan) is related to the star-product quantization method and to the tomographic-probability representation of quantum states. Laskowski et al suggest an elegant geometrical criterion for the separability, which is based on the local correlation measurements readily available in the laboratory. Mizrahi describes a method to derive the Pauli-Schrödinger equation starting from a simple model of a qubit carried by a massive particle. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. Kupczynski advocates various statistical tests which could be used to search for a fine structure in experimental data in order to answer the question: is quantum theory predictably complete? For an ion confined within a Paul trap, Mihalcea constructs an invariant operator based on the Lews and Riesenfeld approach and determines the spectrum of the quasienergy operator. Popov et al construct pair-coherent states of the Barut-Girardello kind for two noninteracting subsystems of pseudoharmonic oscillators and examine their statistical properties in different regions of parameters. The property of entanglement, considered to be the most intriguing property of composite quantum systems, has been an important research subject in recent years. It is considered to be a possible resource for quantum computation and communication. Therefore, a substantial number of papers in this topical issue is devoted to entanglement. Leon et al write that two-photon emission from two atoms initially excited in a common electromagnetic vacuum may generate atom-atom entanglement. Dömötör et al elucidate a connection between entanglement and coherent states. Earlier they proved that in the symmetric subspace of a system of N qubits a pure state is not globally entangled, if and only if, it is a coherent state. Here they extend this proof to a system of N 'quKits' (subsystems of arbitrary finite dimension K). Napoli et al compute exactly localizable entanglement as a function of temperature for the system of three interacting spins in a thermal state. Isar considers entanglement in open quantum dynamics by studying the system of two independent oscillators interacting with the general environment. He proposes some special parameters of the environment that manifest interesting properties (e.g., the environment is entangling initially separable states). Lindén et al study the decay of entanglement in rings of qubits that live in the Markov environment. They use the entanglement of formation as the measure whose time evolution announces (or not) the decay. Jivulescu et al consider the time evolution of a spin-1/2 particle nonuniformly coupled through the Heisenberg interaction to the environment composed of N spins. Considering arbitrary initial conditions the authors determine a numerically manipulative general solution from which information on full dynamics may be extracted. Ferraro et al investigate the entanglement evolution of two qubits interacting with a common environment through a Heisenberg XX mechanism and show that the phenomena of entanglement hidden death and entanglement hidden revival take place. Stochastic processes have been very important in quantum optics. Pascazio et al review and compare three algorithms for the generation of sequences of symmetric stable Levy random variables. They draw conclusions on the efficiency of the algorithms used and on some applications in quantum optics. Hul et al report on the possibilities of explaining the statistical properties of the spectra of irregular quantum systems by invoking the random matrix theory. The authors calculated the spectra, spectral correlation functions, and the distributions of avoided crossings, for two types of idealized model of one-dimensional quantum wires forming a quantum graph. Sirko et al present the experimental study of microwave networks displaying an irregular hexagonal structure. In a sense, these networks model quantum graphs with special properties. Kiss et al consider the recurrence of quantum walks on lattices by studying the properties of the generalized Polya number. The properties of this number are compared for classical and quantum cases. A number of interesting papers are devoted to the optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures. Gorelik derives analytical expressions for photonic dispersion law in 3D photonic crystals filled by dielectrics or metal. Nemilentsau et al evaluate the photon density of states near a single-wall finite length carbon nanotube. The authors found definite singularities in the density of photon states that may be observable in light-matter interaction, thermal radiation distribution, and micromechanical phenomena related to Casimir forces. Perinova et al pay attention to the interesting relationship between microscopic and macroscopic approaches to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in the medium. They examine the problem of a source atom radiating into a dielectric. Radovanovic et al present an extended approach for estimating the tunneling times through all linear materials, including metamaterials having a negative refractive index. Vasic et al describe the optical design of 2D confined structures with metamaterial layers which is based on coordinate transformations. Using the Green's functions method, Ilic et al analyze the influence of boundaries of the molecular ultrathin film on exciton dispersion law. Jeknic-Dugic proposes the model of optically induced transitions in an electronic subsystem of a bio-molecule that is able to describe relatively slow conformational transitions of a bio-molecule. Stef et al present their goal to grow good quality YbF3-doped and PbF2-codoped CaF2 crystals with high divalent Ytterbium content for investigating the influence of Pb2+ ions on the valence conversion, on the dielectric and optical absorption spectra. Vasile et al present the fabrication and SEM and photoluminescence characterization of zinc gallate doped with Eu and Er ions. The results could be important for photonic applications of spinels. Vasiljevic et al present the process of production of microlenses by irradiation of a tot'hema eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) layer with a laser beam (2nd Nd:YAG harmonic, 532 nm). Microlenses chemically processed after production with 10% alum solution had near diffraction limited performance. The production and application of microlenses are fast expanding because they are increasingly used in biomedical and general optics. Prizes for the poster presentations Authors under 35 years of age were invited to take part in the poster competition. Two first prizes EX-AEQUOAE were awarded to Zoran Grujic from the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia, for the poster 'Numerical simulation of Raman-Ramsey effects induced by thermal motion of rubidium atoms' and to Andrey Popov from Altai State Technical University, Bernaul, Russia, for the poster 'Beryllium atoms in intense fields'. The third prize was awarded to Alex Crosse from Imperial College, London, UK, for the poster 'Quantum electrodynamics in absorbing nonlinear media'. Members of the Jury were: Mirjana Bozic (Chairperson), Victor Dodonov, Margarita Man'ko, Helmut Rauch, Saverio Pascazio, Richard Tanas and Philip Walther. Sponsors of the awards were the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, European Physical Journal (EPJ) and John Wiley and Sons. CEWQO 2009 and 2010 The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics was held in Turku, Finland, 23-27 May 2009. CEWQO09 was chaired by Professor Kalle-Antti Suominen (http://www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009). The conference site is the new ICT building at chaired by Professor Kalle-Antti Suominen (http://www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009, www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009). The conference site was the new ICT building at the University of Turku campus area and the Viking Line ferry boat. Turku is the central city of historical Finland established on the mouth of the river Aura in the 13th century. It is the birthplace of Finnish academic life, since the Academy of Turku was established there in 1640. In 2011, Turku will be one of the cultural capitals of Europe. The city has a strong maritime tradition and is shielded from the Baltic sea by a large and beautiful archipelago. The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics will be held in 2010 in St Andrews, UK. It will be chaired by Professors Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova from the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews. St Andrews is home to the first university of Scotland, the third-oldest in the English-speaking world, and is the home of golf. It remains a charming, eccentric seaside town that is sufficiently secluded - the ideal place for a stimulating and thought-provoking conference.

  18. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  19. Finite Element Simulations for Sheet Warm Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prete, A. Del; Papadia, G.; de Vitis, A. A.; Primo, T.

    2011-05-01

    The use of lightweight alloy offers significant potential to improve product performances. However, the application of formed lightweight alloy components in critical structures is restricted due to this material's low formability at room temperature and lack of knowledge for processing lightweight alloys at elevated temperature. Warm forming is becoming of great interest in order to increase the formability of these materials and many conventional processes are adapted including the temperature as a new parameter. In addition to this option, warm hydroforming technology for the lightweight materials is currently emerging to achieve reduced number of manufacturing steps and part consolidation. The warm hydroforming process makes use of the improved formability at elevated temperature and it also utilizes the fluid to transport the forming action as well as heat. In the present work, the authors have studied the warm hydroforming process using two different numerical approaches in order to simulate it. The first software is traditionally used in metal stamping simulations (also warm and hot) unlike the second. The analyzed material is an Al 6061 alloy 2,03 mm thick. Process responses such as: bulge height, thickness reduction and strain distribution have been evaluated different temperature levels (room temperature, equal to 23° C, 100° C and 200° C). The obtained results have been used to study the accuracy of the second software in sheet warm hydroforming simulation. The authors have also defined the more reliable numerical environment in order to develop material damage models in warm forming conditions.

  20. Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

  1. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  2. Global warming on trial

    SciTech Connect

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-04-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.

  3. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics and nutrition Other Resources womenshealth.gov Federal Citizen Information Center Smokefree Women Healthcare.gov Find Affordable Health Care ChooseMyPlate.gov ...

  4. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain joints such as those of the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid ( ... of the nose); swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; or kidney or liver disease. ...

  5. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin cells ... to allow pimples to shrink. It treats other skin conditions by softening and loosening dry, scaly, or thickened ...

  6. Massive hemorrhage management–a best evidence topic report

    PubMed Central

    Vymazal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Better control of bleeding could improve survival rates by 10%–20%. Transfusion intervention concepts have been formulated in order to minimize acute traumatic coagulopathy. These interventions still have not been standardized and vary among medical centers. Materials and Methods Based on a literature search using free term keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) index, we analyzed published articles addressing massive hemorrhage, component therapy, fresh whole blood, and fibrinogen from the year 2000 onward, in journals with impact factor >1.000, in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The evidence was grouped into topics including laboratory testing and transfusion interventions/viscoelastic assays vs standard laboratory tests, the effect of component therapy on patient outcome, the effect of warm fresh whole blood on patient outcome, and the effects of fibrinogen in severe bleeding. The obtained information was compared, evaluated, confronted, and was focused on to present an adequate and individual-based massive hemorrhage management approach. Results Viscoelastic whole-blood assays are superior to standard coagulation blood tests for the identification of coagulopathy and for guiding decisions on appropriate therapy in patients with severe bleeding. Replacement of plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen in a ratio of 1:1:1:1 has appeared to be the best substitution for lost whole blood. There is no evidence that cryoprecipitate improves the outcome of patients with severe hemorrhage. Current literature promotes the transfusion of warm fresh whole blood, which seems to be superior to the component therapy in certain clinical situations. Some authors recommend that fibrinogen and other coagulation factors be administered according to the viscoelastic attributes of the blood clot. Conclusion This best-evidence topic report brings comprehensive information about massive hemorrhage management. PMID:26251606

  7. ENSO and greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Yeh, Sang-Wook; An, Soon-Il; Cobb, Kim M.; Collins, Mat; Guilyardi, Eric; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lengaigne, Matthieu; McPhaden, Michael J.; Takahashi, Ken; Timmermann, Axel; Vecchi, Gabriel; Watanabe, Masahiro; Wu, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    The El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant climate phenomenon affecting extreme weather conditions worldwide. Its response to greenhouse warming has challenged scientists for decades, despite model agreement on projected changes in mean state. Recent studies have provided new insights into the elusive links between changes in ENSO and in the mean state of the Pacific climate. The projected slow-down in Walker circulation is expected to weaken equatorial Pacific Ocean currents, boosting the occurrences of eastward-propagating warm surface anomalies that characterize observed extreme El Nio events. Accelerated equatorial Pacific warming, particularly in the east, is expected to induce extreme rainfall in the eastern equatorial Pacific and extreme equatorward swings of the Pacific convergence zones, both of which are features of extreme El Nio. The frequency of extreme La Nia is also expected to increase in response to more extreme El Nios, an accelerated maritime continent warming and surface-intensified ocean warming. ENSO-related catastrophic weather events are thus likely to occur more frequently with unabated greenhouse-gas emissions. But model biases and recent observed strengthening of the Walker circulation highlight the need for further testing as new models, observations and insights become available.

  8. The Discovery of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCracken, Michael C.

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, numerous conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global warming science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).

  9. Implications of televised news coverage of global warming for organizational decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Television is an important source of information for political issues in the eyes of many people. This also holds true for environmental issues. Television news is also deemed more credible than print news because {open_quotes}seeing is believing{close_quotes}. This research is also buttressed by evidence that one of the primary conversation topics among individuals is television content. So how well does television cover global warming? Unfortunately, previous research indicates that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. This paper examines the potential impact of this coverage on organizational decisions. Organizations include businesses, government agencies, environmental action groups, media organizations, and other parties interested with the environment. The paper proposes framing theory and involvement theory as springboards for organizational decision-making.

  10. Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

  11. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  12. Model predicts global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Global greenhouse warming will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” warming. The level of warming will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.

  13. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  14. Factors Related to Doctoral Dissertation Topic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To learn more about how students select their dissertation topics, all doctoral graduates of a research university were surveyed. Factors affecting the choice of topics include the preference of the adviser, trends in the field, the likelihood that the research will be published, and the projected benefit on job prospects. (Author/MLW)

  15. Topical treatment of rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, A; Sarratud, T; Bouygue, G R; Ghiglioni, D; Bernardo, L; Terracciano, L

    2007-11-01

    We reviewed current clinical evidence for the use of topical treatments in pediatric rhinosinusitis. Repeated Entrez PubMed searches were done using the template algorithm [rhinosinusitis AND (...)] with the settings: [Humans; English; All Child 0-18; Clinical trial; Last 10 yr] for the following comparators: steroid, irrigation, saline, antihistamine, decongestant, antibiotic, antimycotic, fungicide. The authors' clinical experience in the pediatric allergy unit of a university hospital was also drawn upon. Pediatric studies were retrieved but only one satisfied current evidence-based medicine standards for reporting clinical trials. Studies could not be systematized because of methodological, analytical, and interpretation biases. While saline irrigation, nasal decongestants, steroids, antibiotics, antihistamines and fungicides are all in widespread pediatric use, comparing studies from the literature for evidence of efficacy implied subjective appraisal, except in the case of topical steroids. Evidence for the efficacy of topical treatment for pediatric rhinosinusitis is narrative albeit this modality cannot be excluded from individualized patient protocols on the basis of the clinical literature alone. With the exception of topical steroids, no weighable evidence of effectiveness supports the premise that topical treatments actually serve the purpose for which they are widely prescribed in pediatrics. PMID:17767612

  16. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  17. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrn-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agentsincluding mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pasteswith caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from in favor to expert opinion for. As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  18. Warm Springs Creek, Idaho

    Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  19. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  20. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,

  1. Warming Up to Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Lucia Caycedo; Rusch, Debbie

    Daily warm-up exercises are advocated as a means of bridging the gap between previously unrelated activities outside the classroom and immersion into the second language, relaxing the class, and establishing a mood for communication. Variety, careful preparation, assuring that the students understand the activity, feeling free to discontinue an…

  2. 8th Global warming international conference and exposition

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  3. Is global warming harmful to health?

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming. PMID:10914399

  4. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  5. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  6. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  7. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  8. Conditionals Are Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, John

    1978-01-01

    A review of analyses of conditionals (in the philosophical literature) and of topics (primarily in linguistics) reveals that their definitions are very similar. This paper justifies the method of basing semantic analysis of a construction on a cross-linguistic examination of its superficial form. (Author/NCR)

  9. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,

  10. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  11. NAS Forums Focus on National Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A series of public meetings designed to focus on complex and persistent problems of national importance involving science has been launched. Topics such as drugs, energy, and natural disasters are included. (DF)

  12. Climate science: Pacemakers of warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brnnimann, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In the first decades of the twentieth century, the Earth warmed rapidly. A coral-based climate proxy record of westerly winds over the equatorial Pacific suggests that wind strength and warming rate were linked, as they are today.

  13. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants. PMID:26412275

  14. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  15. Recent Advances in Topical Ocular Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata Kashyap; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    Topical ocular drug delivery has been considered to be an ideal route of administration for treatment of ocular diseases related to the anterior segment of the eye. However, topical ocular delivery is a challenging task because of barriers such as nasolacrimal drainage, corneal epithelium, blood-ocular barriers, and metabolism in the eye. Approaches to improve ocular bioavailability include physical approaches such as formulations of drugs as solutions (Zymaxid(™)), suspensions (Zigran(®)), gels (Akten(®)) and chemical approaches such as prodrugs (Xalatan(™)), chemical delivery systems, and soft drugs. The purpose of this review article is to summarize recent advances in topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye. Functional transporters in the corneal epithelium were also discussed as they provide prospects in topical ocular delivery. In addition to conventional delivery systems, novel delivery systems involving nanocarriers were also investigated for topical ocular delivery. Furthermore, due to increased interest, gene therapy applications of topical ocular delivery of genes to the anterior segment of the eye were also discussed. Research in topical ocular delivery is active for more than 50 years and proven to be advantageous for the treatment of many ocular diseases. However, there is scope for innovation in topical drug delivery to develop delivery systems with a high patient safety profile and compliance for effective clinical usefulness. PMID:26666398

  16. The recent warming of permafrost in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterkamp, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment initiated in 1977 to determine the effects of climate on permafrost in Alaska. Permafrost observatories with boreholes were established along a north-south transect of Alaska in undisturbed permafrost terrain. The analysis and interpretation of annual temperature measurements in the boreholes and daily temperature measurements of the air, ground and permafrost surfaces made with automated temperature loggers are reported. Permafrost temperatures warmed along this transect coincident with a statewide warming of air temperatures that began in 1977. At two sites on the Arctic Coastal Plain, the warming was seasonal, greatest during "winter" months (October through May) and least during "summer" months (June through September). Permafrost temperatures peaked in the early 1980s and then decreased in response to slightly cooler air temperatures and thinner snow covers. Arctic sites began warming again typically about 1986 and Interior Alaska sites about 1988. Gulkana, the southernmost site, has been warming slowly since it was drilled in 1983. Air temperatures were relatively warm and snow covers were thicker-than-normal from the late 1980s into the late 1990s allowing permafrost temperatures to continue to warm. Temperatures at some sites leveled off or cooled slightly at the turn of the century. Two sites (Yukon River Bridge and Livengood) cooled during the period of observations. The magnitude of the total warming at the surface of the permafrost (through 2003) was 3 to 4 °C for the Arctic Coastal Plain, 1 to 2 °C for the Brooks Range including its northern and southern foothills, and 0.3 to 1 °C south of the Yukon River. While the data are sparse, permafrost is warming throughout the region north of the Brooks Range, southward along the transect from the Brooks Range to the Chugach Mountains (except for Yukon River and Livengood), in Interior Alaska throughout the Tanana River region, and in the region south of the Alaska Range from Tok westward to Gulkana (in the Copper River Valley) and beyond to the Talkeetna Mountains. Thermal offset allows permafrost to survive in the presence of positive annual mean ground surface temperatures and was observed repeatedly since 1987 at two sites. The observed warming has not produced an increasing trend in maximum active layer thicknesses due to its seasonality. Near Healy, permafrost has been thawing at the top since the late 1980s at about 10 cm/yr. At Gulkana, permafrost was thawing from the bottom at a rate of 4 cm/yr that accelerated to 9 cm/yr after 2000.

  17. Global warming - A reduced threat

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. )

    1992-10-01

    Issues associated with global warming are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial warming from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.

  18. Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171

  19. Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171

  20. Topics in CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  1. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  2. Global warming: solar variability and energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, A.; Pagano, A.; Zuccarello, F.

    Recent measurements support evidence for short-term global warming of the earth's surface. The average trend of the earth's surface anomaly as a function of the time was fitted by a simple thermodynamical model including short-term variation of the solar irradiance as well as anthropogenic forcing.

  3. Contact dermatitis to topical drugs for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Holdiness, M R

    2001-12-01

    A review of the literature has identified 10 agents causing contact dermatitis among topically administered drugs for glaucoma. These agents include beta-blockers (timolol, befunolol, betaxolol, levobunolol, carteolol, metipranolol), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (dorzolamide), a parasympathomimetic (pilocarpine), and sympathomimetics (dipivefrin, apraclonidine). Patch testing has been documented in certain individuals as well as cross sensitization and reactivity. Systemic reactions to these topically applied medications have been briefly noted. PMID:11753897

  4. Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

  5. Effects of Warm-Up Stretching Exercises on Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makaruk, Hubert; Makaruk, Beata; Kedra, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess direct effects of warm-up consisting of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint results attained by students differing in sprint performance. Material and methods: A group of 24 male and 19 female physical education students, including 12 and 9 sprinters, respectively. They performed warm-ups consisting of dynamic…

  6. Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of

  7. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  8. Consumer Health. Bibliographies on Educational Topics No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    This document is the fifth in the series, BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EDUCATIONAL TOPICS (BETS), providing topical searches of ERIC literature in the scope areas of teacher education and health education, physical education, and recreation education. Here, the subject of consumer health is treated bibliographically. Included are topics dealing with the wise

  9. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  10. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Marilyn D.; Wahren, C. Henrik; Hollister, Robert D.; Henry, Greg H. R.; Ahlquist, Lorraine E.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Calef, Monika P.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Carroll, Amy B.; Epstein, Howard E.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.; Klein, Julia A.; Magnússon, Borgþór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Rewa, Steven P.; Robinson, Clare H.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Suding, Katharine N.; Thompson, Catharine C.; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P. Lee; Tweedie, Craig E.; Webber, Patrick J.; Wookey, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a warming climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to environmental change, including warming; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental warming and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized warming experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive warming treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3°C, which is in the range of predicted and observed warming for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, warming increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that warming will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate warming. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:16428292

  11. Topic-Prominence in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Judith W.; Gundel, Jeannette K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the role of topic-comment structure and the frequency of topic-prominence in the oral interlanguage of Chinese- Japanese-, Korean-, Arabic-, Farsi-, and Spanish-speaking adult students of English as a second language. Results indicate that second language learning is generally characterized by an early topic-comment stage, independent…

  12. Topicality: An Equal Ground Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig

    Arguments on topicality have the potential of becoming an infinite regress both as they are articulated in debate theory as well as how they are developed by debaters in rounds. An "Equal Ground" criterion is proposed as an effective means of assessing topicality. This criterion assumes the reasonability standard of topicality. Additionally, it…

  13. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  14. RHIC warm-bore systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and warm-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable warm-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and warm-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to warm-bore regions of the machine.

  15. Common topics in adolescent critical care medicine.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews some common conditions in adolescents that require critical care. Topics that are covered include severe sepsis and shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, diabetic ketoacidosis, poisoning (acetaminophen, decongestants, prescription medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and trauma. Comments about bariatric surgery are also included. PMID:23705524

  16. Global Warming on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  17. Global warming challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hengeveld, H. )

    1994-11-01

    Global warming will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Warm waters, bleached corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-10-12

    Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse warming. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.

  19. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  20. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

  1. Sustaining effect of soil warming on organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruixing; Ouyang, Zhu; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Wilson, Glenn; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Global warming affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil warming studies showed changes of microbial community structure, only very few were focused on sustainability of soil warming on microbial activity associated with SOM decomposition. Two alternative hypotheses: 1) acclimation because of substrate exhaustion and 2) sustaining increase of microbial activity with accelerated decomposition of recalcitrant SOM pools were never proven under long term field conditions. This is especially important in the nowadays introduced no-till crop systems leading to redistribution of organic C at the soil surface, which is much susceptible to warming effects than the rest of the profile. We incubated soil samples from a four-year warming experiment with tillage (T) and no-tillage (NT) practices under three temperatures: 15, 21, and 27 °C, and related the evolved total CO2 efflux to changes of organic C pools. Warmed soils released significantly more CO2 than the control treatment (no warming) at each incubation temperature, and the largest differences were observed under 15 °C (26% increase). The difference in CO2 efflux from NT to T increase with temperature showing high vulnerability of C stored in NT to soil warming. The Q10 value reflecting the sensitivity of SOM decomposition to warming was lower for warmed than non-warmed soil indicating better acclimation of microbes or lower C availability during long term warming. The activity of three extracellular enzymes: β-glucosidase, chitinase, sulphatase, reflecting the response of C, N and S cycles to warming, were significantly higher under warming and especially under NT compared to two other respective treatments. The CO2 released during 2 months of incubation consisted of 85% from recalcitrant SOM and the remaining 15% from microbial biomass and extractable organic C based on the decrease of respective OM pools during incubation. The dominance of CO2 from recalcitrant SOM was especially pronounced in NT. We conclude that the accelerated decomposition of recalcitrant SOM due to stimulation of microorganisms by warming is sustainable. Consequently, predictions of redistribution or even accumulation of C in the topsoil of no-till should be taken with high caution, as global warming could potentially sustain high rates of decomposition.

  2. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  3. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  4. Improving conservation of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision. PMID:23161252

  5. Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Keller, Charles F

    2007-01-01

    In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched on briefly here is the new understanding of the phenomenon called "global dimming." Several sets of observations of the sun's total radiation at the surface have shown that there has been a reduction in sunlight reaching it. This has been related to the scattering of sunlight by aerosols and has led to a better quantification of the possibility that cleaning up our atmospheric pollution will lead to greater global warming. Adding all these advances together, there is a growing consensus that the 21st century will indeed see some 2 degrees C (3.5 degrees F) or more in additional warming. This is corroborated in the new IPCC Assessment, an early release of which is touched on very briefly here. PMID:17370024

  6. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  7. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  8. National contributions to observed global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

  9. Emollient foam in topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tamarkin, Dov; Friedman, Doron; Shemer, Avner

    2006-11-01

    Foams offer an innovative and more convenient means of topical drug delivery. The successful introduction of hydroalcoholic foams paved the way for the development of a new generation of foam products that provide skin barrier build-up and hydration. Such foams, designated as emollient foams consist of oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions with necessary excipients, such as non-ionic surfactants, gelling agents and foam adjuvants. Emollient foams can carry a broad variety of topical drugs, including water-soluble, oil-soluble and suspended active agents. This paper reviews emollient foam compositions and their physicochemical properties. It further accounts for the usability and functional advantages of emollient foam as a vehicle of topical drugs, including: i) improved usability, which affects treatment, compliance and, consequently, improves therapeutic results; ii) safety; iii) controllable drug delivery; iv) skin barrier build-up and hydration; and v) enhanced clinical efficacy. PMID:17076601

  10. Defining Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.

  11. Warm dense crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  12. 61 FR 1284 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Global Warming Potential for Ozone-Depleting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-01-19

    ... (60 FR 24970). To meet EPA's statutory obligation under the CAA, this listing cites the global warming... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 RIN 2060-AF35 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Global Warming... the global warming potentials for ozone-depleting substances that are included as class I and class...

  13. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  14. Evaluating Arctic Warming Mechanisms in CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, Christian; Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Arctic warming is one of the most striking signals of global warming. The Arctic is one of the fastest warming regions and constitutes, thus, a good test bed to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the physics and dynamics involved in Arctic warming. Different physical and dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to explain Arctic Amplification. These include the surface albedo feedback,an increased poleward heat flux, the winter convective cloud feedback mechanism and dynamic warming, the so-called Tropically Excited Arctic warming Mechanism (TEAM). Here we show that while the current generation of climate models all reproduce Arctic warming, the inter-model variability is large with respect to geographical distribution and magnitude of the temperature increase. Furthermore, we find that there are two groups of CMIP5 models: one with large correlations with the Arctic temperature trend and the surface heat flux trend; these are consistent with the albedo-temperature feedback. The other group appears to be more closely related to the large-scale circulation. In this group the models have relatively high correlations between downward IR and 500-hPa geopotential height consistent with TEAM. Both groups are consistent with a water vapor feedback. While the former have a warm or weak bias, the latter have large cold biases in the Arctic. These results suggests that the surface flux tunings are not appropriate in the CMIP5 models likely because the heat flux coefficients are too large in the second group.

  15. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor to recommend a cleanser, and avoid alcoholic cleansers, tinctures, abrasives, astringents, and peeling agents, especially ... you to flush or blush. These may include alcoholic drinks, spicy foods, and hot drinks such as ...

  16. Recent Warming of Lake Kivu

    PubMed Central

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  17. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  18. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic, objective,…

  19. Evaluating supervised topic models in the presence of OCR errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Daniel; Ringger, Eric; Seppi, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Supervised topic models are promising tools for text analytics that simultaneously model topical patterns in document collections and relationships between those topics and document metadata, such as timestamps. We examine empirically the effect of OCR noise on the ability of supervised topic models to produce high quality output through a series of experiments in which we evaluate three supervised topic models and a naive baseline on synthetic OCR data having various levels of degradation and on real OCR data from two different decades. The evaluation includes experiments with and without feature selection. Our results suggest that supervised topic models are no better, or at least not much better in terms of their robustness to OCR errors, than unsupervised topic models and that feature selection has the mixed result of improving topic quality while harming metadata prediction quality. For users of topic modeling methods on OCR data, supervised topic models do not yet solve the problem of finding better topics than the original unsupervised topic models.

  20. Environmental Topics for Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1974-01-01

    Presents selected environmental references with comparatively detailed descriptions for the purpose of helping high school and college physics teachers in selecting materials for their course. The topics include thermal pollution, space heating and cooling, atmospheric temperature distribution, radiation balance of the earth, sound and noises, and

  1. Environmental Topics for Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Laurent

    1974-01-01

    Presents selected environmental references with comparatively detailed descriptions for the purpose of helping high school and college physics teachers in selecting materials for their course. The topics include thermal pollution, space heating and cooling, atmospheric temperature distribution, radiation balance of the earth, sound and noises, and…

  2. Albanian Area Studies: Bibliography Arranged by Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This bibliography on Albanian area studies is a guide of reference material for the student of Albanian language and culture. The first section on area background includes topics on history, physical and economic geography, natural resources, communication, transportation, demography, public utilities, industry, and agriculture. The next sections…

  3. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  4. Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. I.

    2012-09-15

    Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.

  5. Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. I.

    2012-09-01

    Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.

  6. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  7. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4

  8. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  9. A Course in... Topics in Random Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glandt, Eduardo D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an engineering course for graduate study in random media. Summarizes random media as bulk properties of ordered and disordered two-phase materials. Gives course outline for one semester. Topics include: disordered systems, microstructure determination, survey of models, connectivity, and effective properties. (MVL)

  10. Topics in Number Theory: The Number Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batra, Laj, Ed.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains nine topics in number theory. Suggested questions for the teacher, short investigations, and possible exercises for the student are included. Chapter 1 is an introduction to sequences and series using geoboard activities involving triangular numbers, square numbers, rectangular numbers, and pentagonal numbers. The…

  11. Altered thermal grill response and paradoxical heat sensations after topical capsaicin application.

    PubMed

    Schaldemose, Ellen L; Horjales-Araujo, Emilia; Svensson, Peter; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2015-06-01

    The thermal grill illusion, where interlaced warm and cold bars cause an unusual burning sensation, and paradoxical heat sensations (PHS), where cold is perceived as warm when alternating warm and cold, are examples of a complex integration of thermal sensations. Here, we investigated the effect of sensitization of heat-sensitive neurons on cold and warm integration. We examined thermal thresholds, PHS, and warm, cold, and pain sensations to alternating cold (10C) and warm (40C) bars (the thermal grill [TG]) in the primary area (application site) after topical application with capsaicin and vehicle control (ethanol) on the volar forearms in randomized order in 80 healthy participants. As expected, capsaicin induced heat allodynia and hyperalgesia and decreased cold and cold pain sensation. In addition, we found that after capsaicin application, the TG caused less pain and burning than the 40C bars alone in contrast to the control side where the TG caused more pain and burning, consistent with the thermal grill illusion. In both situations, the pain intensity during the TG correlated inversely with both cold and warm pain thresholds but not with detection thresholds. Paradoxical heat sensation was only seen in 3 participants after control application but in 19 participants after capsaicin. Those with PHS after capsaicin application had higher detection thresholds to both cold and warm than those without PHS, but there was no difference in thermal pain threshold. These results suggest that a complex cross talk among several cold and warm sensitive pathways shapes thermal perception. PMID:25782365

  12. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494

  13. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494

  14. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  15. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: Response to Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erythema dyschromicum perstans, a rare dermatosis of obscure etiopathogenesis and significant cosmetic morbidity, have no satisfactory treatment. Observations: Two patients with having characteristic asymptomatic and slowly progressive, slate-grey macular lesions with distinct red borders involving the face, neck, upper trunk and limbs were diagnosed clinicopathologically as erythema dyschromicum perstans. Both were treated successfully with topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusions: Overall, response to several therapeutic modalities including clofazimine and dapsone therapy is said to vary from complete failure to variable or inconsistent. Topical tarolimus provides an effective and safe alternative therapeutic option in erythema dyschromicum perstans. PMID:26538750

  16. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  17. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  18. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  19. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable

  20. Glaciology: Repeat warming in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-01

    Greenland's glaciers have lost significant amounts of ice over the past decade. Rediscovered historical images of the ice margin show a record of southeast Greenland's response to the last major warming event in the 1930s.

  1. Topics in Leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nardi, Enrico

    2007-06-19

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis provides an appealing mechanism to explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Recent refinements in the understanding of the dynamics of leptogenesis include detailed studies of the effects of lepton flavor and of the role possibly played by the lepton asymmetries generated in the decays of the heavier singlet neutrinos N2,3. In this talk I present short a review of these recent developments in the theory of leptogenesis.

  2. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity. PMID:26340780

  3. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  4. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present warming of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers of mass of some bodies of solar system and attributes of secular displacements of their centers of mass are universal and testify to relative translational displacements of shells of these bodies (such as the core, the mantle and others). And it means, that there is a highly effective mechanism of an active life of planets and satellites [1, 2]. This mechanism is distinct from the tidal mechanism of gravitational interaction of deformable celestial bodies. Its action is shown, for example, even in case if the core and the mantle are considered as absolutely rigid gravitating bodies, but separated by a is viscous-elastic layer. Classics of celestial mechanics did not consider gravitational interaction and relative translational displacement of the core and the mantle of the Earth. As our studies have shown the specified new mechanism is high energetic and allows to explain many of the phenomena earlier inaccessible to understanding in various geosciences, including climatology [1] - [5]. It has been shown, that secular changes in activity of all planetary processes on the Earth are connected with a secular drift of the core of the Earth, and are controlled by the core and are reflections and displays of the core drift [5]. It is naturally, that slow climatic changes are connected with drift of the core, with induced by this drift inversion changes in an atmosphere, ocean, with thermodynamic variations of state of layer D ', with changes and variations in mantle convection and in plume activity of the Earth. The drift of the core controls a transmission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth, organizes volcanic and seismic activity of the Earth in planetary scale. The mechanism of a warming up of layers of the mantle and cyclic inversion changes of a climate. According to a developed geodynamic model all layers of the mantle at oscillations and motions of the core under action of its gravitational attraction test wide class of inversion deformations [1]. Thus the part of energy of deformations passes in heat by virtue of dissipation properties of the mantle. Than more intensively oscillations of the core, the more amplitudes of these oscillations, the occur the specified thermal transformations more intensively. As relative displacements of the core have cyclic character, because of cyclic influences on the core-mantle system of external celestial bodies also a formation of heat flows and warmed plume materials (substances) will have also cyclic character. In particular orbital perturbations with Milankovitch's periods in 100 kyr, 41 kyr, etc. will be precisely reflected in variations of the specified thermal flows and, accordingly, a planetary climate. In it the essence of occurrence of cycles of congelations on the Earth [3] consists. If during any period of time the core behaves passively, amplitudes of its oscillations are small the thermal flows to a surface of a planet will be decrease. This geodynamic conditions corresponds to the periods of a cold snap. And on the contrary, if the core and mantle interact actively and make significant oscillations the thermal flows to a surface of a planet accrues. This geodynamic state corresponds to the periods of warming. At drift of the core to the north and its oscillations with accrueing amplitude (for example, in present period) submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle will accrue. It is warmly allocated in all layers of the mantle deformed by an attraction of the drifting and oscillating core. But a base layer is the layer D" ("kitchen of plume-tectonics"). As we know the two mechanisms work for warm redistribution into the Earth. First is a mechanism of convection. In our geodynamical model it has forced nature and is organized and controlled by gravitational action of external celestial bodies and as result has cyclical character. Second mechanism is a plume mechanism which organizes the warmed masses redistributions in higher levels of the mantle, on a bottom of ocean and on a surface of the Earth. In accordance with our geodynamical model mentioned redistribution of warmed mass also has forced character. It is organized and controlled by gravitational cyclic action of the external celestial bodies on core-mantle system. N/S inversion of the natural processes. Reliable an attribute of influence of oscillations of the core on a variation of natural processes is their property of inversion when, for example, activity of process accrues in northern hemisphere and decreases in a southern hemisphere. Such contrast secular changes in northern and southern (N/S) hemispheres have been predicted on the base of geodynamic model [1] and revealed according to observations: from gravimetry measurements of a gravity; in determination of a secular trend of a sea level, as global, and in northern and southern hemispheres; in redistribution of air masses; in geodetic measurements of changes of average radiuses of northern and southern hemispheres; in contrast changes of physical fields, for example, streams of heat, currents and circulation at ocean and an atmosphere, etc. [5]. The geodynamic mechanism [1] also unequivocally specifies, that the secular trend in global climatic characteristics of the Earth, and also inversion and asymmetric tendencies of change of a climate, in its northern and southern hemispheres in present period should be observed. The hemispherical asymmetry of global heat flows. In the paper [6] authors have shown that the mean heat flow of the Southern Hemisphere is 99.3 mW/m2, significantly higher than that of the Northern Hemisphere (74.0 mW/m2). The mantle heat loss from the Southern Hemisphere is 22.1 × 1012 W, as twice as that from the Northern Hemisphere (10.8 × 1012 W). The authors believe that this hemispherical asymmetry of global heat loss is originated by the asymmetry of geographic distribution of continents and oceans. In accordance with our geodynamical model discussed assymmetry of heat flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of warming from latitude. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of warming in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and asymmetry in decade variations of temperatures in northern and southern hemispheres (smaller variations in a southern hemisphere). References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, M., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. [2] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Moons and planets: mechanism of their life. Proceedings of International Conference 'Astronomy and World Heritage: across Time and Continents' (Kazan, 19-24 August 2009). KSU, pp. 142-161. [3] Barkin Yu.V. (2004) Dynamics of the Earth shells and variations of paleoclimate. Proceedings of Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium 'Paleoclimate and the Earth climate system' (Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August - 2 September, 2004). Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, pp. 161-164. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Inversion of periodic and trend variations of climate in opposite hemispheres of the Earth and their mechanism. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007) (P) - IAPSO, JPS001 'Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability', p. 1674. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2008) Secular polar drift of the core in present epoch: geodynamical and geophysical consequences and confirmations. General and regional problems of tectonics and geodynamics. Materials of XLI Tectonic Conference. V. 1. -M.:GEOS. p. 55-59. In Russian. [6] Yang Wang, Jiyang Wangand Zongji Ma (1998) On the asymmetric distribution of heat loss from the Earth's interior. Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 43, Number 18 , p. 1566-1570.

  5. Global warming: The complete briefing

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.

    1994-12-31

    John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global warming. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.

  6. Topical and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Cheryl F

    2003-01-01

    Sunscreens are a valuable method of sun protection. Several new compounds are now available. It is important to remember, however, that photoprotection includes more than the use of sunscreens. There are a number of sun-protective behaviors that people can use to decrease their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dermatologists and other health professionals can work toward changing public policy, greatly increasing the ability of people to access shade. In addition, there is growing evidence about the effectiveness of other sun-protective agents. The only systemic medication for sun protection is beta-carotene, which is effective in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). PMID:12919121

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2010-02-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  8. CDF Hot Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Casal, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    We present recent CDF results based on approximately 1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV delivered at Fermilab Tevatron. Results shown include the observation of the B{sub s} oscillation frequency, the first observation of bottom baryon {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*){+-}} states, updates on B hadrons lifetimes, and searches for rare decays in the b {yields} s{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} transition and in charmless two-body B decays.

  9. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    PubMed

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective. PMID:22695877

  10. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  11. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  12. Stream Water Temperatures in the Basque Mountains during Winter and Global Warming: Implications for Heterotrophic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, J.; Larrañaga, A.; Pérez, J.; Martínez, A.; Pozo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The temperature of the Earth is expected to increase 3-5 °C by the end of the XXIst century and the impact of global warming on ecosystems has become a topic of major interest. We have measured hourly temperatures in 25 headwater streams with ACR dataloggers during winter 2010-2011 and used temperature data from 8 water quality monitoring sites. Empirical models that relate daily air temperature from a reference meteorological station and stream water temperature were used to reconstruct stream temperature in the period of instrumental records (1947-2010). Validation of this model was performed on data collected between 2000 and 2009 at three water quality monitoring sites. Existing leaf breakdown rates in streams are used to estimate the impact of warming on heterotrophic processes. All study sites are located within an area of 60 x 50 km in the Basque Mountains, a 150 km range that rises to elevations about 1300 m and separates the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantábrica, both of them over 2000 m. We think that fluvial systems in this region are prone to the effects of global warming because its lower elevation limits shifts in the altitudinal distribution of aquatic organisms and because streams draining watersheds over 900 m elevation lack connectivity among them and are isolated from similar streams located in the Pyrenees and Cordillera Cantábrica. We defined three different thermal regimes (lowland, pluvial and nival) along an elevation gradient as a function of the temporal variability of stream temperature and its response to air temperature changes. A fourth type (geo type) including streams with very low temperature variability can be defined as a function of the mean daily temperature range. Mean winter temperature of the studied streams has increased at a rate (0.05-0.11 °C decade-1 depending on thermal regime) that is 2-5 times lower than the observed rate of air warming (0.25 °C decade-1) since 1947. Most of this warming seems to have occurred between 1970 and 1980, with a change in mean air temperature of 0.67 °C and corresponding change in stream temperature of 0.13-0.31°C. Air warming is not symmetrical and low winter temperatures are increasing at a higher rate (0.55 °C decade-1) than mean temperature while high winter temperatures are changing slowly (0.19 °C decade-1), which may have ecological implications as aquatic organisms are usually limited by high temperatures. Given the observed altitudinal temperature gradient, winter temperature range and inter-annual variability, aquatic organisms are currently facing thermal variations along time and space that are one order of magnitude larger than the variation associated with global warming over the last 70 years. Estimates of leaf litter breakdown in streams of the nival type indicate that processing rates have increased 5.2 % during the period 1981-2010 in comparison to a reference period (1951-1980), while the change in the other thermal types has been smaller (1.5-2.7 %). Our data suggest that the warming rate of nival streams is highest among the thermal types, resulting in larger changes in organic matter processing rates. These streams are among the most sensitive to global warming because they lack connectivity and their remoteness makes them more dependent on climate forcing and less influenced by anthropogenic alterations.

  13. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  14. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  15. HOT TOPICS IN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a bacterium whose importance ranges from its role as a host for recombinant DNA manipulations to being one of the most well-recognized foodborne pathogens. Most E. coli strains are considered to be part of the normal microflora of the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-bl...

  16. Continental warming preceding the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Secord, Ross; Gingerich, Philip D; Lohmann, Kyger C; Macleod, Kenneth G

    2010-10-21

    Marine and continental records show an abrupt negative shift in carbon isotope values at ∼55.8 Myr ago. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is consistent with the release of a massive amount of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and was associated with a dramatic rise in global temperatures termed the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Greenhouse gases released during the CIE, probably including methane, have often been considered the main cause of PETM warming. However, some evidence from the marine record suggests that warming directly preceded the CIE, raising the possibility that the CIE and PETM may have been linked to earlier warming with different origins. Yet pre-CIE warming is still uncertain. Disentangling the sequence of events before and during the CIE and PETM is important for understanding the causes of, and Earth system responses to, abrupt climate change. Here we show that continental warming of about 5 °C preceded the CIE in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Our evidence, based on oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth (which reflect temperature-sensitive fractionation processes) and other proxies, reveals a marked temperature increase directly below the CIE, and again in the CIE. Pre-CIE warming is also supported by a negative amplification of δ(13)C values in soil carbonates below the CIE. Our results suggest that at least two sources of warming-the earlier of which is unlikely to have been methane-contributed to the PETM. PMID:20962843

  17. Small inner companions of warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and legacies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Although warm Jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm Jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm Jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm Jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm Jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm Jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exceeds that of stellar radiation for the inner planet, and may be great enough to affect the internal structure of warm Jupiters. Secular theory gives insight into the tidal processes, providing, among other things, a way to constrain eccentricities of transiting planets based on estimates of the tidal parameter Q.

  18. Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A.; Andrews, Timothy; Wiltshire, Andrew; Chadwick, Robin; Ridley, Jeff K.; Menary, Matthew B.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Dufresne, Jean Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it is important to understand whether some locations may see disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to successive CO2 doublings, using five different climate models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations. Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice, therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different analysis methods.

  19. Topics in Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, Tristan Lucas

    In Part 1, we combine on-shell methods with the six-dimensional helicity formalism of Cheung and O'Connell to construct tree-level and multiloop scattering amplitudes. As a nontrivial multiloop example, we confirm that the recently constructed four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions, is valid for dimensions less than or equal to six. We demonstrate that the tree-level amplitudes of maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in six dimensions, when stripped of their overall momentum and supermomentum delta functions, are covariant with respect to the six-dimensional dual conformal group. We demonstrate that this property is also present for loop amplitudes. In Part 2, we explore consequences of the recently discovered duality between color and kinematics, which states that kinematic numerators in a diagrammatic expansion of gauge-theory amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy Jacobi-like identities in one-to-one correspondence to the associated color factors. The related squaring relations express gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge-theory ingredients. We then present a Yang-Mills Lagrangian whose diagrams through five points manifestly satisfy the duality between color and kinematics. Finally, we compute the coefficient of the potential three-loop divergence in pure N=4 supergravity and show that it vanishes, contrary to expectations from symmetry arguments.

  20. CDF hot topics

    SciTech Connect

    Tonelli, Diego

    2006-05-01

    After an introduction on the peculiarities of flavor-physics measurements at a hadron collider, and on the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II), I show recent results on two-body B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} decays into charged, pseudo-scalar, charmless mesons or into muons, to illustrate how the .avor physics program at CDF is competitive with (in B{sup 0} decays) and complementary (in B{sub s}{sup 0} decays) to B-factories. Results shown include the new measurement of the CP-violating asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays, the first measurement of the time-evolution of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} decays, and the world best limits on the decay rates of rare B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} modes.

  1. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  2. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Likens, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans. PMID:26275058

  3. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Likens, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for ‘edit wars’ surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically “controversial” (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider “noncontroversial” (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans. PMID:26275058

  4. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  5. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  6. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric warmings, and to correlate the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for warming, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric warming cases are analyzed.

  7. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  8. Health Topics: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html Health Topics To use the sharing features on this ... Children and Teenagers Men Population Groups Seniors Women Health and Wellness Disasters Fitness and Exercise Food and ...

  9. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria ...

  10. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons. PMID:24446798

  11. Warming early Earth and Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Kasting, J.F.

    1997-05-23

    Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to warm early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to warm the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars warm with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface warming. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have warmed the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.

  12. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  13. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070

  14. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. PMID:25051508

  15. Diabetes Topics Associated With Engagement on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Mart, Adelina; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Caburnay, Charlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social media are widely used by the general public and by public health and health care professionals. Emerging evidence suggests engagement with public health information on social media may influence health behavior. However, the volume of data accumulating daily on Twitter and other social media is a challenge for researchers with limited resources to further examine how social media influence health. To address this challenge, we used crowdsourcing to facilitate the examination of topics associated with engagement with diabetes information on Twitter. Methods We took a random sample of 100 tweets that included the hashtag “#diabetes” from each day during a constructed week in May and June 2014. Crowdsourcing through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform was used to classify tweets into 9 topic categories and their senders into 3 Twitter user categories. Descriptive statistics and Tweedie regression were used to identify tweet and Twitter user characteristics associated with 2 measures of engagement, “favoriting” and “retweeting.” Results Classification was reliable for tweet topics and Twitter user type. The most common tweet topics were medical and nonmedical resources for diabetes. Tweets that included information about diabetes-related health problems were positively and significantly associated with engagement. Tweets about diabetes prevalence, nonmedical resources for diabetes, and jokes or sarcasm about diabetes were significantly negatively associated with engagement. Conclusion Crowdsourcing is a reliable, quick, and economical option for classifying tweets. Public health practitioners aiming to engage constituents around diabetes may want to focus on topics positively associated with engagement. PMID:25950569

  16. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  17. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from placebo. There were very few systemic adverse events or withdrawals due to adverse events. There were insufficient data to reliably compare individual topical NSAIDs with each other or the same oral NSAID. Authors’ conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief, without the systemic adverse events associated with oral NSAIDs, when used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20556778

  18. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  19. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  20. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

  1. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Feedback to Climate Warming: Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Sherry, R.

    2006-12-01

    Global climate modeling has demonstrated that climate warming would stimulate respiratory CO2 release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, which in turn leads to more warming in the climate system. This positive feedback between the climate change and the terrestrial carbon cycle can form a vicious cycle that potentially leads to a dangerous threat to ecosystem functioning and service. Some of the key processes underlying this feedback loop, however, have not been carefully examined by experimental studies. Those key processes include temperature sensitivity of ecosystem carbon influx; regulation of carbon processes by warming-induced changes in species composition, and nutrient and water availability; and phenology and timing of ecosystem processes under warming. We have conducted two warming experiments in a Southern Great Plains prairie to examine ecosystem responses to climate warming. We used infrared heaters to elevate soil temperature by approximately 2.0 and 4.0 oC, respectively, during the experimental period. Our results indicate that plant biomass growth increased by approximately 20% in the warmed plots in comparison to that in the control plots. The increased plant productivity likely resulted from extended length of growing seasons since warming advanced phenology of early-flowering species and delayed phenology of late-flowering species, leading to an extension of the growing season. Leaf photosynthesis, however, was not strongly affected by warming. Warming also considerably increased C4 plant biomass and caused slight decreases in growth of C3 plants. Increased C4 biomass and litter production resulted in decreases in quality and decomposition of bulk litter at the ecosystem scale, leading to an increase in litter mass at the soil surface. Soil respiration did not significantly increase in the first two years but increased by 8-10% in the last several years, largely due to increased root respiration and litter pool sizes. We did not observe much change in soil C content under warming, indicating that increased plant biomass counterbalanced the increased carbon loss via respiration. The increased biomass production was accompanied by increases in plant nitrogen uptake and use efficiency. Decreased litter quality and increased litter pools may trigger a negative nitrogen feedback to decrease nitrogen releases from litter and availability for plants over time. Overall, our data from the Great Plains prairie do not support the notion that warming stimulation of soil respiration is the major feedback process to climate change. A realistic prediction of the future carbon cycle and climate change may require more ecosystem processes other than the respiration to be incorporated into climate models.

  2. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part Three: Special Topics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Roderick; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of special topics environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from a humanistic perspective. Topic areas of these courses include: wilderness studies; biocultural patterns of population, land use, energy, and war; religion, ethics, and the environment; landscape perception; and…

  3. Seven Methods for Helping College Freshmen to Find Theme Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Peter

    Seven methods for helping students find theme topics are presented in this document. The methods include the following: setting up a library browsing table of records, books, and criticism related to the work of literature that is being studied; permitting students to choose topics based on observation of the surrounding community or reactions to…

  4. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on De Morgan's rules; a perpetual calendar; the use of coloured rods; a balance problem; a graphical approach to natural logarithms; a problem in geometric probability; and the parallelogram law of forces. (MM)

  5. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

  6. A Professional Development Framework for E-Learning. Topics: Leadership, Training and Learning Packages for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The topics outlined here have been developed to complement the policies and methodologies outlined in the professional development framework for e-learning. They include: (1) a core topic: e-learning fundamentals; (2) pedagogically based practitioner topics; (3) specialist e-learning developer topics; and (4) leadership topics (developed by the…

  7. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  8. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

  9. Arctic Warming Signals from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2005-01-01

    Global warming signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, warming in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global warming that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the observed Arctic conditions since the 1970s have been shown to exhibit a linear behavior that directly contradicts what has been expected from the A0 (Overland, 2005). The decade of the 1990s has been regarded as the warmest decade in the last century and current data indicates that the 2000s may be even a warmer decade than the 1990s further supporting the linear variability. In this paper, we use satellite data to gain insights into the warming Arctic and how the abnormally warm conditions during the last few years are reflected in the region.

  10. Super plume connection to Cretaceous warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Charles

    A global warming event that took pace during the Cretaceous period may have been caused in part by a “super plume” from the Earth's interior that released massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, according to a paper published in the June issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Ken Caldeira and Michael Rampino of New York University used global biogeochemical carbon-cycle models to calculate the climatic effects of a large injection of CO2 into the atmosphere/ocean system. The primary sources of CO2 that they studied included mantle degassing at mid-ocean ridges and metamorphic decarbonation of sediments at subduction zones.

  11. Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2012-07-01

    Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale warming, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that warming and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface warming. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of warming will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Nio, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of warming, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.

  12. Numerical simulation of global ozone transport during stratospheric sudden warming

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The variation of ozone distribution during a stratospheric sudden warming period was investigated through 3 numerical experiments. The first is a Lagrangian type particle tracing experiment. Air particles were released continuously from 5 different sources into the flows which were simulated from the global model (Koermer, 1980) for the study of the major warming and minor warming. The second was a numerical simulation of ozone transport in an Eulerian system (experiment P1). A 3-D ozone transport-diffusion model in an unequal-distanced vertical resolution system was developed. It was run for 29 consecutive days. In the model, the horizontal and vertical components of eddy diffusivity are computed from the model data (Koermer, 1980) in the case of major warming which was divided into 3 stages: prewarming, warming and after-warming stages. The third experiment was designed to include the photochemical reactions in our model (experiment P2). The computation has been performed for 2 days during the warming period. In the first experiment, air particles at upper levels tend to move poleward and upward (equatorward and downward) at higher (lower) latitudes. In the second experiment, a strong increase in ozone amount does occur at higher latitudes in the stratosphere during the warming period. In the third experiment, the inclusion of photochemical system in the model does not destroy but intensifies the ozone increasing. From the above results, the existence of the Lagrangian-mean indirect and direct circulations of the movements of air particles or ozone molecules caused by the planetary-scale wave activities in the upper and lower stratosphere, appears to explain the phenomenon of the ozone increasing at higher latitudes.

  13. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California.

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle

    2015-03-31

    California is currently in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from California, we find that precipitation deficits in California were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ∼ 100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm-dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and ecosystem impacts associated with the "exceptional" 2012-2014 drought in California. PMID:25733875

  14. Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert

    2003-09-15

    The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future. PMID:14558904

  15. On Warm Conceptual Change: The Interplay of Text, Epistemological Beliefs, and Topic Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Gava, Monica; Boldrin, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to go further than considering only cognitive factors to extend the understanding of the complex, dynamic underlying knowledge revision processes. Fifth graders were assigned to 2 reading conditions. Participants in 1 condition read a refutational text about light, whereas participants in the other read a traditional…

  16. Hot topic, warm loops, cooling plasma? Multithermal analysis of active region loops

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Brooks, D. H.

    2014-11-10

    We have found indications of a relationship between the differential emission measure (DEM) weighted temperature and the cross-field DEM width for coronal loops. The data come from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. These data show that cooler loops tend to have narrower DEM widths. If most loops observed by these instruments are composed of bundles of unresolved magnetic strands and are only observed in their cooling phase, as some studies have suggested, then this relationship implies that the DEM of a coronal loop narrows as it cools. This could imply that fewer strands are seen emitting in the later cooling phase, potentially resolving the long standing controversy of whether the cross-field temperatures of coronal loops are multithermal or isothermal.

  17. Warming Up to STS. Activities to Encourage Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.

    1990-01-01

    Developed is an interdisciplinary unit that deals with global warming and the greenhouse effect. Included are 10 lessons that can be used to supplement existing plans or used as a basis for developing a new unit. Included are modeling, laboratory, graphing, role-playing, and discussion activities. (KR)

  18. Health Topic XML File Description

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the tags listed above. - < health-topic title =" Acoustic Neuroma " url =" https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ ... English " date-created =" 04/22/2002 "> < also-called > Acoustic neurilemmoma < also-called > Acoustic neurinoma

  19. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  20. Topicality Standards in CEDA Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Phillip

    One way to improve topicality debates in CEDA (Cross Examination Debate Association) debate would be to thoroughly study the field contextual meanings of propositional phrases prior to submitting them to a vote. Judges need to reward exemplary arguments and "punish" poor arguments by substantially lowering a team's speaker points for presenting…

  1. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  2. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  3. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  5. Topics in Factor Analysis II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Ledyard R.; And Others

    Three topics in factor analysis are covered: a) a reliability coefficient for assessing the quality of a maximum likelihood factor analysis, b) an application of three-mode factor analysis to serial learning data, showing variations in learning curves over stages of learning and individuals, and c) the use of personal probability functions to…

  6. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  7. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  8. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  9. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  10. Short Intense Ion Pulses for Materials and Warm Dense Matter Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter; Ji, Q.; Lidia, S. M.; Persaud, A.; Stettler, M.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2015-11-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r <1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li + ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. We will describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminium perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components (arXiv:1506.05839). This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  12. Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Lineman, Maurice; Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of social networks provides researchers greater opportunities to evaluate and assess changes in public opinion and public sentiment towards issues of social consequence. Using trend and sentiment analysis is one method whereby researchers can identify changes in public perception that can be used to enhance the development of a social consciousness towards a specific public interest. The following study assessed Relative search volume (RSV) patterns for global warming (GW) and Climate change (CC) to determine public knowledge and awareness of these terms. In conjunction with this, the researchers looked at the sentiment connected to these terms in social media networks. It was found that there was a relationship between the awareness of the information and the amount of publicity generated around the terminology. Furthermore, the primary driver for the increase in awareness was an increase in publicity in either a positive or a negative light. Sentiment analysis further confirmed that the primary emotive connections to the words were derived from the original context in which the word was framed. Thus having awareness or knowledge of a topic is strongly related to its public exposure in the media, and the emotional context of this relationship is dependent on the context in which the relationship was originally established. This has value in fields like conservation, law enforcement, or other fields where the practice can and often does have two very strong emotive responses based on the context of the problems being examined. PMID:26418127

  13. Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yoon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of social networks provides researchers greater opportunities to evaluate and assess changes in public opinion and public sentiment towards issues of social consequence. Using trend and sentiment analysis is one method whereby researchers can identify changes in public perception that can be used to enhance the development of a social consciousness towards a specific public interest. The following study assessed Relative search volume (RSV) patterns for global warming (GW) and Climate change (CC) to determine public knowledge and awareness of these terms. In conjunction with this, the researchers looked at the sentiment connected to these terms in social media networks. It was found that there was a relationship between the awareness of the information and the amount of publicity generated around the terminology. Furthermore, the primary driver for the increase in awareness was an increase in publicity in either a positive or a negative light. Sentiment analysis further confirmed that the primary emotive connections to the words were derived from the original context in which the word was framed. Thus having awareness or knowledge of a topic is strongly related to its public exposure in the media, and the emotional context of this relationship is dependent on the context in which the relationship was originally established. This has value in fields like conservation, law enforcement, or other fields where the practice can and often does have two very strong emotive responses based on the context of the problems being examined. PMID:26418127

  14. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime ... what could be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise ...

  15. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    SciTech Connect

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  16. Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of warming.

    PubMed

    Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Climate warming has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with warming, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if warming is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if warming is constant throughout the year. If warming is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the warming. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific warming. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable warming predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales. PMID:26649399

  17. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  18. Selecting topical and systemic agents for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Eisen, D; Lynch, D P

    2001-09-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral diseases worldwide. Although the exact etiology of RAS remains unknown, a variety of topical and systemic preparations may be used for palliation or prevention. In most patients with RAS, topical agents, including over-the-counter preparations such as amlexanox, prescribed corticosteroids, or antimicrobial agents, are sufficient to control the disease. Patients with frequent exacerbations or those with a severe form of RAS that is unresponsive to topical treatments often require systemic agents to control their disease. These include corticosteroids, colchicine, dapsone, pentoxifylline, and thalidomide. All therapies are palliative, and none result in permanent remission. PMID:11579786

  19. Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

  20. Does Global Warming Influence Tornado Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Trapp, Robert J.; Brooks, Harold

    2008-12-01

    Tornadoes and other severe thunderstorm phenomena frequently cause as much annual property damage in the United States as do hurricanes, and often cause more fatalities (see http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml). In 2008, there were 2176 preliminary tornado reports logged through mid-December, with 1600 ``actual counts'' (duplicate reports removed) through September, the highest total in the past half century (Figure 1). The mass media have covered these events extensively, and experts have been deluged with requests for explanations, including possible links to anthropogenic global warming. Although recent research has yielded insight into the connections between global warming and tornado and severe thunderstorm forcing, these relationships remain mostly unexplored, largely because of the challenges in observing and numerically simulating tornadoes. Indeed, a number of questions that have been answered for other climate-related phenomena remain particularly difficult for climate and severe weather scientists, including whether there are detectable trends in tornado occurrence and if so, what causes them. This article explores the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these areas of research.

  1. Carbon cycle and climate warming

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1983-12-09

    The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is expected to cause a warming of the earth. This increase is due to the fact that more carbon is released into the atmosphere than is removed by the biota and the oceans. Understanding the carbon cycle is important in predicting future warming. A major uncertainty is the timing and magnitude of future releases of CO/sub 2/ from the burning of fossil fuels. Today, 1.1 tons of carbon as CO/sub 2/ are released every year for every person on Earth. Estimates are given on how much CO/sub 2/ has been released into the atmosphere since fossil fuels have been burned. The ultimate aim of carbon cycle research is to predict how the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere will vary as mankind pumps more and more of it into the atmosphere.

  2. Lagrangian description of warm plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.

    1970-01-01

    Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

  3. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  4. Multidecadal warming of Antarctic waters.

    PubMed

    Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru

    2014-12-01

    Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. Warming at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW warming are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461

  5. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

  6. Is the world warming or not?

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    Articles in the popular press indicate controversy surrounding the reality of global warming. However greenhouse models predict more warming that is presently apparent. For climate change to live up to predictions, the minimal warming of the 1980`s will have to accelerate into the next millenium.

  7. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141), two bifonazole trials (N = 136) and one clotrimazole trial (N = 126) that compared the effectiveness of these treatments versus placebo or vehicle. Nine ketoconazole trials (N = 632) and one miconazole trial (N = 47) compared these treatments versus steroids. Fourteen studies (N = 1541) compared one antifungal versus another or compared different doses or schedules of administration of the same agent versus one another. Ketoconazole Topical ketoconazole 2% treatment showed a 31% lower risk of failed clearance of rashes compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.81, eight studies, low-quality evidence) at four weeks of follow-up, but the effect on side effects was uncertain because evidence was of very low quality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.64, six studies); heterogeneity between studies was substantial (I² = 74%). The median proportion of those who did not have clearance in the placebo groups was 69%. Ketoconazole treatment resulted in a remission rate similar to that of steroids (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.44, six studies, low-quality evidence), but occurrence of side effects was 44% lower in the ketoconazole group than in the steroid group (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96, eight studies, moderate-quality evidence). Ketoconozale yielded a similar remission failure rate as ciclopirox (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.26, three studies, low-quality evidence). Most comparisons between ketoconazole and other antifungals were based on single studies that showed comparability of treatment effects. Ciclopirox Ciclopirox 1% led to a lower failed remission rate than placebo at four weeks of follow-up (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.94, eight studies, moderate-quality evidence) with similar rates of side effects (RR 0.9, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.11, four studies, moderate-quality evidence). Other antifungals Clotrimazole and miconazole efficacies were comparable with those of steroids on short-term assessment in single studies. Treatment effects on individual symptoms were less clear and were inconsistent, possibly because of difficulties encountered in measuring these symptoms. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that dose or mode of delivery influenced treatment outcome. Only one study reported on treatment compliance. No study assessed quality of life. One study assessed the maximum rash-free period but provided insufficient data for analysis. One small study in patients with HIV compared the effect of lithium versus placebo on seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face, but treatment outcomes were similar. Authors' conclusions Ketoconazole and ciclopirox are more effective than placebo, but limited evidence suggests that either of these agents is more effective than any other agent within the same class. Very few studies have assessed symptom clearance for longer periods than four weeks. Ketoconazole produced findings similar to those of steroids, but side effects were fewer. Treatment effect on overall quality of life remains unknown. Better outcome measures, studies of better quality and better reporting are all needed to improve the evidence base for antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis. Plain Language Summary Antifungal treatments applied to the skin to treat seborrhoeic dermatitis Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition found throughout the world, with rashes with varying degrees of redness, scaling and itching. It affects people of both sexes but is more common among men. The disease usually starts after puberty and can lead to personal discomfort and cosmetic concerns when rashes occur at prominent skin sites. Drugs that act against moulds, also called antifungal agents, have been commonly used on their own or in combination. Review question Do antifungal treatments applied to the skin clear up the rashes and itching of seborrhoeic dermatitis? Study characteristics We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Trials typically were four weeks long, and very few trials were longer. In all, 24 studies had some involvement of pharmaceutical companies such as funding or employment of the researchers. Key results Particpants taking ketoconazole were 31% less likely than those given placebo to have symptoms that persisted at four weeks of follow-up. This was seen in eight studies with 2520 participants, but wide variation was noted between studies. Ketoconazole was as effective as steroids but had 44% fewer side effects. Without causing more side effects, ciclopirox was 21% more effective than placebo in achieving clinical clearance of rashes. Treatment effect on redness, itching or scaling symptoms of the skin was less clear. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that that one antifungal was superior to other antifungals, but this observation was based on few studies. Ketoconazole and ciclopirox are the most heavily investigated antifungals and are more effective than placebo. Other antifungals might have similar effects, but data are insufficient to underpin this. Common side effects were increased skin redness or itching, burning sensation and hair loss. No studies measured quality of life. Only one study reported on percentage of compliance in different treatment groups. Other studies used surrogates such as acceptability to represent compliance. We therefore could not assess the effect of compliance on treatment outcomes. One study on patients with HIV reported no clear effects of treatments. Quality of the evidence Evidence for the effects of ketoconazole compared with placebo or a steroid was assessed to be of low quality. Evidence derived from comparison of ciclopirox versus placebo was assessed to be of moderate quality. Better quality studies with longer follow-up and better reporting are needed to enlarge the evidence base for antifungals.

  8. Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Rattray, Ben

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that warming-up prior to exercise is vital for the attainment of optimum performance. Both passive and active warm-up can evoke temperature, metabolic, neural and psychology-related effects, including increased anaerobic metabolism, elevated oxygen uptake kinetics and post-activation potentiation. Passive warm-up can increase body temperature without depleting energy substrate stores, as occurs during the physical activity associated with active warm-up. While the use of passive warm-up alone is not commonplace, the idea of utilizing passive warming techniques to maintain elevated core and muscle temperature throughout the transition phase (the period between completion of the warm-up and the start of the event) is gaining in popularity. Active warm-up induces greater metabolic changes, leading to increased preparedness for a subsequent exercise task. Until recently, only modest scientific evidence was available supporting the effectiveness of pre-competition warm-ups, with early studies often containing relatively few participants and focusing mostly on physiological rather than performance-related changes. External issues faced by athletes pre-competition, including access to equipment and the length of the transition/marshalling phase, have also frequently been overlooked. Consequently, warm-up strategies have continued to develop largely on a trial-and-error basis, utilizing coach and athlete experiences rather than scientific evidence. However, over the past decade or so, new research has emerged, providing greater insight into how and why warm-up influences subsequent performance. This review identifies potential physiological mechanisms underpinning warm-ups and how they can affect subsequent exercise performance, and provides recommendations for warm-up strategy design for specific individual and team sports. PMID:26400696

  9. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    SciTech Connect

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.

    PubMed

    Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice. PMID:10027211

  11. Preface to special topic: optofluidics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Qun

    2010-01-01

    This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is on optofluidics or micro-optofluidic systems (MOFS), a burgeoning technology that aims to manipulate light and fluid at microscale and exploits their interaction to create highly versatile devices and integrated systems. This special issue puts together various contributed articles focusing on optofluidics or MOFS, which help inspire new research ideas and innovation in the microfluidics and nanofluidics community. PMID:21267433

  12. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  13. Combining Chemistry and Music to Engage Student Interest: Using Songs to Accompany Selected Chemical Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of recorded music to add interest to a variety of lecture topics is described. Topics include the periodic table, the formation of ionic compounds, thermodynamics, carbohydrates, nuclear chemistry, and qualitative analysis. (Contains 1 note.)

  14. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  15. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

  16. Topical Organization of the Introductory Physics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a course proposal which concentrates on fewer topics and covering the topics in greater depth. Proposes a sequence in which each topic is introduced phenomenologically, the theory is developed, and the applications are discussed. Uses optics as an example. Lists some disadvantages and advantages of the proposed topical organization. (YP)

  17. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted. PMID:17683257

  18. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This is related to what is sometimes referred to as "false balance" in media reporting and may partly explain the divergence between public and scientific opinion regarding climate change.

  19. Partial Transition Warming Remanence ("Inverse TRM")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    "Inverse TRM" (ITRM) produced by warming magnetite through the Verwey transition was discovered by Nagata et al. (1963), who speculated that the NRM of magnetite-bearing meteorites could be in part ITRM acquired by warming in the Earth's magnetic field after impact rather than a record of extraterrestrial fields. New results are reported here for ITRM and partial ITRM (acquired over narrow intervals of temperature during warming), including tests of partial ITRM additivity and reciprocity intended to lay the groundwork for an ITRM Thellier-analog cooling method of paleointensity determination. Memory ratios for ITRM low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) ranged from 0.254 to 0.092 for 0.6-135 um magnetites. ITRM was less resistant to LTD than TRM, leaving an ITRM memory similar to remanence after 15 mT AF cleaning. However, ITRM memory was much more stable against thermal demagnetization than the original ITRM and would contaminate NRM up to the highest steps of paleointensity determination. Next the thermal demagnetization of total ITRM and of a partial ITRM produced by switching off the field partway through warming from 77 K to 300 K were compared for nine magnetite size fractions. For the 1-14 um magnetites, 75-85% of the ITRM decayed quasi-linearly from 25 to 550oC, then dropped to zero by 570oC. The 20, 110 and 135 um magnetites demagnetized in two stages: a 50% loss from 20-250oC, a leveling out until 500oC, and a final plunge to zero above 550oC. Partial ITRMs of 0.6-20 um magnetites were more resistant to thermal demagnetization than total ITRMs. The decay was still quasi-linear or two-stage, but twice as much remanence survived at 550oC. The most stable part of ITRM seems to be acquired in the earliest stages of the Verwey transition, well below 120 K. The final experiments studied sets of neighbouring partial ITRMs, using 12 narrow T intervals from 20 to 300 K. The reciprocity law was obeyed for all samples: pITRM(T1, T2) was completely erased by zero-field cooling from T2 to T1. This is the main requirement for a successful paleointensity method. The largest pITRMs were acquired in the 90-100 and 100-110 K intervals, not between 110 and 120 K. This is surprising because most of the LTD of total ITRM and other remanences occurs from 120-110 K.

  20. Lyman-{alpha} constraints on warm and on warm-plus-cold dark matter models

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Lesgourgues, Julien; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2009-05-15

    We revisit Lyman-{alpha} bounds on the dark matter mass in {Lambda} Warm Dark Matter ({Lambda}WDM) models, and derive new bounds in the case of mixed Cold plus Warm models ({Lambda}CWDM), using a set up which is a good approximation for several theoretically well-motivated dark matter models. We combine WMAP5 results with two different Lyman-{alpha} data sets, including observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We pay a special attention to systematics, test various possible sources of error, and compare the results of different statistical approaches. Expressed in terms of the mass of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino, our bounds read m{sub NRP} {>=} 8 keV (frequentist 99.7% confidence limit) or m{sub NRP} {>=} 12.1 keV (Bayesian 95% credible interval) in the pure {Lambda}WDM limit. For the mixed model, we obtain limits on the mass as a function of the warm dark matter fraction F{sub WDM}. Within the mass range studied here (5 keV < m{sub NRP} < {infinity}), we find that any mass value is allowed when F{sub WDM} < 0.6 (frequentist 99.7% confidence limit); similarly, the Bayesian joint probability on (F{sub WDM}, 1/m{sub NRP}) allows any value of the mass at the 95% confidence level, provided that F{sub WDM} < 0.35.

  1. Global Warming Education for Astro 101 Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Guinan, E. F.; Knezek, P.; Lacy, J. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Rykoff, E.; Sheth, K.

    2012-01-01

    The AAS Sustainability Committee (SC) aims to reduce the ecological footprint of the AAS. The SC has identified three major areas of concern on which to focus for the coming year: (1) AAS Meetings, which are energy-intensive because of their associated travel, lodging, and conference center needs; (2) other travel, including to observing runs, team meetings, and conferences -- some of that travel could reasonably be replaced with teleconferencing options, which we are exploring; and (3) education. There will be a special session at this meeting devoted to helping astronomy professors include global warming in their Astro 101 classes. Several seasoned educators will share their tips and provide online resources such as PowerPoint slides and figures on climate change.

  2. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California

    PubMed Central

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    California is currently in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from California, we find that precipitation deficits in California were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ∼100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm–dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and ecosystem impacts associated with the “exceptional” 2012–2014 drought in California. PMID:25733875

  3. Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    1992-12-31

    This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

  4. Selected topics in robotics for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C. (Editor); Kaufman, Howard (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

  5. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  6. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  7. Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

  8. Desert Amplification of Greenhouse Gas Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Surface temperatures over the Sahara and Arabian Deserts are increasing at a rate that is 3.5 times that of the global mean. These regions have warmed by 1.4 K between 1980 and 2012. In the tropical (and global) mean, added energy incident at the surface due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is used partly to increase the surface temperature, and partly to evaporate water. The resulting atmospheric water vapor anomaly is effectively mixed vertically and horizontally throughout the tropics on annual time scales, and amplifies the greenhouse effect (increased longwave back radiation to the surface) everywhere, including over the deserts. But, on the desert surface, evaporative cooling is disabled and the enhanced longwave energy incident on the surface serves only to increase surface temperature. Despite the fact that this desert amplification mechanism should operate over any dry surface, the other deserts of the world are not exhibiting accelerated warming. Each of these deserts is smaller than the Sahara/Arabian Desert area, and various regional processes dominate over the desert amplification mechanism.

  9. The Spitzer Warm Mission - Hot Science with a "Warm" Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Baruch T.; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Squires, G. K.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

    2007-12-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope is the infrared component of NASA's family of Great Observatories comprised of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Cryogenically cooled and in Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer currently offers imaging capabilities from 3.6-160 microns, and spectroscopy from 5-38 microns. In approximately March 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5'x5' fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. In this "warm" mission phase, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more "traditional" time allocations, and funding for archival research. This presentation will review the technical and operational capabilities of Spitzer in the post-cryogen era, and will introduce some of the science enabled by warm Spitzer.

  10. A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Bindu; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  11. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth’s energy imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  12. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth’s energy imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15–20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40–50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  13. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

  14. Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-04-01

    Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global warming resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will warm by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the warming will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global warming has already been detected is pretty close to zero.

  15. Warm season grass establishment on limestone-amended coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Skeel, V.A.; Gray, B.; Newton, R.

    1997-12-31

    Direct seeding of limestone amended areas can be an effective alternative to soil covering. Both wetland and upland plant communities have been established on post law (PL 95-87) slurry areas by the Wildlife Research Laboratory of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Terrestrial habitat reclamation has emphasized both cool and warm season grass species, using a 3-year program of limestone amendment (40-50 tons/acre/year) and cover crop (years 1 and 2) and perennial grass (year 3) establishment. Warm season grasses have been included in Midwest slurry reclamation projects since 1984. Vegetation monitoring of three Midwest sites (Illinois and Kentucky), ranging in age from 3 to 12 years since planting, identified current ground cover in excess of 100 percent. Warm season grasses accounted for 48 to 73 percent of the ground cover. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the dominant warm season species at all sites, with vegetative cover values ranging from 48 to more than 56 percent. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) accounted for 12 to 16 percent of the ground cover at the two Kentucky sites 3 years after establishment. Vegetative density for all species (forbs and grasses) ranged from 539 to 622 stems/m{sup 2} while above ground biomass values ranged from 404 to over 900 gm/m{sup 2}. Warm season grass establishment practices on these direct seeded slurry areas have been successful in providing excellent ground cover and diverse upland wildlife habitat.

  16. Stronger warming amplification over drier ecoregions observed since 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liming; Chen, Haishan; Dai, Yongjiu

    2015-06-01

    Observations show that the global mean surface temperature has increased steadily since the 1950s and this warming trend is particularly strong and linear over land after 1979. This paper analyzes the relationship between surface temperature trends observed over land for the period 1979-2012 and enhanced vegetation index (EVI), a satellite measured vegetation greenness index, by large-scale ecoregion. The land areas between 50S and 50N are classified into various large-scale ecoregions based on the climatological EVI values. The regional mean temperature trends exhibit significant spatial dependence on the regional mean EVI. In general, the warming rate increases dramatically with decreasing EVI, with the strongest warming rate seen over the driest ecoregions. When anthropogenic and natural forcings are included, climate models are generally able to reproduce observed major features of the spatial dependence. When only natural forcings are used, none of the observed features are simulated. Furthermore, the simulated temperature changes in the latter are mostly far outside the range of those in the former. These results suggest stronger warming amplification over drier ecoregions in the context of global warming, pointing mainly to human influence.

  17. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  18. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  19. Warm/cold cloud processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting warm cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A numerical feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.

  20. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  1. Start and warm up features for electronic fuel management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carp, R.W.; Marchak, R.O.

    1981-01-20

    An electronic control unit for regulating the air/fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The electronic control unit has an open loop calibration for regulating air/fuel ratio that is corrected with a closed loop correction signal developed by an integral controller. The open loop calibration is a speed-density based schedule which is combined with corrections for special conditions to account for the operating parameters of the engine at any instant. Included in these special condition corrections are provision for start and warm-up features. The start feature includes an enrichment pulse generator whose pulses have a duration dependent upon the engine operating temperature and speed which are inhibited while the engine is above a predetermined rpm. The warm-up feature includes a time and temperature dependent enrichment which is linearly multiplied by an engine load factor. The warm-up feature further includes a time dependent holding level or delay from which the enrichment factor value decays during warm up and a feature to defeat this holding level above a certain engine operating temperature.

  2. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    SciTech Connect

    Winrich, L.B.

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  3. Photoaging: prevention and topical treatments.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Christina; Kosmadaki, Maria G; Stratigos, Alexandros J; Katsambas, Andreas D

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly increasing number of people visit dermatologists for the prevention and treatment of aging skin. Sun avoidance and sunscreen use are widely accepted strategies of primary prevention against photoaging. Convincing evidence shows that topical application of retinoids has an effect on reversing, at least partially, mild to moderate photodamage. Antioxidants and alpha-hydroxy acids can alter the skin structure and function. Enzymes that repair DNA damage or oligonucleotides that enhance the endogenous capacity for DNA damage repair may prove to be future preventive/therapeutic interventions for aging skin. PMID:20141230

  4. Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature's way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

  5. Climate Warming and Disease Risks for Terrestrial and Marine Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvell, C. Drew; Mitchell, Charles E.; Ward, Jessica R.; Altizer, Sonia; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2002-06-01

    Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

  6. Changes in Terrestrial Water Availability under Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C. W.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Under global warming, the annual range of precipitation is widening (Chou and Lan, 2012; Chou et al., 2013) and the frequency of precipitation extreme events also increases. Due to nonlinear responses of land hydrological process to precipitation extremes, runoff can increase exponentially, and on the hard hand, soil water storage may decline. In addition, IPCC AR5 indicates that soil moisture decreases in most areas under the global warming scenario. In this study, we use NCAR Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to simulate changes in terrestrial available water (TAW, defined as the precipitation minus evaporation minus runoff, and then divided by the precipitation) under global warming. Preliminary results show that the TAW has clear seasonal variations. Compared to previous studies, which do not include the runoff in the calculations of the available water, our estimates on the TAW has much less available water in high latitudes through out the year, especially under extreme precipitation events.

  7. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvell, C.D.; Mitchell, C.E.; Ward, J.R.; Altizer, S.; Dobson, A.P.; Ostfeld, R.S.; Samuel, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

  8. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Vano, Julie A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2011-12-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3°C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively.

  9. CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Diet for a Greenhouse Planet: A Citizen's Guide for Slowing Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCicco, John; And Others

    This guide discusses the global warming issue and offers a plan to facilitate a decrease in the emissions of the major greenhouse gases in the United States, including those under the control of individual citizens. A letter from the organization's president describes its involvement with the global warming issue. A brief overview presented in the…

  10. Lessons: Science: "Sinkholes." Students Observe What Happens When Ice-Cold Water Mingles with Warm Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    This intermediate-level science activity has students observe the effect of ice-cold water mingling with warm water. Water's behavior and movement alters with shifts in temperature. Students must try to determine how temperature affects the movement of water. Necessary materials include a pencil, cup, glass jar, masking tape, warm water, ice…

  11. 60 FR 52357 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Global Warming Potential for Ozone-Depleting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-10-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Global Warming Potential for Ozone... global warming potentials for ozone- depleting substances that are included as class I and class II.... To meet EPA's statutory obligation under the CAA, this proposed listing cites the global...

  12. Lasting effect of soil warming on organic matter decomposition depends on tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil warming studies showed changes of microbial community structure, very few were focused on the effect of ...

  13. Lessons: Science: "Sinkholes." Students Observe What Happens When Ice-Cold Water Mingles with Warm Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    This intermediate-level science activity has students observe the effect of ice-cold water mingling with warm water. Water's behavior and movement alters with shifts in temperature. Students must try to determine how temperature affects the movement of water. Necessary materials include a pencil, cup, glass jar, masking tape, warm water, ice

  14. Theoretical Topics in Particle Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lee Alan

    This dissertation contains three parts, each with a distinct topic. The three topics are (1) Higgs-boson decays at the superconducting super collider, (2) radiative corrections to the decay (pi)('o) (--->) (gamma)e('+)e(' -) and (3) generalised random paths in three and four dimensions. In Part I, distributions in cos(theta)(,lab), rapidity, energy, and p(,T) for the intermediate vector bosons resulting from p + p (--->) (H('o) (--->) W('+)W(' -), Z('o)Z('o)) + X and p + p (--->) (W('+)W('-),W('+)Z('o) + W('-)Z('o),Z('o)Z('o)) + X at SQRT.(s) = 40 TeV are compared for Higgs-boson masses of 5m(,w) and 7m(,w). The Higgs -boson-decay signal should be visible in the energy and p(,T) distributions of the vector bosons. In Part II, the radiative corrections to both the decay rate for (pi)('o) (--->) (gamma)e('+)e('-) and the differential spectrum in the invariant mass of the Dalitz pain for experiments with limited geometrical acceptance are calculated. In Part III, we introduce a generalised model for random paths (in arbitrary dimension) which smoothly interpolates between the standard paths (fermionic or bosonic) and the self-avoiding paths. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the model is presented along with some preliminary results for average length, intersection, overlap and mean square size of paths in three and four dimensions.

  15. Silicones as nonocclusive topical agents.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    De Paepe K; Sieg A; Le Meur M; Rogiers V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Silicone excipients are commonly used ingredients because of their emollient and skin-conditioning effects, and their ability to form uniform, water-resistant, yet permeable films. Based on comparisons with organic materials and conflicting knowledge from silicones used in scar treatment, the misconception still exists that silicone topical excipients are occlusive substances that may block the passive loss of water through the upper skin layers. Therefore, 3 types of common silicone excipients and 3 water-in-(oil-plus-silicone) or W/(O + Si) creams, containing 10% (w/w) of the respective silicones, were investigated as a function of time and compared to petrolatum.METHODS: Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration measurements were carried out after a single topical application on forearm skin of 26 healthy young female volunteers.RESULTS: Both petrolatum and silicones significantly decreased TEWL 15 min after application, but the measurements for the silicones were not significantly different from the untreated control values. The tested silicones did not moisturize the skin. Petrolatum formed an occlusive layer, creating an increase in skin hydration for more than 4 h. The results measured for the W/(O + Si) creams indicated that they moisturized the skin, without any effect on TEWL.CONCLUSION: A clear difference was shown between the skin occlusive properties of petrolatum and the water vapor permeability of the common silicone excipient materials.

  16. Melanoma Prevention Using Topical PBISe

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chin-Ying; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, known for its drug resistance and high metastatic potential. Deregulated PI3 and MAP kinase pathways promote early melanocytic lesion development and confer drug resistance. No agent exists to target these deregulated pathways to prevent cutaneous non-invasive melanocytic cells or invasive melanomas from developing into more aggressive widely disseminated metastatic disease. In this study, a selenium containing isosteric analogue of PBIT [S,S′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea] called PBISe [Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isoselenourea] is shown to moderate these two major signaling pathways to prevent cutaneous melanocytic lesion or melanoma development. Topical application of PBISe retarded melanocytic lesion development in laboratory-generated skin by 70-80% and in animal skin by ∼50%. Mechanistically, prevention of lesion development occurred due to decreased Akt3 signaling, which increased MAP kinase pathway activity to inhibitory levels. The combined effect of targeting these pathways led to decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death thereby preventing melanoma development. Thus, topically applied PBISe treatment has potential to prevent non-invasive melanocytic lesion and invasive metastatic melanoma development in skin. PMID:21367959

  17. Passive nighttime warming facility for forest ecosystem research.

    PubMed

    Luxmoore, R. J.; Hanson, P. J.; Beauchamp, J. J.; Joslin, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    A nighttime warming experiment is proposed. Over the last four decades a significant rise in nighttime minimum temperature has been determined from analysis of meteorological records from a global distribution of locations. The experiment involves nighttime deployment of infrared (IR) reflecting curtains around four sides of a forest canopy and across the top of the forest to mimic the top-down warming effect of cloud cover. The curtains are deployed with cable and pulley systems mounted on a tower and scaffolding structure built around the selected forest site. The trunk space is not enclosed except as an optional manipulation. The curtains reflect long-wave radiation emitted from the forest and ground back into the forest warming the trees, litter, and soil. Excellent infrared reflection can be obtained with commercially available fabrics that have aluminum foil bonded to one side. A canopy warming of 3 to 5 degrees C is expected on cloudless nights, and on cloudy nights, a warming of 1 to 3 degrees C is anticipated relative to a control plot. The curtains are withdrawn by computer control during the day and also at night during periods with precipitation or excessive wind. Examples of hypothesized ecosystem responses to nighttime warming include: (1) increase in tree maintenance respiration (decreasing carbon reserves and ultimately tree growth), (2) increase in the length of the growing season (increasing growth), (3) increase in soil respiration, (4) increase in litter decomposition, (5) increase in mineralization of N and other nutrients from soil organic matter, (6) increase in nutrient uptake (increasing growth), and (7) increase in N immobilization in litter. Hypothesis 1 has the opposite consequence for tree growth to Hypotheses 2 and 6, and thus opposite consequences for the feedback regulation that vegetation has on net greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere. If Hypothesis 1 is dominant, warming could lead to more warming from the additional CO(2) emissions. Site-specific meteorological, ecophysiological, and phenological measurements are obtained in the warming treatment and in a carefully selected control plot to investigate site-specific hypotheses. Measurements made on both plots for a baseline period and during the period of curtain deployment provide data to test the hypotheses statistically by the "before-after-control-impact" method applicable to unreplicated experiments. The enclosure has a modular design that can be adapted and combined with other forest-scale manipulation experiments such as free air CO(2) enrichment and throughfall displacement. PMID:12651350

  18. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  19. Forecasting phenology under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

  20. The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This grant is associated to a 5-year LTSA grant, on "Studying the Largest Reservoir of Baryons in the Universe: The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium". The first year of work within this program has been very rich, and has already produced several important results, as detailed in this paper. Table 2 of our original proposal justification, listed the planned year-by-year program, divided into two sub-fields: (A) the study of the z=0 (or Local Group WHIM) system, and (B) the study of the z greater than 0 (i.e- intervening WHIM) systems. For each of the two sub-fields we had planned to analyze, in the first year, a number of archival (Chandra, XMM and FUSE) and new (if observed) sightlines. Moreover, the plan for the z=0 system included the search for new interesting sightlines. We have accomplished all these tasks.

  1. Global warming bill promotes recycling, composting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    H.R. 1078, the Global Warming Prevention Act, was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives by Rep. Claudine Schneider (R-RI) in February. While key features of the bill revolve around reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing energy conservation and efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, a section deals with recyclable materials. The bill calls for establishment of an Office of Recycling Research and Information within the Dept. of Commerce to promote recyclable materials programs. Other elements include: improving the recycling of government-generated wastes as well as improving procurement of recyclable materials; a pilot project on MSW and sewage sludge composting; and a ban on production or sale of certain designated nonrecyclable consumer goods.

  2. Warm Debris Disks with WISE and HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Using 22 μm data from the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have completed a sensitive all-sky survey for debris disks in Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets. Several hundred previously unknown debris disk candidates were identified. We are currently performing follow-up observations to characterize the stars, companions, and circumstellar material in these systems with a variety of facilities including Keck, Herschel, and HST. Thirteen WISE debris disks have been observed to date using HST/STIS coronagraphy. Five of these disks have been detected in scattered light. One is a large and highly asymmetric edge-on disk which appears to be both warped and bifurcated.

  3. Effects of topical oxygen therapy on ischemic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Congqiang; Xiao, Liling; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Shenghong; Lu, Jinqiang; Li, Jiangxuan; Gu, Shixing

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of topical oxygen therapy on the hind limb wounds of rats under ischemic conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve injured rats were treated with topical oxygen on skin wounds located on the hind limb and compared with twelve injured control rats. Indexes including gross morphology of the wound, wound healing time, wound healing rate, and histological and immunohistochemical staining of sections of wound tissue were examined at different time points after intervention. [Results] The wound healing time was shorter in the topical oxygen therapy group than the control group. The wound healing rate and granulation tissue formation in the topical oxygen therapy group showed significant improvement on days 3, 7, and 14. Through van Gieson staining, the accumulation of collagen fiber in the topical oxygen therapy group was found to have improved when compared with the control group on day 7. Through semiquantitative immunohistochemical staining, many more new vessels were found in the topical oxygen therapy group compared with the model control group on day 7. [Conclusion] The results of the experiment showed that topical oxygen therapy improved ischemic wound healing. PMID:26957741

  4. The effect of a short practical warm-up protocol on repeated sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jonathan M; Weston, Matthew; Portas, Matthew D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a short, practical, 2-phase warm-up on repeated sprint performance when compared with more traditional warm-up protocols that contain stretching activities. Eleven subelite male soccer players completed a warm-up protocol that commenced with 5 minutes jogging at approximately 65% of maximal heart rate, followed by no stretching, static stretching, or dynamic stretching and finishing with a task-specific high-intensity activity. Using a crossover design, the 3 warm-up protocols were performed in a counterbalanced order with at least 48 hours between sessions. Repeated sprint performance was measured using a repeated sprint test that consisted of 6 × 40-m maximal sprints interspersed with a 20-second recovery. There were trivial differences in mean sprint time (0.2%) and posttest blood lactate (3.1%) between the 2-phase warm-up and the 3-phase warm-up that included dynamic stretching, whereas the short warm-up had a possibly detrimental effect on fastest sprint time (0.7%). Fastest (-1.1%) and mean (-1.2%) sprint times were quicker and posttest blood lactates were higher (13.2%) after the 2-phase warm-up when compared with the 3-phase warm-up that included static stretching. Although it is not harmful to complete a traditional 3-phase warm-up that includes dynamic stretching, it appears practical for athletes preparing for activities dependent on repeated sprint ability to complete a 2-phase warm-up consisting of a cardiovascular and specific high-intensity activity. PMID:23007489

  5. Trends in hemispheric warm and cold anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.

    2014-12-01

    Using a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of temperature anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Linear trends in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but warming occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, trends also were consistently positive, with warm anomalies having much larger warming rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent trend has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global warming, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate trends reliably, cooling was evident in NH warm and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to warm.

  6. A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.; Jennings, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This research analyzed the most widely used foundations of education textbooks for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content. Because foundations of education coursework routinely introduces other diversity topics in education, the authors hold it is a good place to introduce LGBT topics. The ways in which LGBT topics are included in…

  7. A Content Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Multicultural Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd; Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics in 12 popular multicultural education textbooks. Following a line-by-line analysis of each textbook, the findings report the extent to which LGBT topics were included in each text and the themes that became apparent in how LGBT topics were treated. The…

  8. Earth Science Supplement to the Syllabus, Part 2, Topics 5-8, 1970 Edition. 1974 Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This document contains investigation topics 5-8 in the earth science course developed by the University of the State of New York for secondary schools. Topics include energy in earth processes, insulation and the earth's surface, energy exchanges in the atmosphere, moisture and energy budgets, and environmental change. Each topic is preceded by…

  9. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  10. A Content Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Multicultural Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd; Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics in 12 popular multicultural education textbooks. Following a line-by-line analysis of each textbook, the findings report the extent to which LGBT topics were included in each text and the themes that became apparent in how LGBT topics were treated. The

  11. Warming-Induced Changes to the Molecular Composition of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Simpson, M. J.; Simpson, A. J.; Wilson, K. P.; Williams, D.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) contains two times more carbon than the atmosphere and the potential changes to SOM quantity and quality with global warming are a major concern. It is commonly believed that global warming will accelerate the decomposition of labile SOM compounds while refractory SOM constituents will remain stable. However, experimental evidence of molecular-level changes to SOM composition with global warming is currently lacking. Here we employ SOM biomarkers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study SOM composition and degradation in a soil warming experiment in southern Ontario, Canada. The soil warming experiment consisted of a control and a treatment plot in a mixed forest that had a temperature difference of about 5 degrees C for 14 months. Before soil warming the control and treatment plots had the same organic carbon (OC) content and SOM composition. Soil warming significantly increased soil OC content and the abundance of cutin-derived carbon originating from leaf tissues and decreased carbohydrates that are regarded as easily degradable. Lignin components, which are believed to be part of the stable and slowly-cycling SOM, were observed to be in an advanced stage of degradation. This observation is corroborated by increases in fungal biomass in the warmed soil because fungi are considered the primary decomposer of lignin in the soil environment. An NMR study of SOM in the warmed and control plots indicates that alkyl carbon, mainly originating from plant cuticles in the soil, increased in the warmed soil while O-alkyl carbon, primarily occurring in carbohydrates, decreased. Aromatic and phenolic carbon regions, which include the main structures found in lignin, decreased in the warmed soil. These data collectively suggest that there is a great potential for lignin degradation with soil warming, and that the refractory (aromatic) soil carbon storage may be reduced as a result of increased fungal growth in a warmer climate.

  12. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. PMID:27001955

  13. Does Vibration Warm-up Enhance Kinetic and Temporal Sprint Parameters?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Cronin, M J; Fink, P W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of vibration warm-up to enhance sprint performance. 12 males involved in representative team sports performed 4 warm-up conditions in a randomised order performed at least 24 h apart; VbX warm-up (VbX-WU); Neural activation warm-up (Neu-WU); Dynamic warm-up (Dyn-WU) and Control (No VbX). Participants completed 5 m sprint at 30 s, 2:30 min and 5 min post warm-up where sprint time, kinetics, and temporal components were recorded. There was no significant (p>0.05) main effect or interaction effect between the split sprint times of 1 m, 2.5 m, and 5 m. There was a condition effect where vertical mean force was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Dyn-WU and Control compared to Neu-WU. No other significant (p>0.05) main and interaction effects in sprint kinetic and temporal parameters existed. Overall, all 4 warm-up conditions produced comparable results for sprint performance, and there was no detrimental effect on short-duration sprint performance using VbX-WU. Therefore, VbX could be useful for adding variety to the training warm-up or be included into the main warm-up routine as a supplementary modality. PMID:25837247

  14. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee joint. One-way ANOVA was performed by randomized block design for each variable. [Results] The results were as follows: First, the flexor peak torque and extensor peak torque of the knee joint tended to decrease at 60°/sec in the warm-up with stretching group compared with the control group and warm-up group, but without statistical significance. Second, extensor power at 180°/sec was also not statistically significant. However, it was found that flexor power increased significantly in the warm-up with stretching group at 180°/sec compared with the control group and warm-up group in which stretching was not performed. [Conclusion] Therefore, it is considered that in healthy adults, warm-up including two sets of stretching for 20 seconds per muscle group does not decrease muscle strength and muscle power. PMID:26157247

  15. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  16. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Emergency Preparedness & Response NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  17. On the Topical Structure of Medical Charts

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Armar A.; Evans, David A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 55 H&P sections of hospital charts, we tested the hypothesis that topic-sub-topic sequencing is sufficiently regular to provide ‘missing’ information in the construction of explicit propositions from elliptical text. ‘Propositions’ were taken to be frames with the slots topic, sub-topic, method, site, attribute, value, and qualifier. Topic was identifiable in 96% of all cases; attribute-value pairs were uniquely recoverable from topics in 69% of all cases; site was co-determined by topic, method, and attribute. Our results suggest that uncertainties in the automated processing of H&P statements can be overcome by appealing to knowledge about the topical structure of medical charts.

  18. Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on 'Appropriate' K-8 Climate Change and Environmental Science Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    With the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2013), climate change and related environmental sciences will now receive greater emphasis within science curricula at all grade levels. In grades K-8, preparation in foundational content (e.g., weather and climate, natural resources, and human impacts on the environment) and the nature of scientific inquiry will set the groundwork for later learning of climate change in upper middle and high school. These rigorous standards increase pressure on elementary and middle school teachers to possess strong science content knowledge, as well as experience supporting children to develop scientific ideas through the practices of science. It also requires a set of beliefs - about children and the science that is appropriate for them - that is compatible with the goals set out in the standards. Elementary teachers in particular, who often have minimal preparation in the earth sciences (NSF, 2007), and entrenched beliefs about how particular topics ought to be taught (Holt- Reynolds, 1992; Pajares, 1992), including climate change (Bryce & Day, 2013; Lambert & Bleicher, 2013), may face unique challenges in adjusting to the new standards. If teachers hold beliefs about climate change as controversial, for example, they may not consider it an appropriate topic for children, despite its inclusion in the standards. On the other hand, those who see a role for children in efforts to mitigate human impacts on the environment may be more enthusiastic about the new standards. We report on a survey of preservice K-8 teachers' beliefs about the earth and environmental science topics that they consider to be appropriate and inappropriate for children in grades K-3, 4-5, and 6-8. Participants were surveyed on a variety of standards-based topics using terminology that signals publicly and scientifically neutral (e.g. weather, ecosystems) to overtly controversial (evolution, global warming) science. Results from pilot data indicate that preservice teachers show interest in teaching children basic environmental science and conservation, but less interest in climate change science. Implications for instructors of both education and science courses will be discussed. We argue that it is important to consider not just the content taught to preservice teachers to prepare them for science teaching, but the ways in which we engage their beliefs about that content in relation to their beliefs about the capabilities of elementary and middle school learners.

  19. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Usui, Naotaka

    2016-05-15

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60-70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  20. Warming Experiments Underpredict Plant Phenological Responses to Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolkovich, E. M.; Cook, B. I.; Allen, J. M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Betancourt, J. L.; Travers, S. E.; Pau, S.; Regetz, J.; Davies, T. J.; Kraft, N. J. B.; Ault, T. R.; Bolmgren, K.; Mazer, S. J.; McCabe, G. J.; McGill, B. J.; Parmesan, C.; Salamin, N.; Schwartz, M. D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Warming experiments are increasingly relied on to estimate plant responses to global climate change. For experiments to provide meaningful predictions of future responses, they should reflect the empirical record of responses to temperature variability and recent warming, including advances in the timing of flowering and leafing. We compared phenology (the timing of recurring life history events) in observational studies and warming experiments spanning four continents and 1,634 plant species using a common measure of temperature sensitivity (change in days per degree Celsius). We show that warming experiments underpredict advances in the timing of flowering and leafing by 8.5-fold and 4.0-fold, respectively, compared with long-term observations. For species that were common to both study types, the experimental results did not match the observational data in sign or magnitude. The observational data also showed that species that flower earliest in the spring have the highest temperature sensitivities, but this trend was not reflected in the experimental data. These significant mismatches seem to be unrelated to the study length or to the degree of manipulated warming in experiments. The discrepancy between experiments and observations, however, could arise from complex interactions among multiple drivers in the observational data, or it could arise from remediable artefacts in the experiments that result in lower irradiance and drier soils, thus dampening the phenological responses to manipulated warming. Our results introduce uncertainty into ecosystem models that are informed solely by experiments and suggest that responses to climate change that are predicted using such models should be re-evaluated.

  1. Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs Accounting for Climate Warming Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Magris, Rafael A.; Heron, Scott F.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating warming disturbances into the design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is fundamental to developing appropriate conservation actions that confer coral reef resilience. We propose an MPA design approach that includes spatially- and temporally-varying sea-surface temperature (SST) data, integrating both observed (1985–2009) and projected (2010–2099) time-series. We derived indices of acute (time under reduced ecosystem function following short-term events) and chronic thermal stress (rate of warming) and combined them to delineate thermal-stress regimes. Coral reefs located on the Brazilian coast were used as a case study because they are considered a conservation priority in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. We show that all coral reef areas in Brazil have experienced and are projected to continue to experience chronic warming, while acute events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. We formulated quantitative conservation objectives for regimes of thermal stress. Based on these objectives, we then evaluated if/how they are achieved in existing Brazilian MPAs and identified priority areas where additional protection would reinforce resilience. Our results show that, although the current system of MPAs incorporates locations within some of our thermal-stress regimes, historical and future thermal refugia along the central coast are completely unprotected. Our approach is applicable to other marine ecosystems and adds to previous marine planning for climate change in two ways: (i) by demonstrating how to spatially configure MPAs that meet conservation objectives for warming disturbance using spatially- and temporally-explicit data; and (ii) by strategically allocating different forms of spatial management (MPA types) intended to mitigate warming impacts and also enhance future resistance to climate warming. PMID:26535586

  2. Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs Accounting for Climate Warming Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Magris, Rafael A; Heron, Scott F; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating warming disturbances into the design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is fundamental to developing appropriate conservation actions that confer coral reef resilience. We propose an MPA design approach that includes spatially- and temporally-varying sea-surface temperature (SST) data, integrating both observed (1985-2009) and projected (2010-2099) time-series. We derived indices of acute (time under reduced ecosystem function following short-term events) and chronic thermal stress (rate of warming) and combined them to delineate thermal-stress regimes. Coral reefs located on the Brazilian coast were used as a case study because they are considered a conservation priority in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. We show that all coral reef areas in Brazil have experienced and are projected to continue to experience chronic warming, while acute events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. We formulated quantitative conservation objectives for regimes of thermal stress. Based on these objectives, we then evaluated if/how they are achieved in existing Brazilian MPAs and identified priority areas where additional protection would reinforce resilience. Our results show that, although the current system of MPAs incorporates locations within some of our thermal-stress regimes, historical and future thermal refugia along the central coast are completely unprotected. Our approach is applicable to other marine ecosystems and adds to previous marine planning for climate change in two ways: (i) by demonstrating how to spatially configure MPAs that meet conservation objectives for warming disturbance using spatially- and temporally-explicit data; and (ii) by strategically allocating different forms of spatial management (MPA types) intended to mitigate warming impacts and also enhance future resistance to climate warming. PMID:26535586

  3. Warming experiments underpredict plant phenological responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Allen, Jenica M.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Travers, Steven E.; Pau, Stephanie; Regetz, James; Davies, T. Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J.B.; Ault, Toby R.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Mazer, Susan J.; McCabe, Gregory J.; McGill, Brian J.; Parmesan, Camille; Salamin, Nicolas; Schwartz, Mark D.; Cleland, Elsa E.

    2012-01-01

    Warming experiments are increasingly relied on to estimate plant responses to global climate change. For experiments to provide meaningful predictions of future responses, they should reflect the empirical record of responses to temperature variability and recent warming, including advances in the timing of flowering and leafing. We compared phenology (the timing of recurring life history events) in observational studies and warming experiments spanning four continents and 1,634 plant species using a common measure of temperature sensitivity (change in days per degree Celsius). We show that warming experiments underpredict advances in the timing of flowering and leafing by 8.5-fold and 4.0-fold, respectively, compared with long-term observations. For species that were common to both study types, the experimental results did not match the observational data in sign or magnitude. The observational data also showed that species that flower earliest in the spring have the highest temperature sensitivities, but this trend was not reflected in the experimental data. These significant mismatches seem to be unrelated to the study length or to the degree of manipulated warming in experiments. The discrepancy between experiments and observations, however, could arise from complex interactions among multiple drivers in the observational data, or it could arise from remediable artefacts in the experiments that result in lower irradiance and drier soils, thus dampening the phenological responses to manipulated warming. Our results introduce uncertainty into ecosystem models that are informed solely by experiments and suggest that responses to climate change that are predicted using such models should be re-evaluated.

  4. Local wound care and topical management of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating disease predominantly involving apocrine gland-bearing skin. The folliculoinfundibular dysfunction and an aberrant cutaneous immune response to commensal bacteria are recognized as potential contributors. Topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, and keratolytic agents have been used in the management of early stages of HS. Proper wound care is a key part of management, particularly in patients with advanced HS. The evidence for the optimal topical therapy or optimal local wound care is limited. As such, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to address all aspects of HS, including topical therapy, systemic therapy, and proper wound care. The focus of this paper is to review the evidence for the topical management and local wound care strategies in patients with HS. PMID:26470618

  5. Preformulation, Formulation, and In Vivo Efficacy of Topically Applied Apomine

    PubMed Central

    Kuehl, Philip J.; Stratton, Steven P.; Powell, Marianne B.; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    Apomine is a novel compound that inhibits the mevalonate/isoprenoid pathway of cholesterol synthesis and may prove effective as a skin cancer chemoprevention therapy. This research was focused on the development of a new delivery approach for the topical treatment of melanoma using topically delivered Apomine. This included evaluating the effect of several factors on the stability of Apomine in solution, utilizing these to develop a topical formulation, and conducting efficacy studies with the developed topical formulation in the TPras mouse model. Preformulation included the influence of pH, buffer species, ionic strength, and organic solvents on the stability of Apomine at four different temperatures. Apomine was determined to undergo apparent first-order degradation kinetics for all conditions evaluated. Apomine undergoes base catalyzed degradation with less than 15% degradation seen in >200 days under acidic conditions. Long-term stability studies were performed on two different topical cream formulations and indicate that both formulations are chemically stable for over 1 year at both 4 and 23°C. The efficacy of topically applied Apomine, from ethanol and developed 1% cream, was evaluated in vivo against the incidence of melanoma Regardless of delivery vehicle Apomine treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence. Ethyl alcohol application of Apomine resulted in a greater tumor incidence reduction when compared to the development cream formulation; however, this difference was not significant. PMID:19699284

  6. Medical treatment of rosacea with emphasis on topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2004-01-01

    Due to the development and release of newer topical formulations, the diagnosis and treatment of rosacea has received renewed attention over the past 3-5 years both in the literature and at medical symposia. Rosacea is a very common facial dermatosis. In the US, rosacea is estimated to affect > 14 million people, predominantly adults with approximately 60% of cases diagnosed before the age of 50. A frustrating aspect of the disease is its inherent chronicity punctuated with periods of exacerbation and relative remission. A variety of subtypes have been identified which correlate with clinical presentation. Although the pathogenesis of rosacea is poorly understood, multiple topical agents are available. The efficacy of topical therapy for rosacea relates primarily to reduction in inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules), decreased intensity of erythema, a reduction in the number and intensity of flares and amelioration of symptoms, which may include stinging, pruritus and burning. The list of main topical agents utilised for the treatment of rosacea include metronidazole, sulfacetamide-sulfur, azelaic acid and topical antibiotics (clindamycin, erythromycin). Depending on the severity at initial presentation, topical therapy may be combined with systemic antibiotic therapy (e.g., oral tetracycline derivative). Newer therapeutic choices primarily involve improved vehicle formulations, which demonstrate favourable skin tolerability and cosmetic elegance. PMID:14680431

  7. Local cooling despite global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari

    How much warmer is the ocean surface than the atmosphere directly above it? Part 1 of the present study offers a means to quantify this temperature difference using a nonlinear one-dimensional global energy balance coupled ocean--atmosphere model ("Aqua Planet"). The significance of our model, which is of intermediate complexity, is its ability to obtain an analytical solution for the global average temperatures. Preliminary results show that, for the present climate, global mean ocean temperature is 291.1 K whereas surface atmospheric temperature is 287.4 K. Thus, the surface ocean is 3.7 K warmer than the atmosphere above it. Temporal perturbation of the global mean solution obtained for "Aqua Planet" showed a stable system. Oscillation amplitude of the atmospheric temperature anomaly is greater in magnitude to those found in the ocean. There is a phase shift (a lag in the ocean), which is caused by oceanic thermal inertia. Climate feedbacks due to selected climate parameters such as incoming radiation, cloud cover, and CO2 are discussed. Warming obtained with our model compares with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) estimations. Application of our model to local regions illuminates the importance of evaporative cooling in determining derived air-sea temperature offsets, where an increase in the latter increases the systems overall sensitivity to evaporative cooling. In part 2, we wish to answer the fairly complicated question of whether global warming and an increased freshwater flux cause Northern Hemispheric warming or cooling. Starting from the assumption of the ocean as the primary source of variability in the Northern hemispheric ocean--atmosphere coupled system, we employed a simple non--linear one--dimensional coupled ocean--atmosphere model similar to the "Aqua Planet" model but with additional advective heat transports. The simplicity of this model allows us to analytically predict the evolution of many dynamical variables of interest such as, the strength of the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), temperatures of the ocean and atmosphere, mass transports, salinity, and ocean--atmosphere heat fluxes. Model results show that a reduced AMOC transport due to an increased freshwater flux causes cooling in both the atmosphere and ocean in the North Atlantic (NA) deep--water formation region. Cooling in both the ocean and atmosphere can cause a reduction of the ocean--atmosphere temperature difference, which in turn reduces heat fluxes in both the ocean and atmosphere. For present day climate parameters, the calculated critical freshwater flux needed to arrest AMOC is 0.14 Sv. Assuming a constant atmospheric zonal flow, there is both minimal reduction in the AMOC strength, as well as minimal warming of the ocean and atmosphere. This model provides a conceptual framework for a dynamically sound response of the ocean and atmosphere to AMOC variability as a function of increased freshwater flux. The results are qualitatively consistent with numerous realistic coupled numerical models of varying complexity.

  8. Sudden stratospheric warmings as catastrophes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and numerical approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are numerically demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.

  9. DPIS for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  10. Meteorology: hurricanes and global warming.

    PubMed

    Landsea, Christopher W

    2005-12-22

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential for slightly increasing the intensity of tropical cyclones through warming of sea surface temperatures. Emanuel has shown a striking and surprising association between sea surface temperatures and destructiveness by tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and western North Pacific basins. However, I question his analysis on the following grounds: it does not properly represent the observations described; the use of his Atlantic bias-removal scheme may not be warranted; and further investigation of a substantially longer time series for tropical cyclones affecting the continental United States does not show a tendency for increasing destructiveness. These factors indicate that instead of "unprecedented" tropical cyclone activity having occurred in recent years, hurricane intensity was equal or even greater during the last active period in the mid-twentieth century. PMID:16371953

  11. Effects of Preexamination Disclosure of Essay Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Fowles, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects on test performance and test validity of releasing essay topics before an examination, 300 prospective graduate students wrote essays on a released and an unreleased topic. Analyses did not reveal any statistically significant effect of topic release. (SLD)

  12. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  13. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  14. When could global warming reach 4°C?

    PubMed

    Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G

    2011-01-13

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be reached by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'. PMID:21115513

  15. SPECIAL TOPIC: ITER L mode confinement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Greenwald, M.; Stroth, U.; Kardaun, O.; Kus, A.; Schissel, D.; DeBoo, J.; Bracco, G.; Thomsen, K.; Cordey, J. G.; Miura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Tamai, H.; Takizuda, T.; Hirayama, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Naito, O.; Chudnovskij, A.; Ongena, J.; Hoang, G.

    1997-09-01

    This special topic describes the contents of an L mode database that has been compiled with data from Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX, DIII, DIII-D, FTU, JET, JFT-2M, JT-60, PBX-M, PDX, T-10, TEXTOR, TFTR and Tore Supra. The database consists of a total of 2938 entries, 1881 of which are in the L phase while 922 are ohmically heated only (ohmic). Each entry contains up to 95 descriptive parameters, including global and kinetic information, machine conditioning and configuration. The special topic presents a description of the database and the variables contained therein, and it also presents global and thermal scalings along with predictions for ITER. The L mode thermal confinement time scaling, determined from a subset of 1312 entries for which the τE,th are provided, is τE,th = 0.023Ip0.96BT0.03R1.83(R/a)0.06 κ0.64ne0.40Meff0.20P-0.73 in units of seconds, megamps, teslas, metres, -, -, 10-9 m-1

  16. Impacts of day versus night warming on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang

    2010-06-15

    One feature of climate warming is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal warming scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous warming on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous warming (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night warming caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day warming did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) warming. The differential effects of day and night warming on soil temperature varied with environmental factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous warming on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night warming were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous warming in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day warming significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night warming had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal warming patterns and variability of environmental factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night warming on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate warming. PMID:20409574

  17. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this pattern with a strong increase in warm spells for the next 50 years.

  20. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz Centre Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG). Further participating centres are: the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Research Centre Jülich (FZJ), the Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Sciences (GEOMAR), the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). The webpage will be accessible at www.eskp.de.

  1. Dusting the climate for fingerprints. Has greenhouse warming arrived? Will we ever know?

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersy, R.

    1995-06-10

    The topic of global warming is front page news again. Although the annual average global temperature has risen by about 0.5 C since the late 19th century, investigators have had difficulty determining whether natural forces or human actions are to blame. This article summarizes the arguments pro and con and the search for a diffinative `human fingerprint` on global warming. For example, Max-Lanck researchers find it highly imporbable (1 in 20 chance) that natural forcers have caused the temperature rise. However other scientists acknowledge that uncertainties continue to plague studies aimed at detecting the human influence in climatic change. Computer climate models are the major approach, but distiguishing between recent abnormal warming due to greenhouse gases or to other causes is elusive.

  2. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  3. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1995-01-01

    A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

  4. Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.

    1990-01-01

    The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global warming, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global warming.

  5. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  6. Nonlinear electron oscillations in a warm plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a warm plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized warm plasma.

  7. Warming of Water in a Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the process of water warming from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during warming. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…

  8. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these

  9. Cryosphere: Warming ocean erodes ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusahara, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic ice sheets are a key player in sea-level rise in a warming climate. Now an ice-sheet modelling study clearly demonstrates that an Antarctic ice sheet/shelf system in the Atlantic Ocean will be regulated by the warming of the surrounding Southern Ocean, not by marine-ice-sheet instability.

  10. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

  11. Topics in theoretical surface science

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Selected topics of hypoglycemia care

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review 4 topics in hypoglycemia (HoG) care: diagnosis, circumstances predisposing to HoG, risk of adverse effects, and prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the words hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Other relevant sources were hand searched. Evidence was mostly level III and IV from consensus, from observation, and from the authors clinical experience. MAIN MESSAGES Hypoglycemia can be diagnosed using clinical criteria or using a glucometer; it cannot be diagnosed after death. Capillary blood glucose testing for HoG is required only for patients taking insulin and insulin secretagogues. With intensified treatment of diabetes, a greater incidence of HoG is inevitable. Chronic morbidity and mortality resulting from HoG are believed to be rare. There are no reliable data on HoG-related mortality for idiopathic or accidental sudden death. Interventions by friends, family, colleagues, and teachers can prevent HoG. CONCLUSION Clinical diagnosis of HoG deserves greater emphasis; when patients are unaware of having HoG, physicians must rely on blood glucose testing. Patients not taking insulin or insulin secretagogues need neither fear nor test for HoG. The risk of HoG should not preclude efforts to achieve best possible control of blood sugar. Patients with unstable cardiac arrhythmias, drivers of motor vehicles, and those in high-risk industrial occupations require special vigilance for HoG. PMID:16639972

  13. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  14. [Current topics in pediatric nutrition].

    PubMed

    Morali, A; Vidailhet, M

    2002-07-01

    As main current topics in pediatric nutrition we have considered the results of the continuing research on the long term consequences of fetal malnutrition and intra-uterine growth retardation with the concept of metabolic imprinting leading to chronic disease in adulthood, the progresses of knowledge in the fields of iron metabolism and regulatory mechanisms of satiety, hunger and energetic balance, a better determination of recommended docosahexanoic and arachidonic acids intake in the first months of life for premature and term infants, and the studies on probiotics and prebiotics utilization for preventive and curative purposes. The concerns about vitamin D insufficiency in France have markedly decreased with the generalization ten years ago of cholecalciferol supplementation of infant formula, and more recently the authorization of dairy products supplementation. On the contrary the problem of iron deficiency in young children remains, as well as two major nutritional concerns: the very low percentage of breast-fed infants and the dramatic increase of childhood obesity which affects presently 14% of 10 year old children versus 5% in 1980. PMID:12162162

  15. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  16. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  17. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  18. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of mass ejected from colliding protoplanets is typically around 0.4 Earth masses. This mass is ejected in the form of fragments that then spread into the terrestrial planet region around the star. The fragments undergo cascading collisions as they orbit, forming an infrared-emitting debris disk at ~1 AU from the star.The authors then calculate the infrared flux profile expected from these simulated disks. They show that the warm disks can exist and radiate for up to ~100 Myr before the fragments are smashed into micrometer-sized pieces small enough to be blown out of the solar system by radiation pressure.The Spitzer Space Telescope has, thus far, observed tens of warm-debris-disk signatures roughly consistent with the authors predictions, primarily located at roughly 1 AU around stars with ages of 10100 Myr. This region is near the habitable zone of these stars, which makes it especially interesting that these systems may currently be undergoing a giant impact stage perhaps on the way to forming terrestrial planets.CitationH. Genda et al 2015 ApJ 810 136. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136

  19. [Topical preparations for burns and their evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ducková, K; Kucera, J

    1998-05-01

    The study focused on some problems connected with the formulation of the topical preparation of the hydrocream type, intended for the treatment of dermal burns. Seven cream bases containing Emulgator E 2155, Polysorbate 80 and silicone oils were evaluated. The employed drugs included carbizocaine, lidocaine, chlorohexidine, and the immunomodulating substance glucan. A measurement of the surface tension of chlorohexidine and carbizocaine did not reveal interaction between these two drugs. Liberation tests confirmed a higher release of lidocaine in comparison with carbizocaine and chlorohexidine. The silicone oil present did not influence the release of carbizocaine, but it promoted the release of lidocaine and chlorohexidine. The determination of rheological parameters revealed that an addition of drugs influenced the flow properties of creams. The suitability of cream ointments was evaluated on the basis of their drying. PMID:9650369

  20. Biomedical applications reviewed: Hot topic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Wells, K.

    2013-04-01

    Making reference to the British Journal of Radiology and competitor journal titles, we look at the general area of biomedical physics, reviewing some of the associated topics in ionising radiation research attracting interest over the past 2 years. We also reflect on early developments that have paved the way for these endeavours. The talk is illustrated by referring to a number of biomedical physics areas in which this group has been directly involved, including novel imaging techniques that address compositional and structural makeup as well as use of elastically scattered X-ray phase contrast, radiation damage linking to possible pericardial effects in radiotherapy, simulation of microvascularity and oxygenation with a focus of radiation resistant hypoxic tumours, issues of high spatial resolution dosimetry and tissue interface radiotherapy with doses enhanced through use of high atomic number photoelectron conversion media.

  1. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  2. Chemically-induced TLE models: Topical application.

    PubMed

    Jefferys, John; Steinhäuser, Christian; Bedner, Peter

    2016-02-15

    Epilepsy is a condition of the brain that occurs in many different forms. For obvious reasons, understanding the complex mechanisms underlying the process of epileptogenesis cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies or analyses of surgically resected human epileptic specimens. Accordingly, a variety of animal models have been developed that recapitulate different aspects of the various forms of epilepsies. In our review we mainly focus on those chemically induced models that recapitulate characteristics typically seen in human temporal lobe epilepsies. By comparing models based on topical application of different agents, advantages and disadvantages are discussed with respect to parameters including reliability and mortality, as well as the similarity with the human condition of functional and morphological alterations occurring in different brain regions in the course of epileptogenesis and in the chronic state. PMID:25960204

  3. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  4. Warming experiments under-predict plant phenological responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkovich, E. M.; Cook, B. I.; Allen, J.; Crimmins, T. M.; Travers, S.; Pau, S.; Cleland, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental warming studies in natural communities have become an increasingly common method to estimate plant responses to global climate change. Many of these efforts focus on plant species' phenology-a sensitive indicator of species responses to climate-and show advances in spring timing with increasing temperatures. To be useful, however, results from warming experiments should match responses to climate change observed in unmanipulated plant communities, including the responses due to anthropogenic warming that has already occurred. Here we present a comprehensive synthesis of phenological responses to climate change for both experiments and long-term monitoring of natural plant communities. By comparing 14 long-term monitoring datasets with 36 experimental warming studies spanning four continents and 1560 species, we estimate that warming experiments underpredict, by 8.2 and 4.6X (for flowering and leafing, respectively), plant responses to warming when compared to long-term observations. The warming experiments also failed to reproduce the greater temperature sensitivity observed in populations of wild species that flower early in the spring. Further, when considering species for which we had data from both study-types, experiments failed to predict both the magnitude and direction of phenological responses. Among these species, warming experiments predicted a delay of flowering, not the well-documented advance that has tracked recent warming in the observational records. This discrepancy appears unrelated to study length and degree of warming, Instead a number of known artifacts associated with warming experiments could lead to underestimated plant sensitivities. We recommend ways in which the design, documentation and analysis of future experimental and observational studies can be improved to estimate and to predict more accurately plant phenological responses to climate change.

  5. Black curves and creep behaviour of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan; Rodríguez-Alloza, Ana María; Giuliani, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new research topic in the field of road pavement materials. This technology allows lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing compaction and placement temperatures of the asphalt mixtures. However, this technology is still under study, and the influence of the WMA additives has yet to be investigated thoroughly and clearly identified, especially in the case of crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders.

  6. Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. (Editor); Kasting, J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, 26-28 Jul. 1993, in Breckenridge, CO. The following topics are covered: the Martian water cycle; Martian paleoclimatology; CO2/CH4 atmosphere on early Mars; Noachian hydrology; early Martian environment; Martian weathering; nitrogen isotope ratios; CO2 evolution on Mars; and climate change.

  7. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  8. Ocean change around Greenland under a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, Camille; Johnson, Helen L.; Plancherel, Yves; Flanders, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The impact of climate warming on the ocean near Greenland is investigated with a high resolution coupled global climate model. The ocean around Greenland exhibits a strong warming in response to a four times increase of present-day atmospheric levels. The signal is intensified in the intermediate layer and regionally strongest in the Greenland Sea. The projected changes in temperature are driven by changes affecting the large-scale ocean circulation rather than changes of the local atmospheric heat forcing. The ocean conditions examined here provide a background for the water masses in contact with the outlet glaciers around the Greenland coast. The future warming of the warm subtropical-origin layer could thus lead to enhanced ice sheet melting, although the signal could be mitigated by other effects, including an enhanced stratification of the surface fresh layer. Applying a simple parameterization to estimate the change in melt rate along the Greenland coast, we find that ice sheet melting increases everywhere in response to the change in water mass properties, although the melt rate changes show large variations in space. The largest melting acceleration is found on the east coast between Fram Strait and Denmark Strait, where both the parameterization applied to present-day conditions and observations suggest moderate melting up to now. These model results caution that the Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance should be monitored everywhere and not only where melting occurs at the moment.

  9. Hydrological response to climate warming: The Upper Feather River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guobiao; Kadir, Tariq; Chung, Francis

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological response and sensitivity to climate warming of a snow-dominated watershed, the Upper Feather River Basin (UFRB) in Northern California, were evaluated and quantified using observed changes, detrending, and specified temperature-based sensitivity simulations. The non-stationarity in historical data was detected with trend analysis and the warming trends in historical forcing data were removed by detrending. The physically-based and spatially-distributed Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model was used to force uniform climate warming (+1 °C to +4 °C) to investigate hydrologic sensitivity to temperature increase. Six Global Climate Models (GCMs) with two IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), A2 and B1, were selected to represent a range of climate change projections. These projected changes were then applied to the detrended historical forcing data to simulate climate change effects in a detrended, quasi-stationary setting. The results indicate that: (1) historical annual precipitation and streamflow have no trends, but air temperature and seasonal streamflow have statistically significant trends. (2) By detrending temperature, the strong trends in seasonal streamflow are virtually eliminated. (3) Hydrologic Sensitivity to climate warming includes small changes in annual streamflow and actual evapotranspiration, significant changes in streamflow timing and increased frequency and magnitude in extreme flows. (4) All GCM projections lead to negative impact on water supply.

  10. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  11. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin metals and spin semimetals.

  12. Thermal pollution causes global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordell, Bo

    2003-09-01

    Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

  13. Global warming and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

  14. Some economics of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Schelling, T.C. )

    1992-03-01

    The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

  15. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) −3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) −10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD −0.4, 95% CI −1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD −1, 95%CI −6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD −2.6, 95% CI −9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD −41.5, 95% CI −48 to −34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfrey group compared with 14% (15/110) in the placebo group (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.10). Although evidence from a single trial indicated that adhesive patches containing Chinese herbal mixtures FNZG and SJG may improve pain and function, the clinical applicability of these findings are uncertain because participants were only treated and followed up for seven days. We are also uncertain if other topical herbal products (Marhame-Mafasel compress, stinging nettle leaf) improve osteoarthritis symptoms due to the very low quality evidence from single trials. No serious side effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Although the mechanism of action of the topical medicinal plant products provides a rationale basis for their use in the treatment of osteoarthritis, the quality and quantity of current research studies of effectiveness are insufficient. Arnica gel probably improves symptoms as effectively as a gel containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, but with no better (and possibly worse) adverse event profile. Comfrey extract gel probably improves pain, and Capsicum extract gel probably will not improve pain or function at the doses examined in this review. Further high quality, fully powered studies are required to confirm the trends of effectiveness identifed in studies so far. PMID:23728701

  16. Long-term warming alters richness and composition of taxonomic and functional groups of arctic fungi.

    PubMed

    Geml, József; Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Fungi, including symbionts, pathogens and decomposers, play crucial roles in community dynamics and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, the response of most arctic fungi to climate warming is unknown, so are their potential roles in driving the observed and predicted changes in tundra communities. We carried out deep DNA sequencing of soil samples to study the long-term effects of experimental warming on fungal communities in dry heath and moist tussock tundra in Arctic Alaska. The data presented here indicate that fungal community composition responds strongly to warming in the moist tundra, but not in the dry tundra. While total fungal richness was not significantly affected by warming, there were clear correlations among operational taxonomic unit richness of various ecological and taxonomic groups and long-term warming. Richness of ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal and lichenized fungi generally decreased with warming, while richness of saprotrophic, plant and animal pathogenic, and root endophytic fungi tended to increase in the warmed plots. More importantly, various taxa within these functional guilds followed opposing trends that highlight the importance of species-specific responses to warming. We recommend that species-level ecological differences be taken into account in climate change and nutrient cycling studies that involve arctic fungi. PMID:26253509

  17. Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qinghua; Wallace, John M; Battisti, David S; Steig, Eric J; Gallant, Ailie J E; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Geng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability. PMID:24805345

  18. Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of warming and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David

    2016-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of environmental change, including climate warming and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of warming on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and warming, and, in concert, warming (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground warming over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground warming effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of warming-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of warming-induced environmental conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with warming in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity warming had no detectable effect. This may be because warming increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative warming × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of warming on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that warming and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both interactive and divergent impacts on various aspects of ecosystem functioning. PMID:26426698

  19. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  20. Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prier, Kyle W.; Smith, Matthew S.; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Hanson, Carl L.

    Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller subset that was seeded by tobacco-related queries. Topic modeling across the large dataset uncovers several public health-related topics, although tobacco is not detected by this method. However, topic modeling across the tobacco subset provides valuable insight about tobacco use in the United States. The methods used in this paper provide a possible toolset for public health researchers and practitioners to better understand public health problems through large datasets of conversational data.

  1. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  2. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  3. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  4. Mechanisms of delayed Southern Ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Marshall, J.; Donohoe, A.; Scott, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Delayed surface warming of the Southern Ocean (SO) is a robust feature of the climate response to greenhouse gas forcing. It is seen in in-situ and satellite-based observations, and is simulated within coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs). The observed cooling and associated sea ice expansion around Antarctica in recent decades is in stark contrast to the rapid warming and sea ice loss seen in the Arctic, yet the processes responsible for these divergent behaviors are not well understood. The SO warming delay has been widely attributed to deep mixed layers and efficient deep ocean heat uptake processes, while the observed cooling is often attributed to changes in upper ocean stratification or surface winds. We argue here that while these mechanisms do play a role, delayed SO warming is primarily a consequence of the mean SO circulation: Ekman upwelling of unmodified water from depth acts to anchor sea surface temperatures over multi-centennial timescales; equatorward transport of surface waters acts to advect the anomalous temperature signal out of the SO, where it is subducted on the equatorward flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, driving an anomalous northward ocean heat transport that largely balances the increased air-sea heat flux into the SO under global warming. We explore the relative roles of the mechanisms of delayed SO warming within a variety of GCMs and observations. The observed spatial structure of upper ocean and surface warming is found to be well represented by an ocean-only GCM forced radiatively at the surface, but with no changes in surface winds or salinity. Within this model framework, the active versus passive nature of ocean heat uptake, and its influence on SO circulation, is explored. We further consider the consequences of delayed SO warming for (i) changes in atmospheric meridional energy transport with global warming, and (ii) the global top-of-atmosphere energy budget, via the delayed activation of destabilizing SO radiative feedbacks.

  5. Topical issues in venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Páramo Fernández, José Antonio

    2010-12-14

    Despite clear guidelines and the availability of effective treatments, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains relatively common, particularly in the hospital setting. This paper reviews topical issues in VTE, in terms of treatments, data and guidelines. Existing anticoagulants have several limitations. Bleeding risk is a concern with all anticoagulants. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay of oral anticoagulant therapy, but they are limited by the need for frequent monitoring. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is limited by an inconvenient route of administration (continuous intravenous infusion) and a higher risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding compared with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). LMWH have a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile and greater bioavailability than UFH, which permits weight-adjusted LMWH dosing without the need for monitoring in most patients. LMWH also have a more convenient dosing strategy than UFH (once-daily subcutaneous injection). Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of factor Xa and, like LMWH, does not require monitoring. The efficacy of fondaparinux in long-term VTE treatment remains to be established. The optimal time to initiate thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery remains controversial. Initiating thromboprophylaxis just before or soon after surgery (the 'just-in-time' strategy) achieves better thromboprophylaxis but could increase the risk of bleeding complications. Balancing the need for extended thromboprophylaxis after major surgery with the need to minimize bleeding remains an important consideration. Despite clear guidelines, thromboprophylaxis is widely underused, particularly in medical patients, in whom rates as low as 28% have been reported. Electronic alert systems may be of value for increasing the use of adequate thromboprophylaxis. The use of different definitions of VTE and bleeding in clinical trials, together with missing venography data, conflicting guidelines in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty, and the limited amount of data in children, also make VTE prevention and management more difficult. Administering thromboprophylaxis to a wider group of patients, employing the 'just-in-time' protocols, ensuring adequate duration of thromboprophylaxis, combining different methods of thromboprophylaxis and developing new anticoagulants should help to improve thromboprophylaxis. PMID:21162605

  6. Warm and optically thick dissipative coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, A.; Malzac, J.; Belmont, R.; Czerny, B.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2015-08-01

    Context. In past years, several observations of AGN and X-ray binaries suggested the existence of a warm (T ~ 0.5 - 1 keV) and optically thick (τcor ~ 10 - 20) corona covering the inner parts of the accretion disk. These properties are directly derived from spectral fitting in UV to soft-X-rays using Comptonization models. However, whether such a medium can be both in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium with an accretion disk is still uncertain. Aims: We investigate the properties of such warm, optically thick coronae and put constraints on their existence. Methods: We solve the radiative transfer equation for grey atmosphere analytically in a pure scattering medium, including local dissipation as an additional heating term in the warm corona. The temperature profile of the warm corona is calculated assuming that it is cooled by Compton scattering, with the underlying dissipative disk providing photons to the corona. Results: Our analytic calculations show that a dissipative thick corona (τcor in the range 10-12) on top of a standard accretion disk can reach temperatures of the order of 0.5-1 keV in its upper layers provided that the disk is passive. However, in the absence of strong magnetic fields, the requirement of a Compton cooled corona in hydrostatic equilibrium in the vertical direction sets an upper limit on the Thomson optical depth τcor ≲ 5. We show that this value cannot be exceeded independently of the accretion disk parameters. However, magnetic pressure can extend this result to larger optical depths. Namely, a dissipative corona might have an optical depth up to ~20 when the magnetic pressure is 100 times higher than the gas pressure. Conclusions: The observation of warm coronae with Thomson depth larger than ≃5 puts tight constraints on the physics of the accretion disk/corona systems and requires either strong magnetic fields or vertical outflows to stabilize the system.

  7. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanner, M. G.; Zender, C. S.; Hess, P. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Painter, T. H.; Ramanathan, V.; Rasch, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming), and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening). We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1) Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999), including all mixtures of black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM), increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2) Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing). Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3) Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4) Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64C decade-1) observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m-2) than North America (1.2 W m-2). Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian warming may therefore relate more to darkening-induced reduction in mean snow cover.

  8. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. PMID:27040295

  9. Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

  10. Warm inflation in the presence of magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Sánchez, Ángel; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of primordial magnetic fields on the inflationary potential in the context of a warm inflation scenario. The model, based on global supersymmetry with a new-inflation-type potential and a coupling between the inflaton and a heavy intermediate superfield, is already known to preserve the flatness required for slow-roll conditions even after including thermal contributions. Here we show that the magnetic field makes the potential even flatter, retarding the transition and rendering it smoother.

  11. Significant Warming of the Antarctic Winter Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Colwell, S.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.

    2006-03-01

    We report an undocumented major warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric warming on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5° to 0.7° Celcius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric warming at this stage.

  12. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon

    1998-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature warmed by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.

  13. Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bissett, Larry A.

    2001-11-06

    Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or warm gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of large-scale sorbent failure.

  14. Dynamic thermal imaging analysis in the effectiveness evaluation of warming and cooling formulations.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Warming cosmetics and medicines are used to accelerate recovery from injuries whereas cooling preparations are used in the pains of muscles, joints, spine, bruises or edema. The paper verifies subjective heating or warming sensations with respect to the measured temperature changes. The influence of three formulations, labelled C1, C2, W1, on skin reaction was tested. The first two formulations (C1, C2) had a cooling effect while the formulation W1 had warming properties. Two hundred thermal images with a resolution of N×M=120×120 pixel were acquired with the Flir i7 infrared camera. The paper also shows how to analyse low resolution thermal images and their practical usefulness. For this purpose, a dedicated algorithm for image analysis and processing, which uses morphological operations, segmentation and area analysis, was applied. Application of both C1 and C2 resulted in subjective perception of feeling cold. Approximately 7min following application of the formulation C1, the skin temperature returned to baseline levels. The minimum skin temperature after using the formulation C1 was 27.5 °C and it was registered at the time of application. Application of W1, which by definition is a warming formulation, caused a sensation of coolness in the first minutes following the application. The perception of cool and warm sensations after the application of topical formulations is in no way correlated with the skin temperature assessed using a thermal imaging method. PMID:25240103

  15. Plantar fibromatosis--topical review.

    PubMed

    Veith, Nils T; Tschernig, Thomas; Histing, Tina; Madry, Henning

    2013-12-01

    Morbus Ledderhose is a rare hyperproliferative disease of the plantar fascia, leading to the formation of nodules. Its origin is unknown. No causal therapy is available, and treatment remains symptomatic. Various therapeutic strategies to alleviate symptoms are available and are adapted to the severity of the disease. In early stages, conservative therapy including nonpharmacological, physical, and pharmacological treatments is applied. If the disease progresses, irradiation of the plantar surface, injections of steroids, shock wave therapy, and partial or complete fasciectomy as an ultimate therapy may be indicated. Novel experimental treatment options including application of fibrinolytic agents are currently being tested, but no controlled, randomized long-term studies are available. This review aims to provide a systematic overview of current established procedures and outlines novel experimental strategies for the treatment of morbus Ledderhose, including future avenues to treat this rare disease. PMID:24043350

  16. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  17. Single photon emission computed tomography and other selected computer topics

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.R.; Gilday, D.L.; Croft, B.Y.

    1980-01-01

    This volume includes an overview of single photon emission computed tomography and numerous papers that describe and evaluate specific systems and techniques. Papers cover such topics as Auger cameras; seven-pinhole and slant-hole collimators; brain; cardiac; and gated blood-pool studies; and the BICLET and SPECT systems.

  18. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition. (Author/JN)

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW Nanoscale memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO2.

  20. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valerie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC. PMID:24504145

  1. Student Investment in Political Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students…

  2. Student Investment in Political Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students

  3. Vibration exercise as a warm-up modality for deadlift power output.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Coley, Karl W; Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has gained popularity as a warm-up modality to enhance performance in golf, baseball, and sprint cycling, but little is known about the efficacy of using VbX as a warm-up before resistance exercise, such as deadlifting. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a deadlift (DL)-specific warm-up, VbX warm-up, and Control on DL power output (PO). The DL warm-up (DL-WU) included 10, 8, and 5 repetitions performed at 30, 40, and 50% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, where the number of repetitions was matched by body-weight squats performed with vibration and without vibration (Control). The warm-up conditions were randomized and performed at least 2 days apart. Peak power (PP), mean power, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyography (EMG) were measured during the concentric phase of 2 consecutive DLs (75% 1RM) at 30 seconds and 2:30 minutes after the warm-up conditions. There was no significant (p > 0.05) main effect or interaction effect between the DL-WU, VbX warm-up, and Control for PP, mean power, RFD, and EMG. Vibration exercise warm-up did not exhibit an ergogenic effect to potentiate muscle activity more than the specific DL-WU and Control. Therefore, DL PO is affected to a similar extent, irrespective of the type of stimuli, when the warm-up is not focused on raising muscle temperature. PMID:25353078

  4. Carbon cycle: Global warming then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A rapid warming event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.

  5. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  6. Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittensor, Derek P.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the temperature ranges occupied by marine species finds that the vulnerability of ecological communities to global warming may depend more on organismal physiology than on the magnitude of change. See Article p.88

  7. Spitzer: Hot Science in the Warm Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Gordon K.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-05-01

    Spitzer enters a new phase of its mission in spring 2009: the Spitzer "warm" mission. The combination of Spitzer's unprecedented sensitivity, Earth-trailing orbit and efficiency in mapping large regions provides new opportunities for scientific research. With over 6,500 hours of observing time available yearly, investigations requiring large amount of observing time are for the first time enabled by warm Spitzer. This brief introductory talk will introduce the ten large "Exploration Science" programs for the warm Spitzer mission, and also describe opportunities for the general observer community. An update on warm Spitzer status will also be provided. Information on the Exploration Science programs is available at: http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/geninfo/es/

  8. Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity warming (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-warming term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (warm-season daytime) local warming, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in warm climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With warming of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of warming gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.

  9. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  10. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,

  11. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  12. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  13. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  14. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins de; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-02-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  15. Topic Continuity in Japanese-English Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    1997-01-01

    Examined how a new topic was introduced, maintained, and changed in the Japanese-English interlanguage data of a 45- minute interview between a native and a non-native speaker of English. Findings revealed that although the topic marking system of the interlanguage shared some features with the first and second languages, it maintained features…

  16. Nuffield Advanced Chemistry Courses Topic 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents an alternative series of investigations replacing the propanone-trichloromethane system (Topic 10) in the Nuffield A-Level course. A trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate (acetate) system presented in four experiments give good results and removed the dangers arising from the other system. Topic 10 need not be re-written, just the replacement…

  17. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  18. Counselor's Empathy Level and Client Topic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grater, Harry; Claxton, Dorothy

    1976-01-01

    Empathy ratings, made for 27 counselor statements said prior to topic change and for 27 randomly selected counselor statements, were compared with the average empathy rating for the counseling interview. Empathy ratings prior to topic changes were significantly lower than the average interview empathy ratings. Results are discussed. (Author)

  19. Warm formability of aluminum-magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Taleff, E.M.; Henshall, G.A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-27

    Manufacturers have become increasingly interested in near-net-shape forming of aluminum alloys as a means to reduce production costs and the weight of aircraft and automotive structures. To achieve the ductilities required for this process, we have examined extended ductility of Al-Mg alloys in the warm forming, or Class I creep, regime. We have studied a high-purity, binary alloy of Al-2.8Mg and ternary alloys of Al-xMg-0.5Mn with Mg concentrations from 1.0 to 6.6 wt. %. Tensile tests, including strain rates-change tests, have been performed with these materials at temperatures of 300 and 400C over a range 10{sup {minus}4} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. A maximum tensile failure strain of 325% for the binary alloy and a maximum of 125% in the ternary alloys have been measured. The experimental results have been used to evaluate the effects of solute concentration, microstructure, temperature, and strain rate on flow stress ({sigma}), elongation to failure (e{sub f}), and strain-rate sensitivity (m) of these alloys.

  20. [The exploring of academic idea of Guang wen yi lun (Augmented warm epidemics)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Rong

    2003-01-01

    Dai's Guang wen yi lun (Augmented Warm Epidemics) is another treatise of epidemic disease after Wu's Wen yi lun (On Warm Epidemcs). This treatise embodies Dai's academic idea of discerning and curing cold-warm disease, including the following aspects, viz. the cold plague, the same way but with different results, creation of five discerning ways, detailed analysis at each sentence, checkup differentiation of syndromes, taking the exterior and interior as outline, application of the five ways and using regular way to treat variation. PMID:12921591

  1. Arts Education: An ASCD Topic Pack. Revised for 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This topic pack, revised for 2000-2001, is designed to provide timely information on arts education. The topic pack includes the following: full-text articles from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) publications which have been carefully chosen and may include articles from "Educational Leadership" magazine,…

  2. Exploiting topic modeling to boost metagenomic reads binning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background With the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, researchers can sequence the whole metagenome of a microbial community sampled directly from the environment. The assignment of these metagenomic reads into different species or taxonomical classes is a vital step for metagenomic analysis, which is referred to as binning of metagenomic data. Results In this paper, we propose a new method TM-MCluster for binning metagenomic reads. First, we represent each metagenomic read as a set of "k-mers" with their frequencies occurring in the read. Then, we employ a probabilistic topic model -- the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to the reads, which generates a number of hidden "topics" such that each read can be represented by a distribution vector of the generated topics. Finally, as in the MCluster method, we apply SKWIC -- a variant of the classical K-means algorithm with automatic feature weighting mechanism to cluster these reads represented by topic distributions. Conclusions Experiments show that the new method TM-MCluster outperforms major existing methods, including AbundanceBin, MetaCluster 3.0/5.0 and MCluster. This result indicates that the exploitation of topic modeling can effectively improve the binning performance of metagenomic reads. PMID:25859745

  3. Burst topic discovery and trend tracing based on Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shihang; Liu, Ying; Dang, Depeng

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet and the promotion of mobile Internet, microblogs have become a major source and route of transmission for public opinion, including burst topics that are caused by emergencies. To facilitate real time mining of a large range of burst topics, in this paper, we proposed a method to discover burst topics in real time and trace their trends based on the variation trends of word frequencies. First, for the variation trend of the words in microblogs, we adopt a non-homogeneous Poisson process model to fit the data. To represent the heat and trend of the words, we introduce heat degree factor and trend degree factor and realise the real time discovery and trend tracing of the burst topics based on these two factors. Second, to improve the computing performance, this paper was based on the Storm stream computing framework for real time computing. Finally, the experimental results indicate that by adjusting the observation window size and trend degree threshold, topics with different cycles and different burst strengths can be discovered.

  4. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

  5. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    PubMed

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions. PMID:21197326

  6. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions. PMID:21197326

  7. Warming shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  8. Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  9. Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  10. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Relative effectiveness of topical ketorolac and topical diclofenac on discomfort after radial keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R L; Laurence, E P

    1995-03-01

    Two prospective, randomized, double-masked studies were conducted evaluating the analgesic effect of topical eyedrops after radial keratotomy (RK). One study of 117 consecutive initial RK procedures compared topical ketorolac (Acular) with topical diclofenac (Voltaren), and another study of 23 consecutive initial RK procedures compared topical ketorolac with a control medication (HypoTears). Topical ketorolac was significantly more effective than the control but not significantly different from topical diclofenac. The onset of analgesic effect of these topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is longer than one hour. The analgesic effect of oral acetaminophen #3 significantly augments that of topical diclofenac drops for those experiencing any discomfort by six hours after surgery. PMID:7791055

  12. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, M.; Sparkes, B.M.; Campbell, G.; Lam, P.K.; Buchler, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    By harnessing aspects of quantum mechanics, communication and information processing could be radically transformed. Promising forms of quantum information technology include optical quantum cryptographic systems and computing using photons for quantum logic operations. As with current information processing systems, some form of memory will be required. Quantum repeaters, which are required for long distance quantum key distribution, require quantum optical memory as do deterministic logic gates for optical quantum computing. Here, we present results from a coherent optical memory based on warm rubidium vapour and show 87% efficient recall of light pulses, the highest efficiency measured to date for any coherent optical memory suitable for quantum information applications. We also show storage and recall of up to 20 pulses from our system. These results show that simple warm atomic vapour systems have clear potential as a platform for quantum memory. PMID:21285952

  13. Determining the likelihood of pauses and surges in global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurer, Andrew P.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Obrochta, Stephen P.

    2015-07-01

    The recent warming "hiatus" is subject to intense interest, with proposed causes including natural forcing and internal variability. Here we derive samples of all natural and internal variability from observations and a recent proxy reconstruction to investigate the likelihood that these two sources of variability could produce a hiatus or rapid warming in surface temperature. The likelihood is found to be consistent with that calculated previously for models and exhibits a similar spatial pattern, with an Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like structure, although with more signal in the Atlantic than in model patterns. The number and length of events increases if natural forcing is also considered, particularly in the models. From the reconstruction it can be seen that large eruptions, such as Mount Tambora in 1815, or clusters of eruptions, may result in a hiatus of over 20 years, a finding supported by model results.

  14. Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

  15. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  16. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  17. Special topics in plasma confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. B.; Newton, S. L.

    2015-10-01

    > These notes are based on lectures given by one of us (J.B.T.) at the University of Texas in Austin in 1991. Part I concerns some basic features of plasma confinement by magnetic fields as an introduction to an account of plasma relaxation in Part II. Part III discusses confinement by magnetic mirrors, especially minimum- systems. It also includes a general discussion of adiabatic invariants and of the principle of maximal ordering in perturbation theory. Part IV is devoted to the analysis of perturbations in toroidal plasmas and the stability of ballooning modes.

  18. Literature survey results: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Magnetic surface nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, A.; Skomski, R.; Honolka, J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism.

  20. Hot topics in engineering acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen C.

    2002-05-01

    From the ASA Handbook, the technical committee on Engineering Acoustics is ``concerned with the evolution and improvement of acoustical techniques and apparatus, and with the promotion of new applications of acoustics for useful purposes.'' The interest of acousticians in apparatus and techniques is at least as old as the society, as can be verified by a quick scan of the first volume of the journal. Active development continues in areas that include new materials for high power sonar devices, new structures for hearing aid transducers, the announcement of the first commercial micromachined silicon microphone, multimedia and 3-D audio applications, and more. This paper is an abbreviated report on a few of these developments.

  1. Topic maps for archiving space plant experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Enno; Karoliussen, Irene; Hauan, Tore Martin; Fossum, Knut R.

    The increasing amount of data collected during Space flight experiments, especially on the ISS, requires a new approach for data archiving. The "ULISSE" project, funded by the European Commission, combines the knowledge of the User Support Operation Centers (USOCs) of the ISS and their industrial partners to build up a database for the integration and dissemination of Space experiments. For plant experiments in Space, the N-USOC in Trondheim (Norway) is responsible to collect and implement the needs of scientists working in the field of plant biology for this bio-informatics tool. Each experiment can be found in a topic map providing interfaces to other experiments or other topics. Topic maps describe among others the ex-periment environment in orbit or on ground, experimental methods, hardware and software, biological processes, and experimental results. Each of these topics needs to be identified by an unambiguous definition, usually a link to a database like a thesaurus or an ontology. A survey was done to see in which of the common ontology databases suitable definitions of the topic names of the N-USOC Topic Map could be found. Thus, the draft N-USOC Topic Map could be linked almost completely to Web based definitions. This will allow embedding Space plant biology experiments into public data management systems. Credits: European Commission (FP7/2007-2013, grant agreement n218815).

  2. Corneal Penetration of Topical and Subconjunctival Bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Sadrai, Zahra; Saban, Daniel R.; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the ability of bevacizumab to penetrate the cornea after topical application or subconjunctival injection. Methods. Bevacizumab 1% was topically applied three times a day to the corneas of mice (BALB/c) with intact corneas (n = 14), and with corneal neovascularization (n = 14). Animals were euthanized at 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours, and 2, 4, and 7 days for immunohistochemical analyses. Donkey anti-human IgG labeled with Cy3 was used for bevacizumab immunoreactivity detection. Additionally, one-time topical bevacizumab 1% was tested in corneas with denuded epithelium (n = 16). In another group (n = 16), a single dose of 0.5 mg bevacizumab was injected subconjunctivally. Animals were euthanized at 1, 6, and 24 hours, and 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days for immunohistochemical studies. Results. Bevacizumab was barely detected beyond the very superficial layer of the corneal epithelium in mice with intact corneas even after 7 days of topical administration. Application of bevacizumab in mice with corneal neovascularization; however, showed variable penetration into the corneal stroma. Experimentation with single application of topical bevacizumab in corneas with denuded epithelium or subconjunctivally injected bevacizumab showed intense staining for bevacizumab. Conclusions. Topically applied bevacizumab has limited capacity to penetrate the corneas with intact epithelium. However, bevacizumab can penetrate the neovascularized cornea after topical application. This study demonstrates that subconjunctivally injected bevacizumab in eyes with an intact cornea penetrates well into the corneal stroma. PMID:22003112

  3. Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra vegetation: heterogeneity over space and time.

    PubMed

    Elmendorf, Sarah C; Henry, Gregory H R; Hollister, Robert D; Bjrk, Robert G; Bjorkman, Anne D; Callaghan, Terry V; Collier, Laura Siegwart; Cooper, Elisabeth J; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Day, Thomas A; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Gould, William A; Grtarsdttir, Jrngerur; Harte, John; Hermanutz, Luise; Hik, David S; Hofgaard, Annika; Jarrad, Frith; Jnsdttir, Ingibjrg Svala; Keuper, Frida; Klanderud, Kari; Klein, Julia A; Koh, Saewan; Kudo, Gaku; Lang, Simone I; Loewen, Val; May, Jeremy L; Mercado, Joel; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Oberbauer, Steven F; Pieper, Sara; Post, Eric; Rixen, Christian; Robinson, Clare H; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Shaver, Gaius R; Stenstrm, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Orjan; Troxler, Tiffany; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Webber, Patrick J; Welker, Jeffery M; Wookey, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of tundra vegetation to climate warming is critical to forecasting future biodiversity and vegetation feedbacks to climate. In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. Limitations of this approach include the apparent site-specificity of results and uncertainty about the power of short-term studies to anticipate longer term change. We address these issues with a synthesis of 61 experimental warming studies, of up to 20 years duration, in tundra sites worldwide. The response of plant groups to warming often differed with ambient summer temperature, soil moisture and experimental duration. Shrubs increased with warming only where ambient temperature was high, whereas graminoids increased primarily in the coldest study sites. Linear increases in effect size over time were frequently observed. There was little indication of saturating or accelerating effects, as would be predicted if negative or positive vegetation feedbacks were common. These results indicate that tundra vegetation exhibits strong regional variation in response to warming, and that in vulnerable regions, cumulative effects of long-term warming on tundra vegetation - and associated ecosystem consequences - have the potential to be much greater than we have observed to date. PMID:22136670

  4. Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Robert D; May, Jeremy L; Kremers, Kelseyann S; Tweedie, Craig E; Oberbauer, Steven F; Liebig, Jennifer A; Botting, Timothy F; Barrett, Robert T; Gregory, Jessica L

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have clearly linked long-term monitoring with in situ experiments to clarify potential drivers of observed change at a given site. This is especially necessary when findings from a site are applied to a much broader geographic area. Here, we document vegetation change at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, occurring naturally and due to experimental warming over nearly two decades. An examination of plant cover, canopy height, and community indices showed more significant differences between years than due to experimental warming. However, changes with warming were more consistent than changes between years and were cumulative in many cases. Most cases of directional change observed in the control plots over time corresponded with a directional change in response to experimental warming. These included increases in canopy height and decreases in lichen cover. Experimental warming resulted in additional increases in evergreen shrub cover and decreases in diversity and bryophyte cover. This study suggests that the directional changes occurring at the sites are primarily due to warming and indicates that further changes are likely in the next two decades if the regional warming trend continues. These findings provide an example of the utility of coupling in situ experiments with long-term monitoring to accurately document vegetation change in response to global change and to identify the underlying mechanisms driving observed changes. PMID:26140204

  5. Diagnosing the Drivers of the Recent Rapid Warming of the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Zhong, Y.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes have been warming rapidly over recent decades, even more than surrounding land regions. This accelerated warming trend is most pronounced during summer, where the lakes are deepest. Analyses of in-situ observations, remote sensing, reanalysis data, and a regional climate model suggest that a combination of antecedent, internal lake processes (e.g. earlier stratification) and synchronous, large-scale meteorological forcing (e.g. increased insolation) is responsible for the amplified lacustrine warming trend during summer. This long-term trend (1979-2010) is characterized by an approximate step-change in lake temperature between 1997 and 1998, particularly for the deep Lake Superior. We present an attribution study involving the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version Four (RegCM4) that aims to identify the key physical processes driving the accelerated lake warming and to assess the relative roles of antecedent lake processes during winter-spring and synchronous, large-scale meteorological forcing in summer. The model performs credibly in simulating the step-change in lake temperature between 1997 and 1998, including the enhancement of warming within the Great Lakes compared with air temperature increases over adjacent land. We find that earlier seasonal stratification explains much of the amplified lake warming, particularly at deep lakes points, whereas antecedent ice coverage exerts only a secondary influence. At shallow lake points, large-scale meteorological forcing during summer, especially reductions in cloudiness, appears to play a dominant role in the warming trend.

  6. Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Robert D; May, Jeremy L; Kremers, Kelseyann S; Tweedie, Craig E; Oberbauer, Steven F; Liebig, Jennifer A; Botting, Timothy F; Barrett, Robert T; Gregory, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have clearly linked long-term monitoring with in situ experiments to clarify potential drivers of observed change at a given site. This is especially necessary when findings from a site are applied to a much broader geographic area. Here, we document vegetation change at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, occurring naturally and due to experimental warming over nearly two decades. An examination of plant cover, canopy height, and community indices showed more significant differences between years than due to experimental warming. However, changes with warming were more consistent than changes between years and were cumulative in many cases. Most cases of directional change observed in the control plots over time corresponded with a directional change in response to experimental warming. These included increases in canopy height and decreases in lichen cover. Experimental warming resulted in additional increases in evergreen shrub cover and decreases in diversity and bryophyte cover. This study suggests that the directional changes occurring at the sites are primarily due to warming and indicates that further changes are likely in the next two decades if the regional warming trend continues. These findings provide an example of the utility of coupling in situ experiments with long-term monitoring to accurately document vegetation change in response to global change and to identify the underlying mechanisms driving observed changes. PMID:26140204

  7. Warm Hearts/Cold Type: Desktop Publishing Arrives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Felix

    1991-01-01

    Describes desktop publishing (DTP) that may be suitable for community, activist, and nonprofit groups and discusses how it is changing written communication. Topics discussed include costs; laser printers; time savings; hardware and software selection; and guidelines to consider when establishing DTP capability. (LRW)

  8. Topical cannabinoid antinociception: synergy with spinal sites.

    PubMed

    Dogrul, Ahmet; Gul, Husamettin; Akar, Ahmet; Yildiz, Oguzhan; Bilgin, Ferruh; Guzeldemir, Erdal

    2003-09-01

    Analgesic effects of cannabimimetic compounds have been known to be related to their central effects. Cannabinoid receptors also exist in the periphery but their role in pain perception has been remained to be clarified. Therefore, we assessed topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2, a mixed CB(1) and CB(2) receptors agonist, in mice using tail-flick test. Immersion of the tail of mouse into the WIN 55, 212-2 solution produced dose-dependent antinociception. This antinociceptive activity was limited to the portion of the tail exposed to WIN 55, 212-2. The antinociceptive response was dependent on duration of exposure to WIN 55, 212-2 solution. The topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2 were dose dependently blocked by topical pretreatment of CB(1) receptor-selective antagonist, AM 251. Thus, topical antinociceptive action of WIN 55, 212-2 involve CB(1) receptors. Intrathecal (i.th.) administration of WIN 55, 212-2 produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Interestingly, ineffective i.th. doses of WIN 55, 212-2 produced a marked antinociception when combined with topical application of WIN 55, 212-2 and topical antinociceptive effect was potentiated. The dose-response curve of i.th. WIN 55, 212-2 was shifted to the left 15-fold by topical WIN 55, 212-2. This finding suggests that there is an antinociceptive synergy between peripheral and spinal sites of cannabinoid action and it also implicates that local activation of cannabinoid system may regulate pain initiation in cutaneous tissue. Our findings support that cannabinoid system participates in buffering the emerging pain signals at the peripheral sites in addition to their spinal and supraspinal sites of action. In addition, an antinociceptive synergy between topical and spinal cannabinoid actions exists. These results also indicate that topically administered cannabinoid agonists may reduce pain without the dysphoric side effects and abuse potential of centrally acting cannabimimetic drugs. PMID:14499415

  9. Stream Temperature Sensitivity to Climate Warming in California's Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S.; Viers, J. H.; Deas, M.; Tanaka, S.; Mount, J.

    2010-12-01

    Water temperatures influence the distribution, abundance, and health of aquatic organisms in stream ecosystems. Improving understanding of climate warming on the thermal regime of rivers will help water managers better manage instream habitat. This study assesses climate warming impacts on unregulated stream temperatures in California’s west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds from the Feather River to the Kern River. We used unregulated hydrology to isolate climate induced changes from those of water operations and land use changes. A 21 year timeseries of weekly instream flow estimates from WEAP21, a spatially explicit rainfall-runoff model were passed to RTEMP, a simplified model based on equilibrium temperature theory, to estimate stream temperatures using net heat exchange, coarse river channel geometry, and exposure time of water to atmospheric conditions. Air temperature was uniformly increased by 2○C, 4○C, and 6○C as a sensitivity analysis to bracket the range of likely outcomes for stream temperatures. Other meteorological conditions, including precipitation, were left unchanged from historical values. Overall, stream temperatures increased by an average of 1.6○C for each 2○C rise in air temperature, and increased most at middle elevations. Thermal heterogeneity existed within and between basins (Figure 1). The high watersheds of the southern Sierra Nevada and the Feather River watershed were less vulnerable to changes in the thermal regime of rivers from climate warming. Precipitation as rainfall instead of snowfall, and low flow conditions were two characteristics that drove water temperatures dynamics with climate warming. These results suggest the thermal regime of rivers will change with climate warming. Viable coldwater habitat will shift to higher elevations and will likely be reduced in California. Understanding potential changes to stream temperatures from climate warming will affect how fish and wildlife are managed, and must be incorporated into modeling studies, restoration assessments, environmental impact statements, and licensing operations of hydropower facilities to best estimate future conditions and achieve desired outcomes. Average annual number of weeks stream temperature exceeds 24°C with incremental uniform 2°C air temperature increases

  10. Organic Complexant Topical Report [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-03-22

    This document updates information contained in the previous ''Organic Complexant Topical Report'', HNF-3588, Revision 0 (Meacham et al. 1998). The status of tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 has been updated due to the transfer of waste from 241-C-106 to 241-AY-102. This document summarizes the safety basis for resolving the Organic Complexant Safety Issue and closing the Condensed Phase Organic-Nitrate Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) for Hanford Site high-level waste single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-shell tanks (DSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs), and catch tanks. The scope of this report, in revision 1, has been expanded to include interim waste storage in RPP owned IMUSTs as well as interim waste storage in SSTs, DSTs, DCRTs, and catch tanks. The document does not address other hazards that may be associated with these tanks (e.g., flammable gas deflagrations or organic solvent fires) except as these hazards relate to the Organic Complexant Safety Issue.

  11. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lebed, R. F.

    1994-04-01

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (m{sub d}{minus}m{sub u}) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

  12. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  13. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is...

  18. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  19. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  20. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance. PMID:21084786

  1. A novel lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel for topical ocular anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, HR; Reichel, E; Busbee, BG

    2010-01-01

    Topical anesthetics play an important role in the practice of ophthalmology, both for procedures in the office and in the operating room. The need for safe, long-acting topical ocular anesthetic agents is ongoing, and has been highlighted by the increase of intravitreal administration of pharmacologic agents. Current practices for ocular anesthesia include subconjunctival injection of 2% aqueous lidocaine, topical 2% lidocaine drops and topical 0.5% tetracaine. Tetracaine is not yet FDA approved, and is associated with corneal epithelial toxicity and delayed epithelial healing after multiple administrations. Lidocaine jelly (2%) preparations have been reported to be beneficial in several systemic procedures, including those of the upper airway, dental, urogenital, and gastrointestinal. It has been theorized, and recent studies support the idea, that gel formulations of lidocaine may enhance anesthetic effect, and therefore be superior to anesthetic solutions for topical cataract surgery. The viscous nature of gel formulations is thought to lengthen contact time, resulting in better anesthesia at lower drug concentrations. Furthermore, several studies suggest that lidocaine is bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and may have a supplementary role in preventing and treating surgical site infections. Akten™, lidocaine 3.5% gel (Akorn, Buffalo Grove, IIlinois) was FDA approved for all ophthalmic procedures in October 2008. This gel is a preservative-free, lidocaine-based anesthetic gel consisting of 35 mg/mL of lidocaine hydrochloride. We describe the properties, including chemical structure, indications, evidence of support, use, adverse effects, and precautions, which we believe enable Akten to provide superior anesthesia, while minimizing side effects. PMID:22915870

  2. A novel lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel for topical ocular anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hr; Reichel, E; Busbee, Bg

    2010-01-01

    Topical anesthetics play an important role in the practice of ophthalmology, both for procedures in the office and in the operating room. The need for safe, long-acting topical ocular anesthetic agents is ongoing, and has been highlighted by the increase of intravitreal administration of pharmacologic agents. Current practices for ocular anesthesia include subconjunctival injection of 2% aqueous lidocaine, topical 2% lidocaine drops and topical 0.5% tetracaine. Tetracaine is not yet FDA approved, and is associated with corneal epithelial toxicity and delayed epithelial healing after multiple administrations. Lidocaine jelly (2%) preparations have been reported to be beneficial in several systemic procedures, including those of the upper airway, dental, urogenital, and gastrointestinal. It has been theorized, and recent studies support the idea, that gel formulations of lidocaine may enhance anesthetic effect, and therefore be superior to anesthetic solutions for topical cataract surgery. The viscous nature of gel formulations is thought to lengthen contact time, resulting in better anesthesia at lower drug concentrations. Furthermore, several studies suggest that lidocaine is bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and may have a supplementary role in preventing and treating surgical site infections. Akten™, lidocaine 3.5% gel (Akorn, Buffalo Grove, IIlinois) was FDA approved for all ophthalmic procedures in October 2008. This gel is a preservative-free, lidocaine-based anesthetic gel consisting of 35 mg/mL of lidocaine hydrochloride. We describe the properties, including chemical structure, indications, evidence of support, use, adverse effects, and precautions, which we believe enable Akten to provide superior anesthesia, while minimizing side effects. PMID:22915870

  3. Recent advances and applications of probabilistic topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Ian

    2014-12-01

    I present here an overview of recent advances in probabilistic topic modelling and related Bayesian graphical models as well as some of their more atypical applications outside of their home: text analysis. These techniques allow the modelling of high dimensional count vectors with strong correlations. With such data, simply calculating a correlation matrix is infeasible. Probabilistic topic models address this using mixtures of multinomials estimated via Bayesian inference with Dirichlet priors. The use of conjugate priors allows for efficient inference, and these techniques scale well to data sets with many millions of vectors. The first of these techniques to attract significant attention was Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [1, 2]. Numerous extensions and adaptations of LDA have been proposed: non-parametric models; assorted models incorporating authors, sentiment and other features; models regularised through the use of extra metadata or extra priors on topic structure, and many more [3]. They have become widely used in the text analysis and population genetics communities, with a number of compelling applications. These techniques are not restricted to text analysis, however, and can be applied to other types of data which can be sensibly discretised and represented as counts of labels/properties/etc. LDA and it's variants have been used to find patterns in data from diverse areas of inquiry, including genetics, plant physiology, image analysis, social network analysis, remote sensing and astrophysics. Nonetheless, it is relatively recently that probabilistic topic models have found applications outside of text analysis, and to date few such applications have been considered. I suggest that there is substantial untapped potential for topic models and models inspired by or incorporating topic models to be fruitfully applied, and outline the characteristics of systems and data for which this may be the case.

  4. Warm Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra

    2015-04-01

    There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic warming in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued warming during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic warming, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean warming along with the suppressed warming of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.

  5. Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.

    PubMed

    Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J

    2005-01-11

    Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

  6. Specificity Responses of Grasshoppers in Temperate Grasslands to Diel Asymmetric Warming

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tingjuan; Hao, Shuguang; Sun, Osbert Jianxin; Kang, Le

    2012-01-01

    Background Global warming is characterized by not only an increase in the daily mean temperature, but also a diel asymmetric pattern. However, most of the current studies on climate change have only concerned with the mean values of the warming trend. Although many studies have been conducted concerning the responses of insects to climate change, studies that address the issue of diel asymmetric warming under field conditions are not found in the literature. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a field climate manipulative experiment and investigated developmental and demographic responses to diel asymmetric warming in three grasshopper species (an early-season species Dasyhippus barbipes, a mid-season species Oedaleus asiaticus, and a late-season species Chorthippus fallax). It was found that warming generally advanced the development of eggs and nymphs, but had no apparent impacts on the hatching rate of eggs, the emergence rate of nymphs and the survival and fecundity of adults in all the three species. Nighttime warming was more effective in advancing egg development than the daytime warming. The emergence time of adults was differentially advanced by warming in the three species; it was advanced by 5.64 days in C. fallax, 3.55 days in O. asiaticus, and 1.96 days in D. barbipes. This phenological advancement was associated with increases in the effective GDDs accumulation. Conclusions/Significance Results in this study indicate that the responses of the three grasshopper species to warming are influenced by several factors, including species traits, developmental stage, and the thermal sensitivity of the species. Moreover, species with diapausing eggs are less responsive to changes in temperature regimes, suggesting that development of diapausing eggs is a protective mechanism in early-season grasshopper for avoiding the risk of pre-winter hatching. Our results highlight the need to consider the complex relationships between climate change and specificity responses of invertebrates. PMID:22848593

  7. Soil warming and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil warming (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil warming had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in warmed plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by warming (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil warming or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with warming, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil warming (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global warming. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these environmental changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25471674

  8. Using data to attribute episodes of warming and cooling in instrumental records.

    PubMed

    Tung, Ka-Kit; Zhou, Jiansong

    2013-02-01

    The observed global-warming rate has been nonuniform, and the cause of each episode of slowing in the expected warming rate is the subject of intense debate. To explain this, nonrecurrent events have commonly been invoked for each episode separately. After reviewing evidence in both the latest global data (HadCRUT4) and the longest instrumental record, Central England Temperature, a revised picture is emerging that gives a consistent attribution for each multidecadal episode of warming and cooling in recent history, and suggests that the anthropogenic global warming trends might have been overestimated by a factor of two in the second half of the 20th century. A recurrent multidecadal oscillation is found to extend to the preindustrial era in the 353-y Central England Temperature and is likely an internal variability related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), possibly caused by the thermohaline circulation variability. The perspective of a long record helps in quantifying the contribution from internal variability, especially one with a period so long that it is often confused with secular trends in shorter records. Solar contribution is found to be minimal for the second half of the 20th century and less than 10% for the first half. The underlying net anthropogenic warming rate in the industrial era is found to have been steady since 1910 at 0.07-0.08 °C/decade, with superimposed AMO-related ups and downs that included the early 20th century warming, the cooling of the 1960s and 1970s, the accelerated warming of the 1980s and 1990s, and the recent slowing of the warming rates. Quantitatively, the recurrent multidecadal internal variability, often underestimated in attribution studies, accounts for 40% of the observed recent 50-y warming trend. PMID:23345448

  9. Using data to attribute episodes of warming and cooling in instrumental records

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Ka-Kit; Zhou, Jiansong

    2013-01-01

    The observed global-warming rate has been nonuniform, and the cause of each episode of slowing in the expected warming rate is the subject of intense debate. To explain this, nonrecurrent events have commonly been invoked for each episode separately. After reviewing evidence in both the latest global data (HadCRUT4) and the longest instrumental record, Central England Temperature, a revised picture is emerging that gives a consistent attribution for each multidecadal episode of warming and cooling in recent history, and suggests that the anthropogenic global warming trends might have been overestimated by a factor of two in the second half of the 20th century. A recurrent multidecadal oscillation is found to extend to the preindustrial era in the 353-y Central England Temperature and is likely an internal variability related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), possibly caused by the thermohaline circulation variability. The perspective of a long record helps in quantifying the contribution from internal variability, especially one with a period so long that it is often confused with secular trends in shorter records. Solar contribution is found to be minimal for the second half of the 20th century and less than 10% for the first half. The underlying net anthropogenic warming rate in the industrial era is found to have been steady since 1910 at 0.07–0.08 °C/decade, with superimposed AMO-related ups and downs that included the early 20th century warming, the cooling of the 1960s and 1970s, the accelerated warming of the 1980s and 1990s, and the recent slowing of the warming rates. Quantitatively, the recurrent multidecadal internal variability, often underestimated in attribution studies, accounts for 40% of the observed recent 50-y warming trend. PMID:23345448

  10. Lignocaine topicalization of the pediatric airway.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mari H; Gildersleve, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    The application of topical laryngeal lignocaine is a technique used frequently in pediatric anesthesia. It is often used to facilitate open airway procedures, tracheal intubation, or to reduce the incidence of perioperative adverse respiratory events such as coughing and laryngospasm. A number of studies have shown that applying topical lignocaine to the larynx reduces perioperative respiratory adverse events, while others have shown an increased incidence of respiratory complications with lignocaine administration. There is a lack of evidence on the effect of topical lignocaine on the sensitivity of upper airway reflexes and swallowing, the duration of time that airway reflexes are obtunded, and the optimum and safe maximum dose of lignocaine when used by this route. We review the current literature relating to the use of lignocaine to topicalize the pediatric airway. This review concentrates on the indications for use, the maximum safe dose, the effect on swallowing, and risk of aspiration and the complications of the technique. PMID:26919822

  11. Poetry for Teaching Elementary Mathematics Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; Kagan, Jennifer, Ed.

    Sixty poems focusing on elementary mathematics topics such as matching, classification, sequencing, counting, addition, subtraction, place value, decimals, multiplication, division, fractions, estimation, probability, patterns, shapes, symmetry, triangles, circles, polygons, angles, Venn diagrams, bar graphs, money, time, and measurement, are…

  12. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September−May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  13. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  14. COMMON WARM DUST TEMPERATURES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Werner, M. W.; Bryden, G.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2011-04-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-K0) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures ({approx}190 K and {approx}60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at {approx}150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to T{sub dust} {approx} 190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-K0 stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  15. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  17. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  18. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective statistical assessment of snow line and snow cover change across the Carpathians, providing results obtained for the first time in the national specialist literature on this topic. The satellite images were bulk processed for calibration to radiance and reflectance and the Normalized Difference Standardized Index (NDSI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) have been extracted (the latter, only for TM and ETM+) and validated with ground meteorological measurements. All NDSIs and LSTs were merged into distinct monthly images covering the entire mountain range for each 38 winters in the study period. A quantitative analysis of snow line elevation change in relation to the variability of freezing level has been conducted. The snow line change across the Romanian Carpathians derived from satellite imagery has been used as a proxy for local response of the Carpathian climate to the warming process also observed in other mountain regions of Europe. The winter warming observed in the last decades caused an upward shift of the snow line and freezing level, associated to a shrinking of snow cover area all over the Carpathians, particularly after 2000. The paper's findings explain partially the difficulties that winter tourism industry in Romania has been facing in the last years due to the lack of snow or poor snow coverage, particularly in the low elevation ski domains located below the snow reliability line

  19. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanner, M. G.; Zender, C. S.; Hess, P. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Painter, T. H.; Ramanathan, V.; Rasch, P. J.

    2008-11-01

    Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming), and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening). We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1) Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999), including all mixtures of black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM), increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2) Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing). Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3) Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4) Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64C decade-1) observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m-2) than North America (1.2 W m-2). Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models.

  20. Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…